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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Genomic Load from Sputum Samples and Nasopharyngeal Swabs for Diagnosis of Pneumococcal Pneumonia in HIV-Infected Adults.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Quantitative lytA real-time PCR (rtPCR) results from nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs distinguish community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia (CAP) from asymptomatic colonization. The use of an optimized cutoff value improved pneumococcal etiology determination compared to that of traditional diagnostic methods. Here, we compare the utility of lytA rtPCR from induced sputum and from NP swabs. Pneumococcus was considered the cause of CAP in HIV-infected South African adults if blood culture, induced-sputum culture or Gram stain, urine antigen test, or whole-blood lytA rtPCR revealed pneumococcus or if lytA rtPCR from NP swabs gave a result of >8,000 copies/ml. lytA rtPCR was also performed on induced sputum. Pneumococcus was detected by lytA rtPCR from sputum in 149 (67.1%) of 222 patients with available induced sputum, whereas the results of either Gram stain or culture of sputum were positive in 105 of 229 patients (45.9%; P < 0.001). The mean copy numbers from sputum were higher when the sputum cultures were positive than when the sputum cultures were negative (7.9 versus 5.6 log10 copies/ml; P < 0.001). Against the composite diagnostic standard, a cutoff value of 10,000 copies/ml for good-quality sputum lytA rtPCR had a sensitivity of 78.1% and a specificity of 80.0%. This cutoff value performed similarly to the previously identified cutoff value of 8,000 copies/ml for NP swab lytA rtPCR (area under the curve receiver operating characteristic [AUC-ROC], 80.4% for sputum of any quality versus 79.6% for NP swabs). The AUC-ROC for good-quality sputum was 83.2%. Overall, lytA rtPCR performs similarly well on induced sputum as on NP swabs for most patients but performs slightly better if good-quality sputum can be obtained. Due to the ease of specimen collection, NP swabs may be preferable for the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia.
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Influenza vaccination of pregnant women and protection of their infants.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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There are limited data on the efficacy of vaccination against confirmed influenza in pregnant women with and those without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and protection of their infants.
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Pneumococcal colonisation density: a new marker for disease severity in HIV-infected adults with pneumonia.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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A high genomic load of Pneumococcus from blood or cerebrospinal fluid has been associated with increased mortality. We aimed to analyse whether nasopharyngeal colonisation density in HIV-infected patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with markers of disease severity or poor outcome.
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Effect of HIV-1 exposure and antiretroviral treatment strategies in HIV-infected children on immunogenicity of vaccines during infancy.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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We studied the effect of maternal HIV-exposure and timing of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in HIV-infected infants on antibody responses to combined diphtheria-toxoid-tetanus-toxoid-whole cell pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (HibCV) and monovalent hepatitis B vaccine (HBV).
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A fluorescent multiplexed bead-based immunoassay (FMIA) for quantitation of IgG against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis protein antigens.
J. Immunol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis are pathogens commonly associated with infectious diseases in childhood. This study aimed to develop a fluorescent multiplexed bead-based immunoassay (FMIA) using recombinant proteins for the quantitation of serum IgG antibodies against these bacteria. Eight pneumococcal proteins (Ply, CbpA, PspA1, PspA2, PcpA, PhtD, SP1732-3 and SP2216-1), 3 proteins of H. influenzae (NTHi Protein D, NTHi0371-1, NTHi0830), and 5 proteins of M. catarrhalis (MC Omp CD, MC_RH4_2506, MC_RH4_1701, MC_RH4_3729-1, MC_RH4_4730) were used to develop the FMIA. Optimal coupling concentrations for each protein, comparison of singleplex and multiplex assays, specificity, reproducibility, and correlation to ELISA for six pneumococcal antigens were determined for validation. FMIA was then used to analyze acute and convalescent paired serum samples of 50 children with non-severe pneumonia. The coupling concentrations varied for different antigens, ranging from 1.6 to 32?g of protein/million beads. Correlation between singleplexed and multiplexed assays was excellent, with R?0.987. The FMIA was specific, reaching >92% homologous inhibition for all specificities; heterologous inhibition ?20% was found only in six cases. The assay was repeatable, with averages of intra-assay variation ?10.5%, day-to-day variation ?9.7% and variation between technicians ?9.1%. Comparison with ELISA for pneumococcal antigens demonstrated good correlation with R ranging from 0.854 (PspA2) to 0.976 (PcpA). The samples from children showed a wide range of antibody concentrations and increases in convalescent samples. In conclusion, the FMIA was sensitive, specific, and repeatable, using small amounts of recombinant proteins and sera to detect antibodies against S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. The methodology would be suitable for studies investigating etiological diagnosis and in experimental vaccine studies.
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Serotype-specific acquisition and loss of group B streptococcus recto-vaginal colonization in late pregnancy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Maternal recto-vaginal colonization with Group B Streptococcus (GBS) and consequent vertical transmission to the newborn predisposes neonates to early-onset invasive GBS disease. This study aimed to determine the acquisition and loss of serotype-specific recto-vaginal GBS colonization from 20-37+ weeks of gestational age.
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Clinical epidemiology of bocavirus, rhinovirus, two polyomaviruses and four coronaviruses in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected South African children.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Advances in molecular diagnostics have implicated newly-discovered respiratory viruses in the pathogenesis of pneumonia. We aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of human bocavirus (hBoV), human rhinovirus (hRV), polyomavirus-WU (WUPyV) and -KI (KIPyV) and human coronaviruses (CoV)-OC43, -NL63, -HKU1 and -229E among children hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI).
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Dynamics of Pneumococcal Transmission in Vaccine-Naive Children and Their HIV-infected or HIV-uninfected Mothers During the First 2 Years of Life.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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Pneumococcal vaccine-naïve mother-child dyads in South Africa had nasopharyngeal swabs taken 9 times within the first 2 years of the childrens lives between January 2007 and May 2009. To quantify the strength of the association of serotype-specific carriage in mother-child dyads, a stochastic transmission model was fitted to the data. Children were more susceptible to individual serotypes included in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) transmitted by their mothers than vice versa; however, children infected their mothers with these serotypes more frequently than mothers infected children. The child-to-mother steady-state forces of pneumococcal acquisition were between 0.36 and 3.29 (per 1,000 days) compared with 0.06-0.51 for mother-to-child transmission. Although children of mothers infected with human immunodeficiency virus were more often exposed to PCV7 serotypes by their mothers, their risk of acquisition remained low compared with the risk of child-to-mother transmission. Mothers acquired pneumococci at lower rates (per 1,000 days) from unmeasured exposure within families and in the wider community (range, 0.12-1.69 per 1,000 days) than did children (range, 1.10-5.21 per 1,000 days). Pneumococcal immunization of young children is expected to have an indirect effect of reducing PCV7 serotype maternal colonization and possibly disease even in settings such as ours, in which there is a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus-infected mothers.
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Effect of in-utero HIV exposure and antiretroviral treatment strategies on measles susceptibility and immunogenicity of measles vaccine.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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The high burden of maternal HIV-infection in sub-Saharan Africa may affect measles control. We evaluated the effect of in-utero HIV-exposure and antiretroviral treatment (ART) strategies on measles antibody kinetics prior and following measles vaccination.
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Evaluation of Trans-Vag broth, colistin-nalidixic agar, and CHROMagar StrepB for detection of group B Streptococcus in vaginal and rectal swabs from pregnant women in South Africa.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Maternal vaginal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS) is a major risk factor for invasive GBS infection in newborns. The CDC-recommended method for detecting GBS colonization is to culture vaginal and rectal swabs in a selective broth followed by subculture on blood agar or a selective medium. A high incidence of antimicrobial resistance in the fecal microflora can compromise the recovery of GBS from the selective broth. Here, we compared CHROMagar StrepB (CA), Columbia colistin-nalidixic agar (CNA), and Trans-Vag selective broth enrichment for the isolation of GBS from 130 vaginal and 130 rectal swabs from pregnant women. The swabs were randomized for plating first on either CA or CNA, and they then were inoculated in Trans-Vag broth. GBS was cultured from 37.7% of the vaginal swabs and 33.1% of the rectal swabs. There were no differences in the detection rates for the vaginal swabs between CA (31.5%), CNA (26.2%), and the selective broth (30.0%). The sensitivities in relation to a composite score were 83.7%, 69.4%, and 79.6%, respectively. However, recovery of GBS from the rectal swabs was significantly higher from CA (29.2%; P<0.0001) and CNA (23.8%; P=0.002) than from the selective broth (9.2%). The sensitivities were 88.4%, 72.1%, and 27.9%, respectively. The order of plating on the solid medium was significant (P=0.003), with GBS detection rates of 30.8% and 24.6% when swabs were plated first and second, respectively. These findings show that a selective broth is not suitable for the recovery of GBS from rectal swabs in settings such as ours, due to masking of the GBS colonies by persistent microflora.
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Interrelationship of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus colonization within and between pneumococcal-vaccine naive mother-child dyads.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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A high prevalence of bacterial nasopharyngeal (NP) co-infections has been reported in children, however, there is limited such data in adults. We examined the interaction of Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae pharyngeal colonization in mother-child dyads.
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Standard method for detecting upper respiratory carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae: Updated recommendations from the World Health Organization Pneumococcal Carriage Working Group.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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In 2003 the World Health Organization (WHO) convened a working group and published a set of standard methods for studies measuring nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus). The working group recently reconvened under the auspices of the WHO and updated the consensus standard methods. These methods describe the collection, transport and storage of nasopharyngeal samples, as well as provide recommendations for the identification and serotyping of pneumococci using culture and non-culture based approaches. We outline the consensus position of the working group, the evidence supporting this position, areas worthy of future research, and the epidemiological role of carriage studies. Adherence to these methods will reduce variability in the conduct of pneumococcal carriage studies undertaken in the context of pneumococcal vaccine trials, implementation studies, and epidemiology studies more generally so variability in methodology does not confound the interpretation of study findings.
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Acquisition of Streptococcus pneumoniae in pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-naïve South African children and their mothers.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization is a prerequisite to developing pneumococcal disease. We investigated the dynamics of pneumococcal colonization in perinatal HIV-unexposed and HIV-exposed children and their mothers and risk factors associated with new serotypes acquisition.
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Immunogenicity of seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine administered at 6, 14 and 40 weeks of age in South African infants.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The high cost of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and local epidemiological factors contributed to evaluating different PCV dosing-schedules. This study evaluated the immunogenicity of seven-valent PCV (PCV7) administered at 6-weeks; 14-weeks and 9-months of age.
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Longitudinal analysis of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube in children with adult household tuberculosis contact in South Africa: a prospective cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
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QuantiFERON-TB Gold In Tube (QFT-GIT) is a tool for detecting M. tuberculosis infection. However, interpretation and utility of serial QFT-GIT testing of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) contacts is not well understood. We compared TB prevalence between baseline and 6 months follow-up using QFT-GIT and tuberculin skin testing (TST) in children who were household contacts of adults with pulmonary TB in South Africa, and explored factors associated with QFT-GIT conversions and reversions.
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Inferior quantitative and qualitative immune responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in infants with nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae during the primary series of immunization.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2011
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Heightened immunogenicity, measured one month after the primary series of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), in African children was previously hypothesized to be due to increased rates of nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization during early infancy.
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Use of 2 pneumococcal common protein real-time polymerase chain reaction assays in healthy children colonized with Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2011
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Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) offers promise in pneumococcal diagnostics, but whether nasopharyngeal carriage causes false-positive results in people colonized with Streptococcus pneumoniae is unknown. We found in serum no positive samples for pneumococcal DNA in 100 carriers and noncarriers using 2 different real-time PCR assays targeting lytA and psaA genes.
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Serotype distribution and invasive potential of group B streptococcus isolates causing disease in infants and colonizing maternal-newborn dyads.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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Serotype-specific polysaccharide based group B streptococcus (GBS) vaccines are being developed. An understanding of the serotype epidemiology associated with maternal colonization and invasive disease in infants is necessary to determine the potential coverage of serotype-specific GBS vaccines.
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Conserved mutations in the pneumococcal bacteriocin transporter gene, blpA, result in a complex population consisting of producers and cheaters.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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All fully sequenced strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae possess a version of the blp locus, which is responsible for bacteriocin production and immunity. Activation of the blp locus is stimulated by accumulation of the peptide pheromone, BlpC, following its secretion by the ABC transporter, BlpA. The blp locus is characterized by significant diversity in blpC type and in the region of the locus containing putative bacteriocin and immunity genes. In addition, the blpA gene can represent a single large open reading frame or be divided into several smaller fragments due to the presence of frameshift mutations. In this study, we use a collection of strains with blp-dependent inhibition and immunity to define the genetic changes that bring about phenotypic differences in bacteriocin production or immunity. We demonstrate that alterations in blpA, blpC, and bacteriocin/immunity content likely play an important role in competitive interactions between pneumococcal strains. Importantly, strains with a highly conserved frameshift mutation in blpA are unable to secrete bacteriocins or BlpC, but retain the ability to respond to exogenous peptide pheromone produced by cocolonizing strains, stimulating blp-mediated immunity. These "cheater" strains can only coexist with bacteriocin-producing strains that secrete their cognate BlpC and share the same immunity proteins. The variable outcome of these interactions helps to explain the heterogeneity of the blp pheromone, bacteriocin, and immunity protein content.
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Effect of HIV infection status and anti-retroviral treatment on quantitative and qualitative antibody responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in infants.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2010
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Serotype-specific antibody concentration and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) were evaluated after 3 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Groups included human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive infants with CD4(+) cell percentages > or =25% who initiated immediate antiretroviral treatment (the HIV+/ART+ group) or whose antiretroviral treatment was deferred until clinically or immunologically indicated (the HIV+/ART- group). Immune responses were also evaluated in HIV-noninfected infants born to HIV-seronegative (M-/I-) or HIV-positive mothers (M+/I-). Antibody concentrations were similar between HIV+/ART+ and HIV+/ART- infants. However, antibody concentrations were lower in M-/I- infants than in M+/I- infants. Nevertheless, M-/I- infants had superior OPA responses, compared with those in HIV+/ART+ infants, who in turn had better OPA responses, compared with those in HIV+/ART- infants.
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An unusual pneumococcal sequence type is the predominant cause of serotype 3 invasive disease in South Africa.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2009
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We reviewed pneumococcal serotype 3 cases reported from 2000 through 2005 to a laboratory-based surveillance system for invasive pneumococcal disease in South Africa. The prevalence of serotype 3 invasive isolates was compared to their prevalence in carriage isolates to determine the odds of invasiveness due to serotype 3 among South African children. Three groups of serotype 3 strains were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) or Box element PCR (BOX-PCR), randomly selected invasive isolates from one province, isolates from a carriage study involving children in the same province, and antimicrobial-resistant invasive isolates collected nationally. Examples of the PFGE types identified were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing. In total, 15,980 viable isolates causing invasive disease were submitted, of which 661 (4%) were serotype 3, mostly from adults (85% [489/575]). Fewer serotype 3 isolates were nonsusceptible to antimicrobial agents tested (40/661 [6%]) than non-serotype 3 isolates (8,480/15,319 [55%]) (P < 0.001). Compared to non-serotype 3 cases, there was no association with HIV coinfection (2,212/2,569 [86%] versus 72/78 [92%]; P = 0.1) or increased case fatality ratio (1,190/4,211 [28%] versus 54/154 [35%]; P = 0.7). Serotype 3 in children had a low but statistically insignificant invasive disease potential (odds ratio [OR] of 0.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] of 0.01 to 1.06). Strains were grouped into 3 PFGE clusters, with the largest, cluster A, representing 54% (84/155), including 14 isolates confirmed as sequence type 458 (ST458). It was confirmed that 3 isolates from cluster B, which represented only 12% (18/155) of the isolates, were the serotype 3 global strain, ST180. We have therefore identified ST458 as predominating in South Africa, but with an invasive potential similar to that of the predominant global clone ST180.
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Chlorhexidine maternal-vaginal and neonate body wipes in sepsis and vertical transmission of pathogenic bacteria in South Africa: a randomised, controlled trial.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2009
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About 500,000 sepsis-related deaths per year arise in the first 3 days of life. On the basis of results from non-randomised studies, use of vaginal chlorhexidine wipes during labour has been proposed as an intervention for the prevention of early-onset neonatal sepsis in developing countries. We therefore assessed the efficacy of chlorhexidine in early-onset neonatal sepsis and vertical transmission of group B streptococcus.
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Information geometry for landmark shape analysis: unifying shape representation and deformation.
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2009
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Shape matching plays a prominent role in the comparison of similar structures. We present a unifying framework for shape matching that uses mixture models to couple both the shape representation and deformation. The theoretical foundation is drawn from information geometry wherein information matrices are used to establish intrinsic distances between parametric densities. When a parameterized probability density function is used to represent a landmark-based shape, the modes of deformation are automatically established through the information matrix of the density. We first show that given two shapes parameterized by Gaussian mixture models (GMMs), the well-known Fisher information matrix of the mixture model is also a Riemannian metric (actually, the Fisher-Rao Riemannian metric) and can therefore be used for computing shape geodesics. The Fisher-Rao metric has the advantage of being an intrinsic metric and invariant to reparameterization. The geodesicâcomputed using this metricâestablishes an intrinsic deformation between the shapes, thus unifying both shape representation and deformation. A fundamental drawback of the Fisher-Rao metric is that it is not available in closed form for the GMM. Consequently, shape comparisons are computationally very expensive. To address this, we develop a new Riemannian metric based on generalized phi-entropy measures. In sharp contrast to the Fisher-Rao metric, the new metric is available in closed form. Geodesic computations using the new metric are considerably more efficient. We validate the performance and discriminative capabilities of these new information geometry-based metrics by pairwise matching of corpus callosum shapes. We also study the deformations of fish shapes that have various topological properties. A comprehensive comparative analysis is also provided using other landmark-based distances, including the Hausdorff distance, the Procrustes metric, landmark-based diffeomorphisms, and the bending energies of the thin-plate (TPS) and Wendland splines.
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Quantitative and qualitative anamnestic immune responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children 5 years after vaccination.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2009
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Administration of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) to HIV-infected children during infancy confers limited long-term protection in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. The objective of the present study was to determine the immune responses to PCV at 5 years of age in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children who had been primed with vaccine during infancy (i.e., previous vaccinees) and in those receiving their first dose of vaccine (i.e., control subjects).
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Immunogenicity following the first and second doses of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in HIV-infected and -uninfected infants.
Vaccine
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The immunogenicity of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) has not been evaluated in HIV-infected infants following the first and second PCV-doses. We studied antibody kinetics of serotypes included in 7-valent PCV in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected infants prior to and following each of three PCV-doses.
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Distribution of pilus islands of group B streptococcus associated with maternal colonization and invasive disease in South Africa.
J. Med. Microbiol.
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Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis. Sortase-dependent pilus-like structures have been identified on the surface of GBS, and have been found to be important in the adhesion and attachment of GBS to host cells. Three pilus island alleles, PI-1, PI-2a and PI-2b, have been described, and their proteins are being explored as vaccine candidates. The pilus islands from 541 colonization isolates and 284 invasive isolates were characterized by PCR. All isolates carried at least one pilus island, and they were identified alone or in combinations at the following overall frequencies: PI-2a, 29.8?%; PI-2b, 0.2?%; PI-1+PI-2a, 24.8?%; and PI-1+PI-2b, 45.1?%. A combination of PI-1+PI-2a (28.7 vs 17.6?%) was more common among colonizing compared with invasive isolates. Conversely, a combination of PI-1+PI-2b (37.2 vs 60.2?%) was more frequently associated with invasive disease compared to colonization. There was a strong association between pilus islands when adjusted for serotype distribution, PI-2a was identified in 92.6?% of colonizing and 90.0?% of invasive serotype Ia isolates, whereas serotype III was associated with co-expression of a PI-1 and PI-2b among 84.6?% of colonizing and 96.5?% of invasive isolates. Based on this homogeneity of pilus island distribution, a pilus-based vaccine developed for Europe and the USA will have similar coverage in South Africa.
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Maternal HIV infection and vertical transmission of pathogenic bacteria.
Pediatrics
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HIV-exposed newborns may be at higher risk of sepsis because of immune system aberrations, impaired maternal antibody transfer and altered exposure to pathogenic bacteria.
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Does long-term swimming participation have a deleterious effect on the adult female skeleton?
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
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Swimming is a popular activity for Australian women with proven cardiovascular benefits yet lacks the features thought necessary to stimulate positive adaptive changes in bone. Given that peak bone mass is attained close to the end of the second decade, we asked whether swimming was negatively associated with bone mineral density in premenopausal women beyond this age. Bone mass and retrospective physical activity data were gathered from 43 female swimmers and 44 controls (mean ages 40.4 and 43.8 years, respectively). Swimmers were recruited from the Australian Union of Senior Swimmers International while controls were healthy community dwellers with similar lean mass, fat mass, height, weight and body mass index. None of the participants had a history of medical complaints nor use of medications known to affect bone. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to determine areal bone mineral density at total body, lumbar spine, proximal femur, distal radius and tibia while self-administered questionnaires were used to approximate historical and recent physical activity and calcium intake. Swimmers had averaged over 2 hours of swimming per week for the past 5 years and 1.45 h/week over lifetime with no systematic swimming exposure for controls. Lifetime exposure to weight bearing and impact exercise were similar. There were no intergroup differences for bone mass at any site though controls had higher incidence of low bone mass/osteoporosis. No differences in bone mass were detected between swimmers in the upper and lower quartiles for swim participation for any period. Long-term swim participation did not compromise areal bone mineral density.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.