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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
On the clinical evidence leading to tetrazepam withdrawal.
Expert Opin Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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In July 2013, the European Medicines Agency suspended the marketing authorizations of tetrazepam across the European Union. Herein, we examine the various kinds of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported to be associated with tetrazepam.
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Minocycline mediated mitochondrial cytoprotection: premises for therapy of cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.
Curr Drug Targets
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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In the last decades, emerging molecular targets for ischemic neuroprotection and regeneration have been postulated. This fact allowed that classical drugs with well established therapeutic applications might be used in cerebrovascular diseases as well as neurodegenerative diseases. Minocycline is a commonly used antibiotic of the tetracycline family (7-dimethylamino-6-dimethyl-6-deoxytetracycline) which reveals cytoprotective capability and potential use in treatment of different diseases. Here, we discuss the literature concerning minocycline. The available data indicate that the antibiotic has multi-faceted effects on cell functions and, consequently, a number of clinical properties that are useful and/or could be useful for treatment of different diseases including bacterial infections, cancer, autoimmune disorders, ischemia as well as neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. Thus, application of minocycline as a therapeutic agent is the subject of clinical trials for various diseases. It is also evident that minocycline-mediated cytoprotection, including neuroprotection, is an important aspect of its clinical application. Here, we have reviewed the basis of the minocycline activity as well as different studies indicating that minocycline can be used as potential therapeutic agent in both cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases in human.
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Rasagiline meta-analysis: a spotlight on clinical safety and adverse events when treating Parkinsons disease.
Expert Opin Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Rasagiline (Azilect, AGN 1135) is a selective irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). MAO-B regulates the brain concentrations of important neurotransmitters that are related to movement, emotion, and cognition. Oral rasagiline, as monotherapy or as adjunctive therapy to levodopa, was effective in the symptomatic treatment of adult patients with Parkinsons disease participating in double-blind, placebo-controlled, international studies.
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Adhesins in human fungal pathogens: glue with plenty of stick.
Eukaryotic Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Understanding the pathogenesis of an infectious disease is critical for developing new methods to prevent infection and diagnose or cure disease. Adherence of microorganisms to host tissue is a prerequisite for tissue invasion and infection. Fungal cell wall adhesins involved in adherence to host tissue or abiotic medical devices are critical for colonization leading to invasion and damage of host tissue. Here, with a main focus on pathogenic Candida species, we summarize recent progress made in the field of adhesins in human fungal pathogens and underscore the importance of these proteins in establishment of fungal diseases.
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Genomic insights into the atopic eczema-associated skin commensal yeast Malassezia sympodialis.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Malassezia commensal yeasts are associated with a number of skin disorders, such as atopic eczema/dermatitis and dandruff, and they also can cause systemic infections. Here we describe the 7.67-Mbp genome of Malassezia sympodialis, a species associated with atopic eczema, and contrast its genome repertoire with that of Malassezia globosa, associated with dandruff, as well as those of other closely related fungi. Ninety percent of the predicted M. sympodialis protein coding genes were experimentally verified by mass spectrometry at the protein level. We identified a relatively limited number of genes related to lipid biosynthesis, and both species lack the fatty acid synthase gene, in line with the known requirement of these yeasts to assimilate lipids from the host. Malassezia species do not appear to have many cell wall-localized glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) proteins and lack other cell wall proteins previously identified in other fungi. This is surprising given that in other fungi these proteins have been shown to mediate interactions (e.g., adhesion and biofilm formation) with the host. The genome revealed a complex evolutionary history for an allergen of unknown function, Mala s 7, shown to be encoded by a member of an amplified gene family of secreted proteins. Based on genetic and biochemical studies with the basidiomycete human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, we characterized the allergen Mala s 6 as the cytoplasmic cyclophilin A. We further present evidence that M. sympodialis may have the capacity to undergo sexual reproduction and present a model for a pseudobipolar mating system that allows limited recombination between two linked MAT loci.
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Pga26 mediates filamentation and biofilm formation and is required for virulence in Candida albicans.
FEMS Yeast Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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The Candida albicans gene PGA26 encodes a small cell wall protein and is upregulated during de novo wall synthesis in protoplasts. Disruption of PGA26 caused hypersensitivity to cell wall-perturbing compounds (Calcofluor white and Congo red) and to zymolyase, which degrades the cell wall ?-1,3-glucan network. However, susceptibility to caspofungin, an inhibitor of ?-1,3-glucan synthesis, was decreased. In addition, pga26? mutants show increased susceptibility to antifungals (fluconazol, posaconazol or amphotericin B) that target the plasma membrane and have altered sensitivities to environmental (heat, osmotic and oxidative) stresses. Except for a threefold increase in ?-1,6-glucan and a slightly widened outer mannoprotein layer, the cell wall composition and structure was largely unaltered. Therefore, Pga26 is important for proper cell wall integrity, but does not seem to be directly involved in the synthesis of cell wall components. Deletion of PGA26 further leads to hyperfilamentation, increased biofilm formation and reduced virulence in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. We propose that deletion of PGA26 may cause an imbalance in the morphological switching ability of Candida, leading to attenuated dissemination and infection.
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Mitochondria: the headquarters in ischemia-induced neuronal death.
Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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Due to a lack of efficient treatments, searching for novel therapies against acute ischemic stroke represents one of the main fields in neuropharmacology. In this review we summarize and discuss the role of mitochondrial participation in ischemia-induced neuronal death. Mitochondria are regarded as the main link between cellular stress signals and the execution of programmed death of nerve cells. Since it was described that the release of mitochondrial proteins such as cytochrome c, apoptosis inducing factor and endonuclease G are key elements in cell death pathways, they have been the focus of cell death studies. Changes in the permeability of the mitochondrial outer membrane result in a non-reversible step in cell death processes. Cytochrome c released from mitochondria binds in the cytoplasm to Apaf-1 to initiate the formation of an apoptosome, which then binds pro-caspase-9. Active caspase-9 cleaves "executioner" caspases, which in turn proceed to cleave key substrates in the cell. Thus, the identification of new targets might enable establishment of novel strategies for therapeutic research, in this case based on the molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial pathways, to improve the development of compounds for treatment of ischemia.
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Proteolytic cleavage of covalently linked cell wall proteins by Candida albicans Sap9 and Sap10.
Eukaryotic Cell
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2010
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The cell wall of the human-pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is a robust but also dynamic structure which mediates adaptation to changing environmental conditions during infection. Sap9 and Sap10 are cell surface-associated proteases which function in C. albicans cell wall integrity and interaction with human epithelial cells and neutrophils. In this study, we have analyzed the enzymatic properties of Sap9 and Sap10 and investigated whether these proteases cleave proteins on the fungal cell surface. We show that Sap9 and Sap10, in contrast to other aspartic proteases, exhibit a near-neutral pH optimum of proteolytic activity and prefer the processing of peptides containing basic or dibasic residues. However, both proteases also cleaved at nonbasic sites, and not all tested peptides with dibasic residues were processed. By digesting isolated cell walls with Sap9 or Sap10, we identified the covalently linked cell wall proteins (CWPs) Cht2, Ywp1, Als2, Rhd3, Rbt5, Ecm33, and Pga4 as in vitro protease substrates. Proteolytic cleavage of the chitinase Cht2 and the glucan-cross-linking protein Pir1 by Sap9 was verified using hemagglutinin (HA) epitope-tagged versions of both proteins. Deletion of the SAP9 and SAP10 genes resulted in a reduction of cell-associated chitinase activity similar to that upon deletion of CHT2, suggesting a direct influence of Sap9 and Sap10 on Cht2 function. In contrast, cell surface changes elicited by SAP9 and SAP10 deletion had no major impact on the phagocytosis and killing of C. albicans by human macrophages. We propose that Sap9 and Sap10 influence distinct cell wall functions by proteolytic cleavage of covalently linked cell wall proteins.
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Mass spectrometric quantification of the adaptations in the wall proteome of Candida albicans in response to ambient pH.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.)
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2010
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The mucosal layers colonized by the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans differ widely in ambient pH. Because the properties and functions of wall proteins are probably pH dependent, we hypothesized that C. albicans adapts its wall proteome to the external pH. We developed an in vitro system that mimics colonization of mucosal surfaces by growing biomats at pH 7 and 4 on semi-solid agarose containing mucin as the sole nitrogen source. The biomats expanded radially for at least 8 days at a rate of ~30 ?m h(-1). At pH 7, hyphal growth predominated and growth was invasive, whereas at pH 4 only yeast and pseudohyphal cells were present and growth was noninvasive. Both qualitative mass spectrometric analysis of the wall proteome by tandem mass spectrometry and relative quantification of individual wall proteins (pH 7/pH 4), using Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FT-MS) and a reference mixture of (15)N-labelled yeast and hyphal walls, identified similar sets of >20 covalently linked wall proteins. The adhesion proteins Als1 and Als3, Hyr1, the transglucosidase Phr1, the detoxification enzyme Sod5 and the mammalian transglutaminase substrate Hwp1 (immunological detection) were only present at pH 7, whereas at pH 4 the level of the transglucosidase Phr2 was >35-fold higher than at pH 7. Sixteen out of the 22 proteins identified by FT-MS showed a greater than twofold change. These results demonstrate that ambient pH strongly affects the wall proteome of C. albicans, show that our quantitative approach can give detailed insights into the dynamics of the wall proteome, and point to potential vaccine targets.
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The Candida albicans cell wall protein Rhd3/Pga29 is abundant in the yeast form and contributes to virulence.
Yeast
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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The glycosylphosphatidylinositol-modified protein Rhd3/Pga29 of the human pathogen Candida albicans belongs to a family of cell wall proteins that are widespread among Candida species but are not found in other fungi. Pga29 is covalently linked to the beta-1,3-glucan framework of the cell wall via beta-1,6-glucan. It is a small and abundant O-glycosylated protein and requires the protein-O-mannosyl transferase Pmt1 for glycosylation. Furthermore, Pga29 is strongly expressed in yeast cells but is downregulated in hyphae. Removal of the PGA29 gene in C. albicans leads to a significant reduction of cell wall mannan; however, Pga29 does not seem to have a major role in maintaining cell wall integrity. In addition, adhesion capacity and hyphae formation appear normal in pga29 deletion mutants. Importantly, the pga29 deletion mutant is less virulent, and infection of reconstituted human epithelium with the pga29 mutant results in a diminished induction of proinflammatory cytokines, such as GM-CSF, TNF, IL-6 and IL-8. We propose that the reduced virulence of the pga29 mutant is a consequence of altered surface properties, resulting in altered fungal recognition.
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Comparative genomics of the fungal pathogens Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans.
Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2009
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Candida dubliniensis is the closest known relative of Candida albicans, the most pathogenic yeast species in humans. However, despite both species sharing many phenotypic characteristics, including the ability to form true hyphae, C. dubliniensis is a significantly less virulent and less versatile pathogen. Therefore, to identify C. albicans-specific genes that may be responsible for an increased capacity to cause disease, we have sequenced the C. dubliniensis genome and compared it with the known C. albicans genome sequence. Although the two genome sequences are highly similar and synteny is conserved throughout, 168 species-specific genes are identified, including some encoding known hyphal-specific virulence factors, such as the aspartyl proteinases Sap4 and Sap5 and the proposed invasin Als3. Among the 115 pseudogenes confirmed in C. dubliniensis are orthologs of several filamentous growth regulator (FGR) genes that also have suspected roles in pathogenesis. However, the principal differences in genomic repertoire concern expansion of the TLO gene family of putative transcription factors and the IFA family of putative transmembrane proteins in C. albicans, which represent novel candidate virulence-associated factors. The results suggest that the recent evolutionary histories of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis are quite different. While gene families instrumental in pathogenesis have been elaborated in C. albicans, C. dubliniensis has lost genomic capacity and key pathogenic functions. This could explain why C. albicans is a more potent pathogen in humans than C. dubliniensis.
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Comprehensive genomic analysis of cell wall genes in Aspergillus nidulans.
Fungal Genet. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2009
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Knowledge of the mechanisms underlying cell wall biosynthesis in Aspergillus spp. is of high relevance to medicine and food safety, and for biotechnological applications. The cell wall of Aspergillus nidulans is composed of galactomannoproteins, 1,3-alpha-glucan, beta-glucans, and chitin. Here, we present a comprehensive inventory of the cell wall-related genes in A. nidulans. This includes glycan-synthetic and glycan-processing enzymes, spore wall maturation enzymes, GPI-anchor processing enzymes, GPI proteins and hydrophobins, and signaling proteins of the cell wall integrity pathway. All major known fungal cell wall-related genes are represented, except for Pir-CWPs. Importantly, we have identified a gene product that is possibly involved in the synthesis of 1,3/1,4-beta-glucan, and we propose that four predicted GPI proteins, a mixed-linked beta-glucanase and three amylase-like alpha-glucanases, may have transglucosidic activities pertaining to the processing of 1,3/1,4-beta-glucan and 1,3/1,4-alpha-glucan, respectively. We further present an updated survey of putative GPI proteins. Finally, we present mass spectrometric evidence suggesting the presence of at least twelve covalently-linked cell wall proteins in the hyphal wall of A. nidulans, including ten predicted GPI proteins, most of which belong to carbohydrate-active enzyme families that are also found in the walls of ascomycetous yeasts.
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Covalently linked cell wall proteins of Candida albicans and their role in fitness and virulence.
FEMS Yeast Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2009
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The cell wall of Candida albicans consists of an internal skeletal layer and an external protein coat. This coat has a mosaic-like nature, containing c. 20 different protein species covalently linked to the skeletal layer. Most of them are GPI proteins. Coat proteins vary widely in function. Many of them are involved in the primary interactions between C. albicans and the host and mediate adhesive steps or invasion of host cells. Others are involved in biofilm formation and cell-cell aggregation. They further include iron acquisition proteins, superoxide dismutases, and yapsin-like aspartic proteases. In addition, several covalently linked carbohydrate-active enzymes are present, whose precise functions remain hitherto largely elusive. The expression levels of the genes that encode covalently linked cell wall proteins (CWPs) can vary enormously. They depend on the mode of growth and the combined inputs of several signaling pathways that sense environmental conditions. This is reflected in the unusually long intergenic regions of most of these genes. Finally, the precise location of several covalently linked CWPs is temporally and spatially regulated. We conclude that covalently linked CWPs of C. albicans play a crucial role in fitness and virulence and that their expression is tightly controlled.
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The GPI-modified proteins Pga59 and Pga62 of Candida albicans are required for cell wall integrity.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.)
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
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The fungal cell wall is essential in maintaining cellular integrity and plays key roles in the interplay between fungal pathogens and their hosts. The PGA59 and PGA62 genes encode two short and related glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cell wall proteins and their expression has been previously shown to be strongly upregulated when the human pathogen Candida albicans grows as biofilms. Using GFP fusion proteins, we have shown that Pga59 and Pga62 are cell-wall-located, N- and O-glycosylated proteins. The characterization of C. albicans pga59Delta/pga59Delta, pga62Delta/pga62Delta and pga59Delta/pga59Delta pga62Delta/pga62Delta mutants suggested a minor role of these two proteins in hyphal morphogenesis and that they are not critical to biofilm formation. Importantly, the sensitivity to different cell-wall-perturbing agents was altered in these mutants. In particular, simultaneous inactivation of PGA59 and PGA62 resulted in high sensitivity to Calcofluor white, Congo red and nikkomicin Z and in resistance to caspofungin. Furthermore, cell wall composition and observation by transmission electron microscopy indicated an altered cell wall structure in the mutant strains. Collectively, these data suggest that the cell wall proteins Pga59 and Pga62 contribute to cell wall stability and structure.
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Evolution of pathogenicity and sexual reproduction in eight Candida genomes.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2009
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Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal infection worldwide. Here we report the genome sequences of six Candida species and compare these and related pathogens and non-pathogens. There are significant expansions of cell wall, secreted and transporter gene families in pathogenic species, suggesting adaptations associated with virulence. Large genomic tracts are homozygous in three diploid species, possibly resulting from recent recombination events. Surprisingly, key components of the mating and meiosis pathways are missing from several species. These include major differences at the mating-type loci (MTL); Lodderomyces elongisporus lacks MTL, and components of the a1/2 cell identity determinant were lost in other species, raising questions about how mating and cell types are controlled. Analysis of the CUG leucine-to-serine genetic-code change reveals that 99% of ancestral CUG codons were erased and new ones arose elsewhere. Lastly, we revise the Candida albicans gene catalogue, identifying many new genes.
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The 2008 update of the Aspergillus nidulans genome annotation: a community effort.
Fungal Genet. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2009
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The identification and annotation of protein-coding genes is one of the primary goals of whole-genome sequencing projects, and the accuracy of predicting the primary protein products of gene expression is vital to the interpretation of the available data and the design of downstream functional applications. Nevertheless, the comprehensive annotation of eukaryotic genomes remains a considerable challenge. Many genomes submitted to public databases, including those of major model organisms, contain significant numbers of wrong and incomplete gene predictions. We present a community-based reannotation of the Aspergillus nidulans genome with the primary goal of increasing the number and quality of protein functional assignments through the careful review of experts in the field of fungal biology.
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Gross karyotypic and phenotypic alterations among different progenies of the Candida glabrata CBS138/ATCC2001 reference strain.
PLoS ONE
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Genomic plasticity is a mechanism for adaptation to environmental cues such as host responses and antifungal drug pressure in many fungi including the human pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata. In this study we evaluated the phenotypic and genotypic stability of the world-wide used C. glabrata reference strain CBS138/ATCC2001 under laboratory conditions. A set of ten lineages of this wild type strain and genetically modified progenies were obtained from different scientific laboratories, and analyzed for genotypic and phenotypic alterations. Even though the derivates were indistinguishable by multi locus sequence typing, different phenotypic groups that correlated with specific karyotypic changes were observed. In addition, modifications in the adherence capacity to plastic surface emerged that were shown to correlate with quantitative changes in adhesin gene expression rather than subtelomeric gene loss or differences in the number of macrosatellite repeats within adhesin genes. These results confirm the genomic plasticity of C. glabrata and show that chromosomal aberrations and functional adaptations may occur not only during infection and under antimicrobial therapy, but also under laboratory conditions without extreme selective pressures. These alterations can significantly affect phenotypic properties such as cell surface attributes including adhesion and the cell wall carbohydrate composition and therefore, if unnoticed, may adulterate the outcome of genetic studies.
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Glycosylation of Candida albicans cell wall proteins is critical for induction of innate immune responses and apoptosis of epithelial cells.
PLoS ONE
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C. albicans is one of the most common fungal pathogen of humans, causing local and superficial mucosal infections in immunocompromised individuals. Given that the key structure mediating host-C. albicans interactions is the fungal cell wall, we aimed to identify features of the cell wall inducing epithelial responses and be associated with fungal pathogenesis. We demonstrate here the importance of cell wall protein glycosylation in epithelial immune activation with a predominant role for the highly branched N-glycosylation residues. Moreover, these glycan moieties induce growth arrest and apoptosis of epithelial cells. Using an in vitro model of oral candidosis we demonstrate, that apoptosis induction by C. albicans wild-type occurs in early stage of infection and strongly depends on intact cell wall protein glycosylation. These novel findings demonstrate that glycosylation of the C. albicans cell wall proteins appears essential for modulation of epithelial immunity and apoptosis induction, both of which may promote fungal pathogenesis in vivo.
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The plant defensin RsAFP2 induces cell wall stress, septin mislocalization and accumulation of ceramides in Candida albicans.
Mol. Microbiol.
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The antifungal plant defensin RsAFP2 isolated from radish interacts with fungal glucosylceramides and induces apoptosis in Candida albicans. To further unravel the mechanism of RsAFP2 antifungal action and tolerance mechanisms, we screened a library of 2868 heterozygous C.?albicans deletion mutants and identified 30 RsAFP2-hypersensitive mutants. The most prominent group of RsAFP2 tolerance genes was involved in cell wall integrity and hyphal growth/septin ring formation. Consistent with these genetic data, we demonstrated that RsAFP2 interacts with the cell wall of C.?albicans, which also contains glucosylceramides, and activates the cell wall integrity pathway. Moreover, we found that RsAFP2 induces mislocalization of septins and blocks the yeast-to-hypha transition in C.?albicans. Increased ceramide levels have previously been shown to result in apoptosis and septin mislocalization. Therefore, ceramide levels in C.?albicans membranes were analysed following RsAFP2 treatment and, as expected, increased accumulation of phytoC24-ceramides in membranes of RsAFP2-treated C.?albicans cells was detected. This is the first report on the interaction of a plant defensin with glucosylceramides in the fungal cell wall, causing cell wall stress, and on the effects of a defensin on septin localization and ceramide accumulation.
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Pga13 in Candida albicans is localized in the cell wall and influences cell surface properties, morphogenesis and virulence.
Fungal Genet. Biol.
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The fungal cell wall is an essential organelle required for maintaining cell integrity and also plays an important role in the primary interactions between pathogenic fungi and their hosts. PGA13 encodes a GPI protein in the human pathogen Candida albicans, which is highly up-regulated during cell wall regeneration in protoplasts. The Pga13 protein contains a unique tandem repeat, which is present five times and is characterized by conserved spacing between the four cysteine residues. Furthermore, the mature protein contains 38% serine and threonine residues, and therefore probably is a highly glycosylated cell wall protein. Consistent with this, a chimeric Pga13-V5 protein could be localized to the cell wall, but only after deglycosylation was performed. Disruption of PGA13 led to increased sensitivity to Congo red, Calcofluor white, and zymolyase, and to a diminished ability of protoplasts to recover their cell wall. In addition, pga13? mutants exhibited delayed filamentation, a higher surface hydrophobicity, and increased adherence and flocculation (cell-cell interactions). Furthermore, transcript profiling showed that expression of four members of the ALS family (adhesin-encoding genes) is up-regulated in the pga13? null mutant. Altogether, these results indicate that Pga13 is a wall-localized protein that contributes to cell wall synthesis and is important for acquiring normal surface properties. The contribution of Pga13 to surface hydrophilicity may be important for cell dispersal during development of invasive infections, and possibly for morphological development. This is consistent with the observed reduced virulence of pga13? mutants in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis.
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ProFASTA: a pipeline web server for fungal protein scanning with integration of cell surface prediction software.
Fungal Genet. Biol.
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Surface proteins, such as those located in the cell wall of fungi, play an important role in the interaction with the surrounding environment. For instance, they mediate primary host-pathogen interactions and are crucial to the establishment of biofilms and fungal infections. Surface localization of proteins is determined by specific sequence features and can be predicted by combining different freely available web servers. However, user-friendly tools that allow rapid analysis of large datasets (whole proteomes or larger) in subsequent analyses were not yet available. Here, we present the web tool ProFASTA, which integrates multiple tools for rapid scanning of protein sequence properties in large datasets and returns sequences in FASTA format. ProFASTA also allows for pipeline filtering of proteins with cell surface characteristics by analysis of the output created with SignalP, TMHMM and big-PI. In addition, it provides keyword, iso-electric point, composition and pattern scanning. Furthermore, ProFASTA contains all fungal protein sequences present in the NCBI Protein database. As the full fungal NCBI Taxonomy is included, sequence subsets can be selected by supplying a taxon name. The usefulness of ProFASTA is demonstrated here with a few examples; in the recent past, ProFASTA has already been applied successfully to the annotation of covalently-bound fungal wall proteins as part of community-wide genome annotation programs. ProFASTA is available at: http://www.bioinformatics.nl/tools/profasta/.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.