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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
miR-21-3p is a positive regulator of L1CAM in several human carcinomas.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Expression of L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) occurs frequently in human cancers and is associated with poor prognosis in cancers such as ovarian, endometrial, breast, renal cell carcinoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. L1CAM promotes cell motility, invasion, chemoresistance and metastasis formation. Elucidating genetic processes involved in the expression of L1CAM in cancers is of considerable importance. Transcription factors such as SLUG, ?-catenin/TCF-LEF, PAX8 and VHL have been implicated in the re-activation of L1CAM in various types of cancers. There is increasing evidence that micro-RNAs can also have strong effects on gene expression. Here we have identified miR-21-3p as a positive regulator of L1CAM expression. Over-expression of miR-21-3p (miR-21*) but not the complementary sequence miR-21-5p (miR-21) could strongly augment L1CAM expression in renal, endometrial and ovarian carcinoma derived cell lines by an unknown mechanism involving transcriptional activation of the L1CAM gene. In patient cohorts from renal, endometrial and ovarian cancers we observed a strong positive correlation of L1CAM and miR-21-3p expressions. Although L1CAM alone was a reliable marker for overall and disease free survival, the combination of L1CAM and miR-21-3p expressions strongly enhanced the predictive power. Our findings shed new light on the complex regulation of L1CAM in cancers and advocate the use of L1CAM/miR-21-3p for diagnostic application.
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Antibody therapy to human L1CAM in a transgenic mouse model blocks local tumor growth but induces EMT.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) is overexpressed in many human cancers, confers bad prognosis and augments cell motility, invasion and metastasis. Results from xenograft mouse models suggested that L1CAM antibodies might be promising tools for cancer therapy. Here, we generated human L1CAM-transgenic mice to study therapeutic efficacy and putative side effects in a model system. We established three transgenic lines (M2, M3 and F4) expressing the human L1CAM transgene in brain, kidney and colon with decreasing intensity (M2, M3?>?F4). The expression pattern was similar to that of L1CAM in humans. No interference of the transgene with the expression of endogenous L1CAM was observed. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed correct expression of the transgene in mouse cortex and collective duct of the kidney. Injection of (125) I-labeled L1CAM antibodies resulted in specific enrichment in the kidney but not in the brain. The injection of the therapeutic anti-human L1CAM mAb L1-9.3/2a into transgenic mice even at high doses did not cause behavioral changes or other side effects. Similar results were obtained using a mouse specific L1CAM mAb in normal mice. Tumor therapy experiments were performed using syngeneic mouse tumor cells (RET melanoma and Panc02 pancreatic adenocarcinoma) transduced with human L1CAM. MAb L1-9.3/2a efficiently and specifically attenuated local tumor growth in both model systems without apparent side effects. The therapeutic effect was dependent on immune effector mechanisms. Analysis of Panc02-huL1CAM tumors after therapy showed elevated levels of EGF and evidence of immune-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The results suggest that our transgenic mice are valuable tools to study L1CAM-based antibody therapy.
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Extracellular vesicle-mediated transfer of genetic information between the hematopoietic system and the brain in response to inflammation.
PLoS Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Mechanisms behind how the immune system signals to the brain in response to systemic inflammation are not fully understood. Transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase specifically in the hematopoietic lineage in a Cre reporter background display recombination and marker gene expression in Purkinje neurons. Here we show that reportergene expression in neurons is caused by intercellular transfer of functional Cre recombinase messenger RNA from immune cells into neurons in the absence of cell fusion. In vitro purified secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs) from blood cells contain Cre mRNA, which induces recombination in neurons when injected into the brain. Although Cre-mediated recombination events in the brain occur very rarely in healthy animals, their number increases considerably in different injury models, particularly under inflammatory conditions, and extend beyond Purkinje neurons to other neuronal populations in cortex, hippocampus, and substantia nigra. Recombined Purkinje neurons differ in their miRNA profile from their nonrecombined counterparts, indicating physiological significance. These observations reveal the existence of a previously unrecognized mechanism to communicate RNA-based signals between the hematopoietic system and various organs, including the brain, in response to inflammation.
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Metalloprotease-mediated tumor cell shedding of B7-H6, the ligand of the natural killer cell-activating receptor NKp30.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Natural killer (NK) cells are potent immune effector cells capable of mediating antitumor responses. Thus, during immunoediting, tumor cell populations evolve strategies to escape NK-cell-mediated recognition. In this study, we report a novel mechanism of immune escape involving tumor cell shedding of B7-H6, a ligand for the activating receptor NKp30 that mediates NK-cell binding and NK-cell-mediated killing. Tumor cells from different cancer entities released B7-H6 by ectodomain shedding mediated by the cell surface proteases "a disintegrin and metalloproteases" (ADAM)-10 and ADAM-17, as demonstrated through the use of pharmacologic inhibitors or siRNA-mediated gene attenuation. Inhibiting this proteolytic shedding process increased the levels of B7-H6 expressed on the surface of tumor cells, enhancing NKp30-mediated activation of NK cells. Notably, we documented elevated levels of soluble B7-H6 levels in blood sera obtained from a subset of patients with malignant melanoma, compared with healthy control individuals, along with evidence of elevated B7-H6 expression in melanoma specimens in situ. Taken together, our results illustrated a novel mechanism of immune escape in which tumor cells impede NK-mediated recognition by metalloprotease-mediated shedding of B7-H6. One implication of our findings is that therapeutic inhibition of specific metalloproteases may help support NK-cell-based cancer therapy.
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Lack of CD24 expression in mice reduces the number of leukocytes in the colon.
Immunol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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CD24 is an extensively glycosylated membrane protein that is linked to the membrane via a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor. In mice, CD24 is expressed by hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD24-/- mice do not have gross immunological defects, but detailed analysis revealed strongly reduced responses in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model and a massive proliferation of T cells under lymphopenic conditions. It was also demonstrated that preB cells from CD24-/- mice are impaired in ?4-integrin-mediated cell binding. Here we report that CD24-/- mice have strongly reduced numbers of leukocytes in the colon compared to wildtype mice. The reduction comprized all subpopulations. Leukocyte counts in spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes or small intestine were not significantly different. We find that beside leukocytes, CD24 is widely expressed in EpCAM+ epithelial and CD31+ endothelial cells of colon and small intestine. However, in CD24-/- mice the number of CD31+ endothelial cells in colons was strongly reduced and the number of epithelial cells was augmented. Leukocyte transfer experiments provided evidence that the CD24 status of recipient mice, rather than of the transferred cells, is crucial for leukocyte recruitment to the colon. We hypothesize that CD24 on colonic epithelial and endothelial cells is required for the retention and positioning of leukocytes most likely by affecting integrin function.
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Novel insights into exosome-induced, tumor-associated inflammation and immunomodulation.
Semin. Cancer Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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The immune system of cancer patients is often suppressed. Accumulating evidence suggests that exosomes released from tumor cells may play an essential role in this process but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we review recent papers showing that exosomes trigger the release of cytokines/chemokines from immune cells. We suggest that this process will either result in the stimulation of anti-tumor immune reactions or in a systemic immunosuppression. The direction appears to be largely dependent on the duration of interactions between immune cells and exosomes leading to the accumulation of inflammatory factors, i.e. on the length of the exposure to these factors. We propose that a long-term interaction of the immune system with elevated levels of tumor exosomes contributes to the development of immunosuppression in cancer patients.
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Role of miR-34a as a suppressor of L1CAM in endometrial carcinoma.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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L1CAM promotes cell motility, invasion and metastasis formation in various human cancers and can be considered as a driver of tumor progression. Knowledge about genetic processes leading to the presence of L1CAM in cancers is of considerable importance. Experimentally, L1CAM expression can be achieved by various means. Over-expression of the transcription factor SLUG or treatment of cells with TGF-?1 can induce or augment L1CAM levels in cancer cells. Likewise, hypomethylation of the L1CAM promoter on the X chromosome correlates with L1CAM expression. However, presently no mechanisms that might control transcriptional activity are known. Here we have identified miR-34a as a suppressor of L1CAM. We observed that L1CAM positive endometrial carcinoma (EC) cell lines HEC1B and SPAC1L lost L1CAM protein and mRNA by treatment with demethylating agents or knock-down of the DNA-methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1). Concomitantly, several miRNAs were up-regulated. Using miRNA profiling, luciferase reporter assays and mutagenesis, we identified miR-34a as a putative binder to the L1CAM-3'UTR. Over-expression of miR-34a in HEC1B cells blocked L1CAM expression and inhibited cell migration. In ECC1 cells (wildtype p53) the activation of p53 caused miR-34a up-regulation and loss of L1CAM expression that was miR-34a dependent. We observed an inverse correlation between L1CAM and miR-34a levels in EC cell lines. In primary tumor sections areas expressing high amounts of L1CAM had less miR-34a expression than those with low L1CAM levels. Our data suggest that miR-34a can regulate L1CAM expression by targeting L1CAM mRNA for degradation. These findings shed new light on the complex regulation of L1CAM in human tumors.
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L1CAM promotes enrichment of immunosuppressive T cells in human pancreatic cancer correlating with malignant progression.
Mol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Regulatory T cell (T-reg) enrichment in the tumor microenvironment is regarded as an important mechanism of tumor immune escape. Hence, the presence of T-regs in highly malignant pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is correlated with short survival. Likewise, the adhesion molecule L1CAM is upregulated during PDAC progression in the pancreatic ductal epithelium also being associated with poor prognosis. To investigate whether L1CAM contributes to enrichment of T-regs in PDAC, human CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(-)CD49d(-) T-regs and CD4(+)CD25(-) T-effector cells (T-effs) were isolated by magnetic bead separation from blood of healthy donors. Their phenotype and functional behavior were analyzed in dependence on human premalignant (H6c7) or malignant (Panc1) pancreatic ductal epithelial cells, either exhibiting or lacking L1CAM expression. T cells derived from blood and tumors of PDAC patients were analyzed by flow cytometry and findings were correlated with clinical parameters. Predominantly T-regs but not T-effs showed an increased migration on L1CAM expressing H6c7 and Panc1 cells. Whereas proliferation of T-regs did not change in the presence of L1CAM, T-effs proliferated less, exhibited a decreased CD25 expression and an increased expression of CD69. Moreover, these T-effs exhibited a regulatory phenotype as they inhibited proliferation of autologous T cells. Accordingly, CD4(+)CD25(-)CD69(+) T cells were highly abundant in PDAC tissues compared to blood being associated with nodal invasion and higher grading in PDAC patients. Overall, these data point to an important role of L1CAM in the enrichment of immunosuppressive T cells in particular of a CD4(+)CD25(-)CD69(+)-phenotype in PDAC providing a novel mechanism of tumor immune escape which contributes to tumor progression.
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Combined targeting of TGF-?1 and integrin ?3 impairs lymph node metastasis in a mouse model of non-small-cell lung cancer.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-?) acts as a tumor suppressor early in carcinogenesis but turns into tumor promoter in later disease stages. In fact, TGF-? is a known inducer of integrin expression by tumor cells which contributes to cancer metastatic spread and TGF-? inhibition has been shown to attenuate metastasis in mouse models. However, carcinoma cells often become refractory to TGF-?-mediated growth inhibition. Therefore identifying patients that may benefit from anti-TGF-? therapy requires careful selection.
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Body Fluid Exosomes Promote Secretion of Inflammatory Cytokines in Monocytic Cells via Toll-like Receptor Signaling.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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Tumor-derived exosomes have been shown to induce various immunomodulatory effects. However, the underlying signaling pathways are poorly understood. Here, we analyzed the effects of ex vivo-derived exosomes on monocytic cell differentiation/activation using THP-1 cells as model. We isolated exosomes from various body fluids such as amniotic fluid, liver cirrhosis ascites, and malignant ascites of ovarian cancer patients. We observed that exosomes were internalized by THP-1 cells and induced the production of IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-6. Analysis of the signaling pathways revealed a fast triggering of NF?B and a delayed activation of STAT3. Pharmacologic and antibody-blocking experiments showed that the initial production of IL-6 was instrumental for subsequent activation of STAT3. Importantly, triggering of cell signaling was not a unique property of tumor exosomes but was also observed with exosomes of noncancerous origin. Exosomal signaling was TLR-dependent as the knockdown of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 blocked NF?B and STAT3 activation. Similar results were obtained with TLR-neutralizing antibodies. Exosomes also triggered the release of cytokines from mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells or macrophages. This process was MyD88-dependent, further supporting a role of TLR signaling. Our results suggest that exosomes trigger TLR-dependent signaling pathways in monocytic precursor cells but possibly also in other immune cells. This process could be important for the induction of immunosuppressive mechanisms during cancer progression and inflammatory diseases.
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Exosomes as a potential tool for a specific delivery of functional molecules.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Extracellular membrane vesicles derived from the endosomal compartments and released by the fusion of the multivesicular bodies with the cell membrane are referred as exosomes (Exo) [Van Niel et al., J Biochem 140:13-21, 2006]. They function as mediators of intercellular communication and are employed by the organism in the regulation of systemic and local processes. Meantime, Exo are recognized as an indispensable entity of physiological fluids [Caby et al., Int Immunol 17:879-887, 2005; Lasser et al., J Transl Med 9:9, 2011; Lasser et al., Am J Rhinol Allergy 25:89-93, 2011]. Exo and other types of extracellular vesicles, e.g., exosome-like vesicles [van Niel et al., Gastroenterology 121:337-349, 2001] and microvesicles (MV) [Daveloose et al., Thromb Res 22:195-201, 1981], contain multiple functional molecules including lipids [Vidal et al., J Cell Physiol 140:455-462, 1989]; proteins [Simpson et al., Expert Rev Proteomics 6:267-283, 2009]; mRNA [Valadi et al., Nat Cell Biol 9:654-659, 2007]; DNA [Waldenstrom et al., PLoS One 7:e34653, 2012]; noncoding RNA, e.g., miRNA [Simpson et al., Expert Rev Proteomics 6:267-283, 2009]; and retrotransposon elements [Balaj et al., Nat Commun 2:180, 2011]. Assessment of the biological functions of Exo showed that they deliver specifically their cargo from the donor to recipient cells. Albeit the molecular mechanisms of this process are not fully understood, approaches for the application of Exo and MV as a tool for a cell-specific delivery of signalling molecules were successfully tested in in vitro and in vivo models [Maguire et al., Mol Ther 20:960-971, 2012]. Ovarian cancer cells release Exo, which bind stroma cells as well as donor cancer cells [Escrevente et al., BMC Cancer 11:108, 2011]. Here we describe an experimental approach for the assessment of Exo interaction and uptake by target cells. Methods for the isolation and purification of Exo from cell culture supernatants are included. To allow visualization of vesicle uptake, labelling of Exo with different fluorescent dyes, such as CFSE, PKH, DHPE, and DiOC18, is presented. Finally, we explain qualitative and quantitative analysis of Exo uptake by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry, respectively.
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L1CAM in early-stage type I endometrial cancer: results of a large multicenter evaluation.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Despite the excellent prognosis of Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et dObstétrique (FIGO) stage I, type I endometrial cancers, a substantial number of patients experience recurrence and die from this disease. We analyzed the value of immunohistochemical L1CAM determination to predict clinical outcome.
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Role of L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) in the metastatic cascade: promotion of dissemination, colonization, and metastatic growth.
Clin. Exp. Metastasis
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Expression of the L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) is frequently increased in cancer patients compared to healthy individuals and also linked with bad prognosis of solid tumours. Previously, we could show that full-length L1CAM promotes metastasis formation via up-regulation of gelatinolytic activity in fibrosarcoma. In this study, we aimed to extend this finding to haematogenous malignancies and carcinomas, and to specifically elucidate the impact of L1CAM on major steps of the metastatic cascade. In a well-established T-cell lymphoma spontaneous metastasis model, silencing of L1CAM significantly improved survival of the mice, while intradermal tumour growth remained unaltered. This correlated with significantly decreased spontaneous metastasis formation. L1CAM suppression abrogated the metastatic potential of T-cell lymphoma as well as carcinoma cells as demonstrated by reduced migration and invasion in vitro and reduced formation of experimental metastasis in vivo. At the molecular level, silencing of L1CAM led to reduced expression of gelatinases MMP-2 and -9 in vitro and decreased gelatinolytic activity in primary tumours and metastases in vivo. In accordance, knock down of L1CAM had similar suppressive effects on migration, invasion and in vivo-gelatinolytic activity as treatment with the specific gelatinase inhibitor SB-3CT. This newly discovered impact of L1CAM on distinct steps of the metastatic cascade and MMP activity highlights the potential of possible L1CAM-directed therapies to inhibit metastatic spread.
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Epigenetic regulation of L1CAM in endometrial carcinoma: comparison to cancer-testis (CT-X) antigens.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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L1CAM was originally identified as an adhesion molecule involved in neural development. In many human carcinomas L1CAM is over-expressed and is associated with a bad prognosis. We previously reported that L1CAM was absent in the vast majority of endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (ECs) (type 1) but was strongly expressed in the more aggressive serous and clear-cell ECs (termed type 2). The differential regulation of L1CAM in ECs is not well understood. Recent evidence suggests that it can be regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. Here we investigated the role of DNA-methylation of the L1CAM promoter for expression. We also studied the relationship to cancer testis (CT-X) antigens that co-localize with L1CAM on chromosome Xq28, a region that is often activated in human tumors.
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CD24 polymorphisms in breast cancer: impact on prognosis and risk.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2013
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Overexpression of CD24 has a negative impact on breast cancer prognosis. We have recently reported that the CD24 codon 57 Val/Val genotype (rs52812045) is associated with pathologic complete response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for primary breast cancer and correlates with intratumoral lymphocyte infiltrates. This study was performed to investigate the influence of CD24 polymorphisms on breast cancer prognosis and risk. A total of 2,514 patients and 4,858 controls recruited as part of the MARIE study, a population-based case-control study, were genotyped for two CD24 polymorphisms (rs52812045, rs3838646) using TaqMan custom genotyping assays. Associations with overall and breast cancer-specific survival were assessed using uni- and multivariable Cox regression models stratified by age at diagnosis and adjusted for prognostic factors. Conditional logistic regression analysis adjusted for major risk factors was used to estimate multivariable odds ratios for risk of putative allele carriers compared to wildtype carriers. CD24 Ala/Val was significantly associated with breast cancer prognosis [Val/Val hazard ratio (HR)(adjusted) = 1.52; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.00-2.30, p = 0.05 and HR(adjusted) = 1.83; 95 % CI: 1.10-3.05, p = 0.018 for all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality, respectively). The association was significant only in patients with a BMI <25 and in those who received adjuvant chemotherapy. None of the CD24 alleles was associated with breast cancer risk. These results provide further evidence of the CD24 Val/Val genotype influencing outcome in primary breast cancer. Together with previous data of CD24 overexpression as a poor prognostic marker, the findings underline the biological importance of CD24 for breast cancer.
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L1 cell adhesion molecule as a potential therapeutic target in murine models of endometriosis using a monoclonal antibody approach.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The neural cell adhesion molecule L1CAM is a transmembrane glycoprotein abnormally expressed in tumors and previously associated with cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion, as well as neurite outgrowth in endometriosis. Being an attractive target molecule for antibody-based therapy, the present study assessed the ability of the monoclonal anti-L1 antibody (anti-L1 mAb) to impair the development of endometriotic lesions in vivo and endometriosis-associated nerve fiber growth.
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Myofibroblast-induced tumorigenicity of pancreatic ductal epithelial cells is L1CAM dependent.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2011
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and chronic pancreatitis, representing one risk factor for PDAC, are characterized by a marked desmoplasia enriched of pancreatic myofibroblasts (PMFs). Thus, PMFs are thought to essentially promote pancreatic tumorigenesis. We recently demonstrated that the adhesion molecule L1CAM is involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition of PMF-cocultured H6c7 human ductal epithelial cells and that L1CAM is expressed already in ductal structures of chronic pancreatitis with even higher elevation in primary tumors and metastases of PDAC patients. This study aimed at investigating whether PMFs and L1CAM drive malignant transformation of pancreatic ductal epithelial cells by enhancing their tumorigenic potential. Cell culture experiments demonstrated that in the presence of PMFs, H6c7 cells exhibit a profound resistance against death ligand-induced apoptosis. This apoptosis protection was similarly observed in H6c7 cells stably overexpressing L1CAM. Intrapancreatic inoculation of H6c7 cells together with PMFs (H6c7co) resulted in tumor formation in 7/8 and liver metastases in 6/8 severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice, whereas no tumors and metastases were detectable after inoculation of H6c7 cells alone. Likewise, tumor outgrowth and metastases resulted from inoculation of L1CAM-overexpressing H6c7 cells in 5/7 and 3/7 SCID mice, respectively, but not from inoculation of mock-transfected H6c7 cells. Treatment of H6c7co tumor-bearing mice with the L1CAM antibody L1-9.3/2a inhibited tumor formation and liver metastasis in 100 and 50%, respectively, of the treated animals. Overall, these data provide new insights into the mechanisms of how PMFs and L1CAM contribute to malignant transformation of pancreatic ductal epithelial cells in early stages of pancreatic tumorigenesis.
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Glycoconjugate expression in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands: up-regulation of L1 predicts fatal prognosis.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2011
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?The up-regulation of the cell adhesion molecule L1 has been associated with impaired prognosis in several cancers. This study aimed to identify potential prognostic markers, including L1, in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands (ACCs), which might give additional insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying malignant progression.
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Combined treatment of L1CAM antibodies and cytostatic drugs improve the therapeutic response of pancreatic and ovarian carcinoma.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2011
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The adhesion molecule L1CAM (CD171) accounts for enhanced motility, invasiveness and chemoresistance of tumor cells and represents a novel marker for various tumor entities including pancreatic and ovarian carcinoma. Recently, we showed that L1CAM inhibition increases the apoptotic response of tumor cells towards cytostatic drugs pointing to the potential of L1CAM to serve as a chemosensitizer in anti-cancer therapy. Thus, the present study evaluated the therapeutic potential of combined treatment with L1CAM antibodies and chemotherapeutic drugs in pancreatic and ovarian carcinoma model systems in vivo. Two L1CAM-specific antibodies (L1-14.10 and L1-9.3/2a) exhibiting high binding affinity to the L1CAM expressing pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line Colo357 and the ovarian carcinoma cell line SKOV3ip were used for treatment. The combined therapy of SCID mice with either L1CAM antibody and gemcitabine and paclitaxel, respectively, reduced the growth of subcutaneously grown Colo357 or SKOV3ip tumors more efficiently than treatment with the cytostatic drug alone or in combination with control IgG. This was accompanied by an increased number of apoptotic tumor cells along with an elevated procaspase-8 expression. Furthermore, a lowered activation of NF-?B along with a reduced expression of VEGF and a diminished number of CD31-positive blood vessels were observed in tumors after combined therapy compared to control treatments, while the infiltration of F4/80-positive macrophages increased. Overall, these data provide new insights into the mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of L1CAM-blocking antibodies in vivo and support the suitability of L1CAM as a target for chemosensitization and of L1CAM-interfering antibodies as an appropriate tool to increase the therapeutic response of pancreatic and ovarian carcinoma.
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Contractile forces contribute to increased glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored receptor CD24-facilitated cancer cell invasion.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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The malignancy of a tumor depends on the capability of cancer cells to metastasize. The process of metastasis involves cell invasion through connective tissue and transmigration through endothelial monolayers. The expression of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored receptor CD24 is increased in several tumor types and is consistently associated with increased metastasis formation in patients. Furthermore, the localization of ?1-integrins in lipid rafts depends on CD24. Cell invasion is a fundamental biomechanical process and usually requires cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) mainly through ?1 heterodimeric integrin receptors. Here, we studied the invasion of A125 human lung cancer cells with different CD24 expression levels in three-dimensional ECMs. We hypothesized that CD24 expression increases cancer cell invasion through increased contractile forces. To analyze this, A125 cells (CD24 negative) were stably transfected with CD24 and sorted for high and low CD24 expression. The invasiveness of the CD24(high) and CD24(low) transfectants was determined in three-dimensional ECMs. The percentage of invasive cells and their invasion depth was increased in CD24(high) cells compared with CD24(low) cells. Knockdown of CD24 and of the ?1-integrin subunit in CD24(high) cells decreased their invasiveness, indicating that the increased invasiveness is CD24- and ?1-integrin subunit-dependent. Fourier transform traction microscopy revealed that the CD24(high) cells generated 5-fold higher contractile forces compared with CD24(low) cells. To analyze whether contractile forces are essential for CD24-facilitated cell invasion, we performed invasion assays in the presence of myosin light chain kinase inhibitor ML-7 as well as Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632. Cell invasiveness was reduced after addition of ML-7 and Y27632 in CD24(high) cells but not in CD24(neg) cells. Moreover, after addition of lysophosphatidic acid or calyculin A, an increase in pre-stress in CD24(neg) cells was observed, which enhanced cellular invasiveness. In addition, inhibition of the Src kinase or STAT3 strongly reduced the invasiveness of CD24(high) cells, slightly reduced that of CD24(low) cells, and did not alter the invasiveness of CD24(neg) cells. Taken together, these results suggest that CD24 enhances cell invasion through increased generation or transmission of contractile forces.
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CD24 promotes tumor cell invasion by suppressing tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2) in a c-Src-dependent fashion.
Clin. Exp. Metastasis
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
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CD24 is a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored protein with mucin-type structure that resides exclusively in membrane microdomains. CD24 is often highly expressed in carcinomas and correlates with poor prognosis. Experimentally, the over-expression or depletion of CD24 alters cell proliferation, adhesion, and invasion in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which CD24 mediates these cellular effects. Here we have studied the mechanism of CD24-dependent cell invasion using transient CD24 knock-down or over-expression in human cancer cell lines. We show that CD24 depletion reduced tumor cell invasion and up-regulated expression of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor 2 (TFPI-2), a potent inhibitor of extracellular matrix degradation that can block metastases formation and tumor cell invasion. Over-expression of CD24 in A125 cells resulted in reduced TFPI-2 expression and enhanced invasion. We provide evidence that the activity of c-Src is reduced upon CD24 knock-down. The silencing of c-Src, similar to CD24, was able to enhance TFPI-2 expression and reduce tumor cell invasion. An inverse expression of CD24 and TFPI-2 was observed by immunohistochemical analysis of primary breast cancers (N = 1,174). TFPI-2 expression was highest in CD24 negative samples and lowered with increasing CD24 expression. Patients with a CD24 low/TFPI-2 high phenotype showed significantly better survival compared to CD24 high/TFPI-2 low patients. Our results provide evidence that CD24 can regulate cell invasion via TFPI-2 and suggests a role of c-Src in this process.
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Binding of the transcription factor Slug to the L1CAM promoter is essential for transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?)-induced L1CAM expression in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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Members of the Slug/Snail family of transcription factors are thought to drive epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) in preneoplastic epithelial cells, thereby contributing to malignant transformation. One mediator in the EMT of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells and a potential target gene of Slug is the cellular adhesion molecule L1CAM. Using the human pancreatic ductal epithelial cell line H6c7 and the PDAC cell line Panc1, we could show that along with TGF-?1-induced EMT, L1CAM expression is increased in a Slug- but not Snail-dependent fashion. Two E-box recognition motifs in the L1CAM promoter upstream of the most distal transcriptional start site could be verified by gel shift and supershift assay to interact with Slug. ChIP assays detected an increased interaction of Slug with both recognition motifs of the human L1CAM promoter in TGF-?1-treated H6c7 cells, whereas binding of Snail was downregulated. Moreover, ChIP assays with Panc1 cells confirmed this interaction of Slug with the human L1CAM promoter and further detected an interaction of both recognition sites with RNA-polymerase II in a Slug-dependent fashion. Luciferase reporter gene assays using wild-type or single- and double-mutated variants of the L1CAM promoter confirmed transcriptional activation by Slug involving both recognition motifs. By demonstrating the direct transcriptional control of L1CAM expression through Slug during TGF-?1-induced EMT of PDAC cells, our findings point to a novel mechanism by which Slug contributes quite early to tumorigenesis. Moreover, our study is the first one describing the control of the human L1CAM promoter in tumor cells.
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CD24 Ala57Val polymorphism predicts pathologic complete response to sequential anthracycline- and taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy for primary breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
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Overexpression of CD24 is an independent prognostic factor for breast cancer. Recently, two polymorphisms in the CD24 gene were linked to disease risk and progression in autoimmune diseases. Here, we evaluated the clinical relevance of these polymorphisms with respect to their potential to predict a pathologic complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) for primary breast cancer (PBC), one of the strongest prognostic factors in this setting. A total of 257 patients were randomized to either doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (AC) or doxorubicin/pemetrexed (AP), both followed by docetaxel (Doc) as NCT for T2-4 N0-2 M0 PBC as part of an international, multicenter, randomized phase II trial. CD24 polymorphisms were analyzed on germ line DNA and correlated with clinicopathologic variables and pCR. No significant associations were found between either of the polymorphisms and any of the clinicopathologic variables. In a multivariate analysis, CD24 Val/Val genotype was the only significant predictor of pCR (OR: 4.97; P = 0.003). The predictive potential was significant in both treatment arms and in the hormone receptor-positive subgroup. There was no correlation between CD24 3UTR (TG/Del) genotype and pCR. We did not observe any association between CD24 genotype and CD24 protein expression or in vitro chemosensitivity, but there was a significant correlation between CD24 Val/Val and intratumoral lymphocyte aggregates. In conclusion, CD24 Ala/Val SNP is a strong and independent predictor of pCR after NCT for PBC and may affect immune functions rather than tumor characteristics. Further evaluation of the CD24 function and validation of its predictive potential are clearly warranted.
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L1CAM protein expression is associated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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The L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) is potentially involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT marker expression is of prognostic significance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The relevance of L1CAM for NSCLC is unclear. We investigated the protein expression of L1CAM in a cohort of NSCLC patients. L1CAM protein expression was correlated with clinico-pathological parameters including survival and markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
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Loss of EpCAM expression in breast cancer derived serum exosomes: role of proteolytic cleavage.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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Cancer cells in the body release soluble and membranous factors that manipulate the tumor environment to facilitate growth and survival. Recent years have provided evidence that small microvesicles that are termed exosomes may play a pivotal role in this process. Exosomes are membrane vesicles with a size of 40-100 nm that are released by both tumor and normal cells and can be found in various body fluids. Tumor-derived exosomes carry functional proteins, mRNAs, and miRNAs and could serve as novel platform for tumor diagnosis and prognosis. However, marker proteins that allow enrichment of tumor-derived exosomes over normal exosomes are less well defined.
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Body fluid derived exosomes as a novel template for clinical diagnostics.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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Exosomes are small membrane vesicles with a size of 40-100 nm that are released by different cell types from a late endosomal cellular compartment. They can be found in various body fluids including plasma, malignant ascites, urine, amniotic fluid and saliva. Exosomes contain proteins, miRNAs and mRNAs (exosome shuttle RNA, esRNA) that could serve as novel platform for diagnosis.
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Interaction and uptake of exosomes by ovarian cancer cells.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2011
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Exosomes consist of membrane vesicles that are secreted by several cell types, including tumors and have been found in biological fluids. Exosomes interact with other cells and may serve as vehicles for the transfer of protein and RNA among cells.
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Full-length L1CAM and not its ?2?27 splice variant promotes metastasis through induction of gelatinase expression.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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Tumour-specific splicing is known to contribute to cancer progression. In the case of the L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM), which is expressed in many human tumours and often linked to bad prognosis, alternative splicing results in a full-length form (FL-L1CAM) and a splice variant lacking exons 2 and 27 (SV-L1CAM). It has not been elucidated so far whether SV-L1CAM, classically considered as tumour-associated, or whether FL-L1CAM is the metastasis-promoting isoform. Here, we show that both variants were expressed in human ovarian carcinoma and that exposure of tumour cells to pro-metastatic factors led to an exclusive increase of FL-L1CAM expression. Selective overexpression of one isoform in different tumour cells revealed that only FL-L1CAM promoted experimental lung and/or liver metastasis in mice. In addition, metastasis formation upon up-regulation of FL-L1CAM correlated with increased invasive potential and elevated Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 expression and activity in vitro as well as enhanced gelatinolytic activity in vivo. In conclusion, we identified FL-L1CAM as the metastasis-promoting isoform, thereby exemplifying that high expression of a so-called tumour-associated variant, here SV-L1CAM, is not per se equivalent to a decisive role of this isoform in tumour progression.
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N-Glycosylation of total cellular glycoproteins from the human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cell line and of recombinantly expressed human erythropoietin.
Glycobiology
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2010
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Ovarian carcinoma is the leading cause of death from gynecological cancers in many Western countries. Aberrant glycosylation is an important aspect in malignant transformation and consequently in ovarian cancer. In this study, a detailed structure analysis of the N-linked glycans from total glycoproteins from the SKOV3 ovarian carcinoma cell line and from a recombinantly expressed secretory glycoprotein, erythropoietin (EPO), produced from the same cells has been performed using high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Total cellular N-glycans contained high-mannose type and proximally fucosylated complex type partially agalactosylated structures. On the other hand, the recombinant human EPO secreted from SKOV3 cells contained predominantly core-fucosylated tetraantennary structures, which were partially lacking one or two galactose residues, and partially contained the LacdiNAc motif. Only minor amounts of di- and triantennary complex-type glycans were found, and high-mannose-type glycans were not present in the secreted EPO protein. A large amount of N-acetylneuraminic acid in ?2,3-linkage was detected as well. Endogenous glycoproteins were also found to contain the LacdiNAc motif in N-linked glycans. This work contributes to the knowledge of the glycosylation of a human ovarian cancer cell line. It also establishes the basis to further explore high-mannose-type glycans, and the LacdiNAc motif as possible markers of ovarian carcinoma.
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Linking L1CAM-mediated signaling to NF-?B activation.
Trends Mol Med
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2010
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The cell adhesion molecule L1 (L1CAM) was originally identified as a neural adhesion molecule essential for neurite outgrowth and axon guidance. Many studies have now shown that L1CAM is overexpressed in human carcinomas and associated with poor prognosis. So far, L1CAM-mediated cellular signaling has been largely attributed to an association with growth factor receptors, referred to as L1CAM-assisted signaling. New data demonstrate that L1CAM can signal via two additional mechanisms: forward signaling via regulated intramembrane proteolysis and reverse signaling via the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-?B. Taken together, these findings lead to a new understanding of L1CAM downstream signaling that is fundamental for the development of anti-L1CAM antibody-mediated therapeutics in human tumor cells.
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Elevated L1CAM expression in precursor lesions and primary and metastastic tissues of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2010
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The promigratory molecule L1CAM is overexpressed in various tumors, often representing an unfavorable prognostic marker. Recently, we identified L1CAM expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells accounting for chemoresistance and increased cell migration. Thus, the present study aims at further elucidating the role of L1CAM in a larger cohort of PDAC specimens including precursor lesions and metastasis. L1CAM expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in tissues of 123 patients including tissues of 110 primary PDACs, 15 lymph node metastases and 14 liver metastases. The immunohistochemical analyses revealed L1CAM expression in 92.7% of primary PDACs, 80% of lymph node metastases and 100% of liver metastases. Furthermore, we have investigated PDAC precursors, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions, revealing a significant increase of L1CAM expression with the PanIN grade (6.4 and 6.8% in PanIN 1A and B, 35% in PanIN 2 and 20% in PanIN 3). The elevated expression of L1CAM already found in PanINs points to a role of L1CAM quite early in tumorigenesis of PDAC. Furthermore, its broad expression in primary tumors as well as in metastases of PDAC patients provide a rationale to further explore the value of L1CAM as a therapeutic target in the treatment of this highly malignant tumor.
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L1CAM expression in endometrial carcinomas is regulated by usage of two different promoter regions.
BMC Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2010
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The L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) was originally identified as a neural adhesion molecule involved in axon guidance. In many human epithelial carcinomas L1CAM is overexpressed and thereby augments cell motility, invasion and metastasis formation. L1CAM positive carcinomas are associated with bad prognosis. Recent data point out that L1CAM is regulated in a fashion similar to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Previous studies have implied the transcription factors Slug and/or ?-catenin in L1CAM transcriptional regulation. However, the regulation of human L1CAM expression at the transcriptional level is not well understood.
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E2F3a is critically involved in epidermal growth factor receptor-directed proliferation in ovarian cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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We describe for the first time a new integral molecular pathway, linking transcription factor E2F3a to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation in ovarian cancer cells. Investigations on the role of E2F family members in EGFR-mediated mitogenic signaling revealed that E2F3a was selectively upregulated following EGFR activation, whereas all other E2F family members remained unaffected. In contrast, EGF treatment of healthy ovarian surface epithelial and mesothelial cells yielded a selective upregulation of proliferation-promoting E2F1 and E2F2 without influencing E2F3a expression. In ovarian cancer cell lines, the extent of EGF-induced proliferative stimulus was closely related to the magnitude of E2F3a increase, and proliferation inhibition by E2F3a knockdown was not overcome by EGF exposure. Furthermore, the EGFR-E2F3a axis was found to be signal transducer and activator of transcription 1/3 dependent and the ratio of IFN-regulatory factor (IRF)-1 to IRF-2 was shown to be determinative for E2F3a control. In a pilot study on 32 primary ovarian cancer specimens, a highly significant correlation between activated EGFR and E2F3a expression was disclosed. This new integral pathway in the EGFR-driven mitogenic cell response, which through its key player E2F3a was found to be essential in triggering proliferation in ovarian cancer cells, provides new insights into EGFR signaling and could represent the basis for appealing new therapeutic approaches in ovarian cancer.
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Molecular and clinical dissection of CD24 antibody specificity by a comprehensive comparative analysis.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2010
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CD24 is a small, highly glycosylated cell surface protein that is linked to the membrane through a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor. It is overexpressed in many human carcinomas and its expression is linked to bad prognosis. Lately, lack or low expression of CD24 was used to identify tumor stem cells resulting in conflicting data on the usefulness of this marker. In many immunohistochemical studies, the mAb SN3b was used but the epitope and specificity of this antibody have never been thoroughly investigated. In other studies based mainly on cytofluorographic analysis, the mAb ML-5 was applied. In this study, we compared the epitope of mAb SN3b to the CD24 mAbs SWA-11 and ML-5 that both bind to the core protein of CD24. Using tissue microarrays and affinity-purified CD24 glycoforms, we observed only a partial overlap of SN3b and SWA11 reactivity. The mAb SN3b recognizes sialic acid most likely on O-linked glycans that can occur independently of the CD24 protein backbone. The SN3b epitope was not related to common sialylated cancer-associated glycan structures. Both SN3b epitope positive or negative CD24 glycoforms supported the binding of P-selectin and Siglec-5. In breast cancer, the SN3b reactivity was associated with bad prognosis, whereas SWA11 was not. In renal cell cancer, the SN3b epitope was completely absent but SWA11 reactivity was a prognostic factor. Our results shed new light on the tumorbiological role of CD24 and resolve discrepancies in the literature related to the use of different CD24 mAbs.
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Therapeutic antibodies to human L1CAM: functional characterization and application in a mouse model for ovarian carcinoma.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2010
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Recent work has identified L1CAM (CD171) as a novel marker for human carcinoma progression. Functionally, L1CAM promotes tumor cell invasion and motility, augments tumor growth in nude mice, and facilitates experimental tumor metastasis. These functional features qualify L1 as an interesting target molecule for tumor therapy. Here, we generated a series of novel monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to the L1CAM ectodomain that were characterized by biochemical and functional means. All novel mAbs reacted specifically with L1CAM and not with the closely related molecule CHL1, whereas antibodies to the COOH terminal part of L1CAM (mAb2C2, mAb745H7, pcytL1) showed cross-reactivity. Among the novel mAbs, L1-9.3 was selected and its therapeutic potential was analyzed in various isotype variants in a model of SKOV3ip cells growing i.p. in CD1 nude mice. Only therapy with the IgG2a variant efficiently prolonged survival and reduced tumor burden. This was accompanied by an increased infiltration of F4/80-positive monocytic cells. Clodronate pretreatment of tumor-bearing animals led to the depletion of monocytes and abolished the therapeutic effect of L1-9.3/IgG2a. Expression profiling of tumor-derived mRNA revealed that L1-9.3/IgG2a therapy induced altered expression of cellular genes associated with apoptosis and tumor growth. Our results establish that anti-L1 mAb therapy acts via immunologic and nonimmunologic effector mechanism to block tumor growth. The novel antibodies to L1CAM could become helpful tools for the therapy of L1-positive human carcinomas.
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L1CAM malfunction in the nervous system and human carcinomas.
Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2010
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Research over the last 25 years on the cell adhesion molecule L1 has revealed its pivotal role in nervous system function. Mutations of the human L1CAM gene have been shown to cause neurodevelopmental disorders such as X-linked hydrocephalus, spastic paraplegia and mental retardation. Impaired L1 function has been also implicated in the aetiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, defective enteric nervous system development and malformations of the renal system. Importantly, aberrant expression of L1 has emerged as a critical factor in the development of human carcinomas, where it enhances cell proliferation, motility and chemoresistance. This discovery promoted collaborative work between tumour biologists and neurobiologists, which has led to a substantial expansion of the basic knowledge about L1 function and regulation. Here we provide an overview of the pathological conditions caused by L1 malfunction. We further discuss how the available data on gene regulation, molecular interactions and posttranslational processing of L1 may contribute to a better understanding of associated neurological and cancerous diseases.
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Inhibition of cell proliferation, adhesion, and invasion with an anti-L1-cell adhesion molecule monoclonal antibody in an in vitro endometriosis model.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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The use of anti-L1-cell adhesion molecule monoclonal antibodies (anti-L1CAM-mAb) in an endometriosis epithelial cell line Z12 led to a statistically significant decrease in cell proliferation and cell invasion and to an inhibition of the adhesion compared with unspecific IgG-Ab treated and untreated cells. Because it increases the cell invasion and adhesion which consequently aggravates the disease, L1 could possibly promote endometriosis development; thus, further studies should evaluate the possible use of anti-L1-mAb in an animal endometriosis model.
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Up-regulation of L1CAM is linked to loss of hormone receptors and E-cadherin in aggressive subtypes of endometrial carcinomas.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2010
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Endometrial carcinomas (ECs) are classified into type 1 (less aggressive) and type 2 (aggressive) tumours that differ in genetic alterations. So far, reliable immunohistochemical markers that can identify patients with high risk for recurrence are rare. We have defined the expression of L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM), a biomarker previously identified for EC, and compared its expression to oestrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) and E-cadherin. We found that L1CAM was absent in normal endometrium and the vast majority of endometrioid ECs (type 1) but was strongly expressed in serous and clear-cell ECs, considered as type 2. 78/272 cases were identified as L1CAM-positive endometrioid ECs that were correlated with a poor prognosis. Strikingly, we observed an inverse relationship between L1CAM and ER/PR/E-cadherin expression in all ECs. In mixed ECs, composed of endometrioid (L1CAM(-) ER/PR(+) E-cadherin(+)) and clear-cell/serous (L1CAM(+) ER/PR(-) E-cadherin(-)), both phenotypes were co-expressed. In some of these cases L1CAM was up-regulated at the leading edge of the tumour, where ER/PR and E-cadherin expression were selectively lost. In EC cell lines treated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducer TGFbeta1, L1CAM and vimentin were strongly up-regulated, while E-cadherin expression was reduced. The treatment also resulted in an increased expression of the EMT transcription factor Slug and an enhanced cell invasion. Depletion of Slug by siRNA knockdown prevented both L1CAM up-regulation and enhanced cell invasion. According to our analysis, we suggest that L1CAM is a novel marker for EMT in ECs and that L1CAM-typing could identify endometrioid ECs that have type 2-like features and are at high risk for recurrence.
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ADAM10 is expressed in human podocytes and found in urinary vesicles of patients with glomerular kidney diseases.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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The importance of the Notch signaling in the development of glomerular diseases has been recently described. Therefore we analyzed in podocytes the expression and activity of ADAM10, one important component of the Notch signaling complex.
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ADAM10 is upregulated in melanoma metastasis compared with primary melanoma.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2009
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ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10) is involved in the ectodomain shedding of various substrates, including adhesion molecules such as L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1-CAM) and CD44, which are known to have important roles in the development of malignant melanoma. In our study, we characterized the expression of ADAM10 in melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Immunohistochemical analysis on tissue microarrays indicated that ADAM10 expression was significantly elevated in melanoma metastasis compared with primary melanomas. In vitro downregulation of ADAM10 with specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in a suppression of the anchorage-independent cell growth and reduced the migration of melanoma cells. In addition, overexpression of ADAM10 induced the migration of melanoma cells. In cell lines from melanoma patients with metastasis, ADAM10 was significantly overexpressed, and ADAM10 expression correlated with increased cell proliferation. Furthermore, we present evidence that ADAM10 is involved in the release of L1-CAM from melanoma cells. It is important that knockdown of cellular L1-CAM reduced the migration of melanoma cells and abrogated the chemoresistance against cisplatin. In contrast, soluble L1-CAM had no effect on melanoma cell migration or cell survival. Taken together, our data demonstrate that ADAM10 and L1-CAM have important roles during melanoma progression and both molecules represent attractive targets for therapeutical intervention of melanomas.
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Expression and prognostic value of L1-CAM in breast cancer.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2009
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The L1 adhesion molecule (L1-CAM) is associated with impaired prognosis in many carcinomas. However, limited information about its expression in breast cancer tissue is available. Therefore, we carried out an analysis on L1 expression in primary breast cancers using a combination of Western blot, DNA-microarray analysis and immunohistochemistry. We observed L1 protein and mRNA overexpression in 14-15% of the carcinomas and this was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. High L1 expression was associated with nodal involvement, high grading, human epidermal growth receptor 2 (Her-2), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and a negative estrogen receptor (ER) status, but not with neuroendocrine markers. Moreover, patients with tumors showing high L1-CAM expression had a shorter disease-free and overall survival. Given the emerging functional role of L1 in promoting tumor cell migration, invasion, tumor growth and metastasis, our results suggest that L1 may have this function in breast cancer as well.
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Enhanced L1CAM expression on pancreatic tumor endothelium mediates selective tumor cell transmigration.
J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2009
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L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) is a transmembrane cell adhesion molecule initially defined as a promigratory molecule in the developing nervous system that appears to be also expressed in some endothelial cells. However, little is known about the functional role of L1CAM on endothelial cells. We observed that L1CAM expression was selectively enhanced on endothelium associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma in situ and on cultured pancreatic tumor-derived endothelial cells in vitro. L1CAM expression of endothelial cells could be augmented by incubation with immunomodulatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma, or transforming growth factor beta 1. Antibodies to L1CAM and the respective ligand neuropilin-1 blocked tube formation and stromal cell-derived factor 1beta induced transmigration of tumor endothelial cells in vitro. L1CAM expression on tumor-derived-endothelial cells enhanced Panc1 carcinoma cell adhesion to endothelial cell monolayers and transendothelial migration. Our data demonstrate a functional role of L1CAM expression on tumor endothelium that could favor metastasis and angiogenesis during tumor progression.
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Up-regulation of L1CAM in pancreatic duct cells is transforming growth factor beta1- and slug-dependent: role in malignant transformation of pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2009
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is thought to originate from ductal structures, exhibiting strong desmoplastic reaction with stromal pancreatic myofibroblasts (PMF), which are supposed to drive PDAC tumorigenesis. Previously, we observed high expression of the adhesion molecule L1CAM (CD171) in PDAC cells accounting for chemoresistance. Thus, this study aimed to investigate whether PMFs are involved in the induction of tumoral L1CAM and whether this contributes to malignant transformation of pancreatic ductal cells and PDAC tumorigenesis. Immunohistochemistry of tissues from chronic pancreatitis specimens revealed considerable L1CAM expression in ductal structures surrounded by dense fibrotic tissue, whereas no L1CAM staining was seen in normal pancreatic tissues. Using the human pancreatic duct cell line H6c7, we show that coculture with PMFs led to a transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1)-dependent up-regulation of L1CAM expression. Similarly, L1CAM expression increased in monocultured H6c7 cells after administration of exogenous TGF-beta1. Both TGF-beta1- and PMF-induced L1CAM expression were independent of Smad proteins but required c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase activation leading to the induction of the transcription factor Slug. Moreover, Slug interacted with the L1CAM promoter, and its knockdown abrogated the TGF-beta1- and PMF-induced L1CAM expression. As a result of L1CAM expression, H6c7 cells acquired a chemoresistant and migratory phenotype. This mechanism of TGF-beta1-induced L1CAM expression and the resulting phenotype could be verified in the TGF-beta1-responsive PDAC cell lines Colo357 and Panc1. Our data provide new insights into the mechanisms of tumoral L1CAM induction and how PMFs contribute to malignant transformation of pancreatic duct cells early in PDAC tumorigenesis.
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Tumoural CXCL16 expression is a novel prognostic marker of longer survival times in renal cell cancer patients.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
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The aim of our study was to analyse the expression of CXCL16, ADAM10 and CXCR6 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tissue and to correlate the expression pattern with clinicopathologic data, including patient survival. Furthermore, we investigated CXCL16, ADAM10 and CXCR6 expressions by FACS, immunofluorescence and ELISA analysis in renal carcinoma cell lines. Our immunohistochemical analysis on tissue microarray of renal cancer samples of 104 patients revealed that ADAM10 correlated significantly with tumour stage, pathological nodal status, M status and lymphangiosis carcinomatosa. CXCL16, CXCR6 and ADAM10 were significantly increased in papillary carcinomas. Importantly, high levels of CXCL16 expression in renal cancer tissue correlated with better survival of patients, and CXCL16 correlated inversely to the tumour stage. In addition, inhibition of CXCL16 induced the migration of renal cancer cells assuming an anti-migratory function of transmembrane CXCL16. Taken together, our data demonstrate that downregulation of CXCL16 plays an important role in renal cancer development and progression, and that CXCL16 in RCC is an independent prognostic marker for better patient survival.
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Nuclear translocation and signalling of L1-CAM in human carcinoma cells requires ADAM10 and presenilin/gamma-secretase activity.
Biochem. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2009
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L1-CAM (L1 cell-adhesion molecule), or more simply L1, plays an important role in the progression of human carcinoma. Overexpression promotes tumour-cell invasion and motility, growth in nude mice and tumour metastasis. It is feasible that L1-dependent signalling contributes to these effects. However, little is known about its mechanism in tumour cells. We reported previously that L1 is cleaved by ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) and that the cytoplasmic part is essential for L1 function. Here we analysed more closely the role of proteolytic cleavage in L1-mediated nuclear signalling. Using OVMz carcinoma cells and L1-transfected cells as a model, we found that ADAM10-mediated cleavage of L1 proceeds in lipid raft and non-raft domains. The cleavage product, L1-32, is further processed by PS (presenilin)/gamma-secretase to release L1-ICD, an L1 intracellular domain of 28 kDa. Overexpression of dominant-negative PS1 or use of a specific gamma-secretase inhibitor leads to an accumulation of L1-32. Fluorescence and biochemical analysis revealed a nuclear localization for L1-ICD. Moreover, inhibition of ADAM10 and/or gamma-secretase blocks nuclear translocation of L1-ICD and L1-dependent gene regulation. Overexpression of recombinant L1-ICD mediates gene regulation in a similar manner to full-length L1. Our results establish for the first time that regulated proteolytic processing by ADAM10 and PS/gamma-secretase is essential for the nuclear signalling of L1 in human carcinoma cell lines.
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alpha5-integrin is crucial for L1CAM-mediated chemoresistance in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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We recently showed that the adhesion molecule L1CAM (CD171) is overexpressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) essentially contributing to chemoresistance of PDAC cells. In search of the mechanisms of this effect we now identified alpha5-integrin as the L1CAM ligand being essential for L1CAM-mediated chemoresistance of these highly malignant tumor cells. Thus, blockade or knock-down of alpha5-integrin in the L1CAM expressing PDAC cell lines PT45-P1res, Colo357 and Panc1 increased anti-cancer drug sensitivity. In line with the previously reported NO-dependent caspase inhibition resulting from L1CAM induced iNOS expression, the loss of chemoresistance upon alpha5-integrin inhibition was preceded by decreased iNOS expression and enhanced caspase-3/-7 activation. Accordingly, the loss of anti-cancer drug protection by alpha5-integrin inhibition could be overcome by administration of the NO-donor SNAP. Moreover, the gain of chemoresistance of parental PT45-P1 cells when transfected with L1CAM was abrogated by alpha5-integrin inhibition, whereas transfection of PT45-P1 cells with an integrin binding-deficient L1CAM mutant (L1mutRGE) did neither induce chemoresistance or iNOS expression nor conferred sensitivity to alpha5-integrin inhibition as seen upon transfection with wild-type L1CAM. Thus, mutational loss of the integrin binding site in the L1CAM molecule or the blockade of alpha5-integrin abolished the induction of iNOS expression and chemoresistance by L1CAM, indicating that both a functional L1CAM and alpha5-integrin are indispensable of L1CAM-induced drug resistance in PDAC cells.
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Magnetic resonance imaging of melanoma metastases in a clinical relevant human melanoma xenograft scid mouse model.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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This study aimed to analyse (i) the metastatic behaviour of human melanoma FEMX-1 cells in scid mice after surgical excision of the PT and (ii) to evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of melanoma metastases. Histology proved both high specificity (95%), and high sensitivity of MRI detection of melanoma metastasis. CEACAM1, L1, and HPA-binding site expression, all markers predicting metastasis in clinical studies, were preserved in the metastatic nodules. Thus, our xenograft model closely resembles the clinical situation of post-operative development of distant organ metastasis and demonstrates that MRI is a sensitive and highly qualified technology for intra-vital monitoring of melanoma progression.
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Systemic presence and tumor-growth promoting effect of ovarian carcinoma released exosomes.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2009
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Exosomes are membrane vesicles that are released from many different cell types. Tumor derived-exosomes play a role in immune suppression. We hypothesized that in ovarian carcinoma patients exosomes initially produced at the local abdominal site may become systemic. We examined paired samples of ascites and blood from ovarian carcinoma patients for the presence of exosomes. We also studied the requirements for exosomal uptake by immune cells, the role of phosphatidyl-serine (PS) as uptake signal and the effect of exosome application on tumor growth. We used exosomes from ovarian carcinoma cell lines, malignant ascites and sera from ovarian carcinoma patients isolated by ultracentrifugation. PS-displayed by exosomes was detected by Anexin-V-FITC staining of latex beads adsorbed exosomes. For uptake experiments, labeled exosomes were exposed to cells in the presence or absence of cold Annexin-V as competitor. Uptake was examined by fluorescent microscopy and cytofluorographic analysis. Effects of exosomes on tumor growth were studied using SKOV3ip ovarian carcinoma cells in CD1 nu/nu mice. We found that malignant ascites-derived exosomes cargo tumor progression related proteins such as L1CAM, CD24, ADAM10, and EMMPRIN. We observed that exosomes become systemic via the blood stream. Uptake of ovarian carcinoma exosomes by NK cells was found to require PS at the exosomal surface but the presence of PS was not sufficient. Application of malignant ascites-derived exosomes to tumor bearing mice resulted in augmented tumor growth. Exosomes from the serum of tumor patients could be isolated from only one ml of blood and this analysis could serve for diagnostic purposes. We propose that tumor-derived exosomes could play a role in tumor progression.
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Downregulation of junctional adhesion molecule-A is involved in the progression of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) is one component of tight junctions which are involved in important processes like paracellular permeability, cell polarity, adhesion, migration, and angiogenesis. Here we describe JAM-A expression in distal convoluted tubule, connecting tubule, and in cells of the collecting duct of the healthy human kidney. In addition, JAM-A was weakly expressed in cells of the proximal tubule. Using immunofluorescence, FACS and Western blot analysis we investigated JAM-A expression in tubular cells in vitro. Interestingly, treatment of HK-2 cells with IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha resulted in a metalloproteinase mediated downregulation of JAM-A. Importantly, in a tissue micro-array JAM-A protein expression was significantly downregulated in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Furthermore, knockdown of JAM-A with JAM-A specific siRNA induced the migration of RCC4 cells. In summary, downregulation of JAM-A is an early event in the development of renal cancer and increases the migration of renal cancer cells.
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Vesiclepedia: a compendium for extracellular vesicles with continuous community annotation.
PLoS Biol.
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Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membraneous vesicles released by a variety of cells into their microenvironment. Recent studies have elucidated the role of EVs in intercellular communication, pathogenesis, drug, vaccine and gene-vector delivery, and as possible reservoirs of biomarkers. These findings have generated immense interest, along with an exponential increase in molecular data pertaining to EVs. Here, we describe Vesiclepedia, a manually curated compendium of molecular data (lipid, RNA, and protein) identified in different classes of EVs from more than 300 independent studies published over the past several years. Even though databases are indispensable resources for the scientific community, recent studies have shown that more than 50% of the databases are not regularly updated. In addition, more than 20% of the database links are inactive. To prevent such database and link decay, we have initiated a continuous community annotation project with the active involvement of EV researchers. The EV research community can set a gold standard in data sharing with Vesiclepedia, which could evolve as a primary resource for the field.
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Influence of L1-CAM expression of breast cancer cells on adhesion to endothelial cells.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
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Expression of the adhesion molecule L1-CAM (L1) has been shown to correlate with early recurrence in breast cancer. Here, we investigated whether L1-CAM expression of breast cancer cells might influence adherence to human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC) and thus promote metastasis.
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Redirected T cells that target pancreatic adenocarcinoma antigens eliminate tumors and metastases in mice.
Gastroenterology
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Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) is often diagnosed at an advanced and inoperable stage, and standard systemic treatments are generally ineffective. We investigated the effects of adoptive transfer of tumor-specific T cells that express chimeric antibody-based receptors (CAR) to mice with primary and metastatic PAC xenografts.
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L1CAM: a major driver for tumor cell invasion and motility.
Cell Adh Migr
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The L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) plays a major role in the development of the nervous system and in the malignancy of human tumors. In terms of biological function, L1CAM comes along in two different flavors: (1) a static function as a cell adhesion molecule that acts as a glue between cells; (2) a motility promoting function that drives cell migration during neural development and supports metastasis of human cancers. Important factors that contribute to the switch in the functional mode of L1CAM are: (1) the cleavage from the cell surface by membrane proximal proteolysis and (2) the ability to change binding partners and engage in L1CAM-integrin binding. Recent studies have shown that the cleavage of L1CAM by metalloproteinases and the binding of L1CAM to integrins via its RGD-motif in the sixth Ig-domain activate signaling pathways distinct from the ones elicited by homophilic binding. Here we highlight important features of L1CAM proteolysis and the signaling of L1CAM via integrin engagement. The novel insights into L1CAM downstream signaling and its regulation during tumor progression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) will lead to a better understanding of the dualistic role of L1CAM as a cell adhesion and/or motility promoting cell surface molecule.
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EMT-associated up-regulation of L1CAM provides insights into L1CAM-mediated integrin signalling and NF-?B activation.
Carcinogenesis
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Expression of L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) is associated with poor prognosis in a variety of human carcinomas including breast, ovarian and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Recently we reported that L1CAM induces sustained nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) activation by augmenting the autocrine production of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?), a process dependent on interaction of L1CAM with integrins. In the present study, we demonstrate that transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) treatment of breast carcinoma (MDA-MB231) and PDAC (BxPc3) cell lines induces an EMT (epithelial to mesenchymal transition)-like phenotype and leads to the expression of L1CAM. In MDA-MB231 cells, up-regulation of L1CAM augmented expression of IL-1? and NF-?B activation, which was reversed by depletion of L1CAM, L1CAM-binding membrane cytoskeleton linker protein ezrin, ?1-integrin or focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Over-expression of L1CAM not only induced NF-?B activation but also mediated the phosphorylation of FAK and Src. Phosphorylation was not induced in cells expressing a mutant form of L1CAM (L1-RGE) devoid of the integrin-binding site. FAK- and Src-phosphorylation were inhibited by knock-down of various components of the integrin signalling pathway such as ?1- and ?5-integrins, integrin-linked kinase (ILK), FAK and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) subunit p110?. In summary, these results reveal that during EMT, L1CAM promotes IL-1? expression through a process dependent on integrin signalling and supports a motile and invasive tumour cell phenotype. We also identify important novel downstream effector molecules of the L1CAM-integrin signalling crosstalk that help to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying L1CAM-promoted tumour progression.
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CD24 controls Src/STAT3 activity in human tumors.
Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
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CD24 is a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein that is frequently over-expressed in a variety of human carcinomas and is correlated with poor prognosis. In cancer cell lines, changes of CD24 expression can alter several cellular properties in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. However, little is known about how CD24 mediates these effects. Here we have analyzed the functional consequences of CD24 knock-down or over-expression in human cancer cell lines. Depletion of CD24 reduced cell proliferation and adhesion, enhanced apoptosis, and regulated the expression of various genes some of which were identified as STAT3 target genes. Loss of CD24 reduced STAT3 and FAK phosphorylation. Diminished STAT3 activity was confirmed by specific reporter assays. We found that reduced STAT3 activity after CD24 knock-down was accompanied by altered Src phosphorylation. Silencing of Src, similar to CD24, targeted the expression of prototype STAT3-regulated genes. Likewise, the over-expression of CD24 augmented Src-Y416 phosphorylation, the recruitment of Src into lipid rafts and the expression of STAT3-dependent target genes. An antibody to CD24 was effective in reducing tumor growth of A549 lung cancer and BxPC3 pancreatic cancer xenografts in mice. Antibody treatment affected the level of Src-phosphorylation in the tumor and altered the expression of STAT3 target genes. Our results provide evidence that CD24 regulates STAT3 and FAK activity and suggest an important role of Src in this process. Finally, the targeting of CD24 by antibodies could represent a novel route for tumor therapy.
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A standardized staining protocol for L1CAM on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues using automated platforms.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
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ABSTRACT

The L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) is overexpressed in many human cancers and can serve as a biomarker for prognosis in most of these cancers (including type I endometrial carcinomas). Here we provide an optimized immunohistochemical staining procedure for a widely used automated platform (VENTANA™), which has recourse to commercially available primary antibody and detection reagents. In parallel, we optimized the staining on a semi-automated BioGenix (i6000) ?immunostainer. These protocols yield good stainings and should represent the basis for a reliable and standardized immunohistochemical detection of L1CAM in a variety of malignancies in different laboratories.

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