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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Quantitative analysis of amino and organic acids by methyl chloroformate derivatization and GC-MS/MS analysis.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Alkyl chloroformates are known for their ability to produce mixed anhydrides, and they have found use as versatile derivatization reagents for gas chromatographic (GC) separation of amino- and organic acids. Triple-quadrupole mass spectrometers are excellent detectors for high sensitive and selective analysis. Here, we describe a methyl chloroformate (MCF) GC-MS/MS method for the quantitative analysis of metabolites containing amino- and/or carboxylic groups. The method covers over 60 metabolites with quantitation limits down to the low picomole range injected on column, and any metabolite with amino- and/or carboxylic acid functional groups that yield a stable and volatile MCF derivative can be included in the method. Absolute quantitation can be achieved by including a stable isotope-coded derivatization agent (d3-MCF) and deuterated alcohol solvent (e.g., d4-methanol). As the carboxylic and amino groups are differently labeled, the former from the solvent methanol while the latter from MCF, this approach can also be used to identify a number of amino and carboxylic groups in unknown analytes in an extract.
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Sensitive ligand-based protein quantification using immuno-PCR: A critical review of single-probe and proximity ligation assays.
BioTechniques
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Quantitative PCR (qPCR) of reverse-transcribed mRNA has revolutionized gene expression analyses. qPCR analysis is based on the prevalent assumption that mRNA transcript numbers provide an adequate measure of specific biomarker expression. However, taking the complexity of protein turnover into account, there is a need to correlate qPCR-derived transcriptional patterns with protein translational patterns so as to not leave behind important pathobiological details. One emerging approach in protein analysis is PCR-coupled protein quantification, often denoted as immuno-PCR (iPCR), which targets soluble proteins. Here we review recent trends and applications in iPCR assays that may bridge the gap between classical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and mass spectrometry methodologies in terms of sensitivity and multiplexing.
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Cell sorting enables interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization detection of low BCR-ABL1 producing stem cells in chronic myeloid leukaemia patients beyond deep molecular remission.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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The exact disease state of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients in deep molecular remission is unknown, because even the most sensitive quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods cannot identify patients prone to relapse after treatment withdrawal. To elucidate this, CD34(+) stem cell and progenitor cell subpopulations were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and their content of residual Philadelphia positive (Ph(+) ) cells was evaluated in 17 CML patients (major molecular response, n = 6; 4-log reduction in BCR-ABL1 expression (MR(4) ), n = 11) using both sensitive qPCR and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH). Despite evaluating fewer cells, iFISH proved superior to mRNA-based qPCR in detecting residual Ph(+) stem cells (P = 0·005), and detected Ph(+) stem- and progenitor cells in 9/10 patients at frequencies of 2-14%. Moreover, while all qPCR(+) samples also were iFISH(+) , 9/33 samples were qPCR-/iFISH(+) , including all positive samples from MR(4) patients. Our findings show that residual Ph(+) cells are low BCR-ABL1 producers, and that DNA-based methods are required to assess the content of persisting Ph(+) stem cells in these patients. This approach demonstrates a clinically applicable manner of assessing residual disease at the stem cell level in CML patients in MR(4) , and may enable early and safe identification of candidates for tyrosine kinase inhibitor withdrawal.
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SOX11 as a minimal residual disease marker for Mantle cell lymphoma.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Recent studies have identified SOX11 as a novel diagnostic marker for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). We quantified SOX11 by a truly mRNA specific qPCR assay in longitudinal peripheral blood samples from 20 patients and evidenced a close relationship of SOX11 expression and clinical status of the patients. In eight patient courses we validated the expression of SOX11 using t(11;14) and demonstrated positive correlation of SOX11 and t(11;14) levels. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report stating that quantification of SOX11 can be used as an minimal residual disease marker equal to the key translocation t(11;14) in MCL.
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Common consensus LNA probe for quantitative PCR assays in cancer: vehicles for minimal residual disease detection in t(11;14) and t(14;18) positive malignant lymphomas.
J. Immunol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The use of locked nucleic acid (LNA) probes and primers potentially improves sensitivity and specificity of quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. One area of application is that of minimal residual cancer where PCR techniques have proved to be highly relevant tools in patient follow-up. We present here sensitive and specific consensus qPCR assays for quantification of the malignant lymphoma translocations, t(11;14) and t(14;18), by taking advantage of the thermodynamic properties of LNA. The assays were applied to genomic DNA from patients diagnosed with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and follicular lymphoma (FL), respectively. Two consensus forward primers targeting the BCL1 and BCL2 genes were designed together with a common consensus reverse primer and hydrolysis probe, the latter consisting exclusively of LNA, both targeting the J segments of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene. The quantitative range of both assays was 1×10(0) to 5×10(-5), and the sensitivity was 10(-5), without the need for patient-specific primers. Peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) samples from 36 patients diagnosed with MCL and nine patients diagnosed with FL were analysed using this novel qPCR approach. The level of minimal residual disease (MRD) using t(11;14) and t(14;18) as genetic targets reflected the clinical status of the patients: low levels of MRD at clinical remission, and increasing levels at disease progression. The present assays could prove as useful tools in lymphoma therapy.
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Delineation of known and new transcript variants of the SETMAR (Metnase) gene and the expression profile in hematologic neoplasms.
Exp. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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SET domain and mariner transposase fusion gene (SETMAR), also known as Metnase, has previously been shown to suppress the formation of chromosomal translocation in mouse fibroblasts. Despite the fact that hematologic malignancies are often characterized by chromosomal rearrangements, no studies have hitherto investigated the expression pattern of the gene in these disorders. We hypothesized that a high expression of SETMAR protected the cells from chromosomal rearrangements; thus, we examined the mRNA expression of SETMAR transcript variants in hematologic patients. We identified six transcript variants (var1, var2, var5, varA, varB, varC), of which three had not been reported previously. Expression levels were quantified by transcript-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 15 healthy individuals, 70 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients (translocation positive, n= 30 [AML(TPos)], translocation negative, n = 40 [AML(TNeg)]), seven patients with mantle cell lymphoma (t [11,14] positive), and 13 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (t [9,22] positive). All variants were significantly overexpressed in both subgroups of AML compared with healthy individuals (var1 and var2: p < 0.00001 for both AML subgroups, varA and varB: p = 0.0002, var5: p = 0.0008, and varC: p = 0.0001 for AML(TNeg); varA: p = 0.0048, varB and var5: p = 0.0001, varC: p = 0.0017). When comparing the expression in AML(TNeg) and AML(TPos), we found a significantly increased expression of the full length SETMAR in AML(TNeg) (var1: p = 0.047), suggesting a protective effect of high SETMAR expression on formation of chromosomal translocations. In conclusion, we have found known and novel SETMAR splice variants to be significantly increased in AML. To our knowledge, this is the first study that describes an expression profile of SETMAR in subgroups of hematologic malignancies, which can be linked to the incidence of chromosomal rearrangements.
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Does bony hip morphology affect the outcome of treatment for patients with adductor-related groin pain? Outcome 10 years after baseline assessment.
Br J Sports Med
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Adductor-related groin pain and bony morphology such as femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) or hip dysplasia can coexist clinically. A previous randomised controlled trial in which athletes with adductor-related groin pain underwent either passive treatment (PT) or active treatment (AT) showed good results in the AT group. The primary purpose of the present study was to evaluate if radiological signs of FAI or hip dysplasia seem to affect the clinical outcome, initially and at 8-12 years of follow-up.
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Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II variations predict adverse prognosis in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukaemia.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Alterations in the two catalytic genes cytochrome c oxidase subunits I and II (COI and COII) have recently been suggested to have an adverse impact on prognosis in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). In order to explore this in further detail, we sequenced these two mitochondrial genes in diagnostic bone marrow or blood samples in 235 patients with AML. In 37 (16%) patients, a non-synonymous variation in either COI or COII could be demonstrated. No patients harboured both COI and COII non-synonymous variations. Twenty-four (10%) patients had non-synonymous variations in COI, whereas 13 (6%) patients had non-synonymous variations in COII. The COI and COII are essential subunits of cytochrome c oxidase that is the terminal enzyme in the oxidative phosphorylation complexes. In terms of disease course, we observed that in patients with a normal cytogenetic analysis at disease presentation (CN-AML) treated with curative intent, the presence of a non-synonymous variation in the COII was an adverse prognostic marker for both overall survival and disease-free survival (DFS) in both univariate (DFS; hazard ratio (HR) 4.4, P = 0.006) and multivariate analyses (DFS; HR 7.2, P = 0.001). This is the first demonstration of a mitochondrial aberration playing an adverse prognostic role in adult AML, and we argue that its role as a potentially novel adverse prognostic marker in the subset of CN-AML should be explored further.
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hMICL and CD123 in combination with a CD45/CD34/CD117 backbone - a universal marker combination for the detection of minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukaemia.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has been extensively validated for the detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Meanwhile, multicolour flow cytometry (MFC) has received less attention because the so-called leukaemia-associated immunophenotypes (LAIPs) are generally of lower sensitivity and specificity, and prone to change during therapy. To improve MRD assessment by MFC, we here evaluate the combination of human Myeloid Inhibitory C-type Lectin (hMICL, also termed C-type lectin domain family 12, member A, CLEC12A) and CD 123 (also termed interleukin-3 receptor alpha, IL3RA) in combination with CD34 and CD117 (KIT), as an MRD assay in pre-clinical and clinical testing in 69 AML patients. Spiking experiments revealed that the assay could detect MRD down to 10(-4) in normal bone marrow with sensitivities equalling those of validated qPCR assays. Moreover, it provided at least one MFC MRD marker in 62/69 patients (90%). High levels of hMICL/CD123 LAIPs at the post-induction time-point were a strong prognostic marker for relapse in patients in haematological complete remission (P < 0·001). Finally, in post induction samples, hMICL/CD123 LAIPs were strongly correlated (r = 0·676, P = 0·0008) to applied qPCR targets. We conclude the hMICL/CD123-based MFC assay is a promising MRD tool in AML.
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A novel RT-qPCR assay for quantification of the MLL-MLLT3 fusion transcript in acute myeloid leukaemia.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2013
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Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) of the monocytic lineage often lack molecular markers for minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring. The MLL-MLLT3 fusion transcript found in patients with AML harbouring t(9;11) is amenable to RT-qPCR quantification but because of the heterogeneity of translocation break points, the MLL-MLLT3 fusion gene is a challenging target. We hypothesised that MRD monitoring using MLL-MLLT3 as a RT-qPCR marker is feasible in the majority of patients with t(9;11)-positive AML.
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Stable isotope coded derivatizing reagents as internal standards in metabolite profiling.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2013
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Gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometric (MS) detection have become the two main techniques for the analysis of metabolite pools (i.e. Metabolomics). These technologies are especially suited for Metabolite Profiling analysis of various metabolite groups due to high separation capabilities of the chromatographs and high sensitivity of the mass analysers. The trend in quantitative Metabolite Profiling is to add more metabolites and metabolite groups in a single method. This should not be done by compromising the analytical precision. Mass spectrometric detection comes with certain limitations, especially in the quantitative aspects as standards are needed for conversion of ion abundance to concentration and ionization efficiencies are directly dependent on eluent conditions. This calls for novel strategies to counteract all variables that can influence the quantitative precision. Usually, internal standards are used to correct any technical variation. For quantitation of single or just a few analytes this can be executed with spiking isotopically labeled standards. However, for more comprehensive analytical tasks, e.g. profiling tens or hundreds of analytes simultaneously, this strategy becomes expensive and in many cases isotopically labeled standards are not available. An alternative is to introduce a derivatizing step where the sample is derivatized with naturally labeled reagent, while a standard solution is separately derivatized with isotopically labeled reagent and spiked into the sample solution prior to analysis. This strategy, named isotope coded derivatization - ICD, is attractive in the emerging field of quantitative Metabolite Profiling where current protocols can easily comprise over hundred metabolites. This review provides an overview of isotopically labeled derivatizing reagents that have been developed for important metabolite groups with the aim to improve analytical performance and precision.
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Characterization and prognostic significance of mitochondrial DNA variations in acute myeloid leukemia.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Recent studies have suggested that mutations in the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) may play a role in the development and response to treatment for human cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether mtDNA variations have any prognostic relevance, to clarify the spectra of mtDNA variation and to determine whether there was any correlation to known prognostic factors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To elucidate this, we sequenced the entire mtDNA in 56 AML patients and 14 control subjects. When analyzing the biologic impact of the non-synonymous variations in the mtDNA coding genes, we found an inferior disease-free survival for patients exhibiting variations in the two most important catalytic genes of the complex IV of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes (OXPHOS), that is, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (hazard ratio 2.6, P = 0.03; multivariate analysis). In addition, the most frequent variation was the T16311C in the control region, which was found in 11 (20%) of the 56 patients. This observation was confirmed in another cohort of 173 diagnostic AML samples. In this expanded group, the T16311C variation tended to be associated with chromosomal abnormalities.
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A new high resolution screening method for study of phenotype stress responses of Saccharomyces cerevisae mutants.
J. Microbiol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2011
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A high resolution high throughput screening method has been developed for stress response phenotyping of the global Saccharomyces cerevisiae knock out mutant collection. Stress causing agent is added at three concentrations to individual mutant cultures growing in early exponentially phase in 384-well microplates, and the dynamic effect of stress agent exposure is measured by following subsequent growth profiles of individual mutants with a resolution of three optical density measurements per hour. Software was written for calculation of sensitivity coefficients and efficient visual inspection of the growth and inhibition curves. Three DNA damage response causing agents were chosen to explore the feasibility of the new screening method: methyl methanesulphonate, 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. They were tested in three biological replicas on a 1400 mutant large sub-library of the homozygote diploid S. cerevisiae gene knock out collection. The sub-library consisted of only mutants with a human ortholog to the inactivated gene. Almost 400 mutants were found more sensitive to one or more of the agents. Forty-nine mutants were sensitive to all three agents. One of the mutants, ERK5, sensitive to all three agents was chosen for follow-up human cell experiments to verify that such yeast screens can be used as hypothesis generator for human cell studies. Similar to yeast, HeLa cells became more sensitive against all three DNA damaging agents when co-treated with the ERK5 inhibitor BIX21088, thus supporting the result from the yeast phenotype screen.
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A patient with a 20-year lag phase between JAK2-V617F+ myeloproliferation and NPM1-mutated AML arguing against a common origin of disease.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2011
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We have sought to unravel the molecular biology of a female patient who in 1985 at the age of 55 was diagnosed with a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) and in whom overt acute myeloid leukemia (AML) developed in 2005. To this end, DNA and RNA (extracted from either paraffin-embedded bone marrow (BM) or from BM and/or peripheral blood stored in an RNA/DNA-preserving buffer) were analyzed by qPCR and by capillary gel electrophoresis of PCR products. We found the patient to be JAK2-V617F mutation positive throughout the course of disease, while a mutation of the nucleophosmin (NPM1) gene emerged at AML diagnosis and relapse. The 20-yr lag phase between the polycythemia vera and the AML adds indirect evidence to the growing realization that the leukemic transformation in patients with MPN occurs from in a JAK2 wild-type stem cell.
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Continued significant effect of physical training as treatment for overuse injury: 8- to 12-year outcome of a randomized clinical trial.
Am J Sports Med
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2011
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The treatment of exercise-related injuries is often a problem, and recurrent injuries are common. Two recent systematic reviews found only one high-quality paper on the treatment of long-standing groin pain. In this randomized clinical trial, a training program including strength training resulted in a return of 79% of the athletes to the previous level of sport without any groin pain. The long-term effect of this exercise program was evaluated.
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Development of standardized approaches to reporting of minimal residual disease data using a reporting software package designed within the European LeukemiaNet.
Leukemia
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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Quantitative PCR (qPCR) for detection of fusion transcripts and overexpressed genes is a promising tool for following minimal residual disease (MRD) in patients with hematological malignancies. Its widespread clinical use has to some extent been hampered by differences in data analysis and presentation that complicate multicenter clinical trials. To address these issues, we designed a highly flexible MRD-reporting software program, in which data from various qPCR platforms can be imported, processed, and presented in a uniform manner to generate intuitively understandable reports. The software was tested in a two-step quality control (QC) study; the first step involved eight centers, whose previous experience with the software ranged from none to extensive. The participants received cDNA from consecutive samples from a BCR-ABL+ chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patient and an acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient with both CBF?-MYH11 and WT1 target genes, they conducted qPCR on their respective hardware platforms and generated a series of reports with pre-defined features. In step two, five centers used the software to report BCR-ABL+ MRD in a harmonized manner, applying their recently obtained CML international scale conversion factors. The QC study demonstrated that this MRD-reporting software is suitable for efficient handling of qPCR data, generation of MRD reports and harmonization of MRD data.
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The combined expression of HOXA4 and MEIS1 is an independent prognostic factor in patients with AML.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2009
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HOXA4 gene expression is a predictor for outcome in normal karyotypic acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients. Given that Meis1 is a co-factor for Hox genes, we hypothesized that the combined expression of HOXA4 and MEIS1 might add prognostic information in these patients. When diagnostic samples from 246 AML patients were divided into three main groups based on gene expression levels of HOXA4 combined with MEIS1 we found that within the group of patients exhibiting low levels of HOXA4, those with a high expression of MEIS1 had a significantly worse outcome than those exhibiting low MEIS1 expression (P = 0.025). Moreover, this prediction was independent of cytogenetics, mutational status of the NPM1 and FLT3 genes as well as upon WBC and age. To evaluate the possible contribution of regulatory events underlying these observations, 157 patient samples were subjected to promoter hypermethylation analysis. We observed that 77% were HOXA4- and 15%MEIS1 hypermethylated and that this epigenetic alteration was highly correlated to the gene expression level (MEIS1: P = 0.001; HOXA4: P = 0.007). Finally, we found a higher expression level and a higher frequency of hypermethylation of HOXA4 among patients with NPM1 mutations. In conclusion, our data show that the combination of low HOXA4 and low MEIS1 gene expression is a favourable predictor for outcome in all AML patients and that the expression levels are governed by the methylation state of these genes.
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Bubble merging in breathing DNA as a vicious walker problem in opposite potentials.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2009
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We investigate the coalescence of two DNA bubbles initially located at weak domains and separated by a more stable barrier region in a designed construct of double-stranded DNA. In a continuum Fokker-Planck approach, the characteristic time for bubble coalescence and the corresponding distribution are derived, as well as the distribution of coalescence positions along the barrier. Below the melting temperature, we find a Kramers-type barrier crossing behavior, while at high temperatures, the bubble corners perform drift diffusion toward coalescence. In the calculations, we map the bubble dynamics on the problem of two vicious walkers in opposite potentials. We also present a discrete master equation approach to the bubble coalescence problem. Numerical evaluation and stochastic simulation of the master equation show excellent agreement with the results from the continuum approach. Given that the coalesced state is thermodynamically stabilized against a state where only one or a few of the base pairs of the barrier region are re-established, it appears likely that this type of setup could be useful for the quantitative investigation of thermodynamic DNA stability data as well as the rate constants involved in the unzipping and zipping dynamics of DNA in single molecule fluorescence experiments.
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[Minimal residual disease in malignant diseases of the blood II. Translation and therapeutic consequences].
Ugeskr. Laeg.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2009
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The translation of quantitative polymerase chain reaction technology for the quantitative detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) arising from molecular aberrations in leukaemias has progressed from the pre-clinical setting to daily clinical practice. Thus, it is now part of the mainstay in following patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib. Moreover, the methodology is being integrated in an increasing number of clinical trials, where it is expected to result in more rational and individualized clinical decision-making. A special point in favour of the techniques is the powerful and early detection of disease relapses, in some cases up to one year prior to clinical detection.
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[Minimal residual disease in malignant diseases of the blood I. Background and pre-clinical validation].
Ugeskr. Laeg.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2009
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In haematological malignancies, molecular markers like fusion DNA from balanced translocations, point mutations, or over-expressed genes can now be used not only for diagnosis, but also for determination of the minimal residual disease (MRD) after cytoreduction with a sensitivity by far exceeding that of previous methodologies. The sensitivity of quantitative polymerase chain reaction typically reaches a validated identification of 1 malignant cell in 100,000.
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A highly sensitive and specific qPCR assay for quantification of the biomarker SOX11 in mantle cell lymphoma.
Eur. J. Haematol.
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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is one of the most heterogeneous lymphoid neoplasms with a variable course of disease. Although t(11;14)(q13;q32) is the hallmark of MCL resulting in cyclin D1 (CCND1) overexpression in 90% of patients, this is difficult to validate by immunohistochemistry. We hypothesised that SOX11 could be a robust molecular biomarker for MCL.
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Sensitivity of minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukaemia in first remission--methodologies in relation to their clinical situation.
Br. J. Haematol.
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The concept of minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukaemia has been steadily developed pre-clinically, with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) leading the way with highly validated assays for patient-based risk stratification at post-treatment time points, which are being integrated in clinical trials both at evaluation of first complete remission (CR1) and after attaining CR1. Moreover, multicolour flow cytometry (MFC) has been increasingly employed in identifying leukaemia-associated immunophenotypes (LAIPs) with significant progress being made in standardization. In translating these widely varying methodologies to parameters useful for individualized patient decision-making, one of the obstacles has been that the assays entail varying sensitivities dependent on a number of variables. For qPCR, sensitivity depends on target type (i.e. fusion transcript, mutated gene or even overexpressed gene) and - in the case of overexpressed genes - on expression in healthy haematopoiesis. For MFC, sensitivity is likewise largely a function on whether the same phenotype is seen in normal immature cells and, in addition, antigen drift/shift with LAIPs changing at relapse is a well-known problem. In considering which sensitivity to opt for, a further variable is the situation of patient, most importantly the level of cytoreduction intended. Here we will attempt to give an overview of these pertinent questions intended for the practicing haematologist, focusing on where the field is heading at the clinical level.
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Utilization of a deuterated derivatization agent to synthesize internal standards for gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantification of silylated metabolites.
J Chromatogr A
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GC-MS analysis of silylated metabolites is a sensitive method that covers important metabolite groups such as sugars, amino acids and non-amino organic acids, and it has become one of the most important analytical methods for exploring the metabolome. Absolute quantitative GC-MS analysis of silylated metabolites poses a challenge as different metabolites have different derivatization kinetics and as their silyl-derivates have varying stability. This report describes the development of a targeted GC-MS/MS method for quantification of metabolites. Internal standards for each individual metabolite were obtained by derivatization of a mixture of standards with deuterated N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide (d9-MSTFA), and spiking this solution into MSTFA derivatized samples prior to GC-MS/MS analysis. The derivatization and spiking protocol needed optimization to ensure that the behaviour of labelled compound responses in the spiked sample correctly reflected the behaviour of unlabelled compound responses. Using labelled and unlabelled MSTFA in this way enabled normalization of metabolite responses by the response of their deuterated counterpart (i.e. individual correction). Such individual correction of metabolite responses reproducibly resulted in significantly higher precision than traditional data correction strategies when tested on samples both with and without serum and urine matrices. The developed method is thus a valuable contribution to the field of absolute quantitative metabolomics.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.