The objective of this study was to determine calpain system activity and postmortem protein degradation in three muscles from growing (n=6, 7.3±0.5months) and mature (n=6, 106.7±43.1months) beef cattle. The ratio of ?-calpain:total calpastatin activity tended to be lower in mature animals (P=0.08), suggesting reduced potential for proteolysis. Additionally, muscles from the mature group had greater calpastatin activity compared to calves at 6days postmortem and had less ?-calpain autolysis and troponin-T and titin degradation during the aging period (P<0.01). Between the longissimus, semimembranosus, and triceps brachii muscles, the triceps brachii had the least postmortem proteolysis, with greater calpastatin activity and less troponin-T and titin degradation compared to other muscles (P<0.01). These data suggest that calpastatin activity in muscle from older animals is more persistent postmortem. This difference may contribute to the decreased protein degradation and increased toughness of beef from mature cattle, even after aging.
This study was carried out aiming to evaluate the effects of yeast or monensin supplementation on dry matter intake, nutrients digestibility, ruminal volatile fatty acids profile, ruminal pH and ammonia concentration, microbial protein synthesis, and the balance of nitrogen compounds of cattle fed high concentrate diet (80 % dry matter (DM) basis) with two different levels of starch. Eight crossbred beef steers fitted with rumen cannula were assigned to two simultaneous 4?×?4 Latin squares arranged in a 4?×?2 factorial design. Two different starch levels (23 and 38 % of DM) were assigned to each Latin square, independently. Within each Latin square, four treatments were randomly assigned to the experimental animals (control; monensin; 1-g yeast [1 g/100 kg body weight (BW)/day] treatment; and 2.5-g yeast [2.5 g/100 kg BW/day] treatment). Feed additives did not influence ruminal pH (P?>?0.05). Total ruminal volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was greater (P<0.05) in the diet with the lowest starch level. Similarly, monensin and 1-g yeast treatments resulted in greater (P<0.05) VFA concentration in the rumen. Monensin inclusion in the diet with the highest starch level led to a decrease (P<0.05) in lactate concentration in the rumen. However, acetate levels were increased (P<0.05) by the inclusion of 1 g of yeast in the diet with lowest starch level. Ruminal concentrations of propionate and butyrate, and ammonia-N were not influenced (P>0.05) by none of the additives evaluated. However, propionate concentration was greater (P<0.05) in the low-starch diets. Low-starch diets resulted in lower ruminal ammonia-N concentration and greater neutral detergent fiber digestibility (P<0.05). The excretion of urinary nitrogenous compounds, purine derivatives, synthesis of microbial protein, microbial efficiency, and balance of nitrogenous compounds were not affected by treatments evaluated (P>0.05). Monensin or yeast inclusion in high concentrate beef cattle diets in tropical regions as in Brazil is not justified by do not alter nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, and main ruminal parameters.
The performance, intake, feed efficiency, and carcass traits of beef cattle from different gender profile were assessed. Fifteen animals (five steers, five spayed heifers, and five intact heifers) with ±250 kg of initial body weight were randomly assigned in individual pens and fed the same diet for 106 days. At the end of the trial, all the animals were slaughtered and the pH, temperature, and weight of the carcass were recorded. The right side of each carcass was then separated into chuck, shoulder, flank sirloin, and round for evaluation of commercial cuts yield. The left carcass sides were ribbed between the 12th and 13th ribs where the rib eye area and fat thickness measurements were taken. The 9th-11th rib section was removed from the left half carcass and then dissected into muscle, fat, and bones in order to estimate carcass composition. Gender had no effect (P > 0.05) on performance, intake, digestibility of dry matter and all the nutrients evaluated, feed efficiency, and carcass characteristics. It can be concluded that steers and heifers (spayed or not) have the same potential to produce beef. From a productive and welfare standpoint, there is no reason to spay heifers.
The effects of two levels of concentrate and ruminally undegradable protein (RUP) on performance, intake, digestibility, carcass characteristics, meat quality traits, and commercial cuts yield were assessed. Twenty crossbred heifers (240 kg average body weight) were used. At the beginning of the trial, four animals were slaughtered as reference group and the 16 remaining animals were randomly assigned to four treatments, in a 2?×?2 factorial design: two levels of concentrate (40% and 80%, dry matter (DM) basis) and two levels of RUP (48.79% and 27.19% of CP). At the end of the trial, all the animals were slaughtered. There was no interaction (P?>?0.05) between concentrate and RUP levels. Dry matter intake and nutrients digestibility was not affected (P?>?0.05) by RUP level. Heifers fed the highest RUP level had greater (P?0.05) average daily gain (ADG). Concentrate level did not affect (P?>?0.05) DMI and ADG. Heifers fed diets with 80% concentrate had greater intake of TDN and EE, and lower intake of NDF (P?0.05). The digestibilities of all nutrients, except the NDF, were greater (P?0.05) for the 80% concentrate diets. The RUP levels did not affect (P?>?0.05) the carcass characteristics and carcass gain composition. Heifers fed 80% concentrate diets had larger (P?0.05) longissimus muscle area and lower gain of bones (P?0.05). Concentrate level did not affect (P?>?0.05) the composition of carcass gain. There was no effect (P?>?0.05) of RUP and concentrate levels on meat quality traits and commercial cut yields.
The effects of supplementation with nitrogenous compounds on intake, digestibility, and microbial protein synthesis in cattle fed low-quality tropical forage were assessed. Five rumen fistulated crossbred Holstein x Gir heifers were used, with initial average live weight of 180 +/- 21 kg. Signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) hay (48.6 g kg(-1) of crude protein (CP), on a dry matter (DM) basis) was used as roughage. Five treatments were defined according to nitrogen supplementation level (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g of CP kg(-1) above the CP level of the hay). A mixture of urea, ammonium sulfate, and albumin at the ratios of 4.5:0.5:1.0, respectively, was used as nitrogen source. The experiment consisted of five experimental periods, according to a 5 x 5 Latin square design. The average CP contents in the diets were 51.9, 71.1, 86.0, 116.7, and 130.2 g kg(-1), on a DM basis. A quadratic effect was detected (P < 0.10) of the CP levels in the diets on DM and neutral detergent fiber intake (kg/day), with maximum response at the levels of 102.4 and 100.5 g CP kg(-1) DM, respectively. The average daily concentration of rumen ammonia nitrogen showed increasing linear pattern (P < 0.01) as function of CP levels in the diet, with estimated value of 9.64 mg dL(-1) equivalent to the maximum DM intake. Microbial nitrogen flow in the intestine was linearly and positively related (P < 0.01) with the CP levels in the diet.
A large number of studies have shown that mature adipocytes are able to dedifferentiate in vitro into progeny cells, which possess proliferative capacity and mutilineage potential. Our present study confirms that mature adipocytes derived from Angus cattle also dedifferentiate into proliferative-competent progeny cells. However, this report is unlike any published for all other breeds of cattle we have worked with or that we have seen in published reports, in which mature adipocytes retain and distribute lipids into daughter cells symmetrically or asymmetrically. In the present work, we noted that Angus-derived mature adipocytes extruded a majority of their cellular lipid droplets prior to cell division. In this manner, these cells are processing lipid in a manner observed in mature adipocytes isolated from swine tissue. These results suggest that regulation of the mechanism(s) underlying lipid processing might be different between and within animal breeds. Lipid processing in beef-derived adipocytes during dedifferentiation may serve as a unique animal model for studying lipid metabolism during reverse adipogenesis.
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