Increased cellular iron levels are associated with high mortality in HIV-1 infection. Moreover iron is an important cofactor for viral replication, raising the question whether highly divergent lentiviruses actively modulate iron homeostasis. Here, we evaluated the effect on cellular iron uptake upon expression of the accessory protein Nef from different lentiviral strains.
HIV-1 is an RNA enveloped virus that preferentially infects CD4(+) T lymphocytes and also macrophages. In CD4(+) T cells, HIV-1 mainly buds from the host cell plasma membrane. The viral Gag polyprotein targets the plasma membrane and is the orchestrator of the HIV assembly as its expression is sufficient to promote the formation of virus-like particles carrying a lipidic envelope derived from the host cell membrane. Certain lipids are enriched in the viral membrane and are thought to play a key role in the assembly process and the envelop composition. A large body of work performed on infected CD4(+) T cells has provided important knowledge about the assembly process and the membrane virus lipid composition. While HIV assembly and budding in macrophages is thought to follow the same general Gag-driven mechanism as in T-lymphocytes, the HIV cycle in macrophage exhibits specific features. In these cells, new virions bud from the limiting membrane of seemingly intracellular compartments, where they accumulate while remaining infectious. These structures are now often referred to as Virus Containing Compartments (VCCs). Recent studies suggest that VCCs represent intracellularly sequestered regions of the plasma membrane, but their precise nature remains elusive. The proteomic and lipidomic characterization of virions produced by T cells or macrophages has highlighted the similarity between their composition and that of the plasma membrane of producer cells, as well as their enrichment in acidic lipids, some components of raft lipids and in tetraspanin-enriched microdomains. It is likely that Gag promotes the coalescence of these components into an assembly platform from which viral budding takes place. How Gag exactly interacts with membrane lipids and what are the mechanisms involved in the interaction between the different membrane nanodomains within the assembly platform remains unclear. Here we review recent literature regarding the role of Gag and lipids on HIV-1 assembly in CD4(+) T cells and macrophages.
HIV-1-infected macrophages likely represent viral reservoirs, as they accumulate newly formed virions in internal virus-containing compartments (VCCs). However, the nature and biogenesis of VCCs remain poorly defined. We show that upon HIV-1 infection of primary human macrophages, Gag is recruited to preexisting compartments containing the scavenger receptor CD36, which then become VCCs. Silencing of CD36 in HIV-1-infected macrophages decreases the amount of virions released. Strikingly, soluble anti-CD36 antibodies, but not the natural ligands of CD36, inhibit release of virions from HIV-1-infected macrophages and the transmission of virus to CD4(+) T cells. The effect of the antibodies is potent, rapid, and induces the retention of virions within VCCs. Ectopic expression of CD36 in HeLa cells renders them susceptible to the inhibitory effect of the anti-CD36 mAb upon HIV-1 infection. We show that the anti-CD36 mAb inhibits HIV-1 release by clustering newly formed virions at their site of budding, and that signaling via CD36 is not required. Thus, HIV-1 reservoirs in macrophages may be tackled therapeutically using anti-CD36 antibodies to prevent viral dissemination.
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted upon fusion of endosomal multivesicular bodies (MVBs) with the plasma membrane. The mechanisms involved in their biogenesis have not yet been fully identified although they could be used to modulate exosome formation and therefore are a promising tool in understanding exosome functions. We have performed an RNA interference screen targeting 23 components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery and associated proteins in MHC class II (MHC II)-expressing HeLa-CIITA cells. Silencing of HRS, STAM1 or TSG101 reduced the secretion of EV-associated CD63 and MHC II but each gene altered differently the size and/or protein composition of secreted EVs, as quantified by immuno-electron microscopy. By contrast, depletion of VPS4B augmented this secretion while not altering the features of EVs. For several other ESCRT subunits, it was not possible to draw any conclusions about their involvement in exosome biogenesis from the screen. Interestingly, silencing of ALIX increased MHC II exosomal secretion, as a result of an overall increase in intracellular MHC II protein and mRNA levels. In human dendritic cells (DCs), ALIX depletion also increased MHC II in the cells, but not in the released CD63-positive EVs. Such differences could be attributed to a greater heterogeneity in size, and higher MHC II and lower CD63 levels in vesicles recovered from DCs as compared with HeLa-CIITA. The results reveal a role for selected ESCRT components and accessory proteins in exosome secretion and composition by HeLa-CIITA. They also highlight biogenetic differences in vesicles secreted by a tumour cell line and primary DCs.
Throughout the viral replication cycle, viral proteins, complexes, and particles need to be transported within host cells. These transport events are dependent on the host cell cytoskeleton and molecular motors. However, the mechanisms by which virus is trafficked along cytoskeleton filaments and how molecular motors are recruited and regulated to guarantee successful integration of the viral genome and production of new viruses has only recently begun to be understood. Recent studies on HIV have identified specific molecular motors involved in the trafficking of these viral particles. Here we review recent literature on the transport of HIV components in the cell, provide evidence for the identity and role of molecular motors in this process, and highlight how these trafficking events may be related to those occurring with other viruses.
During HIV pathogenesis, infected macrophages behave as "viral reservoirs" that accumulate and retain virions within dedicated internal Virus-Containing Compartments (VCCs). The nature of VCCs remains ill characterized and controversial. Using wild-type HIV-1 and a replication-competent HIV-1 carrying GFP internal to the Gag precursor, we analyzed the biogenesis and evolution of VCCs in primary human macrophages. VCCs appear roughly 14 hours after viral protein synthesis is detected, initially contain few motile viral particles, and then mature to fill up with virions that become packed and immobile. The amount of intracellular Gag, the proportion of dense VCCs, and the density of viral particles in their lumen increased with time post-infection. In contrast, the secretion of virions, their infectivity and their transmission to T cells decreased overtime, suggesting that HIV-infected macrophages tend to pack and retain newly formed virions into dense compartments. A minor proportion of VCCs remains connected to the plasma membrane overtime. Surprisingly, live cell imaging combined with correlative light and electron microscopy revealed that such connections can be transient, highlighting their dynamic nature. Together, our results shed light on the late phases of the HIV-1 cycle and reveal some of its macrophage specific features.
HIV Nef-mediated up-regulation of invariant chain (Ii chain, also CD74) is presumed to play an active role in HIV immunopathogenesis. However, this has not been definitely ascertained. In order to help elucidate this hypothesis, Ii chain, CD4, HLA-DR and HLA-ABC expression was analyzed ex vivo in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) from HIV(+) subjects. Viral load, CD4(+) T cell count and immune activation were also determined in enrolled subjects. Correlations between these parameters and the modulation of cell surface molecules in infected cells were studied. Ii chain expression was found to be up-regulated in infected MDMs derived from all patients but one (median fold up-regulation 2.47±1.82 (range 0.87-7.36)). Moreover, the magnitude of Ii chain up-regulation significantly correlated with higher activation of B and CD4(+) T cells (studied by HLA-DR and CD38 expression). On the other hand, lower HLA-ABC (i.e. stronger down-regulation) in infected MDMs was associated with higher CD4 counts. No correlation was observed between the magnitude of Ii chain up-regulation and the other Nef functions studied here. This is the first study reporting that Ii chain up-regulation occurs on naturally infected antigen presenting cells obtained directly from HIV(+) subjects. Moreover, it is also shown that the magnitude of this up-regulation correlates with immune activation. This allows postulating an alternative hypothesis regarding the contribution of Ii chain up-regulation to HIV-mediated immune damage.
The molecular mechanisms involved in the assembly of newly synthesized Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) particles are poorly understood. Most of the work on HIV-1 assembly has been performed in T cells in which viral particle budding and assembly take place at the plasma membrane. In contrast, few studies have been performed on macrophages, the other major target of HIV-1. Infected macrophages represent a viral reservoir and probably play a key role in HIV-1 physiopathology. Indeed macrophages retain infectious particles for long periods of time, keeping them protected from anti-viral immune response or drug treatments. Here, we present an overview of what is known about HIV-1 assembly in macrophages as compared to T lymphocytes or cell lines.Early electron microscopy studies suggested that viral assembly takes place at the limiting membrane of an intracellular compartment in macrophages and not at the plasma membrane as in T cells. This was first considered as a late endosomal compartment in which viral budding seems to be similar to the process of vesicle release into multi-vesicular bodies. This view was notably supported by a large body of evidence involving the ESCRT (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport) machinery in HIV-1 budding, the observation of viral budding profiles in such compartments by immuno-electron microscopy, and the presence of late endosomal markers associated with macrophage-derived virions. However, this model needs to be revisited as recent data indicate that the viral compartment has a neutral pH and can be connected to the plasma membrane via very thin micro-channels. To date, the exact nature and biogenesis of the HIV assembly compartment in macrophages remains elusive. Many cellular proteins potentially involved in the late phases of HIV-1 cycle have been identified; and, recently, the list has grown rapidly with the publication of four independent genome-wide screens. However, their respective roles in infected cells and especially in macrophages remain to be characterized. In summary, the complete process of HIV-1 assembly is still poorly understood and will undoubtedly benefit from the ongoing explosion of new imaging techniques allowing better time-lapse and quantitative studies.
Clathrin and retromer have key functions for retrograde trafficking between early endosomes and the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Previous studies on Shiga toxin suggested that these two coat complexes operate in a sequential manner. Here, we show that the curvature recognition subunit component sorting nexin 1 (SNX1) of retromer interacts with receptor-mediated endocytosis-8 (RME-8) protein, and that RME-8 and SNX1 colocalize on early endosomes together with a model cargo of the retrograde route, the receptor-binding B-subunit of Shiga toxin (STxB). RME-8 has previously been found to bind to the clathrin uncoating adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) Hsc70, and we now report that depletion of RME-8 or Hsc70 affects retrograde trafficking at the early endosomes-TGN interface of STxB and the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, an endogenous retrograde cargo protein. We also provide evidence that retromer interacts with the clathrin-binding protein hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) not only via SNX1, as previously published (Chin Raynor MC, Wei X, Chen HQ, Li L. Hrs interacts with sorting nexin 1 and regulates degradation of epidermal growth factor receptor. J Biol Chem 2001;276:7069-7078), but also via the core complex component Vps35. Hrs codistributes at the ultrastructural level with STxB on early endosomes, and interfering with Hrs function using antibodies or mild overexpression inhibits retrograde transport. Our combined data suggest a model according to which the functions in retrograde sorting on early endosomes of SNX1/retromer and clathrin are articulated by RME-8, and possibly also by Hrs.
Exosomes are secreted membrane vesicles that share structural and biochemical characteristics with intraluminal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes (MVEs). Exosomes could be involved in intercellular communication and in the pathogenesis of infectious and degenerative diseases. The molecular mechanisms of exosome biogenesis and secretion are, however, poorly understood. Using an RNA interference (RNAi) screen, we identified five Rab GTPases that promote exosome secretion in HeLa cells. Among these, Rab27a and Rab27b were found to function in MVE docking at the plasma membrane. The size of MVEs was strongly increased by Rab27a silencing, whereas MVEs were redistributed towards the perinuclear region upon Rab27b silencing. Thus, the two Rab27 isoforms have different roles in the exosomal pathway. In addition, silencing two known Rab27 effectors, Slp4 (also known as SYTL4, synaptotagmin-like 4) and Slac2b (also known as EXPH5, exophilin 5), inhibited exosome secretion and phenocopied silencing of Rab27a and Rab27b, respectively. Our results therefore strengthen the link between MVEs and exosomes, and introduce ways of manipulating exosome secretion in vivo.
Plasmacytoid predendritic cells (pDCs) play a key role in antiviral immunity through their capacity to produce large amounts of type I interferons in response to Toll-like receptor triggering, and to differentiate into dendritic cells (DCs). However, their antigen processing and presentation pathways remain poorly characterized. In this study, we analyzed major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) synthesis and transport in primary human pDCs. We show that stimulation of pDCs with influenza virus leads to a sustained neosynthesis of MHC II molecules, which rapidly accumulate in antigen loading compartments organized around the microtubule organization center. MHC II endocytosis as well as antigen internalization remain active during the entire process of pDC differentiation into DCs, suggesting a capacity to constantly renew surface peptide-MHC II complexes. Formation of the intracellular pool of MHC II in activated pDCs is nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent and associated with acquisition of a dendritic phenotype, but independent of the IRF7-type I interferon-dependent pathway, suggesting that innate and adaptive functions of pDCs are differentially regulated. Our data demonstrate that the regulation of MHC II expression and transport is drastically different in pDCs compared with conventional DCs, indicating distinct and potentially complementary immunoregulatory functions.
HIV-1 Nef protein plays a major role in viral immunopathogenesis, modulating surface expression of several immune receptors, altering signal transduction pathways, and enhancing viral infectivity, among other activities. Nef also exhibits great intersubtype diversity, but most studies have been focused only on Nef proteins from subtype B. Thus, little is known about the functional capacities of nonsubtype B Nef proteins in host cells. Here, we investigated cell surface regulation of MHC-I, MHC-II, the MHC-II-associated chaperone invariant chain (Ii), CD4, CD3, and CD28 in cells transfected or infected with five different Nef alleles including one HIV-1 subtype C and F allele. No significant difference among the Nef proteins regarding CD3, CD28, and MHC-II downregulation was observed. The NefC showed a slightly, yet significant, diminished capacity to downregulate MHC-I in all cells, as well as to downregulate CD4 in Jurkat cells and PBMCs. Strikingly, the two alleles from NefC and NefF were unable to upregulate the Ii chain both in transfected and infected cells. Moreover, the internalization rate of the surface Ii chain was only slightly affected by NefC and NefF, whereas it was drastically reduced by NefB. Nef domains known to be involved in Ii chain upregulation were conserved among the five alleles analyzed here. In summary, we identified two primary HIV-1 NefC and NefF alleles that are selectively impaired for Ii upregulation and that may help to elucidate the mechanism of this Nef function in the future. It will be important to determine whether the observed differences are HIV-1 subtype dependent and influence viral immunopathogenesis.
Genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic projects often suffer from a lack of functional validation creating a strong demand for specific and versatile antibodies. Antibody phage display represents an attractive approach to select rapidly in vitro the equivalent of monoclonal antibodies, like single chain Fv antibodies, in an inexpensive and animal free way. However, so far, recombinant antibodies have not managed to impose themselves as efficient alternatives to natural antibodies.
Antibodies are essential for the identification and characterization of proteins. In the current postgenomic era the need for highly specific antibodies has further increased not only for research applications but also because they represent one of the most promising therapeutic options, especially in the field of cancer treatment. One appealing approach for rapid and inexpensive antibody generation is the use of phage display. This technique allows for a fast and animal-free selection of highly functional alternatives to classical antibodies. However, one strong limitation of this recombinant approach has been the difficulty in producing and purifying antigens. These steps have to be adjusted for each new target, are time consuming and sometimes present an insurmountable obstacle. Here we report the development of new antibody selection approach where antigens are produced through in vitro translation and are used directly and without the need for purification. With this approach we were able to rapidly select recombinant antibodies directed against GFP and the mammalian protein tsg101, respectively. We believe that our method greatly facilitates antigen preparation and thus may broaden the use of the recombinant approach for antibody generation, especially since the technique could in the future be adapted to a high-throughput technology, thus further accelerating antibody selection.
Macrophages are long-lived target cells for HIV infection and are considered viral reservoirs. HIV assembly in macrophages occurs in virus-containing compartments (VCCs) in which virions accumulate and are stored. The regulation of the trafficking and release of these VCCs remains unknown. Using high resolution light and electron microscopy of HIV-1-infected primary human macrophages, we show that the spatial distribution of VCCs depended on the microtubule network and that VCC-limiting membrane was closely associated with KIF3A+ microtubules. Silencing KIF3A strongly decreased virus release from HIV-1-infected macrophages, leading to VCC accumulation intracellularly. Time-lapse microscopy further suggested that VCCs and associated KIF3A move together along microtubules. Importantly, KIF3A does not play a role in HIV release from T cells that do not possess VCCs. These results reveal that HIV-1 requires the molecular motor KIF3 to complete its cycle in primary macrophages. Targeting this step may lead to novel strategies to eliminate this viral reservoir.
Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 is an endosomal TLR that mediates immune responses against viral infections upon activation by its ligand double-stranded RNA, a replication intermediate of most viruses. TLR3 is expressed widely in the body and activates both the innate and adaptive immune systems. However, little is known about how TLR3 intracellular trafficking and maturation are regulated. Here we show that newly synthesized endogenous TLR3 is transported through the ER and Golgi apparatus to endosomes, where it is rapidly cleaved. TLR3 protein expression is up-regulated by its own ligand, leading to the accumulation of its cleaved form. In agreement with its proposed role as a transporter, UNC93B1 expression is required for TLR3 cleavage and signaling. Furthermore, TLR3 signaling and cleavage are sensitive to cathepsin inhibition. Cleavage occurs between aa 252 and 346, and results in a functional receptor that signals upon activation. A truncated form of TLR3 lacking the N-terminal 345 aa also signals from acidic compartments in response to ligand activation. Screening of the human cathepsin family by RNA interference identified cathepsins B and H as key mediators of TLR3 processing. Taken together, our data indicate that TLR3 proteolytic processing is essential for its function, and suggest a mechanism of tight control of TLR3 signaling and thus immunity.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.