Protein abundance and phosphorylation convey important information about pathway activity and molecular pathophysiology in diseases including cancer, providing biological insight, informing drug and diagnostic development, and guiding therapeutic intervention. Analyzed tissues are usually collected without tight regulation or documentation of ischemic time. To evaluate the impact of ischemia, we collected human ovarian tumor and breast cancer xenograft tissue without vascular interruption and performed quantitative proteomics and phosphoproteomics after defined ischemic intervals. Although the global expressed proteome and most of the >25,000 quantified phosphosites were unchanged after 60 min, rapid phosphorylation changes were observed in up to 24% of the phosphoproteome, representing activation of critical cancer pathways related to stress response, transcriptional regulation, and cell death. Both pan-tumor and tissue-specific changes were observed. The demonstrated impact of pre-analytical tissue ischemia on tumor biology mandates caution in interpreting stress-pathway activation in such samples and motivates reexamination of collection protocols for phosphoprotein analysis.
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is a common modification of mRNA with potential roles in fine-tuning the RNA life cycle. Here, we identify a dense network of proteins interacting with METTL3, a component of the methyltransferase complex, and show that three of them (WTAP, METTL14, and KIAA1429) are required for methylation. Monitoring m6A levels upon WTAP depletion allowed the definition of accurate and near single-nucleotide resolution methylation maps and their classification into WTAP-dependent and -independent sites. WTAP-dependent sites are located at internal positions in transcripts, topologically static across a variety of systems we surveyed, and inversely correlated with mRNA stability, consistent with a role in establishing "basal" degradation rates. WTAP-independent sites form at the first transcribed base as part of the cap structure and are present at thousands of sites, forming a previously unappreciated layer of transcriptome complexity. Our data shed light on the proteomic and transcriptional underpinnings of this RNA modification.
Type-1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells are destroyed by the immune system. An emerging strategy to regenerate beta-cell mass is through transdifferentiation of pancreatic alpha cells to beta cells. We previously reported two small molecules, BRD7389 and GW8510, that induce insulin expression in a mouse alpha cell line and provide a glimpse into potential intermediate cell states in beta-cell reprogramming from alpha cells. These small-molecule studies suggested that inhibition of kinases in particular may induce the expression of several beta-cell markers in alpha cells. To identify potential lineage reprogramming protein targets, we compared the transcriptome, proteome, and phosphoproteome of alpha cells, beta cells, and compound-treated alpha cells. Our phosphoproteomic analysis indicated that two kinases, BRSK1 and CAMKK2, exhibit decreased phosphorylation in beta cells compared to alpha cells, and in compound-treated alpha cells compared to DMSO-treated alpha cells. Knock-down of these kinases in alpha cells resulted in expression of key beta-cell markers. These results provide evidence that perturbation of the kinome may be important for lineage reprogramming of alpha cells to beta cells.
N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most ubiquitous mRNA base modification, but little is known about its precise location, temporal dynamics, and regulation. Here, we generated genomic maps of m(6)A sites in meiotic yeast transcripts at nearly single-nucleotide resolution, identifying 1,308 putatively methylated sites within 1,183 transcripts. We validated eight out of eight methylation sites in different genes with direct genetic analysis, demonstrated that methylated sites are significantly conserved in a related species, and built a model that predicts methylated sites directly from sequence. Sites vary in their methylation profiles along a dense meiotic time course and are regulated both locally, via predictable methylatability of each site, and globally, through the core meiotic circuitry. The methyltransferase complex components localize to the yeast nucleolus, and this localization is essential for mRNA methylation. Our data illuminate a conserved, dynamically regulated methylation program in yeast meiosis and provide an important resource for studying the function of this epitranscriptomic modification.
Ubiquitination is essential for the regulation of cellular protein homeostasis. It also has a central role in numerous signaling events. Recent advances in the production and availability of antibodies that recognize the Lys-?-Gly-Gly (K-?-GG) remnant produced by trypsin digestion of proteins having ubiquitinated lysine side chains have markedly improved the ability to enrich and detect endogenous ubiquitination sites by mass spectrometry (MS). The following protocol describes the steps required to complete a large-scale ubiquitin experiment for the detection of tens of thousands of distinct ubiquitination sites from cell lines or tissue samples. Specifically, we present detailed, step-by-step instructions for sample preparation, off-line fractionation by reversed-phase chromatography at pH 10, immobilization of an antibody specific to K-?-GG to beads by chemical cross-linking, enrichment of ubiquitinated peptides using these antibodies and proteomic analysis of enriched samples by LC-tandem MS (MS/MS). Relative quantification can be achieved by performing stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) labeling of cells. After cell or tissue samples have been prepared for lysis, the described protocol can be completed in ?5 d.
We report a mass spectrometry-based method for the integrated analysis of protein expression, phosphorylation, ubiquitination and acetylation by serial enrichments of different post-translational modifications (SEPTM) from the same biological sample. This technology enabled quantitative analysis of nearly 8,000 proteins and more than 20,000 phosphorylation, 15,000 ubiquitination and 3,000 acetylation sites per experiment, generating a holistic view of cellular signal transduction pathways as exemplified by analysis of bortezomib-treated human leukemia cells.
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) promote malignant progression, yet the repertoire of oncogenic factors secreted by TAM has not been clearly defined. We sought to analyze which EGFR- and STAT3-activating factors are secreted by monocytes/macrophages exposed to tumor cell-secreted factors.
Labeling of primary amines on peptides with reagents containing stable isotopes is a commonly used technique in quantitative mass spectrometry. Isobaric labeling techniques such as iTRAQ™ or TMT™ allow for relative quantification of peptides based on ratios of reporter ions in the low m/z region of spectra produced by precursor ion fragmentation. In contrast, nonisobaric labeling with mTRAQ™ yields precursors with different masses that can be directly quantified in MS1 spectra. In this study, we compare iTRAQ- and mTRAQ-based quantification of peptides and phosphopeptides derived from EGF-stimulated HeLa cells. Both labels have identical chemical structures, therefore precursor ion- and fragment ion-based quantification can be directly compared. Our results indicate that iTRAQ labeling has an additive effect on precursor intensities, whereas mTRAQ labeling leads to more redundant MS2 scanning events caused by triggering on the same peptide with different mTRAQ labels. We found that iTRAQ labeling quantified nearly threefold more phosphopeptides (12,129 versus 4,448) and nearly twofold more proteins (2,699 versus 1,597) than mTRAQ labeling. Although most key proteins in the EGFR signaling network were quantified with both techniques, iTRAQ labeling allowed quantification of twice as many kinases. Accuracy of reporter ion quantification by iTRAQ is adversely affected by peptides that are cofragmented in the same precursor isolation window, dampening observed ratios toward unity. However, because of tighter overall iTRAQ ratio distributions, the percentage of statistically significantly regulated phosphopeptides and proteins detected by iTRAQ and mTRAQ was similar. We observed a linear correlation of logarithmic iTRAQ to mTRAQ ratios over two orders of magnitude, indicating a possibility to correct iTRAQ ratios by an average compression factor. Spike-in experiments using peptides of defined ratios in a background of nonregulated peptides show that iTRAQ quantification is less accurate but not as variable as mTRAQ quantification.
Deciphering the signaling networks that underlie normal and disease processes remains a major challenge. Here, we report the discovery of signaling components involved in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) response of immune dendritic cells (DCs), including a previously unkown pathway shared across mammalian antiviral responses. By combining transcriptional profiling, genetic and small-molecule perturbations, and phosphoproteomics, we uncover 35 signaling regulators, including 16 known regulators, involved in TLR signaling. In particular, we find that Polo-like kinases (Plk) 2 and 4 are essential components of antiviral pathways in vitro and in vivo and activate a signaling branch involving a dozen proteins, among which is Tnfaip2, a gene associated with autoimmune diseases but whose role was unknown. Our study illustrates the power of combining systematic measurements and perturbations to elucidate complex signaling circuits and discover potential therapeutic targets.
Detection of endogenous ubiquitination sites by mass spectrometry has dramatically improved with the commercialization of anti-di-glycine remnant (K-?-GG) antibodies. Here, we describe a number of improvements to the K-?-GG enrichment workflow, including optimized antibody and peptide input requirements, antibody cross-linking, and improved off-line fractionation prior to enrichment. This refined and practical workflow enables routine identification and quantification of ?20,000 distinct endogenous ubiquitination sites in a single SILAC experiment using moderate amounts of protein input.
The innate immune system senses viral DNA that enters mammalian cells, or in aberrant situations self-DNA, and triggers type I interferon production. Here we present an integrative approach that combines quantitative proteomics, genomics and small molecule perturbations to identify genes involved in this pathway. We silenced 809 candidate genes, measured the response to dsDNA and connected resulting hits with the known signaling network. We identified ABCF1 as a critical protein that associates with dsDNA and the DNA-sensing components HMGB2 and IFI204. We also found that CDC37 regulates the stability of the signaling molecule TBK1 and that chemical inhibition of the CDC37-HSP90 interaction and several other pathway regulators potently modulates the innate immune response to DNA and retroviral infection.
We assessed somatic alleles of six receptor tyrosine kinase genes mutated in lung adenocarcinoma for oncogenic activity. Five of these genes failed to score in transformation assays; however, novel recurring extracellular domain mutations of the receptor tyrosine kinase gene ERBB2 were potently oncogenic. These ERBB2 extracellular domain mutants were activated by two distinct mechanisms, characterized by elevated C-terminal tail phosphorylation or by covalent dimerization mediated by intermolecular disulfide bond formation. These distinct mechanisms of receptor activation converged upon tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins, impacting cell motility. Survival of Ba/F3 cells transformed to IL-3 independence by the ERBB2 extracellular domain mutants was abrogated by treatment with small-molecule inhibitors of ERBB2, raising the possibility that patients harboring such mutations could benefit from ERBB2-directed therapy.
Ubiquitination plays a key role in protein degradation and signal transduction. Ubiquitin is a small protein modifier that is adducted to lysine residues by the combined function of E1, E2, and E3 enzymes and is removed by deubiquitinating enzymes. Characterization of ubiquitination sites is important for understanding the role of this modification in cellular processes and disease. However, until recently, large-scale characterization of endogenous ubiquitination sites has been hampered by the lack of efficient enrichment techniques. The introduction of antibodies that specifically recognize peptides with lysine residues that harbor a di-glycine remnant (K-?-GG) following tryptic digestion has dramatically improved the ability to enrich and identify ubiquitination sites from cellular lysates. We used this enrichment technique to study the effects of proteasome inhibition by MG-132 and deubiquitinase inhibition by PR-619 on ubiquitination sites in human Jurkat cells by quantitative high performance mass spectrometry. Minimal fractionation of digested lysates prior to immunoaffinity enrichment increased the yield of K-?-GG peptides three- to fourfold resulting in detection of up to ~3300 distinct K-GG peptides in SILAC triple encoded experiments starting from 5 mg of protein per label state. In total, we identify 5533 distinct K-?-GG peptides of which 4907 were quantified in this study, demonstrating that the strategy presented is a practical approach to perturbational studies in cell systems. We found that proteasome inhibition by MG-132 and deubiquitinase inhibition by PR-619 induces significant changes to the ubiquitin landscape, but that not all ubiquitination sites regulated by MG-132 and PR-619 are likely substrates for the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Additionally, we find that the proteasome and deubiquitinase inhibitors studied induced only minor changes in protein expression levels regardless of the extent of regulation induced at the ubiquitin site level. We attribute this finding to the low stoichiometry of the majority ubiquitination sites identified in this study.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.