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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Spectral clustering applied for dynamic contrast-enhanced MR analysis of time-intensity curves.
Comput Med Imaging Graph
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents an emerging method for the prediction of biomarker responses in cancer. However, DCE images remain difficult to analyze and interpret. Although pharmacokinetic approaches, which involve multi-step processes, can provide a general framework for the interpretation of these data, they are still too complex for robust and accurate implementation. Therefore, statistical data analysis techniques were recently suggested as another valid interpretation strategy for DCE-MRI. In this context, we propose a spectral clustering approach for the analysis of DCE-MRI time-intensity signals. This graph theory-based method allows for the grouping of signals after spatial transformation. Subsequently, these data clusters can be labeled following comparison to arterial signals. Here, we have performed experiments with simulated (i.e., generated via pharmacokinetic modeling) and clinical (i.e., obtained from patients scanned during prostate cancer diagnosis) data sets in order to demonstrate the feasibility and applicability of this kind of unsupervised and non-parametric approach.
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The role of MRI-targeted and confirmatory biopsies for cancer upstaging at selection in patients considered for active surveillance for clinically low-risk prostate cancer.
World J Urol
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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The purpose of this study was to assess the roles of MRI-targeted biopsies (TB) and confirmatory biopsies for cancer upstaging at selection in patients considered for active surveillance (AS) for low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) based on the first systematic biopsy (SB) series in another centre.
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How accurately can MRI detect indolent disease?
Curr Opin Urol
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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The current challenge in prostate cancer diagnosis is how to accurately measure the risk of disease progression and guide the treatment decision process between effective intervention for potentially harmful tumors and active surveillance for indolent disease. The issue is how to better identify patients harboring insignificant disease using the current diagnosis pathway based on 12-core systematic biopsy, which misclassifies tumor volume and/or grade in up to 30% of cases. Integrating MRI into the diagnosis process may help to better determine if the cancer is at very low risk of disease progression, i.e. clinically indolent or insignificant.
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[The outbreak of focal therapy for localized prostate cancer management].
Rev Prat
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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These last years, focal therapy is emerging as an intermediate management technique between radical approaches (radical prostatectomy, external beam radiation and brachytherapy) and active surveillance to manage some early stage prostate cancer. Different energy modalities are currently being developed. Prostatic tumour destruction can be achieved with different energies: freezing effect for cryotherapy, thermal effect using focalized ultrasound for HIFU and using thermal effect of light for FLA, and activation of a photosensitizer by light for PDT. Those techniques carry a low morbidity but clinical experience is limited regarding to oncologic outcome. Prospective clinical trials are needed to highlight the full potential of this promising treatment modality.
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Prostate cancer diagnosis: multiparametric MR-targeted biopsy with cognitive and transrectal US-MR fusion guidance versus systematic biopsy--prospective multicenter study.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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To compare biopsy performance of two approaches for multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR)-targeted biopsy (TB) with that of extended systematic biopsy (SB) in prostate cancer (PCa) detection.
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Barth syndrome: cellular compensation of mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis inhibition due to changes in cardiolipin remodeling linked to tafazzin (TAZ) gene mutation.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Cardiolipin is a mitochondrion-specific phospholipid that stabilizes the assembly of respiratory chain complexes, favoring full-yield operation. It also mediates key steps in apoptosis. In Barth syndrome, an X chromosome-linked cardiomyopathy caused by tafazzin mutations, cardiolipins display acyl chain modifications and are present at abnormally low concentrations, whereas monolysocardiolipin accumulates. Using immortalized lymphoblasts from Barth syndrome patients, we showed that the production of abnormal cardiolipin led to mitochondrial alterations. Indeed, the lack of normal cardiolipin led to changes in electron transport chain stability, resulting in cellular defects. We found a destabilization of the supercomplex (respirasome) I+III2+IVn but also decreased amounts of individual complexes I and IV and supercomplexes I+III and III+IV. No changes were observed in the amounts of individual complex III and complex II. We also found decreased levels of complex V. This complex is not part of the supercomplex suggesting that cardiolipin is required not only for the association/stabilization of the complexes into supercomplexes but also for the modulation of the amount of individual respiratory chain complexes. However, these alterations were compensated by an increase in mitochondrial mass, as demonstrated by electron microscopy and measurements of citrate synthase activity. We suggest that this compensatory increase in mitochondrial content prevents a decrease in mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis in the cells. We also show, by extensive flow cytometry analysis, that the type II apoptosis pathway was blocked at the mitochondrial level and that the mitochondria of patients with Barth syndrome cannot bind active caspase-8. Signal transduction is thus blocked before any mitochondrial event can occur. Remarkably, basal levels of superoxide anion production were slightly higher in patients cells than in control cells as previously evidenced via an increased protein carbonylation in the taz1? mutant in the yeast. This may be deleterious to cells in the long term. The consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction and alterations to apoptosis signal transduction are considered in light of the potential for the development of future treatments.
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Standards of reporting for MRI-targeted biopsy studies (START) of the prostate: recommendations from an International Working Group.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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A systematic literature review of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted prostate biopsy demonstrates poor adherence to the Standards for the Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) recommendations for the full and transparent reporting of diagnostic studies.
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Focal laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) at 980 nm for prostate cancer: treatment feasibility in Dunning R3327-AT2 rat prostate tumour.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2011
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To examine the feasibility and reproducibility of laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) as a minimally invasive method for the treatment of prostate cancer.
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A model to estimate the outcome of prostate cancer photodynamic therapy with TOOKAD Soluble WST11.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
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Interstitial photodynamic therapy is becoming an interesting modality to treat some early stage prostate cancers. A light-sensitive drug is injected to the patient and activated by light using optical fibres inserted inside the prostate. In this work, we were interested in the characterization of the light action model for the WST11 (Tookad® Soluble) drug. A retrospective analysis was performed on results from 28 patients enrolled in phase I and II trials with the WST11 drug. A drug dose of 4 mg/kg patient, dose light of 200 J cm(-1) and wavelength of 753 nm were used. Correlation between the illuminated volume and the obtained necrosis, measured at day 7 MR images, was clearly established. This result suggests that photodynamic therapy planning is possible based on this model.
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[Photodynamic therapy and urothelial carcinoma].
Bull Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an innovative therapeutic modality in urologic oncology.
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Combined multiparametric MRI and targeted biopsies improve anterior prostate cancer detection, staging, and grading.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2011
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To assess the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detection of suspicious anterior prostate lesions, and its role in staging and grading of anterior prostate cancer (APC).
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Role of magnetic resonance imaging before initial biopsy: comparison of magnetic resonance imaging-targeted and systematic biopsy for significant prostate cancer detection.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
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•To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted biopsies with extended systematic biopsies for the detection of significant prostate cancer.
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Small cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (UUT-SCC): report of a rare entity and systematic review of the literature.
Cancer Treat. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2011
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Primary small cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (UUT-SCC) is an extremely uncommon disease. The current knowledge of these rare tumors is mainly based on case reports or small series.
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Magnetic resonance imaging for the detection, localisation, and characterisation of prostate cancer: recommendations from a European consensus meeting.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2010
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Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) may have a role in detecting clinically significant prostate cancer in men with raised serum prostate-specific antigen levels. Variations in technique and the interpretation of images have contributed to inconsistency in its reported performance characteristics.
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A canine Arylsulfatase G (ARSG) mutation leading to a sulfatase deficiency is associated with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2010
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Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) represent the most common group of inherited progressive encephalopathies in children. They are characterized by progressive loss of vision, mental and motor deterioration, epileptic seizures, and premature death. Rare adult forms of NCL with late onset are known as Kufs disease. Loci underlying these adult forms remain unknown due to the small number of patients and genetic heterogeneity. Here we confirm that a late-onset form of NCL recessively segregates in US and French pedigrees of American Staffordshire Terrier (AST) dogs. Through combined association, linkage, and haplotype analyses, we mapped the disease locus to a single region of canine chromosome 9. We eventually identified a worldwide breed-specific variant in exon 2 of the Arylsulfatase G (ARSG) gene, which causes a p.R99H substitution in the vicinity of the catalytic domain of the enzyme. In transfected cells or leukocytes from affected dogs, the missense change leads to a 75% decrease in sulfatase activity, providing a functional confirmation that the variant might be the NCL-causing mutation. Our results uncover a protein involved in neuronal homeostasis, identify a family of candidate genes to be screened in patients with Kufs disease, and suggest that a deficiency in sulfatase is part of the NCL pathogenesis.
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Multimodality magnetic resonance imaging of prostate cancer.
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2010
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The purpose of this article is to review both routine T2-weighted and new MRI techniques in the imaging of prostate cancer (PCa) for focal therapy. T2-weighted imaging, knowledge of MRI prostate zonal anatomy, cancer morphology, and intraprostatic tumor spread remain essential for clinical PCa imaging; however, new techniques, such as dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging yield significant improvements in identification and volume estimation. Potential advantages of 3 Tesla MRI are adequate imaging without an endorectal coil. Future studies should work toward helping define standard, reproducible approaches to multimodality MRI and image reporting for research and clinical practice.
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Rapid identification of HEXA mutations in Tay-Sachs patients.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2010
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Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder due to mutations in the HEXA gene resulting in a beta-hexosaminidase A (Hex A) deficiency. The purpose of this study was to characterize the molecular abnormalities in patients with infantile or later-onset forms of the disease. The complete sequencing of the 14 exons and flanking regions of the HEXA gene was performed with a unique technical condition in 10 unrelated TSD patients. Eleven mutations were identified, including five splice mutations, one insertion, two deletions and three single-base substitutions. Four mutations were novel: two splice mutations (IVS8+5G>A, IVS2+4delAGTA), one missense mutation in exon 6 (c.621T>G (p.D207E)) and one small deletion (c.1211-1212delTG) in exon 11 resulting in a premature stop codon at residue 429. The c.621T>G missense mutation was found in a patient presenting an infantile form. Its putative role in the pathogenesis of TSD is suspected as residue 207 is highly conserved in human, mouse and rat. Moreover, structural modelling predicted changes likely to affect substrate binding and catalytic activity of the enzyme. The time-saving procedure reported here could be useful for the characterization of Tay-Sachs-causing mutations, in particular in non-Ashkenazi patients mainly exhibiting rare mutations.
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Computer-assisted diagnosis of prostate cancer using DCE-MRI data: design, implementation and preliminary results.
Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg
PUBLISHED: 12-25-2009
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We present computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) software designed to improve prostate cancer detection using perfusion MRI data.
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Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of anterior prostate cancer: morphometric assessment and correlation with radical prostatectomy findings.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2009
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The purpose of the study was to relate morphometric features of prostate cancers in the anterior compartment of the prostate by dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI to subsequent histopathologic findings. We prospectively performed DCE-MRI before biopsy in patients with suspected prostate cancer and selected those showing both a suspicious lesion at MRI and positive biopsies in the anterior compartment of the gland. Tumor contours, margins, largest surface areas and volumes were assessed at MRI and histopathology, when available. Anterior compartment tumors were classified according to transition zone (TZ) boundaries with the peripheral zone (PZ) or with the anterior fibromuscular stroma (SFMA). Forty-three patients were included in this study [median PSA 12.7 ng/ml (3.6-72)]. Whole-mount radical prostatectomy specimens were available in 27 cases. Of the anterior cancers, 89% had ill-defined margins at T2-weighted MRI. Cancer location and contour established at MRI agreed well with histopathology in the 27 cases. Median largest surface area and volume were 1.38 cm(2) (0.35-5.82) and 1.01 cc (0.15-7.4) for MRI versus 1.86 cm(2) (0.2-14) and 2.84 cc (0.33-28.92) for histopathology with respective correlation coefficients (r(2)) of 0.73 and 0.69. The site of origin could be accurately determined for the 15 tumors of less than 3 cc. We found a good relationship between DCE-MRI and histopathology for localization, morphologic description and volume assessment of anterior prostate cancers.
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Dynamic contrast-enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of intraprostatic prostate cancer: correlation with radical prostatectomy specimens.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2009
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To determine the diagnostic performance of dynamic contrast-enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in the identification of intraprostatic cancer foci related to cancer volume at histopathology, in patients with clinically localized cancer treated by radical prostatectomy, with whole-mount histopathologic sections as the reference standard.
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Current status of MRI for the diagnosis, staging and prognosis of prostate cancer: implications for focal therapy and active surveillance.
Curr Opin Urol
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2009
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To review the current status of MRI techniques in identification of organ-confined prostate cancer with a focus on their implication for focal therapy and active surveillance.
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Peripheral zone prostate cancers: location and intraprostatic patterns of spread at histopathology.
Prostate
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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To describe the precise location of peripheral zone (PZ) prostate cancers at various stages of development and to demonstrate their pattern of intraprostatic spread from their site of origin.
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Imaging of organ-confined prostate cancer: functional ultrasound, MRI and PET/computed tomography.
Curr Opin Urol
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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To review the current status of advanced imaging techniques in identification of organ-confined prostate cancer with a focus on their impact on patient management.
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Transition zone and anterior stromal prostate cancers: zone of origin and intraprostatic patterns of spread at histopathology.
Prostate
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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To describe the precise location of transition zone (TZ) and anterior fibromuscular stroma (AFMS) prostate cancers (TZ/AFMS) within histological zones at various stages of development and to demonstrate their pattern of intraprostatic spread from their site of origin.
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Characterization of seven novel mutations on the HEXB gene in French Sandhoff patients.
Gene
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Sandhoff disease (SD) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the HEXB gene encoding the beta subunit of hexosaminidases A and B, two enzymes involved in GM2 ganglioside degradation. Eleven French Sandhoff patients with infantile or juvenile forms of the disease were completely characterized using sequencing of the HEXB gene. A specific procedure was developed to facilitate the detection of the common 5-end 16kb deletion which was frequent (36% of the alleles) in our study. Eleven other disease-causing mutations were found, among which four have previously been reported (c.850C>T, c.793T>G, c.115del and c.800_817del). Seven mutations were completely novel and were analyzed using molecular modelling. Two deletions (c.176del and c.1058_1060del), a duplication (c.1485_1487dup) and a nonsense mutation (c.552T>G) were predicted to strongly alter the enzyme spatial organization. The splice mutation c.558+5G>A affecting the intron 4 consensus splice site led to a skipping of exon 4 and to a truncated protein (p.191X). Two missense mutations were found among the patients studied. The c.448A>C mutation was probably a severe mutation as it was present in association with the known c.793T>G in an infantile form of Sandhoff disease and as it significantly modified the N-terminal domain structure of the protein. The c.171G>C mutation resulting in a p.W57C amino acid substitution in the N-terminal region is probably less drastic than the other abnormalities as it was present in a juvenile patient in association with the c.176del. Finally, this study reports a rapid detection of the Sandhoff disease-causing alleles facilitating genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis in at-risk families.
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Malignant retroperitoneal fibrosis: MRI characteristics in 50 patients.
Medicine (Baltimore)
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We analyzed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphologic patterns of retroperitoneal fibrosis (RF) to identify those able to distinguish malignant RF (mRF) from idiopathic RF (iRF). This retrospective study concerned 50 consecutive patients with MRI-based RF diagnoses, 35 of whom also had histologically proven RF. Previous radiotherapy, abdominal or pelvic surgery or infection during the preceding 6 months, vascular aneurysm (aorta or iliac artery), presence of retroperitoneal multiple nodular masses, or enlarged lymph nodes with a diameter >15 mm constituted exclusion criteria. Patients with mRF differed from those with iRF by age, smoking habits, and follow-up duration but not by clinical manifestations, inflammatory syndrome, or renal insufficiency. MRI-documented mRF extension along the aorta, from above the renal arteries to below the aortic bifurcation, was more frequent than iRF (47% vs. 0%; p = 0.001) but less frequent between the renal arteries and the aortic bifurcation (18% vs. 50%; p = 0.04); mRF extension behind the aorta was wider than iRF (5.0 vs. 2.5 mm; p = 0.03). Neither urinary tract nor vessel involvement differed. Medial ureteral attraction was significantly less frequent in mRF than iRF (24% vs. 83%; p < 0.001), according to univariate and multivariate analyses. An algorithm based on the most discriminant criteria (RF extending from above the renal arteries to below the aortic bifurcation and the absence of medial ureteral attraction) for mRF diagnosis had 82% sensitivity and 83% specificity. When applied to the 15 iRF patients without histologic data, specificity was 73%. This mRF decision tree, consisting of the 2 most discriminant MRI criteria, could be used as a supplementary argument to support RF biopsy.
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Focal laser ablation of prostate cancer: definition, needs, and future.
Adv Urol
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Current challenges and innovations in prostate cancer management concern the development of focal therapies that allow the treatment of only the cancer areas sparing the rest of the gland to minimize the potential morbidity. Among these techniques, focal laser ablation (FLA) appears as a potential candidate to reach the goal of focusing energy delivery on the identified targets. The aim of this study is to perform an up-to-date review of this new therapeutic modality. Relevant literature was identified using MEDLINE database with no language restrictions (entries: focal therapy, laser interstitial thermotherapy, prostate cancer, FLA) and by cross-referencing from previously identified studies. Precision, real-time monitoring, MRI compatibility, and low cost of integrated system are principal advantages of FLA. Feasibility and safety of this technique have been reported in phase I assays. FLA might eventually prove to be a middle ground between active surveillance and radical treatment. In conclusion, FLA may have found a role in the management of prostate cancer. However, further trials are required to demonstrate the oncologic effectiveness in the long term.
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Elastic image registration for guiding focal laser ablation of prostate cancer: preliminary results.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed
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To guide ultrasound-driven prostate photodynamic therapy using information from MRI-based treatment planning.
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Scoring systems used for the interpretation and reporting of multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer detection, localization, and characterization: could standardization lead to improved utilization of imaging within the diagnostic pathway?
J Magn Reson Imaging
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Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) is increasingly being used earlier in the prostate cancer diagnostic pathway in order to detect and localize disease. Its results can be used to help decide on the indication, type, and localization of a prostate biopsy for cancer diagnosis. In addition, mpMRI has the potential to contribute information on the characterization, or aggressiveness, of detected cancers including tumor progression over time. There is considerable variation in the way results of different MRI sequences are reported. We conducted a review of scoring systems that have been used in the detection and characterization of prostate cancer. This revealed that existing scoring and reporting systems differ in purpose, scale, and range. We evaluate these differences in this review. This first step in collating all methods of scoring and reporting mpMRI will ultimately lead to consensus approaches to develop a standardized reporting scheme that can be widely adopted and validated to ensure comparability of research outputs and optimal clinical practice.
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MRI and surveillance.
Curr Opin Urol
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In this review, we summarize the recent advances in modern imaging, particularly multiparametric (mp) MRI and its role in the selection and monitoring of patients on active surveillance.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.