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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
FOXO1 repression contributes to block of plasma cell differentiation in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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The survival of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) cells depends on activation of NF-?B, JAK/STAT, and IRF4. Whereas these factors typically induce the master regulator of plasma cell (PC) differentiation PRDM1/BLIMP-1, levels of PRDM1 remain low in cHL. FOXO1, playing a critical role in normal B-cell development, acts as a tumor suppressor in cHL, but has never been associated with induction of PC differentiation. Here we show that FOXO1 directly upregulates the full-length isoform PRDM1? in cHL cell lines. We also observed a positive correlation between FOXO1 and PRDM1 expression levels in primary Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg cells. Further, we show that PRDM1? acts as a tumor suppressor in cHL at least partially by blocking MYC. Here we provide a link between FOXO1 repression and PRDM1? downregulation in cHL and identify PRDM1? as a tumor suppressor in cHL. The data support a potential role for FOXO transcription factors in normal PC differentiation.
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FOXO1 downregulation contributes to the oncogenic program of primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Recently we have shown that the transcription factor FOXO1, highly expressed in B cells, is downregulated in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). As primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBL) has similarities with the cHL transcription program we investigated FOXO1 expression in this entity. By using immunohistochemistry we found that FOXO1 was absent or expressed at low levels in 19 of 20 primary PMBL cases. PMBL cell lines reproduce the low FOXO1 expression observed in primary cases. By analyzing gene expression profiling data we found that FOXO1 expression inversely correlated with JAK2 in PMBL cases. Targeting JAK2 activity by the small molecular weight inhibitor TG101348 resulted in upregulation of FOXO1 mRNA and protein expression in MedB-1 and U2940 cell lines, and the MYC inhibitor 10058-F4 increased FOXO1 mRNA in MedB-1 cells. Moreover, in MedB-1 cells FOXO1 expression was strongly upregulated by the inhibitor of DNA methylation 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine and by the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. Since FOXO1 promoter was unmethylated, this effect is most likely indirect. FOXO1 activation in the FOXO1-negative Med-B1 cell line led to growth arrest and apoptosis, which was accompanied by repression of MYC and BCL2L1/BCLxL. Thus, FOXO1 repression might contribute to the oncogenic program and phenotype of PMBL.
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Potential clinical implications of BRAF mutations in histiocytic proliferations.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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For a growing number of tumors the BRAF V600E mutation carries therapeutic relevance. In histiocytic proliferations the distribution of BRAF mutations and their relevance has not been clarified. Here we present a retrospective genotyping study and a prospective observational study of a patient treated with a BRAF inhibitor. Genotyping of 69 histiocytic lesions revealed that 23/48 Langerhans cell lesions were BRAF-V600E-mutant whereas all non-Langerhans cell lesions (including dendritic cell sarcoma, juvenile xanthogranuloma, Rosai-Dorfman disease, and granular cell tumor) were wild-type. A metareview of 29 publications showed an overall mutation frequency of 48.5% and with N=653 samples this frequency is well defined. The BRAF mutation status cannot be predicted based on clinical parameters and outcome analysis showed no difference. Genotyping identified a 45 year-old woman with an aggressive and treatment-refractory, ultrastructurally confirmed systemic BRAF-mutant LCH. Prior treatments included glucocorticoid/vinblastine and cladribine-monotherapy. Treatment with vemurafenib over 3 months resulted in a dramatic metabolic response by FDG-PET and stable radiographic disease; the patient experienced progression after 6 months. In conclusion, BRAF mutations in histiocytic proliferations are restricted to lesions of the Langerhans-cell type. While for most LCH-patients efficient therapies are available, patients with BRAF mutations may benefit from the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib.
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Histopathological features and their prognostic impact in nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma--a matched pair analysis from the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG).
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare lymphoma entity. We performed a matched-pair analysis to evaluate the prognostic impact of several histopathological features in this distinct Hodgkin lymphoma subtype. Lymph node samples of NLPHL patients were tested for CD15, IgD, phosphorylated STAT6, ICOS and Epstein-Barr virus status of the malignant lymphocyte-predominant cells as well as epithelioid cell clusters and activated T cells in the microenvironment. None of these features was associated with a particular clinical outcome. However, patients presenting with epithelioid cell clusters showed a non-significant trend towards a lower relapse rate, justifying further evaluation of this marker.
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Immunohistochemical and FISH analysis of MDM2 and CDK4 in a dedifferentiated extraskeletal osteosarcoma arising in the vastus lateralis muscle: Differential diagnosis and diagnostic algorithm.
Pathol. Res. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Extraskeletal osteosarcoma is a rare neoplasia within the broad differential diagnostic spectrum of calcifying intramuscular lesions. We present a case of a slowly increasing mass within the left vastus lateralis muscle. At first presentation the patient showed a partially calcified well defined mass with a diameter of 5cm and with no direct contact to the femur. A biopsy from the periphery revealed an ossifying lesion compatible with myositis ossificans. The patient returned 18 months later with the lesion having increased to a diameter of 25cm. The resection specimen revealed a well delimitated tumor with a central core of partially necrotic neoplastic bone. Besides, histology showed high mitotic areas with pleomorphic spindle cells and regions with cartilaginous differentiation. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated: vimentin+, CD34-, desmin-, actin-, EMA- and pancytokeratin- with focal S100 protein positivity and a Ki-67 index of 20%. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) revealed a gain of chromosomal material on 12q; FISH analyses for the CDK4 and MDM2 region showed high level amplifications. Consequently, a high-grade dedifferentiated extraskeletal osteosarcoma was diagnosed. In conclusion, analysis of the MDM2 and CDK4 status is a powerful and discriminating diagnostic tool to distinguish dedifferentiated extraskeletal osteosarcoma from other benign/malignant ossifying lesions in the skeletal muscle.
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SUMOylation attenuates the transcriptional activity of the NF-?B subunit RelB.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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The NF-?B subunit RelB is known to act either as an activator or repressor of NF-?B-dependent gene expression. The RelB-p52 heterodimer, for instance, is the key element of the alternative NF-?B signaling pathway supporting the expression of a subset of NF-?B target genes. By contrast, RelB is crucial for the repression of important pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF? or interleukin 1?. Despite accumulating reports describing the functional variability of RelB, the molecular mechanisms underlying these divergent functions are still unknown. One potential explanation could be a functional reprogramming of RelB by different post-translational modifications. Here, we demonstrate that SUMOylation of RelB might be one of these post-translational modifications rendering the function of the NF-?B transcription factor RelB. In vivo SUMOylation analyses using either the UBC9-fusion-directed SUMOylation method or endogenous proteins from Namalwa B cells revealed that RelB is modified by either SUMO1 or SUMO2 attachment at various sites. Functional studies suggest that SUMOylation converts RelB into a transcriptional repressor. For instance, a SUMO1-RelB fusion protein mimicking RelB-SUMOylation displayed a reduced transcriptional activity in comparison to wild type RelB. Consistently, inactivation of specific SUMOylation sites in the central part of RelB augmented the transcription activity of the corresponding RelB mutant. Taken together, our data suggest that SUMOylation might be a potential molecular mechanism involved in reprogramming RelB, thus contributing to its functional diversity.
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H2S during circulatory shock: some unresolved questions.
Nitric Oxide
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Numerous papers have been published on the role of H2S during circulatory shock. Consequently, knowledge about vascular sulfide concentrations may assume major importance, in particular in the context of "acute on chronic disease", i.e., during circulatory shock in animals with pre-existing chronic disease. This review addresses the questions (i) of the "real" sulfide levels during circulatory shock, and (ii) to which extent injury and pre-existing co-morbidity may affect the expression of H2S producing enzymes under these conditions. In the literature there is a huge range on sulfide blood levels during circulatory shock, in part as a result of the different analytical methods used, but also due to the variable of the models and species studied. Clearly, some of the very high levels reported should be questioned in the context of the well-known H2S toxicity. As long as "real" sulfide levels during circulatory shock are unknown and/or undetectable "on line" due to the lack of appropriate techniques, it appears to be premature to correlate the measured blood levels of hydrogen sulfide with the severity of shock or the H2S therapy-related biological outcomes. The available data on the tissue expression of the H2S-releasing enzymes during circulatory shock suggest that a "constitutive" CSE expression may play a crucial role of for the maintenance of organ function, at least in the kidney. The data also indicate that increased CBS and CSE expression, in particular in the lung and the liver, represents an adaptive response to stress states.
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Expression and Y435-phosphorylation of Abelson interactor 1 (Abi1) promotes tumour cell adhesion, extracellular matrix degradation and invasion by colorectal carcinoma cells.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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The Abelson tyrosine kinase (c-Abl) inhibitor STI571 (Glivec®) has been shown to effectively inhibit colorectal cancer cell migration and invasion. The c-Abl substrate abelson interactor 1 (Abi1) is a key regulator of actin reorganization and upregulated in colorectal carcinoma. The specific role of Abi1 in relation to extracellular matrix degradation and effects of targeting Abi1 phosphorylation have not yet been examined. Here, we investigated the role of Abi1 in relation to invasive properties in colorectal cancer.
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Isolated Whipple's endocarditis: an underestimated diagnosis that requires molecular analysis of surgical material.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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Tropheryma whipplei is known as the bacterium that causes Whipple's disease, a rare systemic illness typically affecting gastrointestinal tract, joints, and central nervous system. In addition, T whipplei infection may present as an isolated endocarditis. Although previously regarded as a rare condition, T whipplei has been recognized as a major cause of culture-negative endocarditis when integrating specific molecular analysis of surgical material into the diagnostic algorithm. Here, we report the case of a 67-year-old man undergoing mitral valve replacement due to T whipplei endocarditis, and discuss diagnostic and therapeutic implications.
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Molecular profiling of chordoma.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The molecular basis of chordoma is still poorly understood, particularly with respect to differentially expressed genes involved in the primary origin of chordoma. In this study, therefore, we compared the transcriptional expression profile of one sacral chordoma recurrence, two chordoma cell lines (U-CH1 and U-CH2) and one chondrosarcoma cell line (U-CS2) with vertebral disc using a high-density oligonucleotide array. The expression of 65 genes whose mRNA levels differed significantly (p<0.001; ?6-fold change) between chordoma and control (vertebral disc) was identified. Genes with increased expression in chordoma compared to control and chondrosarcoma were most frequently located on chromosomes 2 (11%), 5 (8%), 1 and 7 (each 6%), whereas interphase cytogenetics of 33 chordomas demonstrated gains of chromosomal material most prevalent on 7q (42%), 12q (21%), 17q (21%), 20q (27%) and 22q (21%). The microarray data were confirmed for selected genes by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. As in other studies, we showed the expression of brachyury. We demonstrate the expression of new potential candidates for chordoma tumorigenesis, such as CD24, ECRG4, RARRES2, IGFBP2, RAP1, HAI2, RAB38, osteopontin, GalNAc-T3, VAMP8 and others. Thus, we identified and validated a set of interesting candidate genes whose differential expression likely plays a role in chordoma.
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A nuclear circularity-based classifier for diagnostic distinction of desmoplastic from spindle cell melanoma in digitized histological images.
J Pathol Inform
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Distinction of spindle cell melanoma (SM) and desmoplastic melanoma (DM) is clinically important due to differences in metastatic rate and prognosis; however, histological distinction is not always straightforward. During a routine review of cases, we noted differences in nuclear circularity between SM and DM.
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The prognostic impact of variant histology in nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: a report from the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG).
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) accounts for approximately 5% of all Hodgkin lymphoma cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic implication of histopathologic NLPHL variants. Biopsies of 423 NLPHL patients treated within 9 prospective clinical trials performed by the German Hodgkin Study Group were classified as tumor cell-rich cases (n = 10), typical NLPHL (n = 308), or histopathologic variants (n = 105). Histopathologic variants were characterized by the presence of lymphoma cells outside the B-cell nodules or B-cell depletion of the microenvironment. Compared with typical NLPHL, histopathologic variants were associated with advanced disease (29.5% vs 14.6%, P = .0012) and a higher relapse rate (18.1% vs 6.5% at 5 years, P = .0009). Variant histology represented an independent prognostic factor (odds ratio = 2.955) in a multivariate model of progression/relapse. A prognostic score, including the risk factors variant histopathologic growth pattern, low serum albumin, and male gender, was derived from this model and allowed the definition of 3 distinct risk groups. NLPHL patients presenting with histopathologic variants have a poorer outcome compared with those showing typical histology. The newly developed prognostic score combining histologic and clinical features allows allocating NLPHL patients to defined risk groups.
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Absence of FLICE-inhibitory protein is a novel independent prognostic marker for very short survival in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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Evading apoptosis is a hallmark of pancreatic cancer. In pancreatic cancer models, chemotherapy down-regulates the antiapoptotic protein cellular FLICE inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), which renders cells sensitive to apoptosis. Currently, the relevance of c-FLIP expression as a biomarker in pancreatic cancer is unknown, and here we assessed the prognostic significance of the c-FLIP expression status in a large cohort of pancreatic cancer patients with clinical follow-up.
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STAT6-mediated BCL6 repression in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL).
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) is characterized by aberrant activation of JAK/STAT-signaling resulting in constitutive presence of phosphorylated STAT6 (pSTAT6). In primary PMBL samples pSTAT6 is only expressed in a sub-population of lymphoma cells in a pattern that is reminiscent of that of the BCL6 oncogene. Double-fluorescence staining was carried out to determine the association between these two proteins in ten primary PMBL cases and three available PMBL cell line models. Surprisingly, only a minute fraction of double-positive nuclei was observed, while each sample contained considerable fractions of single-positive pSTAT6 and BCL6 nuclei. The intratumoral coexistence of BCL6+/pSTAT6- and BCL6-/pSTAT6+ subpopulations suggests a negative interaction between these factors. In silico screening of the STAT6 /BCL6 promoters for DNA consensus binding sites identified five STAT-binding-sites in the BCL6 promoter. We confirmed STAT6 binding to the BCL6 promoter in vitro and in vivo by band shift / super shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitations. Using BCL6 luciferase reporter assays, depletion of STAT6 by siRNA, and ectopic overexpression of a constitutive active STAT6 mutant, we proved that pSTAT6 is sufficient to transcriptionally repress BCL6. Recently developed small molecule inhibitors 79-6 and TG101348 that increases BCL6 target gene expression and decreases pSTAT6 levels, respectively, demonstrate that a combined targeting results in additive efficacy regarding their negative effect on cell viability. The delineated pSTAT6-mediated molecular repression mechanism links JAK/STAT to BCL6-signaling in PMBL and may carry therapeutic potential.
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A diagnostic algorithm to distinguish desmoplastic from spindle cell melanoma.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Spindle cell melanoma and desmoplastic melanoma differ clinically in prognosis and therapeutic implications; however, because of partially overlapping histopathological features, diagnostic distinction of spindle cell from desmoplastic melanoma is not always straightforward. A direct comparison of diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers has not been performed. Meta-review of the literature discloses key clinicopathological differences between spindle cell and desmoplastic melanoma, including immunophenotypes. Using 50 biomarkers available in routine diagnostics, we examined 38 archival cases (n=16 spindle, 18 desmoplastic, 4 mixed spindle/desmoplastic melanoma). S100 remains as the most reliable routine marker to reach the diagnosis of melanoma in spindle cell and desmoplastic melanoma. We identified nine distinctly labeling markers with spindle cell melanoma showing positivity for laminin, p75, HMB45, c-kit, and MelanA, and desmoplastic melanoma preferentially labeling with collagen IV, trichrome, CD68, and MDM2. On the basis of comparisons of test performance measures, MelanA and trichrome were used to devise a 94% sensitive diagnostic algorithm for the distinction of desmoplastic from spindle cell melanoma. Gene amplification and expression status was assessed for a set of potentially drugable targets (HER2, EGFR, MET, MDM2, TP53, ALK, MYC, FLI-1, and KIT). Fluorescent in situ hybridizations did not reveal a significant number of gene aberrations/rearrangements; however, protein overexpression for at least one of these markers was identified in 35 of 38 cases (92%). In addition, we found BRAF mutations in 31% of spindle cell and 5% of desmoplastic melanoma, with an overall mutation frequency of 16% (n=6/38). We present the first comprehensive screening study of diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers in spindle cell and desmoplastic melanoma. The devised algorithm allows diagnostic distinction of desmoplastic from spindle cell melanoma when routine histology is not decisive.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 20 September 2013; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.162.
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Effects of pretreatment hypothermia during resuscitated porcine hemorrhagic shock.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Accidental hypothermia increases mortality and morbidity after hemorrhage, but controversial data are available on the effects of therapeutic hypothermia. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis whether moderate pretreatment hypothermia would beneficially influence organ dysfunction during long-term, porcine hemorrhage and resuscitation.
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Interleukin 21-induced granzyme B-expressing B cells infiltrate tumors and regulate T cells.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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The pathogenic impact of tumor-infiltrating B cells is unresolved at present, however, some studies suggest that they may have immune regulatory potential. Here, we report that the microenvironment of various solid tumors includes B cells that express granzyme B (GrB, GZMB), where these B cells can be found adjacent to interleukin (IL)-21-secreting regulatory T cells (Treg) that contribute to immune tolerance of tumor antigens. Because Tregs and plasmacytoid dendritic cells are known to modulate T-effector cells by a GrB-dependent mechanism, we hypothesized that a similar process may operate to modulate regulatory B cells (Breg). IL-21 induced outgrowth of B cells expressing high levels of GrB, which thereby limited T-cell proliferation by a GrB-dependent degradation of the T-cell receptor ?-chain. Mechanistic investigations into how IL-21 induced GrB expression in B cells to confer Breg function revealed a CD19(+)CD38(+)CD1d(+)IgM(+)CD147(+) expression signature, along with expression of additional key regulatory molecules including IL-10, CD25, and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase. Notably, induction of GrB by IL-21 integrated signals mediated by surface immunoglobulin M (B-cell receptor) and Toll-like receptors, each of which were enhanced with expression of the B-cell marker CD5. Our findings show for the first time that IL-21 induces GrB(+) human Bregs. They also establish the existence of human B cells with a regulatory phenotype in solid tumor infiltrates, where they may contribute to the suppression of antitumor immune responses. Together, these findings may stimulate novel diagnostic and cell therapeutic approaches to better manage human cancer as well as autoimmune and graft-versus-host pathologies.
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MYC status in concert with BCL2 and BCL6 expression predicts outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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MYC rearrangements occur in 5% to 10% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) and confer an increased risk to cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, oncovin, and prednisone (CHOP) and rituximab (R)-CHOP treated patients. We investigated the prognostic relevance of MYC-, BCL2- and BCL6-rearrangements and protein expression in a prospective randomized trial. Paraffin-embedded tumor samples from 442 de novo DLBCL treated within the RICOVER study of the German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group (DSHNHL) were investigated using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect protein expression and breaks of MYC, BCL2, and BCL6. Rearrangements of MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 were detected in 8.8%, 13.5%, and 28.7%, respectively. Protein overexpression of MYC (>40%) was encountered in 31.8% of tumors; 79.6% and 82.8% of tumors expressed BCL2 and BCL6, respectively. MYC translocations, MYChigh, BCL2high, and BCL6low protein expressions were associated with inferior survival. In multivariate Cox regression modeling, protein expression patterns of MYC, BCL2 and BCL6, and MYC rearrangements were predictive of outcome and provided prognostic information independent of the International Prognostic Index (IPI) for overall survival and event-free survival. A combined immunohistochemical or FISH/immunohistochemical score predicts outcome in DLBCL patients independent of the IPI and identifies a subset of 15% of patients with dismal prognosis in the high-risk IPI group following treatment with R-CHOP. Registered at http://www.cancer.gov/clinicaltrials: RICOVER trial of the DSHNHL is NCT 00052936.
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SOCS1 mutation subtypes predict divergent outcomes in diffuse large B-Cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) is frequently mutated in primary mediastinal and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL). Currently, the prognostic relevance of these mutations in DLBCL is unknown. To evaluate the value of the SOCS1 mutation status as a prognostic biomarker in DLBCL patients, we performed full-length SOCS1 sequencing in tumors of 154 comprehensively characterized DLBCL patients. We identified 90 SOCS1 mutations in 16% of lymphomas. With respect to molecular consequences of mutations, we defined two distinct subtypes: those with truncating (major) and those with non-truncating mutations (minor), respectively. The SOCS1 mutated subgroup or the minor/major subtypes cannot be predicted on clinical grounds; however, assignment of four established gene-expression profile-based classifiers revealed significant associations of SOCS1 major cases with germinal center and specific pathway activation pattern signatures. Above all, SOCS1 major cases have an excellent overall survival, even better than the GCB-like subgroup. SOCS1 minor cases had a dismal survival, even worse than the ABC gene signature group. The SOCS1 mutation subsets retained prognostic significance in uni- and multivariate analyses. Together our data indicate that assessment of the SOCS1 mutation status is a single gene prognostic biomarker in DLBCL.
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Carbamylated erythropoietin-FC fusion protein and recombinant human erythropoietin during porcine kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Intensive Care Med
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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To test the hypothesis that a carbamylated EPO-FC fusion protein (cEPO-FC) or recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) would protect against kidney ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in pigs with atherosclerosis.
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Expression of the c-Met oncogene by tumor cells predicts a favorable outcome in classical Hodgkins lymphoma.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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The c-Met signaling pathway regulates a variety of biological processes, including proliferation, survival and migration. Deregulated c-Met activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis and prognosis of many human malignancies. We studied the function and prognostic significance of c-Met and hepatocyte growth factor protein expression in patients with classical Hodgkins lymphoma.
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The effects of environmental control on cognition in rats (Rattus norvegicus).
J Appl Anim Welf Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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The aim of this study was to allow nonhuman animals to control their environment using operant conditioning procedures and to assess the effect of control on cognitive tasks. The study tested 4 predictions: (a) rats (Rattus norvegicus) will control a light stimulus; (b) animals will exhibit preferences for particular stimulus strengths; (c) animals who exert control over environmental stimuli will show improved performance on cognitive tasks compared with animals who lack control; and (d) at the end of the operant phase, experimental subjects will have lower corticosterone levels than animals who lack control. Experimental subjects did show control over a light stimulus and performed significantly better over time in a discrimination task compared with subjects who could not control their environment. There was no difference in corticosterone levels between control and experimental subjects. The results will both contribute to our understanding of how control of environmental stimuli affects the welfare of animals in captive environments and aid in designing experimental conditions that will increase validity and reliability in research.
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Cardiopulmonary, histologic, and inflammatory effects of intravenous Na2S after blunt chest trauma-induced lung contusion in mice.
J Trauma
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2011
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When used as a pretreatment, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) either attenuated or aggravated lung injury. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis whether posttreatment intravenous Na2S (sulfide) may attenuate lung injury.
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Protein kinase D2 is a novel regulator of glioblastoma growth and tumor formation.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
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Glioblastoma multiforme, a highly aggressive tumor of the central nervous system, has a dismal prognosis that is due in part to its resistance to radio- and chemotherapy. The protein kinase C (PKC) family of serine threonine kinases has been implicated in the formation and proliferation of glioblastoma multiforme. Members of the protein kinase D (PKD) family, which consists of PKD1, -2 and, -3, are prominent downstream targets of PKCs and could play a major role in glioblastoma growth. PKD2 was highly expressed in both low-grade and high-grade human gliomas. The number of PKD2-positive tumor cells increased with glioma grading (P < .001). PKD2 was also expressed in CD133-positive glioblastoma stem cells and various glioblastoma cell lines in which the kinase was found to be constitutively active. Inhibition of PKDs by pharmacological inhibitors resulted in substantial inhibition of glioblastoma proliferation. Furthermore, specific depletion of PKD2 by siRNA resulted in a marked inhibition of anchorage-dependent and -independent proliferation and an accumulation of glioblastoma cells in G0/G1, accompanied by a down-regulation of cyclin D1 expression. In addition, PKD2-depleted glioblastoma cells exhibited substantially reduced tumor formation in vivo on chicken chorioallantoic membranes. These findings identify PKD2 as a novel mediator of glioblastoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo and thereby as a potential therapeutic target for this devastating disease.
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NF-?B signaling in prostate cancer: a promising therapeutic target?
World J Urol
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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Prostate carcinoma (PCa) displays a wide variety of genetic alterations, versatile expression profiles as well as cell surface markers. Despite this heterogeneity, a common treatment for advanced PCa is androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). ADT targets the androgen receptor-a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily-which is required for development and function of the prostate and critical for PCa growth and survival. After an initial regression of the tumor during ADT, a large fraction of tumors progress to so-called castration-resistant prostate carcinoma (CRPca) which is highly resistant toward chemotherapy. The ensuing high mortality rates illustrate the importance of novel therapeutic targets for CRPCa. The transcription factor NF-?B was recently proposed as such a potential target for therapeutic intervention in CRPCa. Although NF-?B is essential for the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity recent data suggest a role of NF-?B in cancer initiation and progression. However, the exact function of NF-?B signaling in PCa is still a matter of debate. Here, we review known roles of NF-?B signaling in PCa and emphasize the crosstalk of NF-?B and androgen receptor signaling. Finally, we discuss potential therapeutic relevance of blocking NF-?B in PCa.
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Excess winter mortality, wood fires and the uncertainties associated with air pollutants.
N. Z. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2011
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There is excess mortality in the winter. To minimise this it is important that an adequate indoor temperature is maintained and this is dependent on affordable energy supplies. Standards adopted by the Ministry for the Environment in relation to levels of small particles (PM10) in the air and the Regulations to enforce their implementation are based on inadequate scientific evidence. They are likely to make heating less affordable and have a negative net effect rather than a positive one on general health. Whilst the attainment and maintenance of clean air is laudable, regulations should be based on sound scientific evidence. The costs, benefits, and equity for individuals need careful consideration, as do the implications for energy security.
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Inflammation, regeneration, and transformation in the pancreas: results of the Collaborative Research Center 518 (SFB 518) at the University of Ulm.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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The primary diseases of the pancreas include diabetes mellitus, acute and chronic pancreatitis, as well as pancreatic carcinoma. This review presents findings and emerging questions on the diseases of the pancreas obtained by the consortium of the Collaborative Research Center 518 (SFB 518), "Inflammation, Regeneration, and Transformation in the Pancreas" at the University of Ulm. During the last 12 years, the SFB 518 contributed considerably to the understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of pancreatic diseases and established the basis for the development of new strategies for prevention and causal therapy for diabetes, pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer.
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Brownian shape motion on five-dimensional potential-energy surfaces:nuclear fission-fragment mass distributions.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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Although nuclear fission can be understood qualitatively as an evolution of the nuclear shape, a quantitative description has proven to be very elusive. In particular, until now, there existed no model with demonstrated predictive power for the fission-fragment mass yields. Exploiting the expected strongly damped character of nuclear dynamics, we treat the nuclear shape evolution in analogy with Brownian motion and perform random walks on five-dimensional fission potential-energy surfaces which were calculated previously and are the most comprehensive available. Test applications give good reproduction of highly variable experimental mass yields. This novel general approach requires only a single new global parameter, namely, the critical neck size at which the mass split is frozen in, and the results are remarkably insensitive to its specific value.
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An inflammatory micro-environment promotes human adipocyte apoptosis.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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Obesity-associated macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue is responsible for both local and systemic inflammation. Recent findings suggest fat cell apoptosis as an initiator of macrophage recruitment. Here, we investigated the effects of an inflammatory micro-environment on fat cells using human THP-1 macrophages and SGBS adipocytes. Macrophage-secreted factors induced insulin resistance, inhibited insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation, and induced apoptosis of adipocytes. The apoptosis-inducing effect was even more pronounced in direct co-cultures of adipocytes and macrophages. Our data suggest a link between insulin resistance and apoptosis sensitivity. Accordingly, pharmacological and genetic inhibition of insulin signaling at the level of Akt2 sensitized adipocytes to apoptosis induction by macrophage-secreted factors. In conclusion, we describe here a novel interaction of macrophages and fat cells, i.e. induction of apoptosis. Our data suggest a feed-forward cycle in which macrophages further drive the inflammatory process by inducing insulin resistance and concomitant apoptosis of adipocytes.
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Comparison of carbamylated erythropoietin-FC fusion protein and recombinant human erythropoietin during porcine aortic balloon occlusion-induced spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Intensive Care Med
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) attenuated ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury-induced spinal cord damage. Since carbamylated EPO derivatives are stated to be devoid of rhEPO side effects, we tested the hypothesis that a newly developed carbamylated EPO-FC fusion protein (cEPO-FC) would compare favorably with rhEPO.
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Cre-mediated cell ablation contests mast cell contribution in models of antibody- and T cell-mediated autoimmunity.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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Immunological functions of mast cells remain poorly understood. Studies in Kit mutant mice suggest key roles for mast cells in certain antibody- and T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. However, Kit mutations affect multiple cell types of both immune and nonimmune origin. Here, we show that targeted insertion of Cre-recombinase into the mast cell carboxypeptidase A3 locus deleted mast cells in connective and mucosal tissues by a genotoxic Trp53-dependent mechanism. Cre-mediated mast cell eradication (Cre-Master) mice had, with the exception of a lack of mast cells and reduced basophils, a normal immune system. Cre-Master mice were refractory to IgE-mediated anaphylaxis, and this defect was rescued by mast cell reconstitution. This mast cell-deficient strain was fully susceptible to antibody-induced autoimmune arthritis and to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Differences comparing Kit mutant mast cell deficiency models to selectively mast cell-deficient mice call for a systematic re-evaluation of immunological functions of mast cells beyond allergy.
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One-source peptide/phosphopeptide standards for accurate phosphorylation degree determination.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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Reversible protein phosphorylation is a key mediator for intracellular signal transduction. Here we report an innovative method for accurate, site-specific protein phosphorylation degree determination by nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS. A stable isotope-labeled pair of peptide/phosphopeptide standards with volumetrically defined molar ratio is used as reference, providing an internal standard for both the analyte peptide and the phosphopeptide. For the preparation of one-source peptide/phosphopeptide standards, an aliquot of the labeled phosphopeptide standard is quantitatively dephosphorylated, yielding an equimolar solution of the peptide standard. Subsequently, the two solutions are mixed at a 1:1 or other volumetric ratio, which equals the molar ratio. This procedure assures a defined concentration ratio of both components that is independent from their absolute concentration. We demonstrate the applicability of the one-source peptide/phosphopeptide standard method by determining the phosphorylation degree of the signalling proteins STAT5A/B and STAT6.
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Dynamic mathematical modeling of IL13-induced signaling in Hodgkin and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma allows prediction of therapeutic targets.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2010
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Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) share a frequent constitutive activation of JAK (Janus kinase)/STAT signaling pathway. Because of complex, nonlinear relations within the pathway, key dynamic properties remained to be identified to predict possible strategies for intervention. We report the development of dynamic pathway models based on quantitative data collected on signaling components of JAK/STAT pathway in two lymphoma-derived cell lines, MedB-1 and L1236, representative of PMBL and cHL, respectively. We show that the amounts of STAT5 and STAT6 are higher whereas those of SHP1 are lower in the two lymphoma cell lines than in normal B cells. Distinctively, L1236 cells harbor more JAK2 and less SHP1 molecules per cell than MedB-1 or control cells. In both lymphoma cell lines, we observe interleukin-13 (IL13)-induced activation of IL4 receptor ?, JAK2, and STAT5, but not of STAT6. Genome-wide, 11 early and 16 sustained genes are upregulated by IL13 in both lymphoma cell lines. Specifically, the known STAT-inducible negative regulators CISH and SOCS3 are upregulated within 2 hours in MedB-1 but not in L1236 cells. On the basis of this detailed quantitative information, we established two mathematical models, MedB-1 and L1236 model, able to describe the respective experimental data. Most of the model parameters are identifiable and therefore the models are predictive. Sensitivity analysis of the model identifies six possible therapeutic targets able to reduce gene expression levels in L1236 cells and three in MedB-1. We experimentally confirm reduction in target gene expression in response to inhibition of STAT5 phosphorylation, thereby validating one of the predicted targets.
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Fine tuning of the threshold of T cell selection by the Nck adapters.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2010
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Thymic selection shapes the T cell repertoire to ensure maximal antigenic coverage against pathogens while preventing autoimmunity. Recognition of self-peptides in the context of peptide-MHC complexes by the TCR is central to this process, which remains partially understood at the molecular level. In this study we provide genetic evidence that the Nck adapter proteins are essential for thymic selection. In vivo Nck deletion resulted in a reduction of the thymic cellularity, defective positive selection of low-avidity T cells, and impaired deletion of thymocytes engaged by low-potency stimuli. Nck-deficient thymocytes were characterized by reduced ERK activation, particularly pronounced in mature single positive thymocytes. Taken together, our findings identify a crucial role for the Nck adapters in enhancing TCR signal strength, thereby fine-tuning the threshold of thymocyte selection and shaping the preimmune T cell repertoire.
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Clinical, pathological and genetic features of primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphomas and mediastinal gray zone lymphomas in children.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2010
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Background Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma is a rare lymphoma accounting for no more than 3% of all B-cell lymphomas in children and adolescents. However, patients in this young age group with this lymphoma have the shortest event-free survival of patients with any B-cell lymphoma under current standard chemotherapy protocols. Lymphomas with features intermediate between primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkins lymphoma (mediastinal gray zone lymphomas) have been acknowledged in the latest World Health Organization classification. Recent studies suggest that mediastinal gray zone lymphomas have an aggressive clinical course whereas patients, at least adult ones, with primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma might respond very well to chemotherapy in combination with anti-CD20 antibody.
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TRAIL-induced apoptosis is preferentially mediated via TRAIL receptor 1 in pancreatic carcinoma cells and profoundly enhanced by XIAP inhibitors.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2010
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We previously reported that small molecule X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) inhibitors synergize with soluble TRAIL to trigger apoptosis in pancreatic carcinoma cells. Because cancers may preferentially signal via 1 of the 2 agonistic TRAIL receptors, we investigated these receptors as a therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer in the present study.
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Identification of c-FLIP(L) and c-FLIP(S) as critical regulators of death receptor-induced apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
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Evasion of apoptosis is a hallmark of pancreatic cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms are still only partly understood and may involve antiapoptotic proteins such as c-FLIP. Here, the role of c-FLIP in the regulation of death receptor-mediated apoptosis in pancreatic cancer was investigated.
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Role of the transcription factor T (brachyury) in the pathogenesis of sporadic chordoma: a genetic and functional-based study.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2010
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A variety of analyses, including fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), quantitative PCR (qPCR) and array CGH (aCGH), have been performed on a series of chordomas from 181 patients. Twelve of 181 (7%) tumours displayed amplification of the T locus and an additional two cases showed focal amplification; 70/181 (39%) tumours were polysomic for chromosome 6, and 8/181 (4.5%) primary tumours showed a minor allelic gain of T as assessed by FISH. No germline alteration of the T locus was identified in non-neoplastic tissue from 40 patients. Copy number gain of T was seen in a similar percentage of sacrococcygeal, mobile spine and base of skull tumours. Knockdown of T in the cell line, U-CH1, which showed polysomy of chromosome 6 involving 6q27, resulted in a marked decrease in cell proliferation and morphological features consistent with a senescence-like phenotype. The U-CH1 cell line was validated as representing chordoma by the generation of xenografts, which showed typical chordoma morphology and immunohistochemistry in the NOD/SCID/interleukin 2 receptor [IL2r]gammanull mouse model. In conclusion, chromosomal aberrations resulting in gain of the T locus are common in sporadic chordomas and expression of this gene is critical for proliferation of chordoma cells in vitro.
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Molecular mechanisms associated with leukemic transformation of MPL-mutant myeloproliferative neoplasms.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2010
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Somatic activating mutations in MPL, the thrombopoietin receptor, occur in the myeloproliferative neoplasms, although virtually nothing is known about their role in evolution to acute myeloid leukemia. In this study, the MPL T487A mutation, identified in de novo acute myeloid leukemia, was not detected in 172 patients with a myeloproliferative neoplasm. In patients with a prior MPL W515L-mutant myeloproliferative neoplasm, leukemic transformation was accompanied by MPL-mutant leukemic blasts, was seen in the absence of prior cytoreductive therapy and often involved loss of wild-type MPL by mitotic recombination. Moreover, clonal analysis of progenitor colonies at the time of leukemic transformation revealed the presence of multiple genetically distinct but phylogenetically-related clones bearing different TP53 mutations, implying a mutator-phenotype and indicating that leukemic transformation may be preceded by the parallel expansion of diverse hematopoietic clones.
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Molecular characterization of putative chordoma cell lines.
Sarcoma
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2010
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Immortal tumor cell lines are an important model system for cancer research, however, misidentification and cross-contamination of cell lines are a common problem. Seven chordoma cell lines are reported in the literature, but none has been characterized in detail. We analyzed gene expression patterns and genomic copy number variations in five putative chordoma cell lines (U-CH1, CCL3, CCL4, GB60, and CM319). We also created a new chordoma cell line, U-CH2, and provided genotypes for cell lines for identity confirmation. Our analyses revealed that CCL3, CCL4, and GB60 are not chordoma cell lines, and that CM319 is a cancer cell line possibly derived from chordoma, but lacking expression of key chordoma biomarkers. U-CH1 and U-CH2 both have gene expression profiles, copy number aberrations, and morphology consistent with chordoma tumors. These cell lines also harbor genetic changes, such as loss of p16, MTAP, or PTEN, that make them potentially useful models for studying mechanisms of chordoma pathogenesis and for evaluating targeted therapies.
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Immunoblastic morphology but not the immunohistochemical GCB/nonGCB classifier predicts outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the RICOVER-60 trial of the DSHNHL.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2010
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The survival of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients varies considerably, reflecting the molecular diversity of tumors. In view of the controversy whether cytologic features, immunohistochemical markers or gene expression signatures may capture this molecular diversity, we investigated which features provide prognostic information in a prospective trial in the R-CHOP treatment era. Within the cohort of DLBCLs patients treated in the RICOVER-60 trial of the German High-Grade Lymphoma Study Group (DSHNHL), we tested the prognostic impact of IB morphology in 949 patients. The expression of immunohistochemical markers CD5, CD10, BCL2, BCL6, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, interferon regulatory factor-4/multiple myeloma-1 (IRF4/MUM1), and Ki-67 was assessed in 506 patients. Expression of the immunohistochemical markers tested was of modest, if any, prognostic relevance. Moreover, the Hans algorithm using the expression patterns of CD10, BCL6, and interferon regulatory factor-4/multiple myeloma-1 failed to show prognostic significance in the entire cohort as well as in patient subgroups. IB morphology, however, emerged as a robust, significantly adverse prognostic factor in multivariate analysis, and its diagnosis showed a good reproducibility among expert hematopathologists. We conclude, therefore, that IB morphology in DLBCL is likely to capture some of the adverse molecular alterations that are currently not detectable in a routine diagnostic setting, and that its recognition has significant prognostic power.
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Protein kinase D2 is a crucial regulator of tumour cell-endothelial cell communication in gastrointestinal tumours.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2010
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Tumour angiogenesis is crucially dependent on the communication between the tumour and the associated endothelium. Protein kinase D (PKD) isoenzymes mediate vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) induced endothelial cell proliferation and migration and are also highly expressed in various tumours.
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Nck adaptors are positive regulators of the size and sensitivity of the T-cell repertoire.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2010
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The size and sensitivity of the T-cell repertoire governs the effectiveness of immune responses against invading pathogens. Both are modulated by T-cell receptor (TCR) activity through molecular mechanisms, which remain unclear. Here, we provide genetic evidence that the SH2/SH3 domain containing proteins Nck lower the threshold of T-cell responsiveness. The hallmarks of Nck deletion were T-cell lymphopenia and hyporeactivity to TCR-mediated stimulation. In the absence of the Nck adaptors, peripheral T cells expressing a TCR with low avidity for self-antigens were strongly reduced, whereas an overall impairment of T-cell activation by weak antigenic stimulation was observed. Mechanistically, Nck deletion resulted in a significant decrease in calcium mobilization and ERK phosphorylation upon TCR engagement. Taken together, our findings unveil a crucial role for the Nck adaptors in shaping the T-cell repertoire to ensure maximal antigenic coverage and optimal T cell excitability.
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3D structural and functional characterization of the transition from Hodgkin to Reed-Sternberg cells.
Ann. Anat.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2010
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Recent research using an innovative 3D quantitative FISH approach of nuclear remodelling associated with the transition from mononuclear Hodgkin to diagnostic multinuclear Reed-Sternberg cells revealed profound changes in the 3D nuclear organization of telomeres. Analogous 3D telomere dynamics were identified in Hodgkins lymphoma derived cell-lines and diagnostic patient biopsies. These changes were observed in both, EBV positive and EBV-negative Hodgkins lymphoma and independent of the age of the patients at presentation. Compared to mononuclear Hodgkin cells, multinuclear Reed-Sternberg cells are characterized by a highly significant increase of telomere aggregates, often composed of very short telomeres, telomere shortening and loss. RS-cells with telomere free "ghost" nuclei are regularly observed. The telomere protecting shelterin complex appears to be disrupted and deregulation of DNA-repair mechanisms is observed. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that distinct 3D telomere changes and shelterin disruption represent a common pathogenetic denominator in the generation of Reed-Sternberg cells.
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KLF4 is a tumor suppressor in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and in classic Hodgkin lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2010
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The transcription factor KLF4 may act both as an oncogene and a tumor suppressor in a tissue-depending manner. In T- and pre-B-cell lymphoma, KLF4 was found to act as tumor suppressor. We found the KLF4 promoter methylated in B-cell lymphoma cell lines and in primary cases of B-cell lymphomas, namely, follicular lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, and in classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) cases. Promoter hypermethylation was associated with silencing of KLF4 expression. Conditional overexpression of KLF4 in Burkitt lymphoma cell lines moderately retarded proliferation, via cell-cycle arrest in G(0)/G(1). In the cHL cell lines, KLF4 induced massive cell death that could partially be inhibited with Z-VAD.fmk. A quantitative reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reaction array revealed KLF4 target genes, including the proapoptotic gene BAK1. Using an shRNA-mediated knock-down approach, we found that BAK1 is largely responsible for KLF4-induced apoptosis. In addition, we found that KLF4 negatively regulates CXCL10, CD86, and MSC/ABF-1 genes. These genes are specifically up-regulated in HRS cells of cHL and known to be involved in establishing the cHL phenotype. We conclude that epigenetic silencing of KLF4 in B-cell lymphomas and particularly in cHL may favor lymphoma survival by loosening cell-cycle control and protecting from apoptosis.
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3D nuclear organization of telomeres in the Hodgkin cell lines U-HO1 and U-HO1-PTPN1: PTPN1 expression prevents the formation of very short telomeres including "t-stumps".
BMC Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2010
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In cancer cells the three-dimensional (3D) telomere organization of interphase nuclei into a telomeric disk is heavily distorted and aggregates are found. In Hodgkins lymphoma quantitative FISH (3D Q-FISH) reveals a major impact of nuclear telomere dynamics during the transition form mononuclear Hodgkin (H) to diagnostic multinuclear Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells. In vitro and in vivo formation of RS-cells is associated with the increase of very short telomeres including "t-stumps", telomere loss, telomeric aggregate formation and the generation of "ghost nuclei".
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BCL6 gene rearrangement and protein expression are associated with large cell presentation of extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2010
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Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) is an indolent B-cell lymphoma, which is often localized in the stomach. It is characterized by typical morphology, immunology, cytogenetics and expression profile. The coexistence of a large B-cell lymphoma and a MALT lymphoma in the gastrointestinal tract is defined as a composite lymphoma (ComL) and, as we have previously shown, is almost always the consequence of secondary transformation of MALT lymphoma. Here, we have analyzed a panel of seven MALT lymphomas, seven ComL and thirteen large cell variants of marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (MZBL) using FISH for the detection of rearrangements of IGH, MALT1, BCL6, BCL10 and FOXP1 and immunohistochemistry for Bcl6, Bcl10 and FoxP1. Translocations involving IGH were found in 10/27 lymphomas including two cases with IGH-BCL6 fusion and one with IGH-BCL10 fusion; in 7/10 cases, the translocation partner was not identified. Bcl10 and FoxP1 protein expression was heterogeneous throughout the series. Genetic rearrangements of BCL6 and Bcl6 protein expression were found almost exclusively in the large cell components of the ComL and the large cell extranodal MZBL (p = 0.2093 and p = 0.0261, respectively). These findings suggest Bcl6 as a marker for transformation of MALT lymphoma.
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Endolymphatic non-langerhans cell histiocytosis of the larynx: report of an uncommon disease manifestation.
J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2010
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We report on an uncommon laryngeal non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. An 11-year-old boy presented with a 6 months history of progressive breath inhibition. Magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse laryngeal and local lymph node swelling. Histology first resembled sarcoidosis, however, corticosteroids were ineffective. Lymphoma, infection, immunodeficiency, and autoimmune disease were excluded. Six months later, biopsies were repeated, now showing numerous ectatic lymph vessels with clusters of histiocytes bearing stellate extensions and emperipolesis. S100 protein and CD1a were negative. Indomethacin treatment led to a gradual improvement. In conclusion, we observed a nonmalignant non-Langerhans cell endolymphatic reticulohistiocytosis, not fitting into any of the described categories.
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A new missense mutation in the leptin gene causes mild obesity and hypogonadism without affecting T cell responsiveness.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2010
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Leptin, a protein product of adipocytes, plays a critical role in the regulation of body weight, immune function, pubertal development, and fertility. So far, only three homozygous mutations in the leptin gene in a total of 13 individuals have been found leading to a phenotype of extreme obesity with marked hyperphagia and impaired immune function.
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Cooperative epigenetic modulation by cancer amplicon genes.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2010
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Chromosome band 9p24 is frequently amplified in primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). To identify oncogenes in this amplicon, we screened an RNA interference library targeting amplicon genes and thereby identified JAK2 and the histone demethylase JMJD2C as essential genes in these lymphomas. Inhibition of JAK2 and JMJD2C cooperated in killing these lymphomas by decreasing tyrosine 41 phosphorylation and increasing lysine 9 trimethylation of histone H3, promoting heterochromatin formation. MYC, a major target of JAK2-mediated histone phosphorylation, was silenced after JAK2 and JMJD2C inhibition, with a corresponding increase in repressive chromatin. Hence, JAK2 and JMJD2C cooperatively remodel the PMBL and HL epigenome, offering a mechanistic rationale for the development of JAK2 and JMJD2C inhibitors in these diseases.
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Cryoprobe biopsy increases the diagnostic yield in endobronchial tumor lesions.
J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2010
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Forceps biopsy is the standard method to obtain specimens in endoscopically visible lesions. It is common to combine forceps biopsy with cytology methods to increase the diagnostic yield. Although the flexible cryoprobe has been established for bronchoscopic interventions in malignant stenosis, the obtained biopsies, called "cryobiopsies," have not been investigated in a large cohort of patients. The aim of this feasibility study was to prospectively evaluate the diagnostic yield and safety of cryobiopsy and forceps biopsy.
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Comprehensive evaluation of right ventricular function in children with different anatomical subtypes of hypoplastic left heart syndrome after Fontan surgery.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
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There is some evidence that hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) survivors with a larger left ventricular (LV) cavity may have poorer long-term outcome than those with mitral and aortic valve atresia (MA/AA) and negligible LV. A negative impact of the LV remnant on right ventricular (RV) function may contribute to this.
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Assessment of ventricular function and dyssynchrony before and after stage 2 palliation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome using two-dimensional speckle tracking.
Pediatr Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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Two-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking (2DST) is a new technique independent of ventricular geometry but not independent of preload and afterload. Using 2DST, this study aimed to investigate differences in right ventricular (RV) function and intraventricular dyssynchrony in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) before and after preload-reducing stage 2 palliation. For 31 HLHS patients, this study compared global longitudinal strain (S) and strain rate (SR) as well as regional peak systolic longitudinal S, SR, and velocity (V) in six RV segments on echocardiograms before and after stage 2 surgery. Intraventricular dyssynchrony was assessed by calculating the standard deviation of the intervals from the beginning of systole to peak S, SR, and V. Global S (-16.7 ± 5.0 vs -15.6 ± 5.5%) and global SR (-1.2 ± 0.3 vs -1.2 ± 0.3 s(-1)) did not change after surgery. After surgery, V decreased in the mid lateral segment (2.3 ± 1.3 vs 1.7 ± 0.9 cm/s; p = 0.01) and the basal lateral segment (3.6 ± 1.1 vs 2.8 ± 1.0 cm/s; p = 0.001), whereas S was lower in both of these segments (-19.9% ± 6.0% vs -17.4% ± 6.3%; p = 0.01 and 20.0 ± 5.1 vs 15.8 ± 7.1%; p = 0.002, respectively). Segmental SR and dyssynchrony did not change. Decreased V and S in the RV free wall could be explained by reduced preload of the systemic RV after stage 2 palliation.
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Loss of HLA-DR expression and immunoblastic morphology predict adverse outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma - analyses of cases from two prospective randomized clinical trials.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2009
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Research on prognostically relevant immunohistochemical markers in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas has mostly been performed on retrospectively collected clinical data. This is also true for immunohistochemical classifiers that are thought to reflect the cell-of-origin subclassification of gene expression studies. In order to obtain deeper insight into the heterogeneous prognosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and to validate a previously published immunohistochemical classifier, we analyzed data from a large set of cases from prospective clinical trials with long-term follow-up.
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Sex-related differences in length and erosion dynamics of human telomeres favor females.
Aging (Albany NY)
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2009
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Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences at chromosomal ends contributing to genomic integrity. In somatic cells, telomeres are shortened during DNA reduplication. Thus, telomere erosion has been regarded as a biological clock. Applying the telomere/centromere (T/C)-FISH technique to human peripheral blood lymphocytes, we showed that pangenomically, telomere shortening is linear in centenarians and that this attrition is delayed in females. Statistics reveal a greater skewness in telomere length distribution in females. As the morphological correlate, we find abnormally long telomeres distributed at random. This "erratic extensive elongation" (EEE) of telomeres is a hitherto unrecognized phenomenon in non-neoplastic cells, and females are more successful in this respect. As evidenced by endoreduplication, EEE is transmitted to the cells progeny. The mechanism involved is likely to be the alternative pathway of telomere elongation (ALT), counteracting erosion and already known to operate in neoplastic cells.
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Hemodynamic, metabolic, and organ function effects of pure oxygen ventilation during established fecal peritonitis-induced septic shock.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2009
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To test the hypothesis whether pure oxygen ventilation is equally safe and beneficial in fully developed fecal peritonitis-induced septic shock as hyperoxia initiated at the induction of sepsis.
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Comparison of cardiac, hepatic, and renal effects of arginine vasopressin and noradrenaline during porcine fecal peritonitis: a randomized controlled trial.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2009
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Infusing arginine vasopressin (AVP) in vasodilatory shock usually decreases cardiac output and thus systemic oxygen transport. It is still a matter of debate whether this vasoconstriction impedes visceral organ blood flow and thereby causes organ dysfunction and injury. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis whether low-dose AVP is safe with respect to liver, kidney, and heart function and organ injury during resuscitated septic shock.
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Recurrent mutations of the STAT6 DNA binding domain in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2009
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Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) is a separate entity of aggressive B-cell lymphoma, characterized by a constitutive activation of janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway, also observed in Hodgkin lymphoma. Although many cancers exhibit constitutive JAK-STAT pathway activation, mutations of STAT genes have not been reported in neoplasms. Here, we show that MedB-1 PMBL-derived and L1236 Hodgkin-derived cell lines and 20 of 55 (36%) PMBL cases harbor heterozygous missense mutations in STAT6 DNA binding domain, whereas no mutation was found in 25 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma samples. In 3 cases, somatic origin was indicated by the absence of the mutations in the nontumoral tissue. The pattern of STAT6 mutations was different from the classical features of somatic hypermutations. The mutant STAT6 proteins showed a decreased DNA binding ability in transfected HEK cells, but no decrease in expression of STAT6 canonical target genes was observed in PMBL cases with a mutated STAT6 gene. Although the oncogenic properties of STAT6 mutant proteins remain to be determined, their recurrent selection in PMBL strongly argues for their involvement in the pathogenesis of this aggressive B-cell lymphoma.
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RHAMM (CD168) is overexpressed at the protein level and may constitute an immunogenic antigen in advanced prostate cancer disease.
Neoplasia
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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Localized prostate cancer (CaP) can be cured using several strategies. However, the need to identify active substances in advanced tumor stages is tremendous, as the outcome in such cases is still disappointing. One approach is to deliver human tumor antigen-targeted therapy, which is recognized by T cells or antibodies. We used data mining of the Cancer Immunome Database (CID), which comprises potential immunologic targets identified by serological screening of expression libraries. Candidate antigens were screened by DNA microarrays. Genes were then validated at the protein level by tissue microarrays, representing various stages of CaP disease. Of 43 targets identified by CID, 10 showed an overexpression on the complementary DNA array in CaP metastases. The RHAMM (CD168) gene, earlier identified by our group as an immunogenic antigen in acute and chronic leukemia, also showed highly significant overexpression in CaP metastases compared with localized disease and benign prostatic hyperplasia. At the protein level, RHAMM was highest in metastatic tissue samples and significantly higher in neoplastic localized disease compared with benign tissue. High RHAMM expression was associated with clinical parameters known to be linked to better clinical outcome. Patients with high RHAMM expression in the primaries had a significantly lower risk of biochemical failure. The number of viable cells in cell cultures was reduced in blocking experiments using hormone-sensitive and hormone-insensitive metastatic CaP cell lines. Acknowledging the proven immunogenic effects of RHAMM in leukemia, this antigen is intriguing as a therapeutic target in far-advanced CaP.
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Lipase inhibitory activity in alcohol extracts of worldwide occurring plants and propolis.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
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In the search for lipase inhibitory agents, 144 alcohol plant extracts and propolis were screened for pancreatic lipase activity in vitro using methods with methylresorufin and triolein as substrates. Ethanol extracts of Linum usitatissimum (oil flax) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower seeds) showed the strongest lipase inhibitory actions with ID(50) values of 1:370 and 1:166, respectively.
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New insights into the biology and origin of mature aggressive B-cell lymphomas by combined epigenomic, genomic, and transcriptional profiling.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2009
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Lymphomas are assumed to originate at different stages of lymphocyte development through chromosomal aberrations. Thus, different lymphomas resemble lymphocytes at distinct differentiation stages and show characteristic morphologic, genetic, and transcriptional features. Here, we have performed a microarray-based DNA methylation profiling of 83 mature aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (maB-NHLs) characterized for their morphologic, genetic, and transcriptional features, including molecular Burkitt lymphomas and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Hierarchic clustering indicated that methylation patterns in maB-NHLs were not strictly associated with morphologic, genetic, or transcriptional features. By supervised analyses, we identified 56 genes de novo methylated in all lymphoma subtypes studied and 22 methylated in a lymphoma subtype-specific manner. Remarkably, the group of genes de novo methylated in all lymphoma subtypes was significantly enriched for polycomb targets in embryonic stem cells. De novo methylated genes in all maB-NHLs studied were expressed at low levels in lymphomas and normal hematopoietic tissues but not in nonhematopoietic tissues. These findings, especially the enrichment for polycomb targets in stem cells, indicate that maB-NHLs with different morphologic, genetic, and transcriptional background share a similar stem cell-like epigenetic pattern. This suggests that maB-NHLs originate from cells with stem cell features or that stemness was acquired during lymphomagenesis by epigenetic remodeling.
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Global calculation of nuclear shape isomers.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
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To determine which nuclei may exhibit shape isomerism, we use a well-benchmarked macroscopic-microscopic model to calculate potential-energy surfaces as functions of spheroidal (epsilon{2}), hexadecapole (epsilon{4}), and axial-asymmetry (gamma) shape coordinates for 7206 nuclei from A=31 to A=290. We analyze these and identify the deformations and energies of all minima deeper than 0.2 MeV. These minima may correspond to characteristic experimentally observable shape-isomeric states. Shape isomers mainly occur in the A=80 region, the A=100 region, and in an extended region centered around (208)Pb. We compare our model to experimental results for Kr isotopes. Moreover, in a plot versus N and Z we show for each of the 7206 nuclei the calculated number of minima. The results reveal one fairly unexplored region of shape isomerism, which is experimentally accessible, namely the region northeast of (82)(208)Pb.
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Mechanisms of parenchymal injury and signaling pathways in ectatic ducts of chronic pancreatitis: implications for pancreatic carcinogenesis.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2009
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The pathobiology of chronic pancreatitis (CP) remains enigmatic despite remarkable progress made recently in uncovering key mechanisms involved in the initiation and progression of the disease. CP is increasingly thought of as a multifactorial disorder. Apoptosis plays a role in parenchymal destruction, the pathological hallmark of CP. The apoptotic mechanisms preferentially target the exocrine compartment, leaving endocrine islets relatively intact for a prolonged period. Exocrine cells shed their immunoprivileged status, express death receptors, and are rendered susceptible to apoptosis induced by death ligands on infiltrating lymphocytes, and released locally by activated pancreatic stellate cells. Islet cells retain their immunoprivileged status and activate anti-apoptotic programs through NF-kappaB. Ductal changes, including distortion, dilatation, and pancreatic ductal hypertension in the setting of CP, induce genomic damage and increased cell turnover. In addition, signaling mechanisms that play a role in the development of embryonic pancreas are reinstated, thus, playing a role in repair, regeneration, and transformation. This, in turn, leads to acino-ductal metaplasia (ADM) and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN). Some of these pathways are activated in pancreatic cancer. We attempt to integrate the current knowledge and major concepts in the pathogenesis of CP and to explain the mechanism of differential cell loss. We also discuss the possible implications of signaling pathway activation in pancreatic inflammation, relevant to the cellular transformation that leads to pancreatic neoplasia.
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Small molecule XIAP inhibitors enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis and antitumor activity in preclinical models of pancreatic carcinoma.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2009
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Evasion of apoptosis is a characteristic feature of pancreatic cancer, a prototypic cancer that is refractory to current treatment approaches. Hence, there is an urgent need to design rational strategies that counter apoptosis resistance. To explore X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) as a therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer, we analyzed the expression of XIAP in pancreatic tumor samples and evaluated the effect of small molecule XIAP inhibitors alone and in combination with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) against pancreatic carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Here, we report that XIAP is highly expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma samples compared with normal pancreatic ducts. Small molecule XIAP inhibitors synergize with TRAIL to induce apoptosis and to inhibit long-term clonogenic survival of pancreatic carcinoma cells. In contrast, they do not reverse the lack of toxicity of TRAIL on nonmalignant cells in vitro or normal tissues in vivo, pointing to a therapeutic index. Most importantly, XIAP inhibitors cooperate with TRAIL to trigger apoptosis and suppress pancreatic carcinoma growth in vivo in two preclinical models, i.e., the chorioallantoic membrane model and a mouse xenograft model. Parallel immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissue under therapy reveals that the XIAP inhibitor acts in concert with TRAIL to cause caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. In conclusion, our findings provide, for the first time, evidence in vivo that XIAP inhibitors prime pancreatic carcinoma cells for TRAIL-induced apoptosis and potentiate the antitumor activity of TRAIL against established pancreatic carcinoma. These findings build the rationale for further (pre)clinical development of XIAP inhibitors and TRAIL against pancreatic cancer.
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Exercise capacity of a contemporary cohort of children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome after staged palliation.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2009
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Outcome of staged palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome has improved over the past decades. However, only little is known about the exercise capacity of children with palliated hypoplastic left heart syndrome where a systemic right ventricle supports the systemic circulation. The aim of the study was to assess exercise capacity in a contemporary cohort of children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome palliated in a single centre according to a uniform surgical strategy.
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Ki-67 as a prognostic marker in mantle cell lymphoma-consensus guidelines of the pathology panel of the European MCL Network.
J Hematop
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) has a heterogeneous clinical course and is mainly an aggressive B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma; however, there are some indolent cases The Ki-67 index, defined by the percentage of Ki-67-positive lymphoma cells on histopathological slides, has been shown to be a very powerful prognostic biomarker. The pathology panel of the European MCL Network evaluated methods to assess the Ki-67 index including stringent counting, digital image analysis, and estimation by eyeballing. Counting of 2?×?500 lymphoma cells is the gold standard to assess the Ki-67 index since this value has been shown to predict survival in prospective randomized trials of the European MCL Network. Estimation by eyeballing and digital image analysis showed a poor concordance with the gold standard (concordance correlation coefficients [CCC] between 0.29 and 0.61 for eyeballing and CCC of 0.24 and 0.37 for two methods of digital image analysis, respectively). Counting a reduced number of lymphoma cells (2?×?100 cells) showed high interobserver agreement (CCC?=?0.74). Pitfalls of the Ki-67 index are discussed and guidelines and recommendations for assessing the Ki-67 index in MCL are given.
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The tumor antigens RHAMM and G250/CAIX are expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas and elicit specific CD8+ T cell responses.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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Despite advances in surgery, radio- and chemotherapy, therapeutic approaches for patients with head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSCC) need to be improved. Immunotherapies eliciting tumor specific immune responses might constitute novel treatment options. We therefore investigated the expression and immunogenicity of two tumor-associated antigens (TAA) the receptor for hyaluronic acid mediated motility (RHAMM) and carboanhydrase IX (G250/CAIX) in HNSCC patients. Twenty-two HNSCC samples were examined for the expression of RHAMM and G250 by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, 14/22 samples were tested for HLA-A2 expression by flow cytometry. For 8/22 samples single tumor-cell suspensions were generated, and mixed lymphocyte peptide cultures (MLPC) were performed to evaluate the frequencies of cytotoxic T cells specifically recognizing RHAMM and G250 using Tetramer staining/multi-color flow cytometry and enzyme linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assays. RHAMM and G250 were expressed in 73 and 80% of the HNSCC samples at the protein level. A co-expression of both TAAs could be detected in 60% of the patients. In 4/8 HLA-A2+ patients, 0.06-0.13% of CD8+ effector T cells recognized Tetramers for RHAMM or G250 and secreted IFNgamma and granzyme B in ELISPOT assays. RHAMM and G250 are expressed at high frequency and high protein level in HNSCCs and are recognized by cytotoxic CD8+ effector T cells. Therefore both TAAs constitute interesting targets for T cell based immunotherapies for HNSCC.
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Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines are characterized by a specific miRNA expression profile.
Neoplasia
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2009
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Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is derived from preapoptotic germinal center B cells, although a general loss of B cell phenotype is noted. Using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and miRNA microarray, we determined the microRNA (miRNA) profile of HL and compared this with the profile of a panel of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The two methods showed a strong correlation for the detection of miRNA expression levels. The HL-specific miRNA included miR-17-92 cluster members, miR-16, miR-21, miR-24, and miR-155. Using a large panel of cell lines, we found differential expression between HL and other B-cell lymphoma-derived cell lines for 27 miRNA. A significant down-regulation in HL compared to non-Hodgkin lymphoma was observed only for miR-150. Next, we performed target gene validation of predicted target genes for miR-155, which is highly expressed in HL and is differentially expressed between HL and Burkitt lymphoma. Using luciferase reporter assays, we validated 11 predicted miR-155 target genes in three different HL cell lines. We demonstrated that AGTR1, FGF7, ZNF537, ZIC3, and IKBKE are true miR-155 target genes in HL.
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Microarray-based genomic profiling reveals novel genomic aberrations in follicular lymphoma which associate with patient survival and gene expression status.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2009
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Follicular lymphoma (FL) is characterized by a large number of chromosomal aberrations. However, their exact genomic extension and involved target genes remain to be determined. For this purpose, we used array-based intermediate-high resolution genomic profiling in combination with Affymetrix gene expression analysis. Tumor specimens from 128 FL patients were analyzed for the presence of genomic aberrations and the results were correlated to clinical data sets and mRNA expression levels. In 114 (89%) of the 128 analyzed cases, a total of 688 genomic aberrations (384 gains/amplifications and 304 losses) were detected. Frequent genomic aberrations were: -1p36 (18%), +2p15 (24%), -3q (14%), -6q (25%), +7p (19%), +7q (23%), +8q (14%), -9p (16%), -11q (15%), +12q (20%), -13q (11%), -17p (16%), +18p (18%), and +18q (28%). Critical segments of these imbalances were delineated to genomic fragments with a minimum size down to 0.2 Mb. By comparison of these with mRNA gene expression data, putative candidate genes were identified. Moreover, we found that deletions affecting the tumor suppressor gene CDKN2A/B on 9p21 were detected in nontransformed FL grade I-II. For this aberration as well as for -6q25 and -6q26, an association with inferior survival was observed.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.