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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Enhanced thermic effect of food, postprandial NEFA suppression and raised adiponectin in obese women who eat slowly.
Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Meal duration may influence cardiometabolic health. The aim of this study was to explore postprandial effects of meal duration on human metabolism and appetite.
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Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with adverse lipid profile in Europeans and Indians with type 2 diabetes.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Metformin, a standard therapy in type 2 diabetes, reduces vitamin B12 levels. Studies linking low vitamin B12 levels and cardiovascular disease are equivocal and suggest improving B12 levels may help in primary prevention. The role of vitamin B12 deficiency on cardiovascular risk factors, especially in type 2 diabetes has not been explored. The aim of this study is to investigate whether vitamin B12 deficiency in type 2 diabetes patients is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in two different ethnic groups in UK and India.
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A dose-response strategy reveals differences between normal-weight and obese men in their metabolic and inflammatory responses to a high-fat meal.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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A dose-response strategy may not only allow investigation of the impact of foods and nutrients on human health but may also reveal differences in the response of individuals to food ingestion based on their metabolic health status. In a randomized crossover study, we challenged 19 normal-weight (BMI: 20-25 kg/m(2)) and 18 obese (BMI: >30 kg/m(2)) men with 500, 1000, and 1500 kcal of a high-fat (HF) meal (60.5% energy from fat). Blood was taken at baseline and up to 6 h postprandially and analyzed for a range of metabolic, inflammatory, and hormonal variables, including plasma glucose, lipids, and C-reactive protein and serum insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and endotoxin. Insulin was the only variable that could differentiate the postprandial response of normal-weight and obese participants at each of the 3 caloric doses. A significant response of the inflammatory marker IL-6 was only observed in the obese group after ingestion of the HF meal containing 1500 kcal [net incremental AUC (iAUC) = 22.9 ± 6.8 pg/mL × 6 h, P = 0.002]. Furthermore, the net iAUC for triglycerides significantly increased from the 1000 to the 1500 kcal meal in the obese group (5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h vs. 6.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h; P = 0.015) but not in the normal-weight group (4.3 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h vs. 4.8 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h; P = 0.31). We propose that caloric dose-response studies may contribute to a better understanding of the metabolic impact of food on the human organism. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01446068.
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Hypervolemia and blood pressure in prevalent kidney transplant recipients.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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The prevalence and consequences of hypervolemia in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) have not been investigated. Specifically, its impact on blood pressure (BP) and relationship with N-terminal fragment of prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are unknown. The objectives of this study were to establish the prevalence of hypervolemia among clinically stable KTRs, investigate the predictors of posttransplant hypervolemia, assess its impact on blood pressure, and determine its relationship with NT-proBNP.
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CDKN2B expression and subcutaneous adipose tissue expandability: possible influence of the 9p21 atherosclerosis locus.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Risk alleles within a gene desert at the 9p21 locus constitute the most prevalent genetic determinant of cardiovascular disease. Previous research has demonstrated that 9p21 risk variants influence gene expression in vascular tissues, yet the biological mechanisms by which this would mediate atherosclerosis merits further investigation. To investigate possible influences of this locus on other tissues, we explored expression patterns of 9p21-regulated genes in a panel of multiple human tissues and found that the tumor suppressor CDKN2B was highly expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). CDKN2B expression was regulated by obesity status, and this effect was stronger in carriers of 9p21 risk alleles. Covariation between expression of CDKN2B and genes implemented in adipogenesis was consistent with an inhibitory effect of CDKN2B on SAT proliferation. Moreover, studies of postprandial triacylglycerol clearance indicated that CDKN2B is involved in down-regulation of SAT fatty acid trafficking. CDKN2B expression in SAT correlated with indicators of ectopic fat accumulation, including markers of hepatic steatosis. Among genes regulated by 9p21 risk variants, CDKN2B appears to play a significant role in the regulation of SAT expandability, which is a strong determinant of lipotoxicity and therefore might contribute to the development of atherosclerosis.
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Maternal inheritance of circulating irisin in humans.
Clin. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The recently discovered myokine irisin has been implicated in several observational studies as a potential therapeutic target for obesity-related diseases. However, no information is available as to the heritability of this hormone. The present study aims to fill this gap. A total of 120 families (n=254; 121 adults and 133 children) were included in the study taken from the Riyadh Biomarkers Research Program cohort. Information gathered include anthropometrics, and glycaemic, lipid and adipocytokine profiles. Irisin was measured using ELISA. Examining heritability between mother and offspring, the most significant heritable traits in sons included irisin (P=1.6×10(-5)), systolic blood pressure (P=3.6×10(-4)), total cholesterol (P=3.5×10(-7)) and LDL (low-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol (P=1.2×10(-6)). Heritable traits between mother and daughter again included irisin (P<0.002), as well as anthropometric associations such as waist (P<0.01) and hip (P<0.005) circumference and blood pressure (P<0.002); biochemically, principal associations were observed with HDL (high-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol (P<0.04) and TNF-? (tumour necrosis factor-?) (P<0.002). HDL-cholesterol was the single most significant predictor for irisin levels in adults, explaining 17% of the variance, whereas in children AngII (angiotensin II) was the most significant predictor of irisin levels, explaining 19% of the variance (P=0.003). Circulating irisin appears to be maternally inherited and is predicted by HDL-cholesterol in adults and AngII in children, both factors influenced by energy expenditure and regulation. Taken together, these findings suggest a significant role of irisin in energy-generating processes.
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The identification of irisin in human cerebrospinal fluid: influence of adiposity, metabolic markers, and gestational diabetes.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Peripheral action of irisin improves glucose homeostasis and increases energy expenditure, with no data on a central role of irisin in metabolism. These studies sought to examine 1) presence of irisin in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and banked human hypothalamic tissue, 2) serum irisin in maternal subjects across varying adiposities with or without gestational diabetes (GDM), and 3) their respective neonate offspring. CSF, serum, and neonatal cord serum were collected from 91 pregnant women with and without GDM attending for an elective cesarean section [body mass index (BMI): 37.7 ± 7.6 kg/m(2); age: 32 ± 8.3 yr]. Irisin was assessed by ELISA and correlated with biochemical and anthropometric data. Irisin expression was examined in human hypothalamus by immunohistochemical staining. Serum irisin in pregnant women was significantly lower in nonobese compared with obese and GDM subjects, after adjusting for BMI, lipids, and glucose. Irisin was present in neonatal cord serum (237 ± 8 ng/ml) and maternal CSF (32 ± 1.5 ng/ml). CSF irisin correlated positively with serum irisin levels from nonobese and obese pregnant women (P < 0.01), with CSF irisin significantly raised in GDM subjects (P < 0.05). Irisin was present in human hypothalamic sections in the paraventricular neurons, colocalized with neuropeptide Y. Irisin was detectable in CSF and in paraventricular neurons. Maternal serum irisin was lower in nonobese pregnant women after adjusting for BMI and a number of metabolic parameters. These studies indicate that irisin may have a central role in metabolism in addition to the known peripheral role. Further studies investigating the central action of irisin in human metabolic disease are required.
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Identification of brown adipose tissue using MR imaging in a human adult with histological and immunohistochemical confirmation.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Manipulation of human brown adipose tissue (BAT) represents a novel therapeutic option for diabesity. The aim of our study was to develop and test a novel magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-based method to identify human BAT, delineate it from white adipose tissue, and validate it through immunohistochemistry.
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Predictors and consequences of fatigue in prevalent kidney transplant recipients.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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Fatigue has been underinvestigated in stable kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). The objectives of this study were to investigate the nature, severity, prevalence, and clinical awareness of fatigue in medically stable KTRs, examine the impact of fatigue on quality of life (QoL), and explore the underlying causes of posttransplantation fatigue.
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Irisin as a predictor of glucose metabolism in children: sexually dimorphic effects.
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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Irisin, a novel myokine, increases energy expenditure and glucose tolerance and, thus, improves carbohydrate homeostasis in humans. This hormone has potential therapeutic applications for weight loss and improvement in insulin resistance in subjects with obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM). In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to associate circulating levels of irisin and several anthropometric and metabolic parameters among Arab children.
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Obesity in kidney transplantation.
J Ren Nutr
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Kidney transplantation is the preferred modality of renal replacement therapy. Long-term patient and graft survival have only improved marginally over the recent decade, mainly because of the development of cardiovascular disease after transplantation. Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is common before and after transplantation. This article reviews the literature assessing the role of pre- and post-transplant obesity on patient and graft survival, discusses the underlying obesity-related mechanisms leading to inferior kidney transplant outcomes, and explores the role of nutritional intervention on improving long-term outcomes of transplantation. Although the role of pretransplant obesity remains uncertain, post-transplant obesity increases the risk of graft failure and mortality. Nutritional intervention is effective in achieving post-transplant weight loss, but the effect on long-term outcomes has not been established. Future research should focus on conducting nutritional intervention studies aiming to improve long-term outcomes of kidney transplantation.
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NF?B as a potent regulator of inflammation in human adipose tissue, influenced by depot, adiposity, T2DM status, and TNF?
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
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OBJECTIVE: Central obesity and sub-clinical inflammation increase metabolic risk, this study examined the intracellular inflammatory pathways in adipose tissue (AT) that contribute to this risk. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study therefore addressed the influence of NF?B and JNK activation in human abdominal subcutaneous (AbdSc) and omental (Om) AT, the effect of adiposity, T2DM status and the role of TNF? in vitro, using molecular biology techniques. RESULTS: Our data showed NF?B activity is increased in Om AT versus AbdSc AT (P<0.01), which was reversed with respect to depot specific activation of JNK (P<0.01). However, T2DM status appeared to preferentially activate NF?B (P<0.001) over JNK. Furthermore, in vitro studies showed recombinant human (rh) TNF? treated AbdSc adipocytes increased NF?B activity over time (2-48 h, P<0.05) whilst JNK activity reduced (2 h, 4 h, P<0.05); inhibitor studies supported a preferential role for NF?B as a modulator of TNF? secretion. CONCLUSIONS: These studies suggest distinct changes in NF?B and JNK activation, dependent upon AT depot, adiposity and T2DM status, with in vitro use of rh TNF? leading to activation of NF?B. Consequently NF?B appears to play a central role in inflammatory mediated metabolic disease over JNK, highlighting NF?B as a potential key target for therapeutic intervention.
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The role of hepcidin-25 in kidney transplantation.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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Hepcidin-25 is a peptide hormone involved in iron absorption and homeostasis and found at increased serum levels in conditions involving systemic inflammation, renal dysfunction, and increased adiposity. Hepcidin may play a role in the pathogenesis of anemia, but its role in kidney transplantation is undefined.
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Effects of probiotics in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2: study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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Low grade chronic inflammation is observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Endotoxin derived from gut bacteria may act as a potent inflammatory stimulant. Probiotics, which are believed to contain health promoting live microorganisms, may influence circulating endotoxin levels. Ingestion of live probiotic cultures may alter gut microbiota in a beneficial manner to reduce inflammation; no information is available whether or not they do so in patients with T2DM. Therefore, the aim of this study is to characterize the beneficial effects of probiotics on circulating endotoxin levels and other biomarkers related to systemic low-grade inflammation in patients with T2DM.
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Metabolic endotoxaemia: is it more than just a gut feeling?
Curr. Opin. Lipidol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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This article reviews the evidence linking gut bacteria, endotoxin, and its circulating levels with inflammatory induced obesity and metabolic disease (metabolic endotoxaemia).
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High fat intake leads to acute postprandial exposure to circulating endotoxin in type 2 diabetic subjects.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2011
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To evaluate the changes in circulating endotoxin after a high-saturated fat meal to determine whether these effects depend on metabolic disease state.
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ITIH-5 expression in human adipose tissue is increased in obesity.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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Adipocytes secrete many proteins that regulate metabolic functions. The gene inter-? (globulin) inhibitor H5 (ITIH-5) encodes a secreted protein and is known to be expressed abundantly in the placenta. However, using gene expression profiles data we observed high expression of ITIH-5 in adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that ITIH-5 is strongly expressed in human adipocytes and adipose tissue, and is related to obesity and clinical metabolic variables. ITIH-5 adipose tissue mRNA expression was analyzed with DNA microarray and real-time PCR, and its association with clinical variables was examined. ITIH-5 protein expression was analyzed using western blot. ITIH-5 mRNA expression was abundant in human adipose tissue, adipocytes, and placenta, and higher in subcutaneous (sc) compared to omental adipose tissue (P < 0.0001). ITIH-5 mRNA and protein expression in sc adipose tissue were higher in obese compared to lean subjects (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.001, respectively). ITIH-5 mRNA expression was reduced after diet-induced weight loss (P < 0.0001). ITIH-5 mRNA expression was associated with anthropometry and clinical metabolic variables. In conclusion, ITIH-5 is highly expressed in sc adipose tissue, increased in obesity, down regulated after weight loss, and associated with measures of body size and metabolism. Together, this indicates that ITIH-5 merits further investigation as a regulator of human metabolism.
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GLP-1 analogue, Liraglutide protects human umbilical vein endothelial cells against high glucose induced endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Regul. Pept.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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Hyperglycemia induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in diabetic vascular cells is considered an increasingly important factor for the genesis and development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. This study investigated firstly, the effect of hyperglycemia in ER stress induction in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) and secondly, the impact of Glucagon like petide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, Liraglutide, in reducing ER stress in HUVECs exposed to high glucose (HG).
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Evidence for a shift to anaerobic metabolism in adipose tissue in efavirenz-containing regimens for HIV with different nucleoside backbones.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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Antiretroviral (ARV) treatment has been associated with abnormalities in lipid and mitochondrial metabolism. We compared patterns of gene expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of HIV-positive subjects before and after 18-24 months of ARV therapy with HIV-negative controls.
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Visfatin is regulated by rosiglitazone in type 2 diabetes mellitus and influenced by NF?B and JNK in human abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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Visfatin has been proposed as an insulin-mimicking adipocytokine, predominantly secreted from adipose tissue and correlated with obesity. However, recent studies suggest visfatin may act as a proinflammatory cytokine. Our studies sought to determine the significance of this adipocytokine and its potential role in the pathogenesis of T2DM. Firstly, we examined the effects of diabetic status on circulating visfatin levels, and several other adipocytokines, demonstrating that diabetic status increased visfatin*, TNF-?*** and IL-6*** compared with non-diabetic subjects (*p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001, respectively). We then assessed the effects of an insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone (RSG), in treatment naïve T2DM subjects, on circulating visfatin levels. Our findings showed that visfatin was reduced post-RSG treatment [vs. pre-treatment (*p<0.05)] accompanied by a reduction in HOMA-IR**, thus implicating a role for insulin in visfatin regulation. Further studies addressed the intracellular mechanisms by which visfatin may be regulated, and may exert pro-inflammatory effects, in human abdominal subcutaneous (Abd Sc) adipocytes. Following insulin (Ins) and RSG treatment, our in vitro findings highlighted that insulin (100 nM), alone, upregulated visfatin protein expression whereas, in combination with RSG (10 nM), it reduced visfatin*, IKK?** and p-JNK1/2*. Furthermore, inhibition of JNK protein exacted a significant reduction in visfatin expression (**p<0.01), whilst NF-?B blockade increased visfatin (*p<0.05), thus identifying JNK as the more influential factor in visfatin regulation. Additional in vitro analysis on adipokines regulating visfatin showed that only Abd Sc adipocytes treated with recombinant human (rh)IL-6 increased visfatin protein (*p<0.05), whilst rh visfatin treatment, itself, had no influence on TNF-?, IL-6 or resistin secretion from Sc adipocytes. These data highlight visfatins regulation by insulin and RSG, potentially acting through NF-?B and JNK mechanisms, with only rh IL-6 modestly affecting visfatin regulation. Taken together, these findings suggest that visfatin may represent a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is influenced by insulin/insulin sensitivity via the NF-?B and JNK pathways.
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Acute and chronic saturated fatty acid treatment as a key instigator of the TLR-mediated inflammatory response in human adipose tissue, in vitro.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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A post-prandial increase in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and glucose (Glc) activates an inflammatory response, which may be prolonged following restoration of physiological SFAs and Glc levels--a finding referred to as metabolic memory. This study examined chronic and oscillating SFAs and Glc on the inflammatory signalling pathway in human adipose tissue (AT) and adipocytes (Ads) and determined whether Ads are subject to "metabolic memory." Abdominal (Abd) subcutaneous (Sc) explants and Ads were treated with chronic low glucose (L-Glc): 5.6 mM and high glucose (H-Glc): 17.5 mM, with low (0.2 mM) and high (2 mM) SFA for 48 h. Abd Sc explants and Ads were also exposed to the aforementioned treatment regimen for 12-h periods, with alternating rest periods of 12 h in L-Glc. Chronic treatment with L-Glc and high SFAs, H-Glc and high SFAs up-regulated key factors of the nuclear factor-?B (NF?B) pathway in Abd Sc AT and Ads (TLR4, NF?B; P<.05), whilst down-regulating MyD88. Oscillating Glc and SFA concentrations increased TLR4, NF?B, IKK? (P<.05) in explants and Ads and up-regulated MyD88 expression (P<.05). Both tumor necrosis factor ? and interleukin 6 (P<.05) secretion were markedly increased in chronically treated Abd Sc explants and Ads whilst, with oscillating treatments, a sustained inflammatory effect was noted in absence of treatment. Therefore, SFAs may act as key instigators of the inflammatory response in human AT via NF?B activation, which suggests that short-term exposure of cells to uncontrolled levels of SFAs and Glc leads to a longer-term inflammatory insult within the Ad, which may have important implications for patients with obesity and Type 2 diabetes.
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Adiposity and insulin resistance correlate with telomere length in middle-aged Arabs: the influence of circulating adiponectin.
Eur. J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2010
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Studies in obesity have implicated adipocytokines in the development of insulin resistance, which in turn may lead to accelerated aging. In this study, we determined associations of chromosomal telomere length (TL) to markers of obesity and insulin resistance in middle-aged adult male and female Arabs with and without diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2).
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Lipopolysaccharide, high glucose and saturated fatty acids induce endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured primary human adipocytes: Salicylate alleviates this stress.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2010
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Recent findings indicate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is significantly increased in adipose tissue of obese human subjects and is critical to the initiation and integration of pathways of inflammation and insulin action. But the factors inducing ER stress in human adipose tissue are unknown. The common factors increased in obesity and linked to insulin resistance are hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidemia and also endotoxemia. Therefore, our aims were to investigate: (1) the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), high glucose (HG) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) as inducers of ER stress in primary human adipocytes and (2) whether salicylate, a known anti-inflammatory compound, can alleviate this effect. Components of the ER stress pathways were studied in human abdominal subcutaneous (AbSc) adipose tissue (AT) from obese and lean. Following the culture and differentiation of primary human preadipocytes, these adipocytes were treated with LPS, HG, tunicamycin (Tun) and SFA either alone or in combination with sodium salicylate (Sal). Markers of ER stress were significantly increased in AbSc AT of obese. Differentiated human adipocytes treated with LPS, Tun, HG and SFA showed significant activation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and their down-stream targets. Sal alleviated this effect and activated AktSer473 phosphorylation. This study presents important evidence that: (1) there is increased ER stress in adipose tissue of obese individuals, (2) LPS, hyperglycaemia and saturated fatty acids induce significant ER stress in primary human adipocytes and (3) this induction is alleviated by salicylate.
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Elevated endotoxin levels in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
J Inflamm (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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Emerging data indicate that gut-derived endotoxin may contribute to low-grade systemic inflammation in insulin resistant states. This study aimed to examine the importance of serum endotoxin and inflammatory markers in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients, with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to explore the effect of treatment with a lipase inhibitor, Orlistat, on their inflammatory status.
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Dysregulation of plasma ghrelin in alcoholic cirrhosis.
Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
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Abnormalities in circulating ghrelin have been reported in chronic liver disease. This study assessed the response of anabolic peptides ghrelin, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and healthy subjects to oral glucose. In a previous study, using oral glucose we identified loss of ghrelin regulation in nonalcoholic steato-hepatitis. PATIENTS/DESIGN/MEASUREMENTS: Fourteen patients with alcoholic cirrhosis were compared with 11 healthy subjects. Patients with cirrhosis were studied when adjudged clinically stable in hospital. After an overnight fast, they ingested 100-g glucose dissolved in 250 ml of water. Blood was sampled before and every 20 minutes after ingestion for 120 minutes. Plasma acylated and des-acyl ghrelin, GH, IGF-1 and insulin were assayed by ELISA.
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Adipocyte differentiation, mitochondrial gene expression and fat distribution: differences between zidovudine and tenofovir after 6 months.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 12-25-2009
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Abnormal lipid metabolism and cell oxidative mechanisms are reported in patients on antiretroviral treatment. We compared the expression of several key adipocyte genes in HIV-infected patients randomized to antiretroviral regimens containing zidovudine (AZT) or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF).
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Ethnic and sex differences in circulating endotoxin levels: A novel marker of atherosclerotic and cardiovascular risk in a British multi-ethnic population.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2009
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Circulating endotoxin levels are associated with atherosclerosis. Moreover, ethnic differences in pro-inflammatory markers may be associated with ethnic differences in atherosclerotic and cardiovascular (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk.
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Tenomodulin is highly expressed in adipose tissue, increased in obesity, and down-regulated during diet-induced weight loss.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2009
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Tenomodulin (TNMD), a putative angiogenesis inhibitor, is expressed in hypovascular connective tissues. Global gene expression scans show that the TNMD gene also is expressed in human adipose tissue and that its expression is regulated in response to weight reduction; however, more detailed information is lacking.
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Regulation of carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) in human adipose tissue.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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Carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) has recently been suggested to play a role in lipolysis. Our aim was to study the regulation of CES1 expression in human adipose tissue. In the SOS Sib Pair Study, CES1 expression was higher in obese compared with lean sisters (n=78 pairs, P=8.7x10(-18)) and brothers (n=12 pairs, P=0.048). CES1 expression was higher in subcutaneous compared with omental adipose tissue in lean (P=0.027) and obese subjects (P=0.00036), and reduced during diet-induced weight loss (n=24, weeks 8, 16, and 18 compared to baseline, P<0.0001 for all time points). CES1 expression was higher in isolated adipocytes compared with intact adipose tissue (P=0.0018) and higher in large compared with small adipocytes (P=4.1x10(-6)). Basal and stimulated lipolysis was not different in individuals with high, intermediate, and low expression of CES1. Thus, CES1 expression was linked to body fat and adipocyte fat content but not to lipolytic activity.
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Obesity and diabetes: lipids, nowhere to run to.
Clin. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2009
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Although specific pathogenic entities contributing to diabetic risk, such as central adiposity, ectopic fat accumulation, hyperlipidaemia and inflammation, are well-characterized, the response of cellular systems to such insults are less well understood. This short review highlights the effect of increasing fat mass on ectopic fat accumulation, the role of triacylglycerols (triglycerides) in Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease pathogenesis, and selected current therapeutic strategies used to ameliorate these risk factors.
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Changes in endotoxin levels in T2DM subjects on anti-diabetic therapies.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2009
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Chronic low-grade inflammation is a significant factor in the development of obesity associated diabetes. This is supported by recent studies suggesting endotoxin, derived from gut flora, may be key to the development of inflammation by stimulating the secretion of an adverse cytokine profile from adipose tissue.
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Increased circulating ANG II and TNF-? represents important risk factors in obese saudi adults with hypertension irrespective of diabetic status and BMI.
PLoS ONE
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Central adiposity is a significant determinant of obesity-related hypertension risk, which may arise due to the pathogenic inflammatory nature of the abdominal fat depot. However, the influence of pro-inflammatory adipokines on blood pressure in the obese hypertensive phenotype has not been well established in Saudi subjects. As such, our study investigated whether inflammatory factors may represent useful biomarkers to delineate hypertension risk in a Saudi cohort with and without hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2). Subjects were subdivided into four groups: healthy lean controls (age: 47.9±5.1 yr; BMI: 22.9±2.1 Kg/m(2)), non-hypertensive obese (age: 46.1±5.0 yr; BMI: 33.7±4.2 Kg/m(2)), hypertensive obese (age: 48.6±6.1 yr; BMI: 36.5±7.7 Kg/m(2)) and hypertensive obese with DMT2 (age: 50.8±6.0 yr; BMI: 35.3±6.7 Kg/m(2)). Anthropometric data were collected from all subjects and fasting blood samples were utilized for biochemical analysis. Serum angiotensin II (ANG II) levels were elevated in hypertensive obese (p<0.05) and hypertensive obese with DMT2 (p<0.001) compared with normotensive controls. Systolic blood pressure was positively associated with BMI (p<0.001), glucose (p<0.001), insulin (p<0.05), HOMA-IR (p<0.001), leptin (p<0.01), TNF-? (p<0.001) and ANG II (p<0.05). Associations between ANG II and TNF-? with systolic blood pressure remained significant after controlling for BMI. Additionally CRP (p<0.05), leptin (p<0.001) and leptin/adiponectin ratio (p<0.001) were also significantly associated with the hypertension phenotype. In conclusion our data suggests that circulating pro-inflammatory adipokines, particularly ANG II and, TNF-?, represent important factors associated with a hypertension phenotype and may directly contribute to predicting and exacerbating hypertension risk.
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Soluble CD163 is associated with body mass index and blood pressure in hypertensive obese Saudi patients.
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
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The hallmark of vascular inflammation is the recruitment of circulating leucocytes, primarily monocytes, macrophages and T lymphocytes, into the vascular wall; however, the link between monocyte/macrophage activation and hypertension has not been established as yet. In this study, we determined how sCD163, a monocyte/macrophage soluble scavenger receptor and immunomodulator, relates to arterial blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive Saudi individuals.
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Does endotoxaemia contribute to osteoarthritis in obese patients?
Clin. Sci.
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OA (osteoarthritis) is a degenerative condition associated with obesity. A number of metabolic explanations have been proposed to explain the association between obesity and OA in non-weight-bearing joints; however, none of these hypotheses have been demonstrated empirically. In the present Hypothesis article, we recognize that obesity is associated with compromised gut mucosa, translocation of microbiota and raised serum LPS (lipopolysaccharide). The consequent activation of the innate immune response leads to increased serum titres of inflammatory mediators in obese patients, with both local and systemic markers of inflammation associated with onset and progression of OA. Furthermore, a number of workers have shown that articular cartilage repair is impaired by a range of inflammatory mediators, both in vitro and in vivo. We propose that metabolic endotoxaemia, caused by impaired gastric mucosa and low-grade chronic inflammation, may contribute to the onset and progression of OA in obese patients. This may account for the association between obesity and OA at non-weight-bearing joints which cannot be explained by biomechanical factors.
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Circulating leukocyte telomere length is highly heritable among families of Arab descent.
BMC Med. Genet.
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Telomere length, an indicator of ageing and longevity, has been correlated with several biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease in both Arab children and adults. It is not known, however, whether or not telomere length is a highly conserved inheritable trait in this homogeneous cohort, where age-related diseases are highly prevalent. As such, the aim of this study was to address the inheritability of telomere length in Saudi families and the impact of cardiometabolic disease biomarkers on telomere length.
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Telomere length attrition, a marker of biological senescence, is inversely correlated with triglycerides and cholesterol in South Asian males with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Exp Diabetes Res
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South Asians have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) than white Caucasians, for a given BMI. Premature biological ageing, assessed by reduction in telomere length (TL), may be mediated by factors resulting from altered metabolic profiles associated with obesity. We hypothesise that ethnicity and metabolic status represent detrimental factors contributing to premature biological ageing. Therefore we assessed TL in two South Asian, age and BMI-matched cohorts [T2DM (n = 142) versus non-T2DM (n = 76)] to determine the effects of BMI, gender, lipid and CVD profile on biological ageing. Genomic DNA was obtained from the UKADS cohort; biochemical and anthropometric data was collected and TL was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Our findings indicated a gender-specific effect with reduced TL in T2DM men compared with non-T2DM men (P = 0.006). Additionally, in T2DM men, TL was inversely correlated with triglycerides and total cholesterol (r = -0.419, P < 0.01; r = -0.443, P < 0.01). In summary, TL was reduced amongst South Asian T2DM men and correlated with triglycerides and total cholesterol. This study highlights enhanced biological ageing among South Asian, T2DM men, which appears to be tracked by changes in lipids and BMI, suggesting that raised lipids and BMI may directly contribute to premature ageing.
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Laparoscopic Greater Curvature Plication in Morbidly Obese Women with Type 2 Diabetes: Effects on Glucose Homeostasis, Postprandial Triglyceridemia and Selected Gut Hormones.
Obes Surg
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Laparoscopic greater curvature plication (LGCP) is an emerging bariatric procedure that reduces the gastric volume without implantable devices or gastrectomy. The aim of this study was to explore changes in glucose homeostasis, postprandial triglyceridemia, and meal-stimulated secretion of selected gut hormones [glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), ghrelin, and obestatin] in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at 1 and 6 months after the procedure.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.