JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
RFX-1-dependent activation of SHP-1 inhibits STAT3 signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Regulatory factor X-1 (RFX-1) is a transcription factor that has been linked to negative regulation of tumor progression; however, its biological function and signaling cascades are unknown. Here, we performed several studies to elucidate the roles of RFX-1 in the regulation of SHP-1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Overexpression of RFX-1 resulted in the activation of SHP-1 and repressed colony formation of HCC cells. In addition, by a mouse xenograft model, we demonstrated that RFX-1 overexpression also inhibited the tumor growth of HCC cells in vivo, suggesting that RFX-1 is of potential interest for small-molecule-targeted therapy. We also found that SC-2001, a bipyrrole molecule, induced apoptosis in HCC cells through activating RFX-1 expression. SC-2001 induced RFX-1 translocation from the cytosol to nucleus, bound to the SHP-1 promoter, and activated SHP-1 transcription. In a xenograft model, knockdown of RFX-1 reversed the antitumor effect of SC-2001. Notably, SC-2001 is much more potent than sorafenib, a clinically approved drug for HCC, in in vitro and in vivo assays. Our study confirmed that RFX-1 acts as a tumor suppressor in HCC and might be a new target for HCC therapy. The findings of this study also provide a new lead compound for targeted therapy via the activation of the RFX-1/SHP-1 pathway.
Related JoVE Video
A High Efficiency Induction of Dopaminergic Cells from Human Umbilical Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of Hemiparkinsonian Rats.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background The success rate in previous attempts at transforming human mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) isolated from Wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord to dopaminergic cells was a mere 12.7 %. The present study was therefore initiated to establish a more effective procedure for better yield of dopaminergic cells in such transformation for more effective HUMSC-based therapy for Parkinsonism. Methods To examine, in vitro, the effects of enhanced Nurr1 expression in HUMSCs on their differentiation, cells were processed through the three-stage differentiation protocol. The capacity of such cells to synthesize and release dopamine was measured by HPLC. The therapeutic effects of Nurr1-overexppressed HUMSCs were examined in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats by quantification of rotations in response to amphetamine. Results Enhanced Nurr1 expression in HUMSCs promoted the transformation into dopaminergic cells in vitro through stepwise culturing in sonic hedgehog, and fibroblast growth factor-8, neuron-conditioned medium. The success rate was about 71%, as determined by immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase, and around 94 nM dopamine synthesis (intracellular and released into the culture medium), as measured by HPLC. Additionally, transplantation of such cells into the striatum of hemiparkinsonian rats resulted in improvement of their behavioral deficits, as indicated by amphetamine-evoked rotation scores. Viability of the transplanted cells lasted for at least 3 months as verified by positive staining for tyrosine hydroxylase. Conclusions Nurr1, FGF8, Shh and NCM can synergistically enhance the differentiation of HUMSCs into dopaminergic cells, and may pave the way for HUMSCs-based treatments for Parkinson's disease.
Related JoVE Video
STAT3 Mediates Regorafenib-Induced Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Here, we aim to investigate the molecular mechanism of regorafenib and verify the potential druggable target for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Related JoVE Video
Tamoxifen induces apoptosis through cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A dependent phospho-Akt inactivation in estrogen-receptor negative human breast cancer cells.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
IntroductionTamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator, may affect cancer cell survival through mechanisms other than ER antagonism. Here, we tested the efficacy of tamoxifen in a panel of ER-negative breast cancer cell lines and examined the drug mechanism.MethodsIn total, five ER-negative breast cancer cell lines HCC-1937, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-453 and SK-BR-3 were used for in vitro studies. Cell apoptosis was examined by flow-cytometry and western blot. Signal transduction pathways in cells were assessed by western blot. In vivo efficacy of tamoxifen was tested in xenograft nude mice.ResultsTamoxifen induced significant apoptosis in MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-453, SK-BR-3, but not in HCC-1937 cells. Tamoxifen-induced apoptosis was associated with inhibition of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) and p-Akt in a dose-dependent manner. Ectopic expression of CIP2A or Akt protected MDA-MB-231 cells from tamoxifen-induced apoptosis. In addition, tamoxifen increased protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity and tamoxifen-induced apoptosis was attenuated by PP2A antagonist okadaic acid in the sensitive cell lines but not in resistant HCC-1937 cells. Moreover, silencing CIP2A by siRNA sensitized HCC-1937 cells to tamoxifen-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, tamoxifen regulated CIP2A protein expression by downregulating CIP2A mRNA. Importantly, tamoxifen inhibited the in vivo growth of MDA-MB-468 xenograft tumors in association with CIP2A downregulation, whereas tamoxifen had no significant effect on CIP2A expression and anti-tumor growth in HCC-1937 tumors.ConclusionsInhibition of CIP2A determines the effects of tamoxifen-induced apoptosis in ER-negative breast cancer cells. Our data suggest a novel ¿off-target¿ mechanism of tamoxifen and suggest that CIP2A/PP2A/p-Akt signaling as a feasible anti-cancer pathway.
Related JoVE Video
Early life ethanol exposure causes long-lasting disturbances in rat mesenchymal stem cells via epigenetic modifications.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a birth defect due to maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Because mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the main somatic stem cells in adults and may contribute to tissue homeostasis and repair in adulthood, we investigated whether early life ethanol exposure affects MSCs and contributes to the propensity for disease onset in later life. Using a rodent model of FAS, we found that ethanol exposure (5.25g/kg/day) from postnatal days 4 to 9 in rat pups (mimic of human third trimester) caused long-term anomalies in bone marrow-derived MSCs. MSCs isolated from ethanol-exposed animals were prone to neural induction but resistant to osteogenic and adipogenic inductions compared to their age-matched controls. The altered differentiation may contribute to the severe trabecular bone loss seen in ethanol-exposed animals at 3months of age as well as overt growth retardation. Expression of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, aP2, and PPAR? were substantially inhibited, but BDNF was up-regulated in MSCs isolated from ethanol-exposed 3month-old animals. Several signaling pathways were distorted in ethanol-exposed MSCs via altered trimethylation at histone 3 lysine 27. These results demonstrate that early life ethanol exposure can have long-term impacts in rat MSCs by both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms.
Related JoVE Video
Role of collectrin, an ACE2 homologue, in blood pressure homeostasis.
Curr. Hypertens. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Collectrin (Tmem27) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is highly expressed in the kidney and vascular endothelium. It is a homologue of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) but harbors no catalytic domain. In the extravascular tissues of the kidney, collectrin is localized to the proximal tubule and collecting duct. Collectrin-deficient mice are featured with hypertension and exaggerated salt sensitivity. These phenotypes are associated with impaired uptake of the nitric oxide precursor L-arginine and the expression of its amino acid transporters, CAT-1 and y(+)LAT1, in endothelial cells. In addition, collectrin-deficient mice display decreased dimerization of nitric oxide synthase and decreased nitric oxide synthesis, but enhanced superoxide generation, suggesting that deletion of collectrin leads to a state of nitric oxide synthase uncoupling. These findings suggest that collectrin plays a protective role against hypertension. The collectrin knockout mouse represents a unique model for hypertension research. Furthermore, collectrin may serve as a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of hypertension.
Related JoVE Video
Engineered kinase activation reveals unique morphodynamic phenotypes and associated trafficking for Src family isoforms.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Src kinase family comprises nine homologous members whose distinct expression patterns and cellular distributions indicate that they have unique roles. These roles have not been determined because genetic manipulation has not produced clearly distinct phenotypes, and the kinases' homology complicates generation of specific inhibitors. Through insertion of a modified FK506 binding protein (insertable FKBP12, iFKBP) into the protein kinase isoforms Fyn, Src, Lyn, and Yes, we engineered kinase analogs that can be activated within minutes in living cells (RapR analogs). Combining our RapR analogs with computational tools for quantifying and characterizing cellular dynamics, we demonstrate that Src family isoforms produce very different phenotypes, encompassing cell spreading, polarized motility, and production of long, thin cell extensions. Activation of Src and Fyn led to patterns of kinase translocation that correlated with morphological changes in temporally distinct stages. Phenotypes were dependent on N-terminal acylation, not on Src homology 3 (SH3) and Src homology 2 (SH2) domains, and correlated with movement between a perinuclear compartment, adhesions, and the plasma membrane.
Related JoVE Video
Design of CGMP production of 18F- and 68Ga-radiopharmaceuticals.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Radiopharmaceutical production process must adhere to current good manufacturing process (CGMP) compliance to ensure the quality of precursor, prodrug (active pharmaceutical ingredient, API), and the final drug product that meet acceptance criteria. We aimed to develop an automated system for production of CGMP grade of PET radiopharmaceuticals.
Related JoVE Video
User-friendly tools for quantifying the dynamics of cellular morphology and intracellular protein clusters.
Methods Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Understanding the heterogeneous dynamics of cellular processes requires not only tools to visualize molecular behavior but also versatile approaches to extract and analyze the information contained in live-cell movies of many cells. Automated identification and tracking of cellular features enable thorough and consistent comparative analyses in a high-throughput manner. Here, we present tools for two challenging problems in computational image analysis: (1) classification of motion for cells with complex shapes and dynamics and (2) segmentation of clustered cells and quantification of intracellular protein distributions based on a single fluorescence channel. We describe these methods and user-friendly software(1) (MATLAB applications with graphical user interfaces) so these tools can be readily applied without an extensive knowledge of computational techniques.
Related JoVE Video
Overexpression of Autophagy-Related 16-Like 1 in Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Pathol. Oncol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dyregulation of autophagy has been reported in various human cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The objective of this study was to link expression of autophagy-related 16-like 1 (ATG16L1), a protein essential for autophagosome formation, to clinical outcome in a cohort of 90 OSCC patients. Expression level of ATG16L1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry and an immunoreactivity score (IRS), ranging from 0 to 9, was assigned to each case. The results were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and outcome of patients. Twenty-seven patients (30 %) exhibited ATG16L1 overexpression as indicated by an IRS of 9. Overexpression of ATG16L1 was significantly associated with disease stage (p?=?0.001), size (p?=?0.031) of the tumor, lymph node metastasis (p?=?0.004), and histological grade (p?=?0.038). ATG16L1 overexpression significantly affected the overall survival (p?=?0.020) and time to recurrence (p?=?0.031) of OSCC patients in Kaplan-Meier analysis. The present study suggested that ATG16L1 may be used as a biomarker for selecting OSCC patients with a more aggressive phenotype.
Related JoVE Video
Endoglin deficiency impairs stroke recovery.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Endoglin deficiency causes hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia-1 and impairs myocardial repair. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia-1 are associated with a high incidence of paradoxical embolism in the cerebral circulation and ischemic brain injury. We hypothesized that endoglin deficiency impairs stroke recovery.
Related JoVE Video
Obatoclax analog SC-2001 inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation through enhancing SHP-1 expression and induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Interfering oncogenic STAT3 signaling is a promising anti-cancer strategy. We examined the efficacy and drug mechanism of an obatoclax analog SC-2001, a novel STAT3 inhibitor, in human breast cancer cells. Human breast cancer cell lines were used for in vitro studies. Apoptosis was examined by both flow cytometry and western blot. Signaling pathways were assessed by western blot. In vivo efficacy of SC-2001 was tested in xenograft nude mice. SC-2001 inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in association with downregulation of p-STAT3 (Tyr 705) in breast cancer cells. STAT3-regulated proteins, including Mcl-1, survivin, and cyclin D1, were repressed by SC-2001. Over-expression of STAT3 in MDA-MB-468 cells protected cells from SC-2001-induced apoptosis. Moreover, SC-2001 enhanced the expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, a negative regulator of STAT3. Furthermore, the enhanced SHP-1 expression, in conjunction with increased SHP-1 phosphatase activity, was mediated by upregulated transcription by RFX-1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that SC-2001 increased the binding capacity of RFX-1 to the SHP-1 promoter. Knockdown of either RFX-1 or SHP-1 reduced SC-2001-induced apoptosis, whereas ectopic expression of RFX-1 increased SHP-1 expression and enhanced the apoptotic effect of SC-2001. Importantly, SC-2001 suppressed tumor growth in association with enhanced RFX-1 and SHP-1 expression and p-STAT3 downregulation in MDA-MB-468 xenograft tumors. SC-2001 induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells, an effect that was mediated by RFX-1 upregulated SHP-1 expression and SHP-1-dependent STAT3 inactivation. Our study indicates targeting STAT3 signaling pathway may be a useful approach for the development of targeted agents for anti-breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Complexity generation by chemical synthesis: a five-step synthesis of (-)-chaetominine from L-tryptophan and its biosynthetic implications.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We demonstrated, for the first time, that on the basis of chemistry principles, the hexacyclic peptidyl alkaloid (?)-chaetominine (1) can be synthesized in a straightforward manner from L-Trp. The approach features the efficient generation of molecular complexity via a tandem C3/C14 syn-selective epoxidation (dr = 3:2)–annulative ring-opening reaction and a regioselective epimerization at C14. The successful production of (?)-chaetominine (1) from L-Trp could be helpful for revealing how the configuration of L-tryptophan becomes inverted in the biosynthetic pathway of (?)-chaetominine (1).
Related JoVE Video
IL-1? Promotes Malignant Transformation and Tumor Aggressiveness in Oral Cancer.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic inflammation, coupled with alcohol, betel quid, and cigarette consumption, is associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) is a critical mediator of chronic inflammation and implicated in many cancers. In this study, we showed that increased pro-IL-1? expression was associated with the severity of oral malignant transformation in a mouse OSCC model induced by 4-Nitroquinolin-1-oxide (4-NQO) and arecoline, two carcinogens related to tobacco and betel quid, respectively. Using microarray and quantitative PCR assay, we showed that pro-IL-1? was upregulated in human OSCC tumors associated with tobacco and betel quid consumption. In a human OSCC cell line TW2.6, we demonstrated nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK) and arecoline stimulated IL-1? secretion in an inflammasome-dependent manner. IL-1? treatment significantly increased the proliferation and dysregulated the Akt signaling pathways of dysplastic oral keratinocytes (DOKs). Using cytokine antibodies and inflammation cytometric bead arrays, we found that DOK and OSCC cells secreted high levels of IL-6, IL-8, and growth-regulated oncogene-? following IL-1? stimulation. The conditioned medium of IL-1?-treated OSCC cells exerted significant proangiogenic effects. Crucially, IL-1? increased the invasiveness of OSCC cells through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), characterized by downregulation of E-cadherin, upregulation of Snail, Slug, and Vimentin, and alterations in morphology. These findings provide novel insights into the mechanism underlying OSCC tumorigenesis. Our study suggested that IL-1?? can be induced by tobacco and betel quid-related carcinogens, and participate in the early and late stages of oral carcinogenesis by increasing the proliferation of dysplasia oral cells, stimulating oncogenic cytokines, and promoting aggressiveness of OSCC. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Related JoVE Video
Curative use of forequarter amputation for recurrent breast cancer over an axillary area: a case report and literature review.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Axillary recurrence of breast cancer that involves the brachial neurovascular bundle is uncommon. However, for many patients with such recurrence, forequarter amputation can play a palliative role in relieving excruciating pain and paralysis of the upper limb. Further, for those patients who do not have distant metastasis or other local-regional recurrence, forequarter amputation provides a chance for a cure. Only a few case reports of curative amputations for recurrent breast cancer are present in the literature. Here, we report a case of forequarter amputation for curative treatment of axillary recurrent breast cancer, together with a literature review. To date, we have followed the patient for three years after amputation, during which there has been no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. Although radical resection is feasible, it can be accompanied by surgical wound complications and psychosocial stress. Therefore, an organized multidisciplinary approach is needed to ensure the success of radical resection.
Related JoVE Video
Dissecting motility signaling through activation of specific Src-effector complexes.
Nat. Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We describe an approach to selectively activate a kinase in a specific protein complex or at a specific subcellular location within living cells and within minutes. This reveals the effects of specific kinase pathways without time for genetic compensation. The new technique, dubbed rapamycin-regulated targeted activation of pathways (RapRTAP), was used to dissect the role of Src kinase interactions with FAK and p130Cas in cell motility and morphodynamics. The overall effects of Src activation on cell morphology and adhesion dynamics were first quantified, without restricting effector access. Subsets of Src-induced behaviors were then attributed to specific interactions between Src and the two downstream proteins. Activation of Src in the cytoplasm versus at the cell membrane also produced distinct phenotypes. The conserved nature of the kinase site modified for RapRTAP indicates that the technique can be applied to many kinases.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic environments of the transferable plasmid-mediated blaCTX-M-3 gene in Serratia marcescens isolates.
Jpn. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, genetic environments of the transferable plasmid-mediated blaCTX-M-3 gene were characterized among 14 isolates of cefotaxime-resistant Serratia marcescens using PCR and BLAST DNA sequence analysis. A total of 3 types of genetic architectures in the regions surrounding this blaCTX-M-3 gene were identified. Type I architecture was characterized by the presence of a complete insertion sequence of tnpA-ISEcp1, identified as interrupting a reverse IS26 sequence in the upstream region of the blaCTX-M-3 gene. A reverse-directional orf477 fragment was located downstream of the blaCTX-M-3 gene, which was in the same direction of the mucA gene. A common region containing the orf513 element was located upstream of the mucA gene. Moreover, a copy of the 3'-CS2 element was located immediately upstream of the orf513 element. A novel complex class 1 integron was characterized by the presence of the dfrA19 gene, which was flanked by two copies of class 1 integrons. This is the first report to describe the dfrA19 gene within a novel complex class 1 integron in S. marcescens isolates from Taiwan. This novel complex class 1 integron structure was located distantly upstream of the blaCTX-M-3 gene.
Related JoVE Video
Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma in Taiwan shows a frequent gain of ITK gene.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is an aggressive peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) of follicular helper T-cell origin and is rare in Taiwan. There are overlapping features of AITL and peripheral T-cell lymphoma with a follicular growth pattern (PTCL-F). Around one fifth of PTCL-F exhibits t(5;9)(q33;q22)/ITK-SYK chromosomal translocation, which is essentially absent in AITL. We retrospectively investigated 35 cases of AITL from Taiwan with histopathology review, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for t(5;9)(q33;q22)/ITK-SYK and correlated the results with overall survival. Twenty-six cases of not otherwise specified PTCL (PTCL-NOS) were also examined by FISH for comparison. Most AITL patients were male (69%) and elderly (median age at 67 years) with frequent bone marrow involvement (53%), high Ann Arbor stages (77%), and elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (68%). Most cases (80%) showed a typical CD4+/CD8- phenotype and in 90% cases there were scattered EBV-positive B-cells (less than 10% cells). None of these cases showed t(5;9)(q33;q22)/ITK-SYK translocation by FISH. Gain of ITK and SYK gene was identified in 38% and 14% tumors, respectively, but both were not associated with overall survival. Performance status < 2 was associated with a better outcome but not the other clinicopathological factors. All PTCL-NOS cases were negative for ITK-SYK translocation with similar rates (38% and 12%, respectively) of gains at ITK and SYK loci as that of AITL. In this so far the largest series of AITL from Taiwan, we reported the clinicopathological features and FISH findings on ITK and SYK genes. We confirmed the absence of t(5;9)(q33;q22)/ITK-SYK translocation, which may serve as an additional differential diagnostic tool from PTCL-F when present. PTCL-NOS shared a similar pattern of ITK and SYK gains with AITL. More studies are warranted to elucidate the roles of SYK and ITK and other genes in the lymphomagenesis of AITL in Taiwan.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of a distinct small cell population from human bone marrow reveals its multipotency in vivo and in vitro.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Small stem cells, such as spore-like cells, blastomere-like stem cells (BLSCs), and very-small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) have been described in recent studies, although their multipotency in human tissues has not yet been confirmed. Here, we report the discovery of adult multipotent stem cells derived from human bone marrow, which we call StemBios (SB) cells. These isolated SB cells are smaller than 6 ìm and are DAPI+ and Lgr5+ (Leucine-Rich Repeat Containing G Protein-Coupled Receptor 5). Because Lgr5 has been characterized as a stem cell marker in the intestine, we hypothesized that SB cells may have a similar function. In vivo cell tracking assays confirmed that SB cells give rise to three types of cells, and in vitro studies demonstrated that SB cells cultured in proprietary media are able to grow to 6-25 ìm in size. Once the SB cells have attached to the wells, they differentiate into different cell lineages upon exposure to specific differentiation media. We are the first to demonstrate that stem cells smaller than 6 ìm can differentiate both in vivo and in vitro. In the future, we hope that SB cells will be used therapeutically to cure degenerative diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Immunopositivity of Beclin-1 and ATG5 as Indicators of Survival and Disease Recurrence in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aim: To evaluate the expression and prognostic value of two autophagy-related (Atg) proteins, Beclin-1 and Atg5, in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to correlate findings with clinical outcomes.
Related JoVE Video
SC-60, a Dimer-Based Sorafenib Derivative, Shows a Better Anti-Hepatocellular Carcinoma Effect than Sorafenib in a Preclinical Hepatocellular Carcinoma Model.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sorafenib is the first approved targeted therapeutic reagent for hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we report that SC-60, a dimer-based sorafenib derivative, overcomes the resistance of sorafenib and shows a better anti-hepatocellular carcinoma effect in vitro and in vivo. SC-60 substantially increased SH2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) phosphatase activity in hepatocellular carcinoma cells and purified SHP-1 proteins, suggesting that SC-60 affects SHP-1 directly. Molecular docking and truncated mutants of SHP-1 further confirmed that SC-60 interferes with the inhibitory N-SH2 domain to relieve the closed catalytic protein tyrosine phosphatase domain of SHP-1. Deletion of N-SH2 domain (dN1) or point mutation (D61A) of SHP-1 abolished the effect of SC-60 on SHP-1, p-STAT3, and apoptosis. Importantly, SC-60 exhibited significant survival benefits compared with sorafenib in a hepatocellular carcinoma orthotopic model via targeting the SHP-1/STAT3-related signaling pathway. In summary, dimer derivative of sorafenib, SC-60, is a SHP-1 agonist and may be a potent reagent for hepatocellular carcinoma-targeted therapy. Mol Cancer Ther; 13(1); 1-10. ©2013 AACR.
Related JoVE Video
ENSA expression correlates with attenuated tumor propagation in liver cancer.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Endosulfine alpha (ENSA) is an endogenous ligand of sulfonylurea receptor that was reported to be associated with an ATP-dependent potassium channel that controls insulin release and the onset of type 2 diabetes. ENSA also interacts with microtubule-associated serine/threonine-protein kinase-like (MASTL) to regulate the cell cycle. Previously, we identified ENSA as a possible bivalent gene in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and hypothesized its methylation might determine cellular differentiation and transformation. Because there was no link between aberrant ENSA expression and tumorigenesis, we aimed to determine if ENSA is abnormally regulated in liver cancer and plays a role in liver cancer propagation. The epigenetic states of the ENSA promoter were evaluated in different cancer cell lines and patient samples. ENSA was overexpressed in a liver cancer cell line, and its interaction with MASTL and possible tumor suppression capabilities were also determined in cultured cells and mice. Distinct ENSA promoter methylation was observed in liver cancer (n=100pairs) and breast cancer (n=100pairs). ENSA was predominantly hypomethylated in liver cancer but was hypermethylated in breast cancer. Overexpressed ENSA interacts with MASTL and suppresses hepatic tumor growth. We also found that ENSA is hypermethylated in CD90-expressing (CD90(+)) cells compared to CD90 non-expressing (CD90(-)) liver cancer cells. These data reveal ENSA methylation changes during hepatic tumor evolution. Overexpressed ENSA suppresses tumor growth in an established hepatic cell line whereas hypermethylated ENSA might help maintain liver cancer initiating cells.
Related JoVE Video
High chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 expression correlates with poor outcome in patients with breast cancer.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), a transmembrane proteoglycan originally identified in melanoma cells, has been reported to be expressed in breast cancer cells. This study was performed to examine the expression and significance of CSPG4 in a cohort of breast cancer patients. Immunohistochemical analysis of CSPG4 was performed on tissue microarrays constructed from tissue specimens from 240 breast cancer patients. CSPG4 staining was correlated with clinical and pathological characteristics, overall survival (OS), and disease recurrence. Contradicting to a previous report, our results showed that high CSPG4 expression was not related to triple-negative status of breast cancer patients. The Kaplan-Meier method showed that high CSPG4 expression was significantly associated with shorter time to recurrence (TTR). Patients with high CSPG4 expression had poorer OS and shorter TTR in a multivariate survival analysis after adjustment for stage, tumor grade, expression of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, and HER2 overexpression. This study showed that high CSPG4 expression correlates with disease recurrence and OS in breast cancers.
Related JoVE Video
Natural genetic variation of integrin alpha L (Itgal) modulates ischemic brain injury in stroke.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
During ischemic stroke, occlusion of the cerebrovasculature causes neuronal cell death (infarction), but naturally occurring genetic factors modulating infarction have been difficult to identify in human populations. In a surgically induced mouse model of ischemic stroke, we have previously mapped Civq1 to distal chromosome 7 as a quantitative trait locus determining infarct volume. In this study, genome-wide association mapping using 32 inbred mouse strains and an additional linkage scan for infarct volume confirmed that the size of the infarct is determined by ancestral alleles of the causative gene(s). The genetically isolated Civq1 locus in reciprocal recombinant congenic mice refined the critical interval and demonstrated that infarct size is determined by both vascular (collateral vessel anatomy) and non-vascular (neuroprotection) effects. Through the use of interval-specific SNP haplotype analysis, we further refined the Civq1 locus and identified integrin alpha L (Itgal) as one of the causative genes for Civq1. Itgal is the only gene that exhibits both strain-specific amino acid substitutions and expression differences. Coding SNPs, a 5-bp insertion in exon 30b, and increased mRNA and protein expression of a splice variant of the gene (Itgal-003, ENSMUST00000120857), all segregate with infarct volume. Mice lacking Itgal show increased neuronal cell death in both ex vivo brain slice and in vivo focal cerebral ischemia. Our data demonstrate that sequence variation in Itgal modulates ischemic brain injury, and that infarct volume is determined by both vascular and non-vascular mechanisms.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of phosphorus on biodiesel production from Scenedesmus obliquus under nitrogen-deficiency stress.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In order to study the effect of phosphorus on biodiesel production from Scenedesmus obliquus especially under nitrogen deficiency conditions, six types of media with combinations of nitrogen repletion/depletion and phosphorus repletion/limitation/depletion were investigated in this study. It was found that nitrogen starvation compared to nitrogen repletion enhanced biodiesel productivity. Moreover, biodiesel productivity was further strengthened by varying the supply level of phosphorus from depletion, limitation, through to repletion. The maximum FAMEs productivity of 24.2mg/L/day was obtained in nitrogen depletion with phosphorus repletion, which was two times higher than that in nutrient complete medium. More phosphorus was accumulated in cells under the nitrogen starvation with sufficient phosphorus condition, but no polyphosphate was formed. This study indicated that nitrogen starvation plus sufficient P supply might be the real "lipid trigger". Furthermore, results of the current study suggest a potential application for utilizing microalgae to combine phosphorus removal from wastewater with biodiesel production.
Related JoVE Video
Novel sorafenib analogues induce apoptosis through SHP-1 dependent STAT3 inactivation in human breast cancer cells.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling is constitutively activated in various cancers including breast cancer and has emerged as a novel potential anti-cancer target. STAT3 has been demonstrated to be a target of sorafenib, and a protein tyrosine phosphatase Src homology 2-domain containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) has been demonstrated to downregulate p-STAT3 via its phosphatase activity. Here, we tested the efficacy of two sorafenib analogues, SC-1 and SC-43, in breast cancer cells and examined the drug mechanism.
Related JoVE Video
Mast Cell Stabilizer Ketotifen Inhibits Gouty Inflammation in Rats.
Am J Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gout, an extremely painful arthritis with relapsing inflammatory attacks, is a common inflammatory joint disease in adults. We examined the therapeutic effect of ketotifen, a mast cell stabilizer, on monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced acute inflammation. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were injected with MSU crystals (5 mg per rat) into air pouch. Ketotifen (0, 0.1, 03, and 1 mg/kg) was given 1 hour before MSU crystal injection. Lavage histamine, leukocyte counts, mast cell counts, nitric oxide, and proinflammatory mediator levels were assessed 12 hours after MSU injection. Ketotifen significantly inhibited MSU-induced mast cell activation and histamine concentration in air pouch lavage. Ketotifen dose-dependently inhibited MSU-initiated leukocyte infiltration into the air pouch. Furthermore, ketotifen significantly decreased proinflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide, interleukin-1?, and interleukin-6, production in MSU-treated rats. Ketotifen may attenuate MSU-induced acute inflammation by inhibiting mast cell activation and leukocyte infiltration in rats. Furthermore, ketotifen has the potential to be a new approach in managing patients with gouty inflammation in the future.
Related JoVE Video
Phosphorylation regulates NCC stability and transporter activity in vivo.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A T60M mutation in the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) is common in patients with Gitelmans syndrome (GS). This mutation prevents Ste20-related proline and alanine-rich kinase (SPAK)/oxidative stress responsive kinase-1 (OSR1)-mediated phosphorylation of NCC and alters NCC transporter activity in vitro. Here, we examined the physiologic effects of NCC phosphorylation in vivo using a novel Ncc T58M (human T60M) knock-in mouse model. Ncc(T58M/T58M) mice exhibited typical features of GS with a blunted response to thiazide diuretics. Despite expressing normal levels of Ncc mRNA, these mice had lower levels of total Ncc and p-Ncc protein that did not change with a low-salt diet that increased p-Spak. In contrast to wild-type Ncc, which localized to the apical membrane of distal convoluted tubule cells, T58M Ncc localized primarily to the cytosolic region and caused an increase in late distal convoluted tubule volume. In MDCK cells, exogenous expression of phosphorylation-defective NCC mutants reduced total protein expression levels and membrane stability. Furthermore, our analysis found diminished total urine NCC excretion in a cohort of GS patients with homozygous NCC T60M mutations. When Wnk4(D561A/+) mice, a model of pseudohypoaldosteronism type II expressing an activated Spak/Osr1-Ncc, were crossed with Ncc(T58M/T58M) mice, total Ncc and p-Ncc protein levels decreased and the GS phenotype persisted over the hypertensive phenotype. Overall, these data suggest that SPAK-mediated phosphorylation of NCC at T60 regulates NCC stability and function, and defective phosphorylation at this residue corrects the phenotype of pseudohypoaldosteronism type II.
Related JoVE Video
Sorafenib and its derivative SC-49 sensitize hepatocellular carcinoma cells to CS-1008, a humanized anti-TNFRSF10B (DR5) antibody.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previously, we have shown that sorafenib sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to apoptosis induced by TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TNFSF10; TRAIL). Here, we report that sorafenib and SC-49 sensitize HCC cells to CS-1008, a novel anti-human death receptor 5 (TNFRSF10B) antibody.
Related JoVE Video
ATG9A overexpression is associated with disease recurrence and poor survival in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Virchows Arch.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
ATG9A is an integral membrane protein required for autophagosome formation and a membrane carrier in the autophagy pathways. The present study was designed to investigate the expression of ATG9A in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Clinically annotated tumor specimens from 90 patients with OSCC were subjected to immunohistochemistry using an antibody against ATG9A and immunoreactivity was scored using an immunoreactivity score (IRS). Scores were compared with clinical and pathologic data to assess association with outcome. Overexpression of ATG9A was defined as an IRS of ?9 by receiver operating characteristics curve analysis and was identified in 25 (28 %) of 90 cases. ATG9A overexpression was associated with disease recurrence and overall survival (OS) in both univariate (p?=?0.030 and 0.025, respectively) and multivariate (p?=?0.026 and 0.038, respectively) Cox analyses. Kaplan-Meier plots also showed that patients with ATG9A overexpression had shorter 3-year OS (p?=?0.017) and time to recurrence (p?=?0.021) than those with low ATG9A expression. These results suggest that the presence of ATG9A in the cytoplasm of tumor cells may be an independent biomarker for disease recurrence and survival in patients with OSCC.
Related JoVE Video
A novel genetic locus modulates infarct volume independently of the extent of collateral circulation.
Physiol. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the mouse model of permanent, middle cerebral artery occlusion, infarct volume varies widely across inbred strains but generally is inversely correlated with collateral vessel number. However, we also observed certain mouse strains that share similar collateral vessel anatomy but exhibit significantly different infarct volume. To identify genetic factors determining infarct volume in a collateral vessel-independent manner, we performed quantitative trait locus analysis on a F2 cross between C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ strains. We mapped four novel loci (Civq4 through Civq7) that modulate infarct volume. Civq4, on chromosome 8, is the strongest locus (logarithm of the odds 9.8) that contributes 21% of the phenotypic variance of infarct volume in the cross. The Civq4 and Civq6 loci represent transgressive B6 alleles that render animals susceptible to larger infarcts. Based on genomic sequence and microarray analyses, we propose candidate genes for the Civq4 locus. By selecting inbred strains with similar collateral vessel anatomy but that vary significantly in infarct volume, we have mapped four loci determining infarct volume in a mouse model of ischemic stroke. Two of the loci appear to modulate infarct volume through a collateral vessel-independent mechanism. Based on strain-specific sequence variants and differences in transcript levels, Msr1 and Mtmr7 appear to be strong candidate genes for Civq4. Identifying the underlying genetic factors of these loci will elucidate the genetic architecture response to cerebral ischemia, shed new light on disease mechanisms of ischemic stroke, and identify potential therapeutic targets for clinical applications.
Related JoVE Video
Protective effect of 3,4-methylenedioxyphenol (sesamol) on stress-related mucosal disease in rats.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Stress-related mucosal disease (SRMD) causes considerable morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. 3,4-Methylenedioxyphenol (sesamol) has been reported to have potent antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sesamol on water immersion restraint- (WIR-) induced SRMD in rats. Rat gastric ulcer and hemorrhage were induced by WIR. Rats were pretreated orally with various doses of sesamol (0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg, resp.) 30 min before WIR. Gastric mucosal ulceration, hemoglobin, lipid peroxidation, mucus secretion, proinflammatory cytokines, and nuclear factor (NF)-?B levels were determined 4 h after WIR. In addition, the infiltration of neutrophil and macrophage into gastric mucosa was also determined after WIR. Water immersion restraint increased gastric mucosal ulcer and hemorrhage, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, and IL-6 levels but failed to affect mucosal lipid peroxidation and mucus secretion compared with non-WIR. Sesamol significantly decreased gastric ulceration and hemorrhage and inhibited mucosal TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 production and NF-?B activity in WIR-treated rats. In addition, increased myeloperoxidase and CD68 levels in gastric mucosa were found in WIR-treated rats compared to non-WIR rats. Sesamol did not affect myeloperoxidase but decreased CD68 levels in mucosa in WIR-treated rats. Sesamol may protect against SRMD by inhibiting gastric mucosal proinflammatory cytokines in rats.
Related JoVE Video
Sensitive detection and quantification of gliadin contamination in gluten-free food with immunomagnetic beads based liposomal fluorescence immunoassay.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gliadin from wheat is a common food allergen that can induce bakers asthma, wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, atopic dermatitis, and celiac disease. This gliadin assay focuses on rapidly screen and check for gluten contamination in raw materials and in the gluten-free food production process, not only for wheat-sensitive patients but also for the industries producing gluten-free foodstuffs. The developed assay incorporates the use of anti-gliadin antibody-conjugated immunomagnetic beads (IMBs) to capture the gliadin in samples and fluorescent dyes-loaded immunoliposomal nanovesicles (IMLNs) to produce and enhance the detection signal. Hence, a sandwich complex is formed as "IMBs-gliadin-IMLNs". Experimental results indicate that this detection platform exhibits good sensitivity for gliadin with a detection limit as low as 0.6 ?g mL(-1) of gliadin; as the polyclonal antibody showed slight cross-reactions with barley and rye. Excellent recovery rates were found ranging from 83.5 to 102.6% as testing the spiked samples. Moreover, the CV (%) of intra- and inter-assay of this developed assay are 4.8-10.6% and 3.5-9.9%, respectively. Based on a parallel analysis of twenty food samples, the results of this developed assay provide a good consistency with those of an AOAC-approved ELISA kit without any false-negative results. The proposed assay method is thus a highly promising alternative method for detecting the contamination of gliadin in the food industry.
Related JoVE Video
Genotoxicity of 2-bromo-3-chloropropiophenone.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Impurities are present in any drug substance or drug product. They can be process-related impurities that are not completely removed during purification or are formed due to the degradation of the drug substance over the product shelf-life. Unlike the drug substance, impurities generally do not have beneficial effects and may present a risk without associated benefit. Therefore, their amount should be minimized. 2-Bromo-3-chloropropiophenone (BCP) is an impurity of bupropion, a second-generation antidepressant and a smoking cessation aid. The United States Pharmacopeia recommends an acceptable level for BCP that is not more than 0.1% of the bupropion. Because exposure to genotoxic impurities even at low levels is of significant concern, it is important to determine whether or not BCP is genotoxic. Therefore, in this study the Ames test and the in vitro micronucleus assay were conducted to evaluate the genotoxicity of BCP. BCP was mutagenic with S9 metabolic activation, increasing the mutant frequencies in a concentration-dependent manner, up to 22- and 145-fold induction over the controls in Salmonella strains TA100 and TA1535, respectively. BCP was also positive in the in vitro micronucleus assay, resulting in up to 3.3- and 5.1-fold increase of micronucleus frequency for treatments in the absence and presence of S9, respectively; and 9.9- and 7.4-fold increase of aneuploidies without and with S9, respectively. The addition of N-acetyl-l-cysteine, an antioxidant, reduced the genotoxicity of BCP in both assays. Further studies showed that BCP treatment resulted in induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the TK6 cells. The results suggest that BCP is mutagenic, clastogenic, and aneugenic, and that these activities are mediated via generation of reactive metabolites.
Related JoVE Video
Expression of autophagy-related protein Beclin-1 in malignant canine mammary tumors.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Autophagy is a self-catabolic mechanism that degrades unnecessary cellular components through lysosomal enzymes. Beclin-1, an autophagy-related protein, establishes the first connection between autophagy and tumorigenesis. The purpose of this study is to assess the Beclin-1 expression pattern and to determine its prognostic significance in patients with malignant canine mammary tumor (CMT).
Related JoVE Video
High LC3 expression correlates with poor survival in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a destructive disease with very poor prognosis and no effective treatment. Autophagy is a dynamic cellular process involved in various physiological processes and diseases including cancer that degrades cytoplasmic proteins and organelles. The role of autophagy in the pathogenesis of OSCC is not yet understood. Microtubule-associated protein light chains 3 (LC3) is a reliable autophagosome markers for monitoring autophagy. In the present study, LC3 expression was determined in a cohort of 90 OSCC samples by immunohistochemistry. The results were correlated with clinical and pathological characteristics of patients. High LC3 expression (N = 57; 63.3%) correlated with stage (P < .0001), tumor size (P < .0001), and lymph node involvement (P = .0003) and with an increased risk of death (P < .0001; hazard ratio, 3.59) in a univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis adjusted for grade, stage, and alcohol, betel, and tobacco consumption, high LC3 expression retained statistical significance with regard to survival (P = .0043; hazard ratio, 2.99). The Kaplan-Meier survival curve also showed that high LC3 expression was significantly associated with poor overall survival (P = .0001). Elevated LC3 expression, which corresponds to increased level of autophagy activity, is a frequent event and an indicator of poor prognosis in human OSCC.
Related JoVE Video
Sesame oil attenuates ovalbumin-induced pulmonary edema and bronchial neutrophilic inflammation in mice.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Allergic asthma is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases of airways. Severe asthma may lead to hospitalization and death. Sesame oil is a natural product with anti-inflammatory property. However, the effect of sesame oil on allergic asthma has never been studied.
Related JoVE Video
Discovery of novel src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 agonists from sorafenib for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sorafenib is the first approved targeted therapeutic reagent for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we report that Src homology region 2 (SH2) domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) is a major target of sorafenib and generates a series of sorafenib derivatives to search for potent SHP-1 agonists that may act as better anti-HCC agents than sorafenib. Sorafenib increases SHP-1 activity by direct interaction and impairs the association between the N-SH2 domain and the catalytic protein tyrosine phosphatase domain of SHP-1. Deletion of the N-SH2 domain (dN1) or point mutation (D61A) of SHP-1 abolished the effect of sorafenib on SHP-1, phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3), and apoptosis, suggesting that sorafenib may affect SHP-1 by triggering a conformational switch relieving its autoinhibition. Molecular docking of SHP-1/sorafenib complex confirmed our findings in HCC cells. Furthermore, novel sorafenib derivatives SC-43 and SC-40 displayed more potent anti-HCC activity than sorafenib, as measured by enhanced SHP-1 activity, inhibition of p-STAT3, and induction of apoptosis. SC-43 induced substantial apoptosis in sorafenib-resistant cells and showed better survival benefits than sorafenib in orthotopic HCC tumors. Conclusion: In this study, we identified SHP-1 as a major target of sorafenib. SC-43 and SC-40, potent SHP-1 agonists, showed better anti-HCC effects than sorafenib in vitro and in vivo. Further clinical investigation is warranted. (Hepatology 2014;58:190-201).
Related JoVE Video
Phosphorus plays an important role in enhancing biodiesel productivity of Chlorella vulgaris under nitrogen deficiency.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the role of phosphorus in lipid production under nitrogen starvation conditions, five types of media possessing different nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations or their combination were prepared to culture Chlorella vulgaris. It was found that biomass production under nitrogen deficient condition with sufficient phosphorus supply was similar to that of the control (with sufficient nutrition), resulting in a maximum lipid productivity of 58.39 mg/L/day. Meanwhile, 31P NMR showed that phosphorus in the medium was transformed and accumulated as polyphosphate in cells. The uptake rate of phosphorus in cells was 3.8 times higher than the uptake rate of the control. This study demonstrates that phosphorus plays an important role in lipid production of C. vulgaris under nitrogen deficient conditions and implies a potential to combine phosphorus removal from wastewater with biodiesel production via microalgae.
Related JoVE Video
An optogenetic tool for the activation of endogenous diaphanous-related formins induces thickening of stress fibers without an increase in contractility.
Cytoskeleton (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have developed an optogenetic technique for the activation of diaphanous-related formins. Our approach is based on fusion of the light-oxygen-voltage 2 domain of Avena sativa Phototrophin1 to an isolated Diaphanous Autoregulatory Domain from mDia1. This "caged" diaphanous auto-regulatory domain was inactive in the dark but in the presence of blue light rapidly activated endogenous diaphanous-related formins. Using an F-actin reporter, we observed filopodia and lamellipodia formation as well as a steady increase in F-actin along existing stress fibers, starting within minutes of photo-activation. Interestingly, we did not observe the formation of new stress fibers. Remarkably, a 1.9-fold increase in F-actin was not paralleled by an increase in myosin II along stress fibers and the amount of tension generated by the fibers, as judged by focal adhesion size, appeared unchanged. Our results suggest a decoupling between F-actin accumulation and contractility in stress fibers and demonstrate the utility of photoactivatable diaphanous autoregulatory domain for the study of diaphanous-related formin function in cells.
Related JoVE Video
Methylation of BRCA1 promoter region is associated with unfavorable prognosis in women with early-stage breast cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BRCA1-associated breast cancers are associated with particular features such as early onset, poor histological differentiation, and hormone receptor negativity. Previous studies conducted in Taiwanese population showed that the mutation of BRCA1 gene does not play a significant role in the occurrence of breast cancer. The present study explored methylation of BRCA1 promoter and its relationship to clinical features and outcome in Taiwanese breast cancer patients. Tumor specimens from a cohort of 139 early-stage breast cancer patients were obtained during surgery before adjuvant treatment for DNA extraction. Methylation of BRCA1 promoter region was determined by methylation-specific PCR and the results were related to clinical features and outcome of patients using statistical analysis. Methylation of the BRCA1 promoter was detected in 78 (56%) of the 139 tumors. Chi-square analysis indicated that BRCA1 promoter methylation correlated significantly with triple-negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-) status of breast cancer patients (p?=?0.041). The Kaplan-Meier method showed that BRCA1 promoter methylation was significantly associated with poor overall survival (p?=?0.026) and disease-free survival (p?=?0.001). Multivariate analysis which incorporated variables of patients age, tumor size, grade, and lymph node metastasis revealed that BRCA1 promoter methylation was associated with overall survival (p?=?0.27; hazard ratio, 16.38) and disease-free survival (p?=?0.003; hazard ratio, 12.19). Our findings underscore the clinical relevance of the methylation of BRCA1 promoter in Taiwanese patients with early-stage breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Therapeutic effects of sesame oil on monosodium urate crystal-induced acute inflammatory response in rats.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sesame oil has been used in traditional Taiwanese medicine to relieve the inflammatory pain in people with joint inflammation, toothache, scrapes, and cuts. However, scientific evidence related to the effectiveness or action mechanism of sesame oil on relief of pain and inflammation has not been examined experimentally. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effect of sesame oil on monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystal-induced acute inflammatory response in rats. Air pouch, a pseudosynovial cavity, was established by injecting 24 mL of filtered sterile air subcutaneously in the backs of the rats. At day 0, inflammation in air pouch was induced by injecting MSU crystal (5 mg/rat, suspended in sterilized phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.4), while sesame oil (0, 1, 2, or 4 mL/kg, orally) was given 6 h after MSU crystal injection. Parameters in lavage and skin tissue from the air pouches were assessed 6 h after sesame oil was given. Sesame oil decreased MSU crystal-induced total cell counts, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, and IL-6 levels in lavage and pouch tissue. Sesame oil significantly decreased leukocyte and neutrophil counts in lavage compared with MSU crystal alone group. Sesame oil decreased activated mast cell counts in skin tissue in MSU crystal-treated rats. Sesame oil significantly decreased nuclear factor (NF)-?B activity and IL-4 level in isolated mast cells from rats treated with MSU crystal. Furthermore, sesame oil decreased lavage complement proteins C3a and C5a levels in MSU crystal-treated rats. In conclusion, sesame oil shows a potent therapeutic effect against MSU crystal-induced acute inflammatory response in rats.
Related JoVE Video
Spatiotemporal dynamics and epistatic interaction sites in dengue virus type 1: a comprehensive sequence-based analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The continuing threat of dengue fever necessitates a comprehensive characterisation of its epidemiological trends. Phylogenetic and recombination events were reconstructed based on 100 worldwide dengue virus (DENV) type 1 genome sequences with an outgroup (prototypes of DENV2-4). The phylodynamic characteristics and site-specific variation were then analysed using data without the outgroup. Five genotypes (GI-GV) and a ladder-like structure with short terminal branch topology were observed in this study. Apparently, the transmission of DENV1 was geographically random before gradual localising with human activity as GI-GIII in South Asia, GIV in the South Pacific, and GV in the Americas. Genotypes IV and V have recently shown higher population densities compared to older genotypes. All codon regions and all tree branches were skewed toward a negative selection, which indicated that their variation was restricted by protein function. Notably, multi-epistatic interaction sites were found in both PrM 221 and NS3 1730. Recombination events accumulated in regions E, NS3-NS4A, and particularly in region NS5. The estimated coevolution pattern also highlights the need for further study of the biological role of protein PrM 221 and NS3 1730. The recent transmission of emergent GV sublineages into Central America and Europe mandates closely monitoring of genotype interaction and succession.
Related JoVE Video
SPAK deficiency corrects pseudohypoaldosteronism II caused by WNK4 mutation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Stimulation of the OSR1 (Oxidative stress-responsive kinase-1)/SPAK [STE20 (sterile 20)/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase]-NCC (Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter) signaling cascade plays an important role in the WNK [With-No-Lysine (K)] kinase 4 D561A knock-in mouse model of pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHA II) characterized by salt-sensitive hypertension and hyperkalemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the respective roles of Osr1 and Spak in the pathogenesis of PHA II in vivo. Wnk4 (D561A/+) mice were crossed with kidney tubule-specific (KSP) Osr1 knockout (KSP-Osr1 (-/-)) and Spak knockout (Spak (-/-)) mice. Blood pressure, plasma and urine biochemistries, and the relevant protein expression in the kidneys were examined. Wnk4 (D561A/+), KSP-Osr1 (-/-), and Spak (-/-) mice recapitulated the phenotypes of PHA II, Bartter-like syndrome, and Gitelman syndrome, respectively. Wnk4 (D561A/+).KSP-Osr1 (-/-) remained phenotypically PHA II while Wnk4 (D561A/+).Spak (-/-) mice became normotensive and lacked the PHA II phenotype. Phosphorylated Spak and Ncc were similarly increased in both Wnk4 (D561A/+) and Wnk4 (D561A/+).KSP-Osr1 (-/-) mice while phosphorylated Ncc normalized in Wnk4 (D561A/+).Spak (-/-) mice. Furthermore, Wnk4 (D561A/+).KSP-Osr1 (-/-) mice exhibited exaggerated salt excretion in response to thiazide diuretics while Wnk4 (D561A/+).Spak (-/-) mice exhibited normal responses. Wnk4(D561A/+).Spak (-/-).KSP-Osr1 (-/-) triple mutant mice had low blood pressure and diminished phosphorylated Ncc. Both SPAK and OSR1 are important in the maintenance of blood pressure but activation of SPAK-NCC plays the dominant role in PHA II. SPAK may be a therapeutic target for disorders with salt-sensitive hypertension related to WNK4 activation.
Related JoVE Video
Surface ?-enolase promotes extracellular matrix degradation and tumor metastasis and represents a new therapeutic target.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In previous research, we found ?-enolase to be inversely correlated with progression-free and overall survival in lung cancer patients and detected ?-enolase on the surface of lung cancer cells. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that surface ?-enolase has a significant role in cancer metastasis and tested this hypothesis in the current study. We found that ?-enolase was co-immunoprecipitated with urokinase-type plasminogen activator, urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, and plasminogen in lung cancer cells and interacted with these proteins in a cell-free dot blotting assay, which can be interrupted by ?-enolase-specific antibody. ?-Enolase in lung cancer cells co-localized with these proteins and was present at the site of pericellular degradation of extracellular matrix components. Treatment with antibody against ?-enolase in vitro suppressed cell-associated plasminogen and matrix metalloproteinase activation, collagen and gelatin degradation, and cell invasion. Examination of the effect of treatment with shRNA plasmids revealed that down regulation of ?-enolase decreases extracellular matrix degradation by and the invasion capacity of lung cancer cells. Adoptive transfer of ?-enolase-specific antibody to mice resulted in accumulation of antibody in subcutaneous tumor and inhibited the formation of tumor metastasis in lung and bone. This study demonstrated that surface ?-enolase promotes extracellular matrix degradation and invasion of cancer cells and that targeting surface ?-enolase is a promising approach to suppress tumor metastasis.
Related JoVE Video
Prophylactic and therapeutic effects of a subcutaneous injection of sesame oil against iron-induced acute renal injury in mice.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Iron intoxication causes acute nephrotoxicity in animals and humans. Sesame oil, a healthful food, increases resistance to lipid peroxidation and protects against multiple organ injury in various animal models. The authors examined the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of a subcutaneous injection of sesame oil against iron-induced acute renal injury in mice.
Related JoVE Video
Enhanced free exciton and direct band-edge emissions at room temperature in ultrathin ZnO films grown on Si nanopillars by atomic layer deposition.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Room-temperature ultraviolet (UV) luminescence was investigated for the atomic layer deposited ZnO films grown on silicon nanopillars (Si-NPs) fabricated by self-masking dry etching in hydrogen-containing plasma. For films deposited at 200 °C, an intensive UV emission corresponding to free-exciton recombination (~3.31 eV) was observed with a nearly complete suppression of the defect-associated broad visible range emission peak. On the other hand, for ZnO films grown at 25 °C, albeit the appearance of the defect-associated visible emission, the UV emission peak was observed to shift by ~60 meV to near the direct band edge (3.37 eV) recombination emission. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) showed that the ZnO films obtained at 25 °C were consisting of ZnO nanocrystals with a mean radius of 2 nm embedded in a largely amorphous matrix. Because the Bohr radius of free-exictons in bulk ZnO is ~2.3 nm, the size confinement effect may have occurred and resulted in the observed direct band edge electron-hole recombination. Additionally, the results also demonstrate order of magnitude enhancement in emission efficiency for the ZnO/Si-NP structure, as compared to that of ZnO directly deposited on Si substrate under the same conditions.
Related JoVE Video
Lysophosphatidic acid induces erythropoiesis through activating lysophosphatidic acid receptor 3.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), an extracellular lipid mediator, exerts multiple bioactivities through activating G protein-coupled receptors. LPA receptor 3 (LPA(3)) is a member of the endothelial differentiation gene family, which regulates differentiation and development of the circulation system. However, the relationship among the LPA receptors (LPARs) and erythropoiesis is still not clear. In this study, we found that erythroblasts expressed both LPA(1) and LPA(3), and erythropoietic defects were observed in zLPA(3) antisense morpholino oligonucleotide-injected zebrafish embryos. In human model, our results showed that LPA enhanced the erythropoiesis in the cord blood-derived human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSCs) with erythropoietin (EPO) addition in the plasma-free culture. When hHSCs were treated with Ki16425, an antagonist of LPA(1) and LPA(3), erythropoietic process of hHSCs was also blocked, as detected by mRNA and protein expressions of CD71 and GlyA. In the knockdown study, we further demonstrated that specific knockdown of LPA(3), not LPA(1), blocked the erythropoiesis. The translocation of ?-catenin into the nucleus, a downstream response of LPAR activation, was blocked by Ki16425 treatment. In addition, upregulation of erythropoiesis by LPA was also blocked by quercetin, an inhibitor of the ?-catenin/T-cell factor pathway. Furthermore, the enhancement of LPA on erythropoiesis was diminished by blocking c-Jun-activated kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT activation, the downstream signaling pathways of EPO receptor, suggested that LPA might play a synergistic role with EPO to regulate erythropoietic process. In conclusion, we first reported that LPA participates in EPO-dependent erythropoiesis through activating LPA(3).
Related JoVE Video
4-Methylmethcathinone (mephedrone): neuropharmacological effects of a designer stimulant of abuse.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The designer stimulant 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone) is among the most popular of the derivatives of the naturally occurring psychostimulant cathinone. Mephedrone has been readily available for legal purchase both online and in some stores and has been promoted by aggressive Web-based marketing. Its abuse in many countries, including the United States, is a serious public health concern. Owing largely to its recent emergence, there are no formal pharmacodynamic or pharmacokinetic studies of mephedrone. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of this agent in a rat model. Results revealed that, similar to methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methamphetamine, and methcathinone, repeated mephedrone injections (4× 10 or 25 mg/kg s.c. per injection, 2-h intervals, administered in a pattern used frequently to mimic psychostimulant "binge" treatment) cause a rapid decrease in striatal dopamine (DA) and hippocampal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT) transporter function. Mephedrone also inhibited both synaptosomal DA and 5HT uptake. Like methylenedioxymethamphetamine, but unlike methamphetamine or methcathinone, repeated mephedrone administrations also caused persistent serotonergic, but not dopaminergic, deficits. However, mephedrone caused DA release from a striatal suspension approaching that of methamphetamine and was self-administered by rodents. A method was developed to assess mephedrone concentrations in rat brain and plasma, and mephedrone levels were determined 1 h after a binge treatment. These data demonstrate that mephedrone has a unique pharmacological profile with both abuse liability and neurotoxic potential.
Related JoVE Video
Targeting autophagy enhances BO-1051-induced apoptosis in human malignant glioma cells.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BO-1051 is an N-mustard derivative that is conjugated with DNA-affinic 9-anilinoacridine. Since BO-1051 was reported to have strong anticancer activity, we investigated the effect and underlying mechanism of BO-1051 in human glioma cell lines.
Related JoVE Video
Differences in the frequencies of K-ras c12-13 genotypes by gender and pathologic phenotypes in colorectal tumors measured using the allele discrimination method.
Environ. Mol. Mutagen.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The frequencies of different genotypes of the K-ras oncogene in colorectal cancer (CRC) reveal complex relationships among gender, age, and tumor aggression, however, differences among these studies could also be attributed to a lack of standardization of the detection methods used. We developed the allele discrimination assay, which uses dual-color real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) as a fast K-ras genotyping method, and demonstrated higher sensitivity and specificity than DNA sequencing with formalin-fixed paraffin tissues. The assay detected K-ras mutations among 83 of 204 patients with CRC (40.7%); 20.6% of these mutations were G12D (GAT) mutations, 7.4% were G13D (GAC) and G12V (GTT), and 5.3% were other types. A higher proportion of females was observed overall in tumors with K-ras mutations (60.2%, P = 0.01), codon 12 mutations (63.2%, P = 0.005), and transversions (69.6%, P = 0.02), which reflected the higher prevalence of females among the well- to moderately differentiated tumors (29% in males vs. 53% in females; interaction P = 0.03). The opposite was observed for poorly differentiated tumors (47% in males vs. 35% in females). No significant influence of age was found on the prevalence of K-ras mutation. Males with pathological changes and females with poorly differentiated tumors displayed GAT as a less common genotype compared with most other prevalence studies. In conclusion, allele discrimination, with no additional amplification step, is a fast and reliable genotyping method for detecting K-ras c12-13 mutations. Using this method, we demonstrate differences in the frequencies of K-ras genotypes by gender and pathologic phenotypes of CRC.
Related JoVE Video
Lipomatous apocrine adenoma with syringocystadenoma papilliferum arising from the external auditory canal.
Head Neck Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A case of lipomatous tubular adenoma (LTA) with syringocystadenom papilliferum (SCAP) arising from the external auditory canal in a 25-year-old man is described and to the best of our knowledge through literature review, this kind of morphologic entity has not been reported before. Herein we reported the first case in the English literature in the world.
Related JoVE Video
Elevated Krüppel-like factor 4 transcription factor in canine mammary carcinoma.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) are critical regulators of biological and physiological systems and have been extensively studied for their roles in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival in the context of cancer. Among the KLFs, KLF4 is highly expressed in human breast cancers and plays an oncogenic role. The present study examined the expression of KLF4 and assessed its significance in canine mammary carcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of ADAM28 as a biomarker of bladder transitional cell carcinomas by urinary proteome analysis.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human urine contains a large number of proteins and peptides (the urinary proteome). Global analysis of the human urinary proteome is important for understanding urinary tract diseases. Bladder cancer is the most common urological cancer with higher incidence rates in endemic areas of Blackfoot disease (BFD) in southern Taiwan. The aim of this study was to use the proteomic approach to establish urinary protein biomarkers of bladder cancer. ADAM28, identified by proteomic approaches and confirmed by Western blotting, showed significant differences compared with normal individuals, so it may be a biomarker of bladder cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Expression of Kr?ppel-like factor 5 in gastric cancer and its clinical correlation in Taiwan.
Virchows Arch.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Kr?ppel-like factors (KLFs), highly conserved zinc-finger proteins, play either anti- or pro-proliferation roles in different human cancers through regulating a wide range of genes expression. Here, we investigated the expression of KLF5 in gastric cancers and its correlation with clinicopathological parameters and overall survival rates. In this study, KLF5 expression was measured by an immunohistochemical microarray assay of tissue taken from 76 surgical specimens. Higher KLF5 expression was significantly associated with lower tumor grade (P?
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy and tolerability of self-titrated biphasic insulin aspart 70/30 in patients aged >65 years with type 2 diabetes: an exploratory post hoc subanalysis of the INITIATEplus trial.
Clin Ther
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Initiation of Insulin to reach A1C Target (INITIATEplus) trial studied the effect of self-titrating biphasic insulin aspart 70/30 (BiAsp 30) twice daily during 24 weeks in insulin-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes who were poorly controlled by oral medication, and originally randomized according to frequency of dietary counseling interventions.
Related JoVE Video
Overexpression of ?-enolase correlates with poor survival in canine mammary carcinoma.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
?-Enolase (ENO1) is a key glycolytic enzyme implicated in the development of many human cancers including breast cancer. Increased expression of ENO1 has recently been reported in estrogen (ER)-positive human breast cancer patients. The present study examined the expression of ENO1 and assessed its significance in canine mammary carcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the Home Environment Measure for Motor Development.
Disabil Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Affordance in the Home Environment for Motor Development - Toddler version (AHEMD-Toddler-C) for children developing typically (DT) or having motor delays (MD).
Related JoVE Video
Targeted methylation of two tumor suppressor genes is sufficient to transform mesenchymal stem cells into cancer stem/initiating cells.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although DNA hypermethylation within promoter CpG islands is highly correlated with tumorigenesis, it has not been established whether DNA hypermethylation within a specific tumor suppressor gene (TSG) is sufficient to fully transform a somatic stem cell. In this study, we addressed this question using a novel targeted DNA methylation technique to methylate the promoters of HIC1 and RassF1A, two well-established TSGs, along with a two-component reporter system to visualize successful targeting of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) as a model cell system. MSCs harboring targeted promoter methylations of HIC1/RassF1A displayed several features of cancer stem/initiating cells including loss of anchorage dependence, increased colony formation capability, drug resistance, and pluripotency. Notably, inoculation of immunodeficient mice with low numbers of targeted MSC resulted in tumor formation, and subsequent serial xenotransplantation and immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of stem cell markers and MSC lineage in tumor xenografts. Consistent with the expected mechanism of TSG hypermethylation, treatment of the targeted MSC with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor reversed their tumorigenic phenotype. To our knowledge, this is the first direct demonstration that aberrant TSG hypermethylation is sufficient to transform a somatic stem cell into a fully malignant cell with cancer stem/initiating properties.
Related JoVE Video
Protein profiling of human nonpigmented ciliary epithelium cell secretome: the differentiation factors characterization for retinal ganglion cell line.
J. Biomed. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this paper was to characterize proteins secreted from the human nonpigmented ciliary epithelial (HNPE) cells, which have differentiated a rat retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5. Undifferentiated RGC-5 cells have been shown to express several marker proteins characteristic of retinal ganglion cells. However, RGC-5 cells do not respond to N-methyl-D aspartate (NMDA), or glutamate. HNPE cells have been shown to secrete numbers of neuropeptides or neuroproteins also found in the aqueous humor, many of which have the ability to influence the activity of neuronal cells. This paper details the profile of HNPE cell-secreted proteins by proteomic approaches. The experimental results revealed the identification of 132 unique proteins from the HNPE cell-conditioned SF-medium. The biological functions of a portion of these identified proteins are involved in cell differentiation. We hypothesized that a differentiation system of HNPE cell-conditioned SF-medium with RGC-5 cells can induce a differentiated phenotype in RGC-5 cells, with functional characteristics that more closely resemble primary cultures of rat retinal ganglion cells. These proteins may replace harsh chemicals, which are currently used to induce cell differentiation.
Related JoVE Video
Spatiotemporal phylogenetic analysis and molecular characterization of coxsackievirus A4.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Coxsackievirus A4 outbreaks occurred in Taiwan in 2004 and 2006. The spatiotemporal transmission of this error-prone RNA virus involves a continuous interaction between rapid sequence variation and natural selection. To elucidate the molecular characteristics of CV-A4 and the spatiotemporal dynamic changes in CV-A4 transmission, worldwide sequences of the 3 VP1 region (420 nt) obtained from GenBank were analyzed together with sequences isolated in Taiwan from 2002 to 2009. Sequences were characterized in terms of recombination, variability, and selection. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood and Monte Carlo Markov Chain methods. Spatiotemporal dynamics of CV-A4 transmission were further estimated by a Bayesian statistical inference framework. No recombination was detected in the 420 nt region. The estimated evolution rate of CV-A4 was 8.65 × 10(-3) substitutions/site/year, and a purifying selection (d(N)/d(S)=0.032) was noted over the 3 VP1 region. All trees had similar topology: two genotypes (GI and GII), each including two subgenotypes (A and B), with the prototype and a Kenyan strain in separate branches. The results revealed that the virus first appeared in USA in 1950. Since 1998, it has evolved into the Kenya, GI-A (Asia) and GII-A (Asia and Europe) strains. Since 2004, GI-B and GII-B have evolved continuously and have remained prevalent. The co-existence of several positive selection lineages of GI-B in 2006 indicates that the subgenotype might have survived lineage extinction. This study revealed rapid lineage turnover of CV-A4 and the replacement of previously circulating strains by a new dominant variant. Therefore, continuous surveillance for further CV-A4 transmission is essential.
Related JoVE Video
High nuclear protein kinase C? expression may correlate with disease recurrence and poor survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Protein kinase Cs play important roles in many biological processes and tumorigenesis. This study examined the expression of protein kinase C? and assessed its significance in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining was carried out to investigate the expression of protein kinase C? in 59 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The results were correlated with clinical characteristics and outcome of patients. Diffuse cytoplasmic protein kinase C? was identified in 53 (89.8%) of the 59 oral squamous cell carcinoma cases, and the expression was not statistically associated with any clinicopathologic parameter. Twenty (40.7%) of the 59 oral squamous cell carcinoma cases exhibited nuclear expression of protein kinase C? with different grade of intensity. ?(2) analysis indicated that high nuclear protein kinase C? expression correlated significantly with shorter 24-month survival (P = .043) and disease recurrence (P = .019). The Kaplan-Meier method also showed that high nuclear expression of protein kinase C? was significantly associated with poor overall survival (P = .034) and shorter time to recurrence (P = .003). Univariate analysis revealed that high nuclear protein kinase C? expression (P = .046; hazard ratio, 2.2), tumor size less than 2 cm (P = .049; hazard ratio, 4.7), lymph node metastasis (P = .003; hazard ratio, 3.0), and higher stage (P = .002; hazard ratio, 8.7) were each associated with shorter overall survival. We identified the aberrant nuclear expression of protein kinase C? in oral squamous cell carcinoma. High nuclear protein kinase C? expression may correlate with disease recurrence and poor survival in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Sesame oil prevents acute kidney injury induced by the synergistic action of aminoglycoside and iodinated contrast in rats.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of sesame oil on acute kidney injury induced by the synergistic action of aminoglycoside and iodinated contrast in rats. Acute kidney injury was induced by a 5-day course of daily gentamicin injections (100 mg/kg of body weight, subcutaneously) and then iodinated contrast (4 ml/kg, intravenously) in male specific-pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats. Sesame oil (0.5 ml/kg, orally) was given 1 h before iodinated contrast. Renal function and oxidative stress were assessed 6 h after iodinated contrast injection. Renal function was evaluated by measuring serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels. Renal oxidative stress was assessed by determining renal lipid peroxidation, myeloperoxidase, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion, nitrite/nitrate, and inducible nitric oxide synthase levels. Sesame oil significantly prevented the rise of serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels. Furthermore, there was a parallel inhibition of the rise in levels of expression of renal lipid peroxidation, myeloperoxidase, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion, nitrite/nitrate, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in rats with gentamicin-plus-iodinated contrast-induced acute kidney injury. We conclude that sesame oil may attenuate aminoglycoside-plus-iodinated contrast-induced acute kidney injury by inhibiting renal oxidative stress in rats.
Related JoVE Video
Development of a stiffness measurement accessory for ultrasound in breast cancer diagnosis.
Med Eng Phys
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
When ultrasound imaging is used for breast cancer diagnosis, the lesions morphology is usually used to determine if the lesion is benign or malignant. Sometimes, the information provided by the procedure may not be adequate to make an accurate judgment. Additional information is needed, such as the stiffness of the lesion relative to its surrounding tissue. This paper presents an ultrasound accessory device designed to achieve this purpose. The device is easy to operate and is similar in use to a normal clinical breast ultrasound examination. A sonologist must only attach an ultrasound probe to the device and then slide it across the lesion maintaining a constant compression depth. The built-in inverse biomechanical model of the device will then calculate the predicted stiffness ratio of the lesion relative to its surrounding tissue based on the measured palpation data. Modelling and experiments have been performed on phantoms with embedded inclusions. The experimental results show that the stiffness ratio of the inclusion to its surrounding material can be accurately predicted by the handheld device. A preliminary clinical test was also performed to demonstrate the use of this device in vivo, to offer additional information to aid classification of the tumor as benign or malignant when complemented with ultrasound images.
Related JoVE Video
Functional characterization of Trip10 in cancer cell growth and survival.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Cdc42-interacting protein-4, Trip10 (also known as CIP4), is a multi-domain adaptor protein involved in diverse cellular processes, which functions in a tissue-specific and cell lineage-specific manner. We previously found that Trip10 is highly expressed in estrogen receptor-expressing (ER+) breast cancer cells. Estrogen receptor depletion reduced Trip10 expression by progressively increasing DNA methylation. We hypothesized that Trip10 functions as a tumor suppressor and may be involved in the malignancy of ER-negative (ER-) breast cancer. To test this hypothesis and evaluate whether Trip10 is epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation in other cancers, we evaluated DNA methylation of Trip10 in liver cancer, brain tumor, ovarian cancer, and breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Enhancement of radiosensitivity in human glioblastoma cells by the DNA N-mustard alkylating agent BO-1051 through augmented and sustained DNA damage response.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
1-{4-[Bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl}-3-[2-methyl-5-(4-methylacridin-9-ylamino)phenyl]urea (BO-1051) is an N-mustard DNA alkylating agent reported to exhibit antitumor activity. Here we further investigate the effects of this compound on radiation responses of human gliomas, which are notorious for the high resistance to radiotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular epidemiology of Echovirus 30 in Taiwan, 1988-2008.
Virus Genes
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the molecular epidemiology of Taiwanese Echovirus 30 (E-30) strains, we analyzed the 876 bp sequence of the VP1 gene from 32 Taiwanese strains isolated in 1988-2008, 498 reference sequences, and one Echovirus 21 strain as the out-group. Phylogenetic analysis detected six E-30 genotypes (designated GI-GVI) that had circulated globally during the past five decades. The genotypes varied widely in geographic distribution and circulation half-life. The GI, GII, and GV were ancient genotypes in which the first strains emerged in the 1950s. The GIII was a reemerging genotype, in which strains had first appeared in Colombia in 1995 before reemerging in the New Independent States (NIS) in 2003. The GIV, an emerging genotype that recently appeared in Asia in 2003, was closely related to the ancient genotypes. The GVI was the circulating genotype, which included eight clusters (A-H) that had circulated since 1967. No GVI-A, C, D, or E strains have been identified during the past 10 years. The GVI-B first appeared in China in 1984 and later in Russia and Asia in the 2000s. The GVI-F, G, and H strains, which comprised the prevalent clusters, had been dominant in Asia Pacific area, globally, and Europe, respectively. Taiwanese strains were classified into GVI-D (1988-1989), GVI-F (1993-2004), and GVI-G (1993-2008). The quiescence period of E-30 is longer in Taiwan (5-8 years) than in other countries (3-5 years).
Related JoVE Video
Borderline clear cell adenofibroma with extensive hemorrhagic necrosis.
Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Borderline clear cell adenofibroma of the ovary is rather rare since most of clear cell tumors are carcinomas. We report a case of ovarian borderline clear cell adenofibroma in a 52-year-old postmenopausal woman. The tumor had the characteristic histologic features of borderline clear cell adenofibroma except for central extensive hemorrhagic necrosis. The prognosis of borderline clear cell adenofibroma is excellent. Because the invasiveness cannot be assessed in the necrotic areas, our patient needed long-term follow-up.
Related JoVE Video
Autophagy inhibition enhances apoptosis triggered by BO-1051, an N-mustard derivative, and involves the ATM signaling pathway.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In a previous study, BO-1051, an N-mustard linked with a DNA-affinic molecule, was shown to target various types of cancer cell lines. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity, as well as the underlying mechanism, of BO-1051. We found that BO-1051 simultaneously induced apoptosis and autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. DNA double strand breaks induced by BO-1051 activated the ATM signaling pathway and subsequently resulted in caspase-dependent apoptosis. When autophagy was inhibited in its early or late stages, apoptosis was significantly enhanced. This result indicated autophagy as a cytoprotective effect against BO-1051-induced cell death. We further inhibited ATM activation using an ATM kinase inhibitor or ATM-specific siRNA and found that while apoptosis was blocked, autophagy also diminished in response to BO-1051. We not only determined a signaling pathway induced by BO-1051 but also clarified the linkage between DNA damage-induced apoptosis and autophagy. We also showed that BO-1051-induced autophagy acts as a cytoprotective reaction and downstream target of the ATM-signaling pathway. This research revealed autophagy as a universal cytoprotective response against DNA damage-inducing chemotherapeutic agents, including BO-1051, cisplatin, and doxorubicin, in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Autophagy contributes to the remarkable drug resistance ability of liver cancer.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.