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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The mirror has two faces: dissociative identity disorder and the defence of pathological criminal incapacity--a South African criminal law perspective.
Med Law
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Dissociative identity disorder poses numerous medico legal issues whenever the insanity defence emerges. Within the context of the South African criminal law, the impact of dissociative identity disorder on criminal responsibility has only been addressed very briefly in one decided case. Various questions arise as to the impact that the distinctive diagnostic features of dissociative identity disorder could possibly have on the defence of pathological criminal incapacity, or better known as the insanity defence, within the ambit of the South African criminal law. In this contribution the author reflects on the mental disorder known as dissociative identity disorder or multiple personality disorder, against the backdrop of the defence of pathological criminal incapacity. Reflections are also provided pertaining to the various medico legal issues at stake whenever this defence has to be adjudicated upon.
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Species and condition specific adaptation of the transcriptional landscapes in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Although Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are most closely related, both species behave significantly different with respect to morphogenesis and virulence. In order to gain further insight into the divergent routes for morphogenetic adaptation in both species, we investigated qualitative along with quantitative differences in the transcriptomes of both organisms by cDNA deep sequencing.
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Influence of water on anharmonicity, stability, and vibrational energy distribution of hydrogen-bonded adducts in atmospheric reactions: case study of the OH + isoprene reaction intermediate using ab initio molecular dynamics.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2011
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The effect of water on the stability and vibrational states of a hydroxy-isoprene adduct is probed through the introduction of 1-15 water molecules. It is found that when a static nuclear harmonic approximation is invoked there is a substantial red-shift of the alcohol O-H stretch (of the order of 800 cm(-1)) as a result of introduction of water. When potential energy surface sampling and associated anharmonicities are introduced through finite temperature ab initio dynamics, this hydroxy-isoprene OH stretch strongly couples with all the water vibrational modes as well as the hydroxy-isoprene OH bend modes. A new computational technique is introduced to probe the coupling between these modes. The method involves a two-dimensional, time-frequency analysis of the finite temperature vibrational properties. Such an analysis not only provides information about the modes that are coupled as a result of finite-temperature analysis, but also the temporal evolution of such coupling.
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Systematic review and meta-analysis of the role of somatostatin and its analogues in the treatment of enterocutaneous fistula.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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Somatostatin analogues may help pancreatic fistula although it remains unclear whether they help nonpancreatic fistula. This study involved meta-analysis of somatostatin analogues for treatment of enterocutaneous fistula.
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Environmental influences on the spatial ecology of juvenile smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata): results from acoustic monitoring.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2011
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To aid recovery efforts of smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) populations in U.S. waters a research project was developed to assess how changes in environmental conditions within estuarine areas affected the presence, movements, and activity space of this endangered species. Forty juvenile P. pectinata were fitted with acoustic tags and monitored within the lower 27 km of the Caloosahatchee River estuary, Florida, between 2005 and 2007. Sawfish were monitored within the study site from 1 to 473 days, and the number of consecutive days present ranged from 1 to 125. Residency index values for individuals varied considerably, with annual means highest in 2005 (0.95) and lowest in 2007 (0.73) when several P. pectinata moved upriver beyond detection range during drier conditions. Mean daily activity space was 1.42 km of river distance. The distance between 30-minute centers of activity was typically <0.1 km, suggesting limited movement over short time scales. Salinity electivity analysis demonstrated an affinity for salinities between 18 and at least 24 psu, suggesting movements are likely made in part, to remain within this range. Thus, freshwater flow from Lake Okeechobee (and its effect on salinity) affects the location of individuals within the estuary, although it remains unclear whether or not these movements are threatening recovery.
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Radical dependence of the yields of methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone from the OH-initiated oxidation of isoprene under NO(x)-free conditions.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2010
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Formation yields of methacrolein (MAC), methyl vinyl ketone (MVK), and 3-methyl furan (3MF) from the hydroxyl radical (OH) initiated oxidation of isoprene were investigated under NO(x)-free conditions (NO(x) = NO + NO(2)) at 50 °C and 1 atm in a quartz reaction chamber coupled to a mass spectrometer. Yields of the primary products were measured at various OH and hydroperoxy (HO(2)) radical concentrations and were found to decrease as the HO(2)-to-isoprene-based peroxy radical (ISORO(2)) concentration ratio increases. This is likely the result of a competition between ISORO(2) self- and cross-reactions that lead to the formation of the primary products, with reactions between these peroxy radicals and HO(2) which can lead to the formation of peroxides. Under conditions with HO(2)/ISORO(2) ratios close to 0.1, yields of MVK (15.5% ± 1.4%) and MAC (13.0% ± 1.2%) were higher than the yields of MVK (8.9% ± 0.9%) and MAC (10.9% ± 1.1%) measured under conditions with HO(2)/ISORO(2) ratios close to 1. This radical dependence of the yields was reproduced reasonably well by an explicit model of isoprene oxidation, suggesting that the model is able to reproduce the observed products yields under a realistic range of atmospheric HO(2)/ISORO(2) ratios.
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Rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of OH and O3 with ?-ocimene, ?-myrcene, and ?- and ?-farnesene as a function of temperature.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2010
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The rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of hydroxyl radicals and ozone with the biogenic hydrocarbons ?-ocimene, ?-myrcene, and ?- and ?-farnesene were measured using the relative rate technique over the temperature ranges 313-423 (for OH) and 298-318 K (for O?) at about 1 atm total pressure. The OH radicals were generated by photolysis of H?O?, and O? was produced from the electrolysis of O?. Helium was used as the diluent gas. The reactants were detected by online mass spectrometry, which resulted in high time resolution, allowing large amounts of data to be collected and used in the determination of the Arrhenius parameters. The following Arrhenius expressions have been determined for these reactions (in units of cm³ molecules?¹ s?¹): for ?-ocimene + OH, k = (4.35(-0.66)(+0.78)) × 10?¹¹ exp[(579 ± 59)/T]; for ?-ocimene + O?, k = (3.15(-0.95)(+1.36)) × 10?¹? exp[-(626 ± 110)/T]; for ?-myrcene + O?, k = (2.21(-0.66)(+0.94)) × 10?¹? exp[-(520 ± 109)/T]; for ?-farnesene + OH, k(OH) = (2.19 ± 0.11) × 10?¹? for 23-413 K; for ?-farnesene + O?, k = (3.52(-2.54)(+9.09)) × 10?¹² exp[-(2589 ± 393)/T]; for ?-farnesene + OH, k(OH) = (2.88 ± 0.15) × 10?¹? for 323-423 K; for ?-farnesene + O?, k = (1.81(-1.19)(+3.46)) × 10?¹² exp[-(2347 ± 329)/T]. The Arrhenius parameters here are the first to be reported. The reactions of ?- and ?-farnesene with OH showed no significant temperature dependence. Atmospheric residence times due to reactions with OH and O? were also presented.
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Experimental and theoretical studies of the kinetics of the OH + hydroxyacetone reaction as a function of temperature.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2009
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The rate constant for the reaction of the OH radical with hydroxyacetone was measured between 2 and 5 Torr and over the temperature range of 280-350 K, using a discharge-flow system coupled with resonance fluorescence detection of the OH radical. At 298 K the rate constant was found to be (3.02 +/- 0.28) x 10(-12) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1), in excellent agreement with several previous studies. A positive temperature dependence was measured over the temperature range 280-350 K, described by the Arrhenius expression k = (1.88 +/- 0.75) x 10(-11) exp[-(545 +/- 60)/T] cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1), in contrast to previous measurements of the temperature dependence for this reaction and suggesting that the atmospheric lifetime of hydroxyacetone may be greater than previously estimated. Theoretical calculations of the potential energy surface for this reaction suggest that the mechanism for this reaction involves hydrogen abstraction through a hydrogen-bonded prereactive complex similar to the OH + acetone reaction, with a calculated barrier height between -1 and 1 kcal mol(-1) depending on the level of theory.
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Vacuum-assisted closure of laparostomy wounds: a critical review of the literature.
Int Wound J
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2009
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Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) reduces the burden for carers of laparostomy wounds but evidence from randomised trials is lacking. This review analyses the evidence for the VAC abdominal wound management system (KCI, San Antonio, TX) in the open abdomen. Three prospective studies provide level III evidence that VAC allows delayed primary fascial closure in the majority of these wounds up to 21 days after occurrence, but not where duration of VAC was less than 9 days or if vacuum pack techniques were used in place of VAC. Fistulae occurred in a minority of wounds complicated by multi-organ failure or sepsis and could not be attributed to VAC itself. Two retrospective analyses suggested VAC may reduce re-operation rate and length of stay in complex wounds. Whilst randomised controlled trials remain the gold standard of evidence for effectiveness of health care interventions, contemporaneous level III evidence supports the hypothesis that VAC increases the rate of primary fascial closure. Whilst enterocutaneous fistula formation is reported in the most complex of these wounds, there is no more evidence that these are consequential to as opposed to coincident with VAC use.
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Yersinia pestis: new evidence for an old infection.
PLoS ONE
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The successful reconstruction of an ancient bacterial genome from archaeological material presents an important methodological advancement for infectious disease research. The reliability of evolutionary histories inferred by the incorporation of ancient data, however, are highly contingent upon the level of genetic diversity represented in modern genomic sequences that are publicly accessible, and the paucity of available complete genomes restricts the level of phylogenetic resolution that can be obtained. Here we add to our original analysis of the Yersinia pestis strain implicated in the Black Death by consolidating our dataset for 18 modern genomes with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for an additional 289 strains at over 600 positions. The inclusion of this additional data reveals a cluster of Y. pestis strains that diverge at a time significantly in advance of the Black Death, with divergence dates roughly coincident with the Plague of Justinian (6(th) to 8(th) century AD). In addition, the analysis reveals further clues regarding potential radiation events that occurred immediately preceding the Black Death, and the legacy it may have left in modern Y. pestis populations. This work reiterates the need for more publicly available complete genomes, both modern and ancient, to achieve an accurate understanding of the history of this bacterium.
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Yoga in Australia: Results of a national survey.
Int J Yoga
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The therapeutic benefits of yoga and meditation are well documented, yet little is known about the practice of yoga in Australia or elsewhere, whether as a physical activity, a form of therapy, a spiritual path or a lifestyle.
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"Pump-probe" atom-centered density matrix propagation studies to gauge anharmonicity and energy repartitioning in atmospheric reactive adducts: case study of the OH + isoprene and OH + butadiene reaction intermediates.
J Phys Chem A
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Time-resolved "pump-probe" ab initio molecular dynamics studies are constructed to probe the stability of reaction intermediates, the mechanism of energy transfer, and energy repartitioning, for moieties involved during the interaction of volatile organic compunds with hydroxyl radical. These systems are of prime importance in the atmosphere. Specifically, the stability of reaction intermediates of hydroxyl radical adducts to isoprene and butadiene molecules is used as a case study to develop novel computational techniques involving "pump-probe" ab initio molecular dynamics. Starting with the various possible hydroxyl radical adducts to isoprene and butadiene, select vibrational modes of each of the adducts are populated with excess energy to mimic the initial conditions of an experiment. The flow of energy into the remaining modes is then probed by subjecting the excited adducts to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that the stability of the adducts arises directly due to the anhormonically driven coupling of the modes to facilitate repartitioning of the excess vibrational energy. This kind of vibrational repartitioning has a critical influence on the energy density.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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