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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Disaggregating data on asian american and pacific islander women to provide new insights on potential exposures to hazardous air pollutants in california.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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The Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) population is heterogeneous and rapidly growing in the United States, with a high proportion concentrated in California. Although traditionally assumed to have lower rates of breast cancer than non-Hispanic white women, recent studies have suggested considerable variation in incidence by AAPI ethnic group, with rates in some exceeding those in non-Hispanic whites. The potential role of environmental toxicants has not been well explored and may provide insights into these patterns.
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Cancer research in asian american, native hawaiian, and pacific islander populations: accelerating cancer knowledge by acknowledging and leveraging heterogeneity.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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The Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander population is large, growing, and extremely heterogeneous. Not only do they bear unique burdens of incidence and outcomes for certain cancer types, they exhibit substantial variability in cancer incidence and survival patterns across the ethnic groups. By acknowledging and leveraging this heterogeneity through investing in cancer research within these populations, we have a unique opportunity to accelerate the availability of useful and impactful cancer knowledge. See all the articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Cancer in Asian and Pacific Islander Populations." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(11); 2202-5. ©2014 AACR.
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Light at night and breast cancer risk among California teachers.
Epidemiology
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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There is convincing evidence that circadian disruption mediated by exposure to light at night promotes mammary carcinogenesis in rodents. The role that light at night plays in human breast cancer etiology remains unknown. We evaluated the relationship between estimates of indoor and outdoor light at night and the risk of breast cancer among members of the California Teachers Study.
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Residential levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in california.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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House dust is a major source of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are found at high levels in U.S. homes.
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Continued rapid increase in thyroid cancer incidence in california: trends by patient, tumor, and neighborhood characteristics.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Thyroid cancer incidence is increasing worldwide. Incorporating 22 years of incidence data through 2009, we extend examination of these trends among a wide array of subgroups defined by patient (age, sex, race/ethnicity, and nativity), tumor (tumor size and stage), and neighborhood (socioeconomic status and residence in ethnic enclaves) characteristics, to identify possible reasons for this increase.
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Menopausal hormone therapy and lung cancer-specific mortality following diagnosis: the California Teachers Study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Previous results from research on menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and lung cancer survival have been mixed and most have not studied women who used estrogen therapy (ET) exclusively. We examined the associations between MHT use reported at baseline and lung cancer-specific mortality in the prospective California Teachers Study cohort. Among 727 postmenopausal women diagnosed with lung cancer from 1995 through 2007, 441 women died before January 1, 2008. Hazard Ratios (HR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for lung-cancer-specific mortality were obtained by fitting multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models using age in days as the timescale. Among women who used ET exclusively, decreases in lung cancer mortality were observed (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.52-0.93). No association was observed for estrogen plus progestin therapy use. Among former users, shorter duration (<5 years) of exclusive ET use was associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer mortality (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35-0.89), whereas among recent users, longer duration (>15 years) was associated with a decreased risk (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.38-0.95). Smoking status modified the associations with deceases in lung cancer mortality observed only among current smokers. Exclusive ET use was associated with decreased lung cancer mortality.
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Evaluation of the agreement between modeled and monitored ambient hazardous air pollutants in California.
Int J Environ Health Res
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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Elevated breast cancer incidence rates in urban areas have led to speculation regarding the potential role of air pollution. In order to inform the exposure assessment for a subsequent breast cancer study, we evaluated agreement between modeled and monitored hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Modeled annual ambient concentrations of HAPs in California came from the US Environmental Protection Agencys National Air Toxics Assessment database for 1996, 1999, 2002, and 2005 and corresponding monitored data from the California Air Resources Boards air quality monitoring program. We selected 12 compounds of interest for our study and focused on evaluating agreement between modeled and monitored data, and of temporal trends. Modeled data generally underestimated the monitored data, especially in 1996. For most compounds agreement between modeled and monitored concentrations improved over time. We concluded that 2002 and 2005 modeled data agree best with monitored data and are the most appropriate years for direct use in our subsequent epidemiologic analysis.
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A cross-sectional analysis of light at night, neighborhood sociodemographics and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin concentrations: implications for the conduct of health studies.
Int J Health Geogr
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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There is accumulating evidence that circadian disruption, mediated by alterations in melatonin levels, may play an etiologic role in a wide variety of diseases. The degree to which light-at-night (LAN) and other factors can alter melatonin levels is not well-documented. Our primary objective was to evaluate the degree to which estimates of outdoor environmental LAN predict 6-sulftoxymelatonin (aMT6s), the primary urinary metabolite of melatonin. We also evaluated other potential behavioral, sociodemographic, and anthropomorphic predictors of aMT6s.
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Risk of colorectal cancer associated with active smoking among female teachers.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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The objective of this study was to examine the risk of colorectal cancer associated with active smoking among members of the California Teachers Study (CTS), a large cohort of female public school employees for whom highly detailed smoking information is available.
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Determinants and within-person variability of urinary cadmium concentrations among women in northern California.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Urinary Cd (U-Cd) concentration is considered a biomarker of long-term exposure.
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Case-control study of birth characteristics and the risk of hepatoblastoma.
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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Hepatoblastoma is a malignant embryonal tumor typically diagnosed in children younger than five years of age. Little is known on hepatoblastoma etiology.
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Increased long-term recreational physical activity is associated with older age at natural menopause among heavy smokers: the California Teachers Study.
Menopause
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Although physical activity modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, the few studies that have investigated whether physical activity is associated with age at natural menopause have yielded mixed results. We set out to determine whether physical activity is associated with the timing of natural menopause in a large cohort of California women overall and by smoking history.
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The association between neighborhood characteristics and body size and physical activity in the California teachers study cohort.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2011
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We considered interactions between physical activity and body mass index (BMI) and neighborhood factors.
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Birth anomalies and obstetric history as risks for childhood tumors of the central nervous system.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2011
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The causes of childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumors are largely unknown. Birth characteristics have been examined as possible risk factors for childhood CNS tumors, although the studies have been underpowered and inconclusive. We hypothesized that birth anomalies and a mothers history of previous pregnancy losses, as a proxy for genetic defects, increase the risk for CNS tumors.
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Hormonal factors and the risk of papillary thyroid cancer in the California Teachers Study cohort.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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Despite the increasing incidence of thyroid cancer, there is limited information on its etiology. The strikingly higher rates in young women, compared with men, suggest that sex steroid hormones may be involved in the development of this disease.
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Cigarette smoking, passive smoking, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk: evidence from the California Teachers Study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
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Epidemiologic studies conducted to date have shown evidence of a causal relation between smoking and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. However, previous studies did not account for passive smoking exposure in the never-smoking reference group. The California Teachers Study collected information about lifetime smoking and household passive smoking exposure in 1995 and about lifetime exposure to passive smoking in 3 settings (household, workplace, and social settings) in 1997-1998. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by fitting Cox proportional hazards models with follow-up through 2007. Compared with never smokers, ever smokers had a 1.11-fold (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.94, 1.30) higher NHL risk that increased to a 1.22-fold (95% CI: 0.95, 1.57) higher risk when women with household passive smoking were excluded from the reference category. Statistically significant dose responses were observed for lifetime cumulative smoking exposure (intensity and pack-years; both P s for trend = 0.02) when women with household passive smoking were excluded from the reference category. Among never smokers, NHL risk increased with increasing lifetime exposure to passive smoking (relative risk = 1.51 (95% CI: 1.03, 2.22) for >40 years vs. ?5 years of passive smoking; P for trend = 0.03), particularly for follicular lymphoma (relative risk = 2.89 (95% CI: 1.23, 6.80); P for trend = 0.01). The present study provides evidence that smoking and passive smoking may influence NHL etiology, particularly for follicular lymphoma.
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An excess of breast cancer among young California-born Asian women.
Ethn Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2011
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To compare breast cancer risk among young Asian and Pacific Islander (API) women to White women, all of whom were born in California during the 1960s.
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Long-term exposure to air pollution and cardiorespiratory disease in the California teachers study cohort.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2011
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Several studies have linked long-term exposure to particulate air pollution with increased cardiopulmonary mortality; only two have also examined incident circulatory disease.
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Age-specific effects of hormone therapy use on overall mortality and ischemic heart disease mortality among women in the California Teachers Study.
Menopause
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
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Although the Womens Health Initiative trial suggested that menopausal hormone therapy (HT) does not reduce coronary heart disease mortality overall, subsequent results have suggested that there may be a benefit in younger women. The California Teachers Study questionnaire and mortality data were used to examine whether age modified the association between HT and the relative risk of overall mortality and ischemic heart disease deaths.
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Characterizing workplace exposures in Vietnamese women working in California nail salons.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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We engaged Vietnamese nail salon workers in a community-based participatory research (CBPR) study to measure personal and area concentrations of solvents in their workplace.
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Adipose levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and risk of breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
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We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the risk of breast cancer associated with adipose concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) among women undergoing surgical breast biopsies in the San Francisco Bay Area of California (n=78 cases; 56 controls). Adipose tissue was analyzed for the five major congeners of PBDEs. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate age- and race-adjusted exposure-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Adipose levels of PBDEs were among the highest ever reported. Adjusted ORs for the highest compared with lowest levels of exposures were as follows: 0.56 (95% CI 0.19-1.68) for BDE-47; 1.19 (95% CI 0.35-4.10) for BDE-99; 0.91 (95% CI 0.33-2.53) for BDE-100; 0.52 (95% CI 0.19-1.39) for BDE-153; 1.67 (95% CI 0.44-6.29) for BDE-154; 2.04 (95% CI 0.45-9.20) for total BDEs. These results provide no evidence of an association between PBDE adipose concentrations measured at or near the time of diagnosis and breast cancer risk. Our study was limited by a small sample size. Given the high levels of PBDEs found in this population of California women, future studies are warranted. Such studies would benefit from a larger sample size, a more representative control series, and/or a prospective design.
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Determinants of agricultural pesticide concentrations in carpet dust.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
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Residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications has been used as a surrogate for exposure in epidemiologic studies, although little is known about the relationship with levels of pesticides in homes.
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Birth size and breast cancer risk among young California-born women.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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Evaluate the risk of breast cancer associated with birth size among young California-born women.
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Menopausal hormone therapy does not influence lung cancer risk: results from the California Teachers Study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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Results from studies examining the association between hormone therapy (HT) and lung cancer risk disagree.
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Survival following non-small cell lung cancer among Asian/Pacific Islander, Latina, and Non-Hispanic white women who have never smoked.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among U.S. Asian/Pacific Islander (API) and Latina women despite low smoking prevalence. This study examined survival patterns following non-small cell lung cancer in a population-based sample of lung cancer cases from the San Francisco Bay Area Lung Cancer Study (SFBALCS).
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Cancer incidence in female cosmetologists and manicurists in California, 1988-2005.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2010
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Health concerns have been pronounced for cosmetologists and manicurists, who are exposed daily to cosmetic products containing known or suspected human carcinogens and endocrine disruptors. In this retrospective cohort study, the authors used probabilistic record linkage between Californias statewide cosmetology licensee and cancer surveillance files to identify newly diagnosed invasive cancers among female workforce members during 1988-2005. Rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals for cancer among workforce members compared with the general female population in California were estimated via Poisson regression. For comparison, site-specific proportional incidence ratios were computed. The authors identified 9,044 cancer cases in a cohort of 325,228 licensees. Rate ratios for all sites combined suggested lower incidence among both cosmetologists (rate ratio = 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82, 0.86) and manicurists (rate ratio = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.84, 0.90). Proportional incidence ratios were modestly elevated for thyroid cancer among all licensees (proportional incidence ratio = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.23) and for lung cancer among manicurists (proportional incidence ratio = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.36). Although there did not appear to be a cancer excess, these findings may be artifactually influenced by limitations in demographic information available from the licensee files. Additionally, the relatively young ages of cohort members and demographic shifts in the industry composition in recent years suggest a need for further follow-up.
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Childhood cancer in relation to parental race and ethnicity: a 5-state pooled analysis.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
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Children of different racial/ethnic backgrounds have varying risks of cancer. However, to the authors knowledge, few studies to date have examined cancer occurrence in children of mixed ancestry.
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Hypertension, antihypertensive medication use, and breast cancer risk in the California Teachers Study cohort.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
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We investigated the association between hypertension, antihypertensive (AH) medication use, and breast cancer in a large prospective study, the California Teachers Study (CTS).
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Birth order and risk of childhood cancer: a pooled analysis from five US States.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2010
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The causes of childhood cancers are largely unknown. Birth order has been used as a proxy for prenatal and postnatal exposures, such as frequency of infections and in utero hormone exposures. We investigated the association between birth order and childhood cancers in a pooled case-control dataset. The subjects were drawn from population-based registries of cancers and births in California, Minnesota, New York, Texas and Washington. We included 17,672 cases <15 years of age who were diagnosed from 1980 to 2004 and 57,966 randomly selected controls born 1970-2004, excluding children with Down syndrome. We calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using logistic regression, adjusted for sex, birth year, maternal race, maternal age, multiple birth, gestational age and birth weight. Overall, we found an inverse relationship between childhood cancer risk and birth order. For children in the fourth or higher birth order category compared to first-born children, the adjusted OR was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.93) for all cancers combined. When we examined risks by cancer type, a decreasing risk with increasing birth order was seen in the central nervous system tumors, neuroblastoma, bilateral retinoblastoma, Wilms tumor and rhabdomyosarcoma. We observed increased risks with increasing birth order for acute myeloid leukemia but a slight decrease in risk for acute lymphoid leukemia. These risk estimates were based on a very large sample size, which allowed us to examine rare cancer types with greater statistical power than in most previous studies, however the biologic mechanisms remain to be elucidated.
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Body size and the risk of endometrial cancer by hormone therapy use in postmenopausal women in the California Teachers Study cohort.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2010
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To investigate whether hormone therapy (HT) and obesity are associated with endometrial cancer risk among postmenopausal women in the California Teachers Study cohort.
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High concentrations of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) in breast adipose tissue of California women.
Environ Int
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2010
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We measured major PBDEs and PCBs in breast adipose tissues of California women participating in a breast cancer study in the late 1990s. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography with electron impact ionization and tandem mass spectrometry detection. The congener profile observed was: BDE47>BDE99>BDE153>BDE100>BDE154 and PCB153>PCB180>PCB138>PCB118. Whereas high correlations were observed within each chemical class, very weak correlations appeared between classes, pointing to different exposure pathways. Weak negative associations were observed for PBDE congeners and age. Our PBDE data are among the highest reported, exceeding data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and consistent with the high use of PBDEs in California. These data may be helpful in establishing a baseline for PBDE body burdens to gauge changes over time as a result of restrictions in the use of PBDE formulations.
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Body size and the risk of ovarian cancer by hormone therapy use in the California Teachers Study cohort.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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To investigate whether obesity and hormone therapy (HT) are associated with ovarian cancer risk among women in the California Teachers Study cohort.
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Birth weight and order as risk factors for childhood central nervous system tumors.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2010
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To determine whether birth characteristics related to maternal-fetal health in utero are associated with the development of childhood central nervous system tumors.
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Recent breast cancer incidence trends according to hormone therapy use: the California Teachers Study cohort.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2010
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Recent, international declines in breast cancer incidence are unprecedented, and the causes remain controversial. Few data sources can address breast cancer incidence trends according to pertinent characteristics like hormone therapy use history.
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Passive smoking and risk of breast cancer in the California teachers study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2009
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Although recent reviews have suggested active smoking to be a risk factor for breast cancer, the association with passive smoke exposure remains controversial. This risk association was explored in a large prospective study of women, the California Teachers Study.
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Risk factors for surgically removed fibroids in a large cohort of teachers.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2009
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To describe reproductive and lifestyle correlates of surgically confirmed fibroids.
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Long-term and recent recreational physical activity and survival after breast cancer: the California Teachers Study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2009
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Long-term physical activity is associated with lower breast cancer risk. Little information exists on its association with subsequent survival.
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Residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2009
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Ambient exposure from residential proximity to applications of agricultural pesticides may contribute to the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Using residential histories collected from the families of 213 ALL cases and 268 matched controls enrolled in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study, the authors assessed residential proximity within a half-mile (804.5m) of pesticide applications by linking address histories with reports of agricultural pesticide use. Proximity was ascertained during different time windows of exposure, including the first year of life and the childs lifetime through the date of diagnosis for cases or reference for controls. Agricultural pesticides were categorized a priori into groups based on similarities in toxicological effects, physicochemical properties, and target pests or uses. The effects of moderate and high exposure for each group of pesticides were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Elevated ALL risk was associated with lifetime moderate exposure, but not high exposure, to certain physicochemical categories of pesticides, including organophosphates, chlorinated phenols, and triazines, and with pesticides classified as insecticides or fumigants. A similar pattern was also observed for several toxicological groups of pesticides. These findings suggest future directions for the identification of specific pesticides that may play a role in the etiology of childhood leukemia.
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Long-term exposure to constituents of fine particulate air pollution and mortality: results from the California Teachers Study.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2009
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Several studies have reported associations between long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular mortality. However, the health impacts of long-term exposure to specific constituents of PM(2.5) (PM with aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm) have not been explored.
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Cancer risk among children with very low birth weights.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2009
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The risk of hepatoblastoma is strongly increased among children with very low birth weight (<1500 g). Because data on very low birth weight and other childhood cancers are sparse, we examined the risk of malignancy with very low birth weight in a large data set.
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Agricultural exposures and childhood cancers.
Rev Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2009
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Cancers occurring in children are rare but tragic occurrences. Sadly, the causes of these events are poorly understood, and because of their rarity, also difficult to study. Because, with a few exceptions, there are not well established causal genetic or behavioral factors for these diseases it is not surprising that impacted families and communities have concerns about the potential role of ambient exposures in the physical environment. Although a number of fledgling studies have begun to systematically evaluate potential risks proximity to agricultural pesticide use, challenges posed by balancing the interplay of exposure mechanisms, host susceptibility, scale, and timing make this a daunting task. Future progress will require support for leveraging large and heterogeneous population studies, assembling transdisciplinary investigative teams, and for promoting creative research strategies. Such efforts will be informative for studying a host of health risks for both adults and children. In the meantime, regulatory actions such as requiring pre-market testing of new chemical compounds used in agriculture for potential adverse health effects and minimizing exposure opportunities for children and women of childbearing age to agents with known toxic properties would be a prudent course of action. We owe it to our children and our future to seriously address these issues.
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Parental age and risk of childhood cancer: a pooled analysis.
Epidemiology
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2009
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Few risk factors for childhood cancer are well-established. We investigated whether advancing parental age increases childhood cancer risk.
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Is house-dust nicotine a good surrogate for household smoking?
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2009
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The literature is inconsistent regarding associations between parental smoking and childhood leukemia, possibly because previous studies used self-reported smoking habits as surrogates for childrens true exposures to cigarette smoke. Here, the authors investigated the use of nicotine concentrations in house dust as measures of childrens exposure to cigarette smoke in 469 households from the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study (1999-2007). House dust was collected by using high-volume surface samplers and household vacuum cleaners and was analyzed for nicotine via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Using multivariable linear regression, the authors evaluated the effects of self-reported parental smoking, parental demographics, house characteristics, and other covariates on house-dust nicotine concentrations. They observed that nicotine concentrations in house dust were associated with self-reported smoking for periods of months and years before dust collection. Furthermore, the authors found that the relation between nicotine dust levels and self-reported smoking varied by parental age and socioeconomic status. These findings suggest that house-dust nicotine concentrations reflect long-term exposures to cigarette smoke in the home and that they may be less biased surrogates for childrens exposures to cigarette smoke than self-reported smoking habits.
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Factors associated with residential mobility in children with leukemia: implications for assigning exposures.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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In epidemiologic studies, neighborhood characteristics are often assigned to individuals based on a single residence despite the fact that people frequently move and, for most cancer outcomes, the relevant time-window of exposure is not known. The authors evaluated residential mobility patterns for a population-based series of childhood leukemia cases enrolled in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study.
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Residential exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides and risk of childhood leukemia.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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Incidence of childhood leukemia in industrialized countries rose significantly during 1975-2004, and the reasons for the increase are not understood.
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Childhood cancer among twins and higher order multiples.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2009
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Although several studies have found no change or a decreased risk of childhood cancer in twins, few have controlled for potential confounders such as birth weight. We examined the association of birth plurality and childhood cancer in pooled data from five U.S. states (California, Minnesota, New York, Texas, and Washington) using linked birth-cancer registry data. The data, excluding children with Down syndrome or who died before 28 days of life, included 17,672 cases diagnosed from 1980 to 2004 at ages 28 days to 14 years and 57,966 controls with all cases and controls born from 1970 to 2004. Analyses were restricted to children weighing
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Reducing chemical exposures in nail salons through owner and worker trainings: an exploratory intervention study.
Am. J. Ind. Med.
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Nail salons represent a rapidly growing industry with mainly Vietnamese immigrant workers. Workers routinely handle nail products containing hazardous compounds, yet have limited accessible information to minimize workplace exposures.
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Smoking and breast cancer.
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia
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The potential role of smoking in breast cancer risk has been the subject of over 100 publications, numerous scientific reviews, and animated debate. Tobacco exposure is a well-established cause of lung cancer, and is thought to account for nearly one third of all cancer deaths. Tobacco smoke contains thousands of chemicals, many of which are known to be mammary carcinogens. Although not initially thought to be a tobacco-related cancer, over the last several decades evidence has been accumulating on the role of both active smoking and secondhand smoking in the etiology of breast cancer. The human health evidence has been systematically evaluated not only by several independent researchers but also by several expert agency panels including those of the U.S. Surgeon General, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the California Environmental Protection Agency, and a coalition of Canadian health agencies. Although the assessments have varied with time and across reviewers, the most recent weight of the evidence has suggested a potentially casual role for active smoking and breast cancer, particularly for long-term heavy smoking and smoking initiation at an early age. The role of secondhand smoking and breast cancer is less clear, although there has been some suggestion for an increased risk for premenopausal breast cancer. Recent studies evaluating the possible modifying role of polymorphisms in genes involved in the metabolism of tobacco products, particularly NAT2, have contributed another dimension to these assessments, although to date that evidence remains equivocal.
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Recreational physical activity and risk of papillary thyroid cancer among women in the California Teachers Study.
Cancer Epidemiol
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Little is known about the relationship between physical activity and thyroid cancer risk, and few cohort data on this association exist. Thus, the present study aimed to prospectively examine long-term activity and risk of papillary thyroid cancer among women.
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Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women following the cessation of hormone therapy use: the California Teachers Study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
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Alcohol consumption increases breast cancer risk, but its effect may be modified by hormone therapy (HT) use, such that exposure to both may be synergistic. Because many women stopped taking HT after mid-2002, it is important to quantify risks associated with alcohol consumption in the context of HT cessation, as these risks may be more relevant to cancer prevention efforts today.
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Developing a proactive research agenda to advance nail salon worker health, safety, and rights.
Prog Community Health Partnersh
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Nail salons represent a burgeoning industry with Vietnamese immigrant workers making up the majority. Workers routinely handle cosmetic products containing hazardous compounds, with implications for their health.
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Cancer in children with nonchromosomal birth defects.
J. Pediatr.
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To examine whether the incidence of childhood cancer is elevated in children with birth defects but no chromosomal anomalies.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.