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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Activated CD8+ T cells induce expansion of V?5+ regulatory T cells via TNFR2 signaling.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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V?5(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are specific for a mouse endogenous retroviral superantigen, become activated and proliferate in response to Friend virus (FV) infection. We previously reported that FV-induced expansion of this Treg subset was dependent on CD8(+) T cells and TNF-?, but independent of IL-2. We now show that the inflammatory milieu associated with FV infection is not necessary for induction of V?5(+) Treg expansion. Rather, it is the presence of activated CD8(+) T cells that is critical for their expansion. The data indicate that the mechanism involves signaling between the membrane-bound form of TNF-? on activated CD8(+) T cells and TNFR2 on Tregs. CD8(+) T cells expressing membrane-bound TNF-? but no soluble TNF-? remained competent to induce strong V?5(+) Treg expansion in vivo. In addition, V?5(+) Tregs expressing only TNFR2 but no TNFR1 were still responsive to expansion. Finally, treatment of naive mice with soluble TNF-? did not induce V?5(+) Treg expansion, but treatment with a TNFR2-specific agonist did. These results reveal a new mechanism of intercellular communication between activated CD8(+) T cell effectors and Tregs that results in the activation and expansion of a Treg subset that subsequently suppresses CD8(+) T cell functions.
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T-cell STAT3 is required for the maintenance of humoral immunity to LCMV.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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STAT3 is a critical transcription factor activated downstream of cytokine signaling and is integral for the function of multiple immune cell types. Human mutations in STAT3 cause primary immunodeficiency resulting in impaired control of a variety of infections, including reactivation of latent viruses. In this study, we investigate how T-cell functions of STAT3 contribute to responses to viral infection by inducing chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection in mice lacking STAT3 specifically in T cells. Although mice with conditional disruption of STAT3 in T cells were able to mount early responses to viral infection similar to control animals, including expansion of effector T cells, we found generation of T-follicular helper (Tfh) cells to be impaired. As a result, STAT3 T cell deficient mice produced attenuated germinal center reactions, and did not accumulate bone marrow virus specific IgG-secreting cells, resulting in failure to maintain levels of virus-specific IgG or mount neutralizing responses to LCMV in the serum. These effects were associated with reduced control of viral replication and prolonged infection. Our results demonstrate the importance of STAT3 in T cells for the generation of functional long-term humoral immunity to viral infections. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Chronic viral infection promotes sustained Th1-derived immunoregulatory IL-10 via BLIMP-1.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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During the course of many chronic viral infections, the antiviral T cell response becomes attenuated through a process that is regulated in part by the host. While elevated expression of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 is involved in the suppression of viral-specific T cell responses, the relevant cellular sources of IL-10, as well as the pathways responsible for IL-10 induction, remain unclear. In this study, we traced IL-10 production over the course of chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection in an IL-10 reporter mouse line. Using this model, we demonstrated that virus-specific T cells with reduced inflammatory function, particularly Th1 cells, display elevated and sustained IL-10 expression during chronic LCMV infection. Furthermore, ablation of IL-10 from the T cell compartment partially restored T cell function and reduced viral loads in LCMV-infected animals. We found that viral persistence is needed for sustained IL-10 production by Th1 cells and that the transcription factor BLIMP-1 is required for IL-10 expression by Th1 cells. Restimulation of Th1 cells from LCMV-infected mice promoted BLIMP-1 and subsequent IL-10 expression, suggesting that constant antigen exposure likely induces the BLIMP-1/IL-10 pathway during chronic viral infection. Together, these data indicate that effector T cells self-limit their responsiveness during persistent viral infection via an IL-10-dependent negative feedback loop.
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Type I interferon protects antiviral CD8+ T cells from NK cell cytotoxicity.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Despite development of new antiviral drugs, viral infections are still a major health problem. The most potent antiviral defense mechanism is the innate production of type I interferon (IFN-I), which not only limits virus replication but also promotes antiviral T cell immunity through mechanisms, which remain insufficiently studied. Using the murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus model system, we show here that IFN-I signaling on T cells prevented their rapid elimination in vivo. Microarray analyses uncovered that IFN-I triggered the expression of selected inhibitory NK-cell-receptor ligands. Consequently, T cell immunity of IFN-I receptor (IFNAR)-deficient T cells could be restored by NK cell depletion or in NK-cell-deficient hosts (Nfil3(-/-)). The elimination of Ifnar1(-/-) T cells was dependent on NK-cell-mediated perforin expression. In summary, we identified IFN-I as a key player regulating the protection of T cells against regulatory NK cell function.
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Conjugated bilirubin triggers anemia by inducing erythrocyte death.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2014
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Hepatic failure is commonly associated with anemia, which may result from gastrointestinal bleeding, vitamin deficiency and liver-damaging diseases, such as infection and alcohol intoxication. At least in theory, anemia during hepatic failure may result from accelerated clearance of circulating erythrocytes. Here we show that bile duct ligation (BDL) in mice leads to severe anemia despite increased reticulocyte numbers. Bilirubin stimulated suicidal erythrocyte death of human erythrocytes. Mechanistically, bilirubin triggered rapid Ca(2+) influx, sphingomyelinase activation, formation of ceramide and subsequent translocation of phosphatidylserine to the erythrocyte surface. Consistent with our in vitro and in vivo findings, incubation of erythrocytes in serum from patients with liver disease induced suicidal death of erythrocytes in relation to their plasma bilirubin concentration. Consistently, in patients with hepatic disease bilirubin plasma levels correlated negatively with erythrocyte count and positively with reticulocyte count. In conclusion, bilirubin triggers suicidal erythrocyte death thus contributing to anemia during liver disease. (Hepatology 2014;).
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Dynamics of a semiflexible polymer or polymer ring in shear flow.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Polymers exposed to shear flow exhibit a remarkably rich tumbling dynamics. While rigid rods rotate on Jeffery orbits, a flexible polymer stretches and coils up during tumbling. Theoretical results show that in both of these asymptotic regimes the corresponding tumbling frequency f_{c} in a linear shear flow of strength ? scales as a power law Wi^{2/3} in the Weissenberg number Wi=??, where ? is a characteristic time of the polymer's relaxational dynamics. For a flexible polymer these theoretical results are well confirmed by a large body of experimental single molecule studies. However, for the intermediate semiflexible regime, especially relevant for cytoskeletal filaments like F-actin and microtubules, the situation is less clear. While recent experiments on single F-actin filaments are still interpreted within the classical Wi^{2/3} scaling law, theoretical results indicated deviations from it. Here we perform extensive Brownian dynamics simulations to explore the tumbling dynamics of semiflexible polymers over a broad range of shear strength and the polymer's persistence length l_{p}. We find that the Weissenberg number alone does not suffice to fully characterize the tumbling dynamics, and the classical scaling law breaks down. Instead, both the polymer's stiffness and the shear rate are relevant control parameters. Based on our Brownian dynamics simulations we postulate that in the parameter range most relevant for cytoskeletal filaments there is a distinct scaling behavior with f_{c}?^{*}=Wi^{3/4}f[over ?]_{c}(x) with Wi=??^{*} and the scaling variable x=(l_{p}/L)(Wi)^{-1/3}; here ?^{*} is the time the polymer's center of mass requires to diffuse its own contour length L. Comparing these results with experimental data on F-actin we find that the Wi^{3/4} scaling law agrees quantitatively significantly better with the data than the classical Wi^{2/3} law. Finally, we extend our results to single ring polymers in shear flow, and find similar results as for linear polymers with slightly different power laws.
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Toso controls encephalitogenic immune responses by dendritic cells and regulatory T cells.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The ability to mount a strong immune response against pathogens is crucial for mammalian survival. However, excessive and uncontrolled immune reactions can lead to autoimmunity. Unraveling how the reactive versus tolerogenic state is controlled might point toward novel therapeutic strategies to treat autoimmune diseases. The surface receptor Toso/Faim3 has been linked to apoptosis, IgM binding, and innate immune responses. In this study, we used Toso-deficient mice to investigate the importance of Toso in tolerance and autoimmunity. We found that Toso(-/-) mice do not develop severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model for the human disease multiple sclerosis. Toso(-/-) dendritic cells were less sensitive to Toll-like receptor stimulation and induced significantly lower levels of disease-associated inflammatory T-cell responses. Consistent with this observation, the transfer of Toso(-/-) dendritic cells did not induce autoimmune diabetes, indicating their tolerogenic potential. In Toso(-/-) mice subjected to EAE induction, we found increased numbers of regulatory T cells and decreased encephalitogenic cellular infiltrates in the brain. Finally, inhibition of Toso activity in vivo at either an early or late stage of EAE induction prevented further disease progression. Taken together, our data identify Toso as a unique regulator of inflammatory autoimmune responses and an attractive target for therapeutic intervention.
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Recombinant p35 from bacteria can form Interleukin (IL-)12, but Not IL-35.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The Interleukin (IL)-12 family contains several heterodimeric composite cytokines which share subunits among each other. IL-12 consists of the subunits p40 (shared with IL-23) and p35. p35 is shared with the composite cytokine IL-35 which comprises of the p35/EBI3 heterodimer (EBI3 shared with IL-27). IL-35 signals via homo- or heterodimers of IL-12R?2, gp130 and WSX-1, which are shared with IL-12 and IL-27 receptor complexes, respectively. p35 was efficiently secreted in complex with p40 as IL-12 but not with EBI3 as IL-35 in several transfected cell lines tested which complicates the analysis of IL-35 signal transduction. p35 and p40 but not p35 and EBI3 form an inter-chain disulfide bridge. Mutation of the responsible cysteine residue (p40C197A) reduced IL-12 formation and activity only slightly. Importantly, the p40C197A mutation prevented the formation of antagonistic p40 homodimers which enabled the in vitro reconstitution of biologically active IL-12 with p35 produced in bacteria (p35bac). Reconstitution of IL-35 with p35bac and EBI3 did, however, fail to induce signal transduction in Ba/F3 cells expressing IL-12R?2 and gp130. In summary, we describe the in vitro reconstitution of IL-12, but fail to produce recombinant IL-35 by this novel approach.
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Genetic disruption of CD8+ Treg activity enhances the immune response to viral infection.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
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The immunological interactions that regulate the T-cell response to chronic viral infection are insufficiently understood. Here we study a cellular interaction that may enhance the antiviral immune response and constrain immunopathology. We analyze the contribution of Qa-1-restricted CD8(+) regulatory T cells (Treg cells) to antiviral immunity after infection by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. These CD8(+) Treg cells recognize and eliminate target cells through an interaction with the murine class Ib MHC molecule Qa-1 (HLA-E in humans). Using Qa-1 mutant mice (B6.Qa-1-D227K [B6-DK]) that harbor a single mutation that abrogates binding of Qa-1 peptide to the CD8-TCR (T-cell receptor) complex, we show that disruption of immune suppression mediated by CD8(+) Treg cells results in robust antiviral immune responses in both acute and chronic viral infection. Enhanced antiviral responses of B6-DK mice were accompanied by increased control of virus, reduced tissue inflammation in the acute phase, and dramatic alleviation of disease in the chronic phase. In addition, CD8(+) effector T cells in B6-DK mice displayed a less exhausted phenotype characterized by decreased expression of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), LAG3 (CD223), and 2B4 (CD244) and increased expression of NKG2D (CD314) and killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily G member 1 (KLRG1). Enhanced antiviral immunity in B6-DK mice reflected, in part, reduced inhibition of CD8(+) effector cells by CD8(+) Treg cells. These findings indicate that direct inhibition of effector CD8(+) T cells by Qa-1-restricted CD8(+) Treg cells results in increased disease severity and delayed recovery. These data suggest that depletion or inactivation of CD8(+) Treg cells represents a potentially effective strategy to enhance protective immunity to chronic viral infection.
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Usp18 driven enforced viral replication in dendritic cells contributes to break of immunological tolerance in autoimmune diabetes.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Infection with viruses carrying cross-reactive antigens is associated with break of immunological tolerance and induction of autoimmune disease. Dendritic cells play an important role in this process. However, it remains unclear why autoimmune-tolerance is broken during virus infection, but usually not during exposure to non-replicating cross-reactive antigens. Here we show that antigen derived from replicating virus but not from non-replicating sources undergoes a multiplication process in dendritic cells in spleen and lymph nodes. This enforced viral replication was dependent on Usp18 and was essential for expansion of autoreactive CD8? T cells. Preventing enforced virus replication by depletion of CD11c? cells, genetically deleting Usp18, or pharmacologically inhibiting of viral replication blunted the expansion of autoreactive CD8? T cells and prevented autoimmune diabetes. In conclusion, Usp18-driven enforced viral replication in dendritic cells can break immunological tolerance and critically influences induction of autoimmunity.
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Cellular senescence or EGFR signaling induces Interleukin 6 (IL-6) receptor expression controlled by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR).
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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Interleukin 6 (IL-6) signaling plays a role in inflammation, cancer, and senescence. Here, we identified soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) as a member of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Senescence-associated sIL-6R upregulation was mediated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). sIL-6R was mainly generated by a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10)-dependent ectodomain shedding to enable IL-6 trans-signaling. In vivo, heterozygous PTEN-knockout mice exhibited higher mTOR activity and increased sIL-6R levels. Moreover, aberrant EGF receptor (EGFR) activation triggered IL-6 synthesis. In analogy to senescence, EGFR-induced activation of mTOR also induced IL-6R expression and sIL-6R generation. Hence, mTOR activation reprograms IL-6 non-responder cells into IL-6 responder cells. Our data suggest that mTOR serves as a central molecular switch to facilitate cellular IL-6 classic and trans-signaling via IL-6R upregulation with direct implications for cellular senescence and tumor development.
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The transcription factor Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 is required for the generation of protective effector CD8+ T cells.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Robust cytotoxic CD8(+) T-cell response is important for immunity to intracellular pathogens. Here, we show that the transcription factor IFN Regulatory Factor 4 (IRF4) is crucial for the protective CD8(+) T-cell response to the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. IRF4-deficient (Irf4(-/-)) mice could not clear L. monocytogenes infection and generated decreased numbers of L. monocytogenes-specific CD8(+) T cells with impaired effector phenotype and function. Transfer of wild-type CD8(+) T cells into Irf4(-/-) mice improved bacterial clearance, suggesting an intrinsic defect of CD8(+) T cells in Irf4(-/-) mice. Following transfer into wild-type recipients, Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells became activated and showed initial proliferation upon L. monocytogenes infection. However, these cells could not sustain proliferation, produced reduced amounts of IFN-? and TNF-?, and failed to acquire cytotoxic function. Forced IRF4 expression in Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells rescued the defect. During acute infection, Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells demonstrated diminished expression of B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1), inhibitor of DNA binding (Id)2, and T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet), transcription factors programming effector-cell generation. IRF4 was essential for expression of Blimp-1, suggesting that altered regulation of Blimp-1 contributes to the defects of Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells. Despite increased levels of B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL-6), Eomesodermin, and Id3, Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells showed impaired memory-cell formation, indicating additional functions for IRF4 in this process. As IRF4 governs B-cell and CD4(+) T-cell differentiation, the identification of its decisive role in peripheral CD8(+) T-cell differentiation, suggests a common regulatory function for IRF4 in adaptive lymphocytes fate decision.
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iRhom2 controls the substrate selectivity of stimulated ADAM17-dependent ectodomain shedding.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Protein ectodomain shedding by ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17), a principal regulator of EGF-receptor signaling and TNF? release, is rapidly and posttranslationally activated by a variety of signaling pathways, and yet little is known about the underlying mechanism. Here, we report that inactive rhomboid protein 2 (iRhom2), recently identified as essential for the maturation of ADAM17 in hematopoietic cells, is crucial for the rapid activation of the shedding of some, but not all substrates of ADAM17. Mature ADAM17 is present in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (mEFs) lacking iRhom2, and yet ADAM17 is unable to support stimulated shedding of several of its substrates, including heparin-binding EGF and Kit ligand 2 in this context. Stimulated shedding of other ADAM17 substrates, such as TGF?, is not affected in iRhom2(-/-) mEFs but can be strongly reduced by treating iRhom2(-/-) mEFs with siRNA against iRhom1. Activation of heparin-binding EGF or Kit ligand 2 shedding by ADAM17 in iRhom2(-/-) mEFs can be rescued by wild-type iRhom2 but not by iRhom2 lacking its N-terminal cytoplasmic domain. The requirement for the cytoplasmic domain of iRhom2 for stimulated shedding by ADAM17 may help explain why the cytoplasmic domain of ADAM17 is not required for stimulated shedding. The functional relevance of iRhom2 in regulating shedding of EGF receptor (EGFR) ligands is established by a lack of lysophasphatidic acid/ADAM17/EGFR-dependent crosstalk with ERK1/2 in iRhom2(-/-) mEFs, and a significant reduction of FGF7/ADAM17/EGFR-stimulated migration of iRhom2(-/-) keratinocytes. Taken together, these findings uncover functions for iRhom2 in the regulation of EGFR signaling and in controlling the activation and substrate selectivity of ADAM17-dependent shedding events.
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Quantitative measurement of femoral condyle cartilage in the knee by MRI: Validation study by multireaders.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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To determine reproducibility of the femoral condyle cartilage volume (CV) in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies using various 3D imaging techniques at 1.5 T and 3 T.
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Natural killer cells regulate diverse T cell responses.
Trends Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Natural killer (NK) cells are important mediators of the immune response against microbial pathogens and tumors. There is growing evidence from mouse and human studies that, NK cells exhibit immunoregulatory functions and can limit T cell immunity. NK cell regulatory activity has been demonstrated in a variety of disease models including chronic viral infection, autoimmunity, and transplantation. Depending on the nature of the immune challenge, NK cells use different strategies to limit T cell function, including via cytokines, interactions with NK receptors NKG2D and NKp46, or by perforin-mediated T cell death. Future work should address whether specific subsets of NK cells inhibit T cell responses, and how NK cells acquire immunosuppressive functions.
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Involvement of Toso in activation of monocytes, macrophages, and granulocytes.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Rapid activation of immune responses is necessary for antibacterial defense, but excessive immune activation can result in life-threatening septic shock. Understanding how these processes are balanced may provide novel therapeutic potential in treating inflammatory disease. Fc receptors are crucial for innate immune activation. However, the role of the putative Fc receptor for IgM, known as Toso/Faim3, has to this point been unclear. In this study, we generated Toso-deficient mice and used them to uncover a critical regulatory function of Toso in innate immune activation. Development of innate immune cells was intact in the absence of Toso, but Toso-deficient neutrophils exhibited more reactive oxygen species production and reduced phagocytosis of pathogens compared with controls. Cytokine production was also decreased in Toso(-/-) mice compared with WT animals, rendering them resistant to septic shock induced by lipopolysaccharide. However, Toso(-/-) mice also displayed limited cytokine production after infection with the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes that was correlated with elevated presence of Listeria throughout the body. Accordingly, Toso(-/-) mice succumbed to infections of L. monocytogenes, whereas WT mice successfully eliminated the infection. Taken together, our data reveal Toso to be a unique regulator of innate immune responses during bacterial infection and septic shock.
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iRHOM2 is a critical pathogenic mediator of inflammatory arthritis.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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iRHOM2, encoded by the gene Rhbdf2, regulates the maturation of the TNF-? convertase (TACE), which controls shedding of TNF-? and its biological activity in vivo. TACE is a potential target to treat TNF-?-dependent diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, but there are concerns about potential side effects, because TACE also protects the skin and intestinal barrier by activating EGFR signaling. Here we report that inactivation of Rhbdf2 allows tissue-specific regulation of TACE by selectively preventing its maturation in immune cells, without affecting its homeostatic functions in other tissues. The related iRHOM1, which is widely expressed, except in hematopoietic cells, supported TACE maturation and shedding of the EGFR ligand TGF-? in Rhbdf2-deficient cells. Remarkably, mice lacking Rhbdf2 were protected from K/BxN inflammatory arthritis to the same extent as mice lacking TACE in myeloid cells or Tnfa-deficient mice. In probing the underlying mechanism, we found that two main drivers of K/BxN arthritis, complement C5a and immune complexes, stimulated iRHOM2/TACE-dependent shedding of TNF-? in mouse and human cells. These data demonstrate that iRHOM2 and myeloid-expressed TACE play a critical role in inflammatory arthritis and indicate that iRHOM2 is a potential therapeutic target for selective inactivation of TACE in myeloid cells.
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Loss of the signaling adaptor TRAF1 causes CD8+ T cell dysregulation during human and murine chronic infection.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2011
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The signaling adaptor TNFR-associated factor 1 (TRAF1) is specifically lost from virus-specific CD8 T cells during the chronic phase of infection with HIV in humans or lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) clone 13 in mice. In contrast, TRAF1 is maintained at higher levels in virus-specific T cells of HIV controllers or after acute LCMV infection. TRAF1 expression negatively correlates with programmed death 1 expression and HIV load and knockdown of TRAF1 in CD8 T cells from viral controllers results in decreased HIV suppression ex vivo. Consistent with the desensitization of the TRAF1-binding co-stimulatory receptor 4-1BB, 4-1BBL-deficient mice have defects in viral control early, but not late, in chronic infection. TGF? induces the posttranslational loss of TRAF1, whereas IL-7 restores TRAF1 levels. A combination treatment with IL-7 and agonist anti-4-1BB antibody at 3 wk after LCMV clone 13 infection expands T cells and reduces viral load in a TRAF1-dependent manner. Moreover, transfer of TRAF1(+) but not TRAF1(-) memory T cells at the chronic stage of infection reduces viral load. These findings identify TRAF1 as a potential biomarker of HIV-specific CD8 T cell fitness during the chronic phase of disease and a target for therapy.
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Natural killer cell activation enhances immune pathology and promotes chronic infection by limiting CD8+ T-cell immunity.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2011
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Infections with HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus can turn into chronic infections, which currently affect more than 500 million patients worldwide. It is generally thought that virus-mediated T-cell exhaustion limits T-cell function, thus promoting chronic disease. Here we demonstrate that natural killer (NK) cells have a negative impact on the development of T-cell immunity by using the murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. NK cell-deficient (Nfil3(-/-), E4BP4(-/-)) mice exhibited a higher virus-specific T-cell response. In addition, NK cell depletion caused enhanced T-cell immunity in WT mice, which led to rapid virus control and prevented chronic infection in lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus clone 13- and reduced viral load in DOCILE-infected animals. Further experiments showed that NKG2D triggered regulatory NK cell functions, which were mediated by perforin, and limited T-cell responses. Therefore, we identified an important role of regulatory NK cells in limiting T-cell immunity during virus infection.
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Enforced viral replication activates adaptive immunity and is essential for the control of a cytopathic virus.
Nat. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2011
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The innate immune system limits viral replication via type I interferon and also induces the presentation of viral antigens to cells of the adaptive immune response. Using infection of mice with vesicular stomatitis virus, we analyzed how the innate immune system inhibits viral propagation but still allows the presentation of antigen to cells of the adaptive immune response. We found that expression of the gene encoding the inhibitory protein Usp18 in metallophilic macrophages led to lower type I interferon responsiveness, thereby allowing locally restricted replication of virus. This was essential for the induction of adaptive antiviral immune responses and, therefore, for preventing the fatal outcome of infection. In conclusion, we found that enforced viral replication in marginal zone macrophages was an immunological mechanism that ensured the production of sufficient antigen for effective activation of the adaptive immune response.
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Toso regulates the balance between apoptotic and nonapoptotic death receptor signaling by facilitating RIP1 ubiquitination.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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The regulation of cellular survival and apoptosis is of critical importance for the immune system to maintain immune homeostasis and to establish tolerance. Here, we demonstrate that the immune specific cell surface molecule Toso exhibits antiapoptotic effects on death receptor signaling by a novel regulatory mechanism involving the adaptor kinase RIP1. The antiapoptotic function of Toso depends on RIP1 ubiquitination and involves the recruitment of the death adaptor FADD to a Toso/RIP1 protein complex. In response to CD95L and TNF?, Toso promotes the activation of MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathways. Because of this relative augmentation of survival versus apoptotic signals, Toso raises the threshold for death receptor-mediated apoptosis. Our analysis of Toso-deficient mice revealed that Toso is essential for TNF?-mediated liver damage. Furthermore, the antiapoptotic function of Toso could be blocked by a Toso-specific monoclonal antibody, opening up new therapeutic prospects for the treatment of immune disorders and hematologic malignancies.
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IL-7 engages multiple mechanisms to overcome chronic viral infection and limit organ pathology.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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Understanding the factors that impede immune responses to persistent viruses is essential in designing therapies for HIV infection. Mice infected with LCMV clone-13 have persistent high-level viremia and a dysfunctional immune response. Interleukin-7, a cytokine that is critical for immune development and homeostasis, was used here to promote immunity toward clone-13, enabling elucidation of the inhibitory pathways underlying impaired antiviral immune response. Mechanistically, IL-7 downregulated a critical repressor of cytokine signaling, Socs3, resulting in amplified cytokine production, increased T cell effector function and numbers, and viral clearance. IL-7 enhanced thymic output to expand the naive T cell pool, including T cells that were not LCMV specific. Additionally, IL-7 promoted production of cytoprotective IL-22 that abrogated liver pathology. The IL-7-mediated effects were dependent on endogenous IL-6. These attributes of IL-7 have profound implications for its use as a therapeutic in the treatment of chronic viral diseases.
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14-3-3sigma regulates B-cell homeostasis through stabilization of FOXO1.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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14-3-3? regulates cytokinesis and cell cycle arrest induced by DNA damage but its role in the immune system is unknown. Using gene-targeted 14-3-3?-deficient (i.e., KO) mice, we studied the role of 14-3-3? in B-cell functions. Total numbers of B cells were reduced by spontaneous apoptosis of peripheral B cells. Upon B-cell antigen receptor engagement in vitro, KO B cells did not proliferate properly or up-regulate CD86. In response to T cell-independent antigens, KO B cells showed poor secretion of antigen-specific IgM. This deficit led to increased lethality of KO mice after vesicular stomatitis virus infection. KO B cells showed elevated total FOXO transcriptional activity but also increased FOXO1 degradation. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed that endogenous 14-3-3? protein formed a complex with FOXO1 protein. Our results suggest that 14-3-3? maintains FOXO1 at a consistent level critical for normal B-cell antigen receptor signaling and B-cell survival.
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Oxidized ATP inhibits T-cell-mediated autoimmunity.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2010
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T cells directed against self antigens play an important role in several autoimmune diseases. The available immunosuppressive compounds used to treat autoimmune diseases are limited, and often they have side effects that limit their application. T cells express ATP receptors, which could be new target molecules to treat autoimmune disease. Here we analyzed the effect of oxidized ATP (oxATP), an inhibitor of the ATP receptor P2rx7, in different murine models of T-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. Treatment with oxATP inhibited proliferation and effector function of T cells. In the systems we used, oxATP did not obviously interfere with the innate immune response, but strongly reduced antigen-specific T-cell responses. This treatment ameliorated T-cell-mediated autoimmune type I diabetes and autoimmune encephalitis in mice. In conclusion, oxATP was found to strongly inhibit activated T cells and could thus be used to target T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease.
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Tissue macrophages suppress viral replication and prevent severe immunopathology in an interferon-I-dependent manner in mice.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2010
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The innate immune response plays an essential role in the prevention of early viral dissemination. We used the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus model system to analyze the role of tissue macrophages/Kupffer cells in this process. Our findings demonstrated that Kupffer cells are essential for the efficient capture of infectious virus and for preventing viral replication. The latter process involved activation of Kupffer cells by interferon (IFN)-I and prevented viral spread to neighboring hepatocytes. In the absence of Kupffer cells, hepatocytes were not able to suppress virus replication, even in the presence of IFN-I, leading to prolonged viral replication and severe T cell-dependent immunopathology.
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Expansion of immunoglobulin-secreting cells and defects in B cell tolerance in Rag-dependent immunodeficiency.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2010
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The contribution of B cells to the pathology of Omenn syndrome and leaky severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) has not been previously investigated. We have studied a mut/mut mouse model of leaky SCID with a homozygous Rag1 S723C mutation that impairs, but does not abrogate, V(D)J recombination activity. In spite of a severe block at the pro-B cell stage and profound B cell lymphopenia, significant serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, IgA, and IgE and a high proportion of Ig-secreting cells were detected in mut/mut mice. Antibody responses to trinitrophenyl (TNP)-Ficoll and production of high-affinity antibodies to TNP-keyhole limpet hemocyanin were severely impaired, even after adoptive transfer of wild-type CD4(+) T cells. Mut/mut mice produced high amounts of low-affinity self-reactive antibodies and showed significant lymphocytic infiltrates in peripheral tissues. Autoantibody production was associated with impaired receptor editing and increased serum B cell-activating factor (BAFF) concentrations. Autoantibodies and elevated BAFF levels were also identified in patients with Omenn syndrome and leaky SCID as a result of hypomorphic RAG mutations. These data indicate that the stochastic generation of an autoreactive B cell repertoire, which is associated with defects in central and peripheral checkpoints of B cell tolerance, is an important, previously unrecognized, aspect of immunodeficiencies associated with hypomorphic RAG mutations.
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Genes determining the course of virus persistence in the liver: lessons from murine infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2010
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More than 500 million people worldwide are persistently infected with either hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV). Although both viruses are poorly cytopathic, persistent infection causes severe immunopathologic damage to liver tissue; histologically, such damage is characterized by fatty liver disease, liver fibrosis, and a higher likelihood of hepatocellular carcinoma. Virus-specific CD8+ T cells play a crucial role during infection with hepatitis viruses. On the one hand, rapid activation of CD8+ T cells can control the virus and therefore inhibit its persistence. On the other hand, once the virus persists in the liver, the chronic activation of virus-specific T cells leads to continued liver cell damage. This double-edged role of CD8+ T cells determines the final outcome of infection. In half of cases of human HCV infection, the virus persists; in the other half, the virus is controlled. Additional insights into the molecular mechanisms that determine the course of the disease may be gained from the study of appropriate murine models. This review discusses the similarities and differences between infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) in mice and chronic infection with hepatitis virus in humans.
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Enhanced eryptosis of erythrocytes from gene-targeted mice lacking annexin A7.
Pflugers Arch.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2010
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Annexin A7 is a ubiquitously expressed Ca(2+)- and phospholipid-binding protein. Erythrocytes from mice lacking annexin A7 (anxA7(-/-)) are deformed and relatively resistant to osmotic swelling. In normal erythrocytes, hyperosmotic shock, Cl(-) removal, and energy depletion (glucose removal) trigger PGE(2) formation, which stimulates Ca(2+)-permeable cation channels, increases cytosolic Ca(2+) activity ([Ca(2+)](i)), and thus triggers suicidal death of erythrocytes or eryptosis, characterized by scrambling of the cell membrane with phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface. The present experiments explored the influence of annexin A7 deficiency on eryptosis. In erythrocytes from annexin A7-deficient mice (anxA7(-/-)) and wild-type mice (anxA7(+/+)), PGE(2) formation was determined utilizing an immunoassay, ion channel activity by whole-cell patch clamp recording, [Ca(2+)](i) by fluo3 fluorescence, and phosphatidylserine exposure by binding of annexin A5 in fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis. Erythrocyte number and hematocrit were significantly smaller in blood from anx7(-/-) than in anx7(+/+) mice. Cl(-)-removal (replacement with gluconate) stimulated PGE(2)-formation, activated cation currents, increased [Ca(2+)](i), and triggered phosphatidylserine exposure, effects significantly more pronounced in anx7(-/-) than in anx7(+/+) erythrocytes. Hyperosmotic shock (addition of 400 mM sucrose) and glucose depletion (removal of glucose) similarly increased cytosolic Ca(2+) activity and triggered phosphatidylserine exposure, effects again significantly more pronounced in anx7(-/-) than in anx7(+/+) erythrocytes. The effects of Cl(-) removal on PGE(2) formation and the cation current, as well as the effect of hypertonic cell shrinkage on [Ca(2+)](i) and cell membrane scrambling, were blunted following inhibition of cyclooxygenase by aspirin or diclofenac. In conclusion, lack of annexin A7 sensitizes the erythrocytes for "proapoptotic" Ca(2+) overload, an effect shortening the life span of the affected erythrocytes and, thus, leading to anemia.
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Ceramide in suicidal death of erythrocytes.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2010
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The suicidal death of erythrocytes or eryptosis is characterized by cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing and cell membrane phospholipid scrambling resulting in phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface. Eryptosis is stimulated in a wide variety of diseases including sepsis, haemolytic uremic syndrome, malaria, sickle-cell anemia, beta-thalassemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficiency, phosphate depletion, iron deficiency and Wilsons disease. Moreover, eryptosis is elicited by osmotic shock, oxidative stress, energy depletion as well as a wide variety of endogenous mediators and xenobiotics. Excessive eryptosis is observed in erythrocytes lacking the cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI) or the AMP-activated protein kinase AMPK. Inhibitors of eryptosis include erythropoietin, nitric oxide NO, catecholamines and high concentrations of urea. Eryptosis-triggering diseases and chemicals are partially effective by stimulating the formation of ceramide, which in turn fosters cell membrane scrambling. Accordingly, ceramide-induced eryptosis participates in the pathophysiology of several diseases and contributes to the effects of a large number of xenobiotics. The mechanisms underlying ceramide formation in erythrocytes are, however, still ill defined. In case of osmotic cell shrinkage, ceramide formation is apparently due to activation of phospholipase 2, leading to formation of platelet activating factor PAF and PAF-dependent stimulation of ceramide formation, which possibly involves acid sphingomyelinase. Additional experiments are needed to conclusively define the ceramide-generating enzyme and the ceramide-dependent cellular events eventually leading to suicidal erythrocyte death.
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Accelerated clearance of Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes in sickle cell trait and annexin-A7 deficiency.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2009
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The course of malaria does not only depend on the virulence of the parasite Plasmodium but also on properties of host erythrocytes. Here, we show that infection of erythrocytes from human sickle cell trait (HbA/S) carriers with ring stages of P. falciparum led to significantly enhanced PGE(2) formation, Ca(2+) permeability, annexin-A7 degradation, phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure at the cell surface, and clearance by macrophages. P. berghei-infected erythrocytes from annexin-A7-deficient (annexin-A7(-/-)) mice were more rapidly cleared than infected wildtype cells. Accordingly, P. berghei-infected annexin-A7(-/-) mice developed less parasitemia than wildtype mice. The cyclooxygenase inhibitor aspirin decreased erythrocyte PS exposure in infected annexin-A7(-/-) mice and abolished the differences of parasitemia and survival between the genotypes. Conversely, the PGE(2)-agonist sulprostone decreased parasitemia and increased survival of wild type mice. In conclusion, PS exposure on erythrocytes results in accelerated clearance of Plasmodium ring stage-infected HbA/S or annexin-A7(-/-) erythrocytes and thus confers partial protection against malaria in vivo.
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Empirical evaluation of the inter-relationship of articular elements involved in the pathoanatomy of knee osteoarthritis using magnetic resonance imaging.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2009
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In this cross-sectional study, we conducted a comprehensive assessment of all articular elements that could be measured using knee MRI. We assessed the association of pathological change in multiple articular structures involved in the pathoanatomy of osteoarthritis.
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Hematopoietic cell-derived interferon controls viral replication and virus-induced disease.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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Type I interferon (IFN-I) strongly inhibits viral replication and is a crucial factor in controlling virus infections and diseases. Cellular activation through pattern recognition receptors induces interferon production in a wide variety of hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cell types, including dendritic cells, fibroblasts, hepatocytes, and cells of neuronal origin. The relative contribution of hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells to the overall interferon response is an important issue which has not been fully addressed. Using irf7(-/-) and wild-type bone marrow chimeras we analyzed the contribution of IFN-I from bone marrow-derived sources in the control of viral infections and immunopathology in mice. We found that during systemic cytopathic virus infection, hematopoietic cells were essential for production of IFN-I, inhibition of viral spread to peripheral organs, and limiting cell damage. In a model of autoimmune diabetes induced by noncytopathic virus infection, hematopoietic cell-derived IFN-I was essential for CD8(+) T cell-dependent cytotoxicity in pancreatic beta-islet cells and induction of diabetes. These data suggest that during systemic viral infection primarily hematopoietic cell-derived IFN-I controls viral replication and viral-induced disease.
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Inhibition of Na+/H+ exchanger activity by parvovirus B19 protein NS1.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2009
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Infection with parvovirus B19 (B19) may induce apoptosis resulting in anemia, acute fulminant liver failure, placental insufficiency and myocarditis. Apoptosis has been attributed to proapoptotic activity of the non-structural viral protein NS1, which is known to trigger a signaling cascade eventually leading to activation of caspases. In several cell types apoptosis was found to be paralleled by profound cytosolic acidification, which may be secondary to inhibition of the Na+/H+ exchanger. The acidification has been considered to support the activation of pH sensitive caspases and endonucleases. However, nothing is known about the effect of NS1 on Na+/H+ exchanger activity and cytosolic pH. The present study thus explored whether NS1 expression affects cytosolic pH (pHi) and Na+-dependent realkalinization (DeltapHi) following acidification by an ammonium pulse. According to FACS analysis, overexpression of NS1 in RXR-10SW cells led within 72 hours to activation of caspase 3 and DNA fragmentation. NS1 overexpression resulted within 24 hours in a significant decline of pHi from 6.93 +/- 0.03 (n = 6) to 6.78 +/- 0.04 (n = 7), and to a significant decrease of DeltapHi from 0.159 +/- 0.017 (n = 6) to 0.039 +/- 0.004, (n = 7). The decrease of pHi and of DeltapHi following NS1 expression could be significantly blunted by inhibition of caspase 3 with zVAD. Western blot analysis revealed degradation of NHE1 following NS1 expression. In vitro, caspase 3, but not caspase 6, caspase 7 and caspase 8 degraded NHE1 protein of cell lysates. In conclusion, overexpression of NS1 triggers a signaling cascade eventually leading to activation of caspase 3 and subsequent degradation of NHE1. The effect contributes to cytosolic acidification which may in turn favor activation of caspases and endonucleases and thus participate in the pathophysiology of B19-infection.
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Reduced type I interferon production by dendritic cells and weakened antiviral immunity in patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein deficiency.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
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Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a rare X-linked primary immunodeficiency caused by absence of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) expression, resulting in defective function of many immune cell lineages and susceptibility to severe bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. Despite a significant proportion of patients with WAS having recurrent viral infections, surprisingly little is known about the effects of WASP deficiency on antiviral immunity.
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The NF-?B regulator MALT1 determines the encephalitogenic potential of Th17 cells.
J. Clin. Invest.
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Effector functions of inflammatory IL-17-producing Th (Th17) cells have been linked to autoimmune diseases such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, what determines Th17 cell encephalitogenicity is still unresolved. Here, we show that after EAE induction, mice deficient for the NF-?B regulator MALT1 (Malt1-/- mice) exhibit strong lymphocytic infiltration in the CNS, but do not develop any clinical signs of EAE. Loss of Malt1 interfered with expression of the Th17 effector cytokines IL-17 and GM-CSF both in vitro and in vivo. In line with their impaired GM-CSF secretion, Malt1-/- Th cells failed to recruit myeloid cells to the CNS to sustain neuroinflammation, whereas autoreactive WT Th cells successfully induced EAE in Malt1-/- hosts. In contrast, Malt1 deficiency did not affect Th1 cells. Despite their significantly decreased secretion of Th17 effector cytokines, Malt1-/- Th17 cells showed normal expression of lineage-specific transcription factors. Malt1-/- Th cells failed to cleave RelB, a suppressor of canonical NF-?B, and exhibited altered cellular localization of this protein. Our results indicate that MALT1 is a central, cell-intrinsic factor that determines the encephalitogenic potential of inflammatory Th17 cells in vivo.
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The 3BP2 adapter protein is required for chemoattractant-mediated neutrophil activation.
J. Immunol.
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3BP2 is a pleckstrin homology and Src homology 2 domain-containing adapter protein mutated in cherubism, a rare autosomal-dominant human bone disorder. Previously, we have demonstrated a functional role for 3BP2 in peripheral B cell development and in peritoneal B1 and splenic marginal zone B cell-mediated Ab responses. In this study, we show that 3BP2 is required for G protein-coupled receptor-mediated neutrophil functions. Neutrophils derived from 3BP2-deficient (Sh3bp2-/-) mice failed to polarize their actin cytoskeleton or migrate in response to a gradient of chemotactic peptide, fMLF. Sh3bp2-/- neutrophils failed to adhere, crawl, and emigrate out of the vasculature in response to fMLF superfusion. 3BP2 is required for optimal activation of Src family kinases, small GTPase Rac2, neutrophil superoxide anion production, and for Listeria monocytogenes bacterial clearance in vivo. The functional defects observed in Sh3bp2-/- neutrophils may partially be explained by the failure to fully activate Vav1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor and properly localize P-Rex1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor at the leading edge of migrating cells. Our results reveal an obligate requirement for the adapter protein 3BP2 in G protein-coupled receptor-mediated neutrophil function.
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Effective T-cell recall responses require the taurine transporter Taut.
Eur. J. Immunol.
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T-cell activation and the subsequent transformation of activated T cells into T-cell blasts require profound changes in cell volume. However, the impact of cell volume regulation for T-cell immunology has not been characterized. Here we studied the role of the cell-volume regulating osmolyte transporter Taut for T-cell activation in Taut-deficient mice. T-cell mediated recall responses were severely impaired in taut(-/-) mice as shown with B16 melanoma rejection and hapten-induced contact hypersensitivity. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were unequivocally located within peripheral lymph nodes of unprimed taut(-/-) mice but significantly decreased in taut(-/-) compared with taut(+/+) mice following in vivo activation. Further analysis revealed that Taut is critical for rescuing T cells from activation-induced cell death in vitro and in vivo as shown with TCR, superantigen, and antigen-specific activation. Consequently, reduction of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in taut(-/-) mice upon antigen challenge resulted in impaired in vivo generation of T-cell memory. These findings disclose for the first time that volume regulation in T cells is an element in the regulation of adaptive immune responses and that the osmolyte transporter Taut is crucial for T-cell survival and T-cell mediated immune reactions.
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Tunicamycin inhibits diabetes.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
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Autoimmune diseases are characterized by a breakdown of immunologic tolerance, and this breakdown can lead to life-threatening or lifelong disorders. Moreover; drugs that are used to treat these diseases are few in number and are associated with many serious adverse effects.
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B cell-intrinsic deficiency of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) causes severe abnormalities of the peripheral B-cell compartment in mice.
Blood
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Wiskott Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is caused by mutations in the WAS gene that encodes for a protein (WASp) involved in cytoskeleton organization in hematopoietic cells. Several distinctive abnormalities of T, B, and natural killer lymphocytes; dendritic cells; and phagocytes have been found in WASp-deficient patients and mice; however, the in vivo consequence of WASp deficiency within individual blood cell lineages has not been definitively evaluated. By conditional gene deletion we have generated mice with selective deficiency of WASp in the B-cell lineage (B/WcKO mice). We show that this is sufficient to cause a severe reduction of marginal zone B cells and inability to respond to type II T-independent Ags, thereby recapitulating phenotypic features of complete WASp deficiency. In addition, B/WcKO mice showed prominent signs of B-cell dysregulation, as indicated by an increase in serum IgM levels, expansion of germinal center B cells and plasma cells, and elevated autoantibody production. These findings are accompanied by hyperproliferation of WASp-deficient follicular and germinal center B cells in heterozygous B/WcKO mice in vivo and excessive differentiation of WASp-deficient B cells into class-switched plasmablasts in vitro, suggesting that WASp-dependent B cell-intrinsic mechanisms critically contribute to WAS-associated autoimmunity.
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iRhom2 regulation of TACE controls TNF-mediated protection against Listeria and responses to LPS.
Science
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Innate immune responses are vital for pathogen defense but can result in septic shock when excessive. A key mediator of septic shock is tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?), which is shed from the plasma membrane after cleavage by the TNF? convertase (TACE). We report that the rhomboid family member iRhom2 interacted with TACE and regulated TNF? shedding. iRhom2 was critical for TACE maturation and trafficking to the cell surface in hematopoietic cells. Gene-targeted iRhom2-deficient mice showed reduced serum TNF? in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and could survive a lethal LPS dose. Furthermore, iRhom2-deficient mice failed to control the replication of Listeria monocytogenes. Our study has identified iRhom2 as a regulator of innate immunity that may be an important target for modulating sepsis and pathogen defense.
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