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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Antimicrobial packaging of chicken fillets based on the release of carvacrol from chitosan/cyclodextrin films.
Int. J. Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Chitosan/cyclodextrin films (CS:CD) incorporating carvacrol were obtained by casting, and conditioned at 23°C and 75% relative humidity prior to being immersed in liquid carvacrol until they reached sorption equilibrium. In a previous work, the in vitro antimicrobial activity of these films was studied. In this work, active films were used to inhibit microbial growth in packaged chicken breast fillets. Samples of CS:CD films loaded with carvacrol, of different sizes and thus with different quantities of antimicrobial agent, were stuck to the aluminium lid used to seal PP/EVOH/PP cups containing 25g of chicken fillets. These samples were stored for 9days at 4°C. The packages were hermetically sealed and it was confirmed that they provided an infinite barrier to carvacrol. The partition of the antimicrobial agent within the food/packaging system was analysed. The antimicrobial devices rapidly released a large percentage of the agent load, amounts that were gained by the adhesive coating of the lid and especially by the chicken fillets. The latter were the main sorbent phase, with average concentrations ranging between 200 and 5000mg/Kg during the period of storage. The microbiota of the packaged fresh chicken fillets - mesophiles, psychrophiles, Pseudomonas spp., enterobacteria, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts and fungi - were analysed and monitored during storage. A general microbial inhibition was observed, increasing with the size of the active device. Inhibition with a 24cm(2) device ranged from 0.3 log reductions against lactic acid bacteria to 1.8logs against yeasts and fungi. However, the large amount of antimicrobial that was sorbed or that reacted with the fillet caused an unacceptable sensory deterioration. These high sorption values are probably due to a great chemical compatibility between chicken proteins and carvacrol.
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Specimen self-collection and HPV DNA screening in a pilot study of 100,242 women.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Since cervical cancer remains common in Mexico despite an established cytology screening program, the Ministry of Health recently introduced pilot front-line HPV testing into the Mexican cervical cancer screening program (CCSP). Here, we present the key field performance metrics of this population-based study. High-risk HPV DNA (hrHPV) testing was conducted on self-collected vaginal specimens from 100,242 women aged 25-75 years residing in Morelos State. All hrHPV positive women and a random sample of 3.2% (n?=?2,864) of hrHPV negative participants were referred for colposcopic examination. The main disease endpoint of interest was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher (CIN2+). We calculated relative risk, positive predictive value and negative predictive value adjusted for screening test verification bias. The overall prevalence of hrHPV was 10.8% (95% CI 10.6-11.0). Women positive for hrHPV had a relative risk of 15.7 for histologically detectable CIN2+. The adjusted positive predictive value of the hrHPV test was 2.4% (95% CI 2.1-2.7); whereas the adjusted negative predictive value was 99.8% (95% CI 99.8-99.9). These findings suggest that large-scale vaginal hrHPV testing in a middle-income country can identify women at greater risk of advanced cervical abnormalities in a programmatically meaningful way but care is warranted to ensure that disease not detectable at colposcopy is kept to a minimum. PASS shows areas that need improvement and sets the stage for wider use of hrHPV screening of self-collected vaginal specimens in Mexico.
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Pharmacological profiles of acute myeloid leukemia treatments in patient samples by automated flow cytometry: a bridge to individualized medicine.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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We have evaluated the ex vivo pharmacology of single drugs and drug combinations in malignant cells of bone marrow samples from 125 patients with acute myeloid leukemia using a novel automated flow cytometry-based platform (ExviTech). We have improved previous ex vivo drug testing with 4 innovations: identifying individual leukemic cells, using intact whole blood during the incubation, using an automated platform that escalates reliably data, and performing analyses pharmacodynamic population models.
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Risk factors for anal HPV-16/18 infection in Mexican HIV-infected men who have sex with men.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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To describe the prevalence of specific HPV types among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly the presence of HPV-16 and/or -18, and to determine the factors associated with anal HPV-16/18 infections.
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The role of sentinel lymph node in colon cancer evolution.
Cir Esp
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The aim of this study is to evaluate the sentinel lymph node mapping (SLNM) with methylene blue staining "ex vivo" in colon cancer, as well as calculate the upstaging obtained by the determination of micrometastases and its correlation with the evolution of the disease.
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Akt signaling leads to stem cell activation and promotes tumor development in epidermis.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Hair follicle stem cells (HF-SCs) alternate between periods of quiescence and proliferation, to finally differentiate into all the cell types that constitute the hair follicle. Also, they have been recently identified as cells of origin in skin cancer. HF-SCs localize in a precise region of the hair follicle, the bulge, and molecular markers for this population have been established. Thus, HF-SCs are good model to study the potential role of oncogenic activations on SC physiology. Expression of a permanently active form of Akt (myrAkt) in basal cells leads to Akt hyperactivation specifically in the CD34(+)Itga6(H) population. This activation causes bulge stem cells to exit from quiescence increasing their response to proliferative stimuli and affecting some functions such as cell migration. HF-SC identity upon Akt activation is preserved; in this sense, increased proliferation does not result in stem cell exhaustion with age suggesting that Akt activation does not affect self-renewal an important aspect for normal tissue maintenance and cancer development. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of HF-SC isolated from myrAkt and wild-type epidermis underscores changes in metabolic pathways characteristic of cancer cells. These differences manifest during a two-step carcinogenesis protocol in which Akt activation in HF-SCs results in increased tumor development and malignant transformation.
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Functional properties and antifungal activity of films based on gliadins containing cinnamaldehyde and natamycin.
Int. J. Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Gliadin films cross-linked with cinnamaldehyde (1.5, 3, and 5%) and incorporated with natamycin (0.5%) were prepared by casting, and their antifungal activity, water resistance, and barrier properties were characterized. Incorporation of natamycin gave rise to films with greater water uptake, weight loss and diameter gain, and higher water vapor and oxygen permeabilities. These results may be associated to a looser packing of the protein chains as a consequence of the presence of natamycin. The different cross-linking degree of the matrices influenced the natamycin migration to the agar test media, increasing from 13.3 to 23.7 (?g/g of film) as the percentage of cinnamaldehyde was reduced from 5% to 1.5%. Antifungal activity of films was assayed against common food spoilage fungi (Penicillium species, Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum acutatum). The greatest effectiveness was obtained for films containing natamycin and treated with 5% of cinnamaldehyde. The level of cinnamaldehyde reached in the head-space of the test assay showed a diminishing trend as a function of time, which was in agreement with fungal growth and cinnamaldehyde metabolization. Developed active films were used in the packaging of cheese slices showing promising results for their application in active packaging against food spoilage.
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Serum sCD163 levels are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and are influenced by coffee and wine consumption: results of the Di@bet.es study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Serum levels of soluble TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK) and its scavenger receptor CD163 (sCD163) have been linked to insulin resistance. We analysed the usefulness of these cytokines as biomarkers of type 2 diabetes in a Spanish cohort, together with their relationship to food consumption in the setting of the Di@bet.es study.
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MC64-ClustalWP2: a highly-parallel hybrid strategy to align multiple sequences in many-core architectures.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We have developed the MC64-ClustalWP2 as a new implementation of the Clustal W algorithm, integrating a novel parallelization strategy and significantly increasing the performance when aligning long sequences in architectures with many cores. It must be stressed that in such a process, the detailed analysis of both the software and hardware features and peculiarities is of paramount importance to reveal key points to exploit and optimize the full potential of parallelism in many-core CPU systems. The new parallelization approach has focused into the most time-consuming stages of this algorithm. In particular, the so-called progressive alignment has drastically improved the performance, due to a fine-grained approach where the forward and backward loops were unrolled and parallelized. Another key approach has been the implementation of the new algorithm in a hybrid-computing system, integrating both an Intel Xeon multi-core CPU and a Tilera Tile64 many-core card. A comparison with other Clustal W implementations reveals the high-performance of the new algorithm and strategy in many-core CPU architectures, in a scenario where the sequences to align are relatively long (more than 10 kb) and, hence, a many-core GPU hardware cannot be used. Thus, the MC64-ClustalWP2 runs multiple alignments more than 18x than the original Clustal W algorithm, and more than 7x than the best x86 parallel implementation to date, being publicly available through a web service. Besides, these developments have been deployed in cost-effective personal computers and should be useful for life-science researchers, including the identification of identities and differences for mutation/polymorphism analyses, biodiversity and evolutionary studies and for the development of molecular markers for paternity testing, germplasm management and protection, to assist breeding, illegal traffic control, fraud prevention and for the protection of the intellectual property (identification/traceability), including the protected designation of origin, among other applications.
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Middle ear effusion in mechanically ventilated patients: effects of the nasogastric tube.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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Middle ear effusion (MEE) is rare among adults, but has a higher incidence among ICU patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of nasogastric tube (NGT) on MEE and to assess other predisposing factors.
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Evaluation of the efficacies of Amphotericin B, Posaconazole, Voriconazole, and Anidulafungin in a murine disseminated infection by the emerging opportunistic Fungus Sarocladium (Acremonium) kiliense.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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We evaluated and compared the efficacies of different antifungal drugs against Sarocladium kiliense (formerly Acremonium kiliense), a clinically relevant opportunistic fungus, in a murine model of systemic infection. Three clinical strains of this fungus were tested, and the therapy administered was as follows: posaconazole at 20 mg/kg of body weight (twice daily), voriconazole at 40 mg/kg, anidulafungin at 10 mg/kg, or amphotericin B at 0.8 mg/kg. The efficacy was evaluated by prolonged animal survival, tissue burden reduction, and (1?3)-?-d-glucan serum levels. In general, the four antifungal drugs showed high MICs and poor in vitro activity. The efficacy of the different treatments was only modest, since survival rates were never higher than 40% and no drug was able to reduce fungal load in all the organs for the three strains tested. Posaconazole, in spite of its high MICs (?16 ?g/ml), showed the highest efficacy. The (1?3)-?-d-glucan serum levels were equally reduced by all drugs evaluated.
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Retention and release of cinnamaldehyde from wheat protein matrices.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Cinnamaldehyde treatment of gliadin films provided a means of decreasing their solubility, increasing their molecular weight profile, and reducing their overall migration into food simulants as a consequence of the high degree of polymerization achieved. Despite losses incurred in the film manufacturing process, and the amount that remained covalently bonded with protein because of cross-linking, the addition of 1.5, 3, and 5% of cinnamaldehyde (g/100 g protein) to gliadins at pH 2 rendered 1.8, 4.8, and 11.0 mg cinnamaldehyde/g film, respectively, available to be released, and therefore to exert antimicrobial activity. Cinnamaldehyde diffusivity was largely dependent on environmental conditions, increasing from 0.49×10(-15) m2/s at 30% relative humidity (RH) to 13.1×10(-15) m2/s at 90% RH and 23 °C. This water sensitivity of films provides a mechanism with a noteworthy potential to retain the compound before its use, to trigger its release when needed, and to modulate the release rate according to the product humidity.
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Antifungal properties of gliadin films incorporating cinnamaldehyde and application in active food packaging of bread and cheese spread foodstuffs.
Int. J. Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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Gliadin films incorporating 1.5, 3 and 5% cinnamaldehyde (g/100g protein) were tested against food-spoilage fungi Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus niger in vitro, and were employed in an active food packaging system for sliced bread and cheese spread. Gliadin films incorporating cinnamaldehyde were highly effective against fungal growth. P. expansum and A. niger were completely inhibited after storage in vitro for 10 days in the presence of films incorporating 3% cinnamaldehyde. Indeed 1.5% cinnamaldehyde was sufficient in the case of P. expansum. The amount of cinnamaldehyde retained in films after storage for 45 days at 20 °C and 0% RH was also sufficient in most cases to prevent fungal growth in vitro. Active food packaging with gliadin films incorporating 5% cinnamaldehyde increased the shelf-life of both sliced bread and cheese spread. Mold growth was observed on sliced bread after 27 days of storage at 23 °C with active packaging, whereas in the control bread packaged without the active film fungal growth appeared around the fourth day. In the cheese spread, no fungi were observed after 26 days of storage at 4 °C when the product was packaged with the active film. However, growth of fungi was observed in control packaged cheese after 16 days of storage. This work demonstrates a noteworthy potential of these novel bioplastics incorporating natural antimicrobial compounds as innovative solutions to be used in active food packaging to extend shelf-life of food products.
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Efficacy of a multidisciplinary fibromyalgia treatment adapted for women with low educational levels: a randomized controlled trial.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Multidisciplinary treatments of fibromyalgia (FM) have demonstrated efficacy. Nevertheless, they have been criticized for not maintaining their benefits and for not being studied for specific populations. Our objectives were to determine the efficacy of a multidisciplinary treatment for FM adapted for patients with low educational levels and to determine the maintenance of its therapeutic benefits during a long-term followup period.
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Preparation and characterization of chitosan/HP-?-cyclodextrins composites with high sorption capacity for carvacrol.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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The aim of this work was to design new polymer-based systems exhibiting an adjustable loading capacity of carvacrol depending on the film formulation. For this purpose, biocomposite films were developed employing chitosan (CS) as the polymer matrix and hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrins (HP-?CDs) as an adjuvant to improve the sorption of carvacrol in the polymer matrix. The morphology, optical, mechanical and barrier properties of the resulting films were investigated, and the sorption capacity of carvacrol evaluated. Biocomposites resulted highly transparent with higher mechanical resistance and moisture barrier properties. Sorption of carvacrol was greatly affected by the humidity (RH) and glycerol (G) content of the biocomposites. The highest sorption values were achieved for composites incorporating 35% glycerol and conditioned at 75% these composites retained 216% carvacrol (g/100 g dry matter). These results indicate that inclusion of carvacrol in the films could be occurring by mechanisms other than formation of inclusion complexes.
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[Phantom limb pain syndrome: therapeutic approach using mirror therapy in a Geriatric Department].
Rev Esp Geriatr Gerontol
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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The clinical use of mirror visual feedback was initially introduced to alleviate phantom pain by restoring motor function through plastic changes in the human primary motor cortex. It is a promising novel technique that gives a new perspective to neurological rehabilitation. Using this therapy, the mirror neuron system is activated and decrease the activity of those systems that perceive protopathic pain, making somatosensory cortex reorganization possible. This paper reports the results of the mirror therapy in three patients with phantom limb pain after recent lower limb amputation, showing its analgesic effects and its benefits as a comprehensive rehabilitation instrument for lower limb amputee geriatric patients.
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Development of a novel antimicrobial film based on chitosan with LAE (ethyl-N(?)-dodecanoyl-l-arginate) and its application to fresh chicken.
Int. J. Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Chitosan (CS) films incorporating the antimicrobial compound ethyl-N(?)-dodecanoyl-l-arginate (LAE) were developed for food packaging applications. Cast chitosan films were made with 1, 5 or 10% LAE and 20% glycerol in the film forming solution. Optical properties, release of LAE and antimicrobial activity of developed films was determined. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum biocide concentration (MBC) of LAE were determined. CS films with LAE were transparent and uniform, without discontinuities or visible particles and no visual differences could be perceived between CS and CS-LAE films. When in contact with an aqueous food simulant, the agent was fully released following a Fickian behavior in a few hours at 4 and 28°C. Antimicrobial activity of films against mesophiles, psychrophiles, Pseudomonas spp., colifoms, lactic acid bacteria, hydrogen sulfide-producing bacteria, yeast and fungi, was evaluated at two, six and eight days for its application on chicken breast fillets. Films were active against bacteria, yeasts and fungi in liquid and solid media. CS films evidenced antimicrobial activity in the range 0.47-2.96 log reductions, while CS-5%LAE film produced 1.78-5.81 log reduction. Results highlighted that LAE incorporation in a chitosan-based packaging structure may provide a relevant antimicrobial activity that could improve the stability of fresh poultry products.
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Nutrition metabolism plays an important role in the alternate bearing of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits) are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between "on year" and "off year" leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree.
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Active films based on cocoa extract with antioxidant, antimicrobial and biological applications.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Novel films of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) containing flavonoid-rich cocoa were developed. To understand their potential application as active packaging material, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the films were determined as well as the antioxidant activity of the release compounds in Caco-2 human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Exposure of the films to aqueous food simulant showed antioxidant capacity. The release of cocoa extract components was dependent on the antioxidant concentration incorporated in the film and on temperature. Cocoa extract and the fraction obtained after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion presented antioxidant activity against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide in Caco-2 cells. Films with 10%, 15%, and 20% cocoa extract produced bactericidal effect against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. The application of films to an infant milk formula, previously inoculated with L. monocytogenes, inhibited the growth of bacteria 1.5 log units the first day and showed sustained release, inhibiting 0.52 and 0.76 log units, respectively, by the sixth day, while cocoa powder added directly did not produce any effect.
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Genome-wide identification of alternate bearing-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) in olive (Olea europaea L.).
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Alternate bearing is a widespread phenomenon among crop plants, defined as the tendency of certain fruit trees to produce a high-yield crop one year ("on-year"), followed by a low-yield or even no crop the following year ("off-year"). Several factors may affect the balance between such developmental phase-transition processes. Among them are the microRNA (miRNA), being gene-expression regulators that have been found to be involved as key determinants in several physiological processes.
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Varietal tracing of virgin olive oils based on plastid DNA variation profiling.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Olive oil traceability remains a challenge nowadays. DNA analysis is the preferred approach to an effective varietal identification, without any environmental influence. Specifically, olive organelle genomics is the most promising approach for setting up a suitable set of markers as they would not interfere with the pollinator variety DNA traces. Unfortunately, plastid DNA (cpDNA) variation of the cultivated olive has been reported to be low. This feature could be a limitation for the use of cpDNA polymorphisms in forensic analyses or oil traceability, but rare cpDNA haplotypes may be useful as they can help to efficiently discriminate some varieties. Recently, the sequencing of olive plastid genomes has allowed the generation of novel markers. In this study, the performance of cpDNA markers on olive oil matrices, and their applicability on commercial Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) oils were assessed. By using a combination of nine plastid loci (including multi-state microsatellites and short indels), it is possible to fingerprint six haplotypes (in 17 Spanish olive varieties), which can discriminate high-value commercialized cultivars with PDO. In particular, a rare haplotype was detected in genotypes used to produce a regional high-value commercial oil. We conclude that plastid haplotypes can help oil traceability in commercial PDO oils and set up an experimental methodology suitable for organelle polymorphism detection in the complex olive oil matrices.
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Biochemical properties of bioplastics made from wheat gliadins cross-linked with cinnamaldehyde.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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The aim of this work has been to study the modification of gliadin films with cinnamaldehyde as a potential cross-linker agent. The molecular weight profile and cross-linking density showed that cinnamaldehyde increased reticulation in the resulting films. The participation of free amino groups of the protein in the newly created entanglements could be a possible mechanism of connection between the polypeptidic chains. The combination of a Schiff base and a Michael addition is a feasible approach to understanding this mechanism. The protein solubility in different media pointed to lower participation by both noncovalent and disulfide bonds in stabilizing the structure of the cross-linked films. The new covalent bonds formed by the cinnamaldehyde treatment hampered water absorption and weight loss, leading to more water-resistant matrices which had not disintegrated after 5 months. The properties of this novel bioplastic could be modified to suit the intended application by using cinnamaldehyde, a naturally occurring compound.
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Next-generation sequencing and syntenic integration of flow-sorted arms of wheat chromosome 4A exposes the chromosome structure and gene content.
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2011
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Wheat is the third most important crop for human nutrition in the world. The availability of high-resolution genetic and physical maps and ultimately a complete genome sequence holds great promise for breeding improved varieties to cope with increasing food demand under the conditions of changing global climate. However, the large size of the bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genome (approximately 17 Gb/1C) and the triplication of genic sequence resulting from its hexaploid status have impeded genome sequencing of this important crop species. Here we describe the use of mitotic chromosome flow sorting to separately purify and then shotgun-sequence a pair of telocentric chromosomes that together form chromosome 4A (856 Mb/1C) of wheat. The isolation of this much reduced template and the consequent avoidance of the problem of sequence duplication, in conjunction with synteny-based comparisons with other grass genomes, have facilitated construction of an ordered gene map of chromosome 4A, embracing ?85% of its total gene content, and have enabled precise localization of the various translocation and inversion breakpoints on chromosome 4A that differentiate it from its progenitor chromosome in the A genome diploid donor. The gene map of chromosome 4A, together with the emerging sequences of homoeologous wheat chromosome groups 4, 5 and 7, represent unique resources that will allow us to obtain new insights into the evolutionary dynamics between homoeologous chromosomes and syntenic chromosomal regions.
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Self-collection of vaginal specimens for human papillomavirus testing in cervical cancer prevention (MARCH): a community-based randomised controlled trial.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2011
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Vaginal self-sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing could increase rates of screening participation. In clinic-based settings, vaginal HPV testing is at least as sensitive as cytology for detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or worse; however, effectiveness in home settings is unknown. We aimed to establish the relative sensitivity and positive predictive value for HPV screening of vaginal samples self-collected at home as compared with clinic-based cervical cytology.
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Risk factors for systemic reactions to allergen immunotherapy.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2011
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To update safety information regarding allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) in clinical practice and highlight the risk factors associated with the adverse reactions, product and each dose.
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Development of active polyvinyl alcohol/?-cyclodextrin composites to scavenge undesirable food components.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2011
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Active food packaging systems based on the incorporation of agents into polymeric package walls are being designed to purposely release or retain compounds to maintain or even increase food quality. The objective of this work was to develop polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH)/?-cyclodextrin (?CD) composite films that can be applied to reduce undesirable component content such as cholesterol in foods through active retention of the compounds in the package walls during storage. Cyclodextrins were added to PVOH in a proportion of 1:1 and cross-linked with glyoxal under acidic media to reduce its water-soluble character. Three different cross-linking procedures were used: cross-linking of the polymer/polysaccharide mixture in solution and film casting, PVOH. ?CD*; cross-linking of the polymer, addition of ?CD, and casting of the mixture, PVOH*.CD; and casting of a PVOH film, addition of a ?CD/glyoxal solution onto the film, and cross-linking during drying, PVOH.CD*. Characterization studies showed that the PVOH*.CD and PVOH.CD* films provided the best physical characteristics with the lowest release values and the highest barrier properties. As a potential application, materials were tested as potential cholesterol-scavenging films. There was a significant reduction in the cholesterol concentration in milk samples when they were exposed to the materials developed.
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Development of new antioxidant active packaging films based on ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) and green tea extract.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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Ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) films containing green tea extract were successfully produced by extrusion. The films were brown and translucent, and the addition of the extract increased the water and oxygen barrier at low relative humidity but increased the water sensitivity, the glass transition temperature, and the crystallinity of the films and improved their thermal resistance. An analysis by HPLC revealed that the antioxidant components of the extract suffered partial degradation during extrusion, reducing the content of catechin gallates and increasing the concentration of free gallic acid. Exposure of the films to various food simulants showed that the liquid simulants increased their capacity to reduce DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+) radicals. The release of green tea extract components into the simulant monitored by HPLC showed that all compounds present in the green tea extract were partially released, although the extent and kinetics of release were dependent on the type of food. In aqueous food simulants, gallic acid was the main antioxidant component released with partition coefficient values ca. 200. In 95% ethanol (fatty food simulant) the K value for gallic acid decreased to 8 and there was a substantial contribution of catechins (K in the 1000 range) to a greatly increased antioxidant efficiency. Kinetically, gallic acid was released more quickly than catechins, owing to its faster diffusivity in the polymer matrix as a consequence of its smaller molecular size, although the most relevant effect is the plasticization of the matrix by alcohol, increasing the diffusion coefficient >10-fold. Therefore, the materials here developed with the combination of antioxidant substances that constitute the green tea extract could be used in the design of antioxidant active packaging for all type of foods, from aqueous to fatty products, the compounds responsible for the protection being those with the higher compatibility with the packaged product.
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Effect of antibiotic diversity on ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by ESKAPE Organisms.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2011
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The aim of this study was to test in the clinic whether antimicrobial diversity affects resistance of Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella species, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species (ESKAPE) pathogens in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).
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Functional properties of bioplastics made from wheat gliadins modified with cinnamaldehyde.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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Cinnamaldehyde is a naturally occurring ?,?-unsaturated aldehyde. Its potential as a natural cross-linker to improve the physical performance of cast wheat gliadin films was evaluated. The cross-linking reaction was found to be dependent on the pH of the reaction medium, with pH 2 as the optimum. The water resistance (weight loss after immersion), mechanical properties (Youngs modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break), thermal properties (T(g) and decomposition behavior), optical properties and morphology of films were evaluated. Cross-linked films showed high transparency, maintained their integrity after immersion, and displayed significant improvements in tensile strength and Youngs modulus without impairment of their elongation properties. These effects, which were proportional to the amount of cinnamaldehyde added, highlight the possible formation of intermolecular covalent bonds between "monomeric" gliadins, leading to a polymerized network. Thus, this treatment could provide a new alternative to the toxic cross-linkers commonly employed and so extend the use of gliadin films.
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Antifungal therapy in an athymic murine model of chromoblastomycosis by Fonsecaea pedrosoi.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2011
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We have compared the efficacy of terbinafine (TRB) and itraconazole (ITZ), the recommended drugs for the treatment of chromoblastomycosis, with that of posaconazole (PSC) and voriconazole (VRC) in athymic mice infected with the fungus Fonsecaea pedrosoi. Three weeks after challenge, mice were treated for 4 months with PSC at 10 or 20 mg/kg of body weight/day, with VRC at 10 or 20 mg/kg/day, with ITZ at 25 or 50 mg/kg/day, or with TRB at 150 or 250 mg/kg/day. The progress of the infection was evaluated by measuring the size of the lesions, by histopathological studies, and by cultures of the excised tissue. The two doses of PSC followed by the highest doses of ITZ and TRB showed the best results while VRC did not show efficacy. PSC could be an alternative in the treatment of chromoblastomycosis.
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[Temporal paragangliomas. A 12-year experience].
Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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Our objective was to perform a retrospective analysis of patients with jugulotympanic paragangliomas. We present the results according to the surgical approach applied in each case.
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Biliobronchial fistula after liver surgery for giant hydatid cyst.
HPB Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2011
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Background. Biliobronchial fistula (BBF) is a rare complication in the natural history of liver hydatid disease by Echinococcus granulosus. We present a case of BBF after resection of a giant liver hydatid cyst in a 72-year-old woman. Case Report. A total cystpericystectomy was done, leaving the left lateral section of the liver that was fixed to the diaphragm. Postoperatively, the patient developed obstructive jaundice. An ERCP showed an obstruction at the junction of the left biliary duct and the main biliary duct and contrast leak. At reoperation, the main duct was ischemic, likely due to torsion along its longitudinal axis. A hepatotomy was done at the hilar plate, and the biliary duct was dissected and anastomosed to a Roux-en-Y jejunal loop. She was discharged without complications. Five months later, the patient developed cholangitis and was successfully treated with antibiotics. However, she suffered repeated respiratory infections, and four months later she was admitted to the hospital with fever, cough, bilioptysis, and right lower lobe pneumonia. The diagnosis of BBF was confirmed with (99m)Tc Mebrofenin scintigraphy. At transhepatic cholangiography, bile duct dilation was seen, with a biliothoracic leak. She underwent dilatation of cholangiojejunostomy stricture with placement of an external-internal catheter. The catheter was removed 3.5 months later, and two years later the patient remains in very good condition. Conclusion. An indirect treatment of the BBF by percutaneous transhepatic dilation of the biliary stenosis avoided a more invasive treatment, with satisfactory outcome.
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Establishment of a murine epidermal cell line suitable for in vitro and in vivo skin modelling.
BMC Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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Skin diseases are a major health problem. Some of the most severe conditions involve genetic disorders, including cancer. Several of these human diseases have been modelled in genetically modified mice, thus becoming a highly valuable preclinical tool for the treatment of these pathologies. However, development of three-dimensional models of skin using keratinocytes from normal and/or genetically modified mice has been hindered by the difficulty to subculture murine epidermal keratinocytes.
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Sequencing wheat chromosome arm 7BS delimits the 7BS/4AL translocation and reveals homoeologous gene conservation.
Theor. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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Complex Triticeae genomes pose a challenge to genome sequencing efforts due to their size and repetitive nature. Genome sequencing can reveal details of conservation and rearrangements between related genomes. We have applied Illumina second generation sequencing technology to sequence and assemble the low copy and unique regions of Triticum aestivum chromosome arm 7BS, followed by the construction of a syntenic build based on gene order in Brachypodium. We have delimited the position of a previously reported translocation between 7BS and 4AL with a resolution of one or a few genes and report approximately 13% genes from 7BS having been translocated to 4AL. An additional 13 genes are found on 7BS which appear to have originated from 4AL. The gene content of the 7DS and 7BS syntenic builds indicate a total of ~77,000 genes in wheat. Within wheat syntenic regions, 7BS and 7DS share 740 genes and a common gene conservation rate of ~39% of the genes from the corresponding regions in Brachypodium, as well as a common rate of colinearity with Brachypodium of ~60%. Comparison of wheat homoeologues revealed ~84% of genes previously identified in 7DS have a homoeologue on 7BS or 4AL. The conservation rates we have identified among wheat homoeologues and with Brachypodium provide a benchmark of homoeologous gene conservation levels for future comparative genomic analysis. The syntenic build of 7BS is publicly available at http://www.wheatgenome.info.
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Systematic analysis of transrectal prostate biopsies using an ink method and specific histopathologic protocol: a prospective study.
Prostate Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2011
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Background. Transrectal prostate biopsy is the standard protocol for the screening for prostate cancer. It helps to locate prostatic adenocarcinoma and plan treatment. However, the increasing number of prostate biopsies leads to considerably greater costs for the pathology laboratories. In this study, we compare the traditional method with an ink method in combination with a systematic histopathologic protocol. Methods. Two hundred consecutive transrectal prostate biopsy specimens were received from the radiology department. They were separated into two groups: one hundred were processed as six different specimens in the usual manner. The other one hundred were submitted in six containers, the apex, base, and middle section of which were stained different colours. The samples subject to the ink method were embedded in paraffin and placed in two cassettes which were sectioned using a specific protocol. Results. The comparative study of the nonink and ink methods for histopathologic diagnosis showed no statistical differences as far as diagnostic categories were concerned (P??value < .005). The number of PIN diagnoses increased when the ink method was used, but no statistical differences were found. The ink method led to a cost reduction of 48.86%. Conclusions. Our ink method combined with a specific histopathologic protocol provided the same diagnostic quality, tumor location information as the traditional method, and lower pathology expenses.
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[Medium term results on introducing colorrectal laparoscopic surgery into clinical practice after having an intensive training course].
Cir Esp
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Endoscopic surgery has characteristics that increase the difficulties of learning. Five years ago, an intensive colorectal laparoscopic surgery course was designed to offer training in the technical bases of this type of surgery. The aim of this article is to determine the impact of the colorectal surgery course on clinical practice, and to investigate the factors that limit its applicability and the training preferences of the surgeons.
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Genomic profiling of plastid DNA variation in the Mediterranean olive tree.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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Characterisation of plastid genome (or cpDNA) polymorphisms is commonly used for phylogeographic, population genetic and forensic analyses in plants, but detecting cpDNA variation is sometimes challenging, limiting the applications of such an approach. In the present study, we screened cpDNA polymorphism in the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) by sequencing the complete plastid genome of trees with a distinct cpDNA lineage. Our objective was to develop new markers for a rapid genomic profiling (by Multiplex PCRs) of cpDNA haplotypes in the Mediterranean olive tree.
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Improving the Antioxidant Protection of Packaged Food by Incorporating Natural Flavonoids into Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (EVOH) Films.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2010
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Ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) films containing catechin or quercetin as antioxidant agents were successfully produced by extrusion. The addition of these bioactive compounds did not modify greatly their water and oxygen permeabilities, Tg, or crystallinity but improved their thermal resistance. Exposure of the films to different food simulants showed that both compounds were released, although the extent and kinetics of release were dependent on the type of food. In aqueous and alcoholic food simulants their release was greater in the case of the catechin-containing samples. Exposure of the films to isooctane and ethanol 95% (fatty food simulants) provided controversial results; no release was observed in isooctane, whereas both bioactive compounds were extracted by ethanol due to their high solubility in alcohol and the plasticizing effect of ethanol on the polymer. Packaging applications of these films can improve food stability and provide a method for adding such bioactive compounds.
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Highly effective serodiagnosis for Chagas disease.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2010
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Many proteins of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, contain characteristic arrays of highly repetitive immunogenic amino acid motifs. Diagnostic tests using these motifs in monomeric or dimeric form have proven to provide markedly improved specificity compared to conventional tests based on crude parasite extracts. However, in many cases the available tests still suffer from limited sensitivity. In this study we produced stable synthetic genes with maximal codon variability for the four diagnostic antigens, B13, CRA, TcD, and TcE, each containing between three and nine identical amino acid repeats. These genes were combined by linker sequences encoding short proline-rich peptides, giving rise to a 24-kDa fusion protein which was used as a novel diagnostic antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay setup. Validation of the assay with a large number of well-characterized patient sera from Bolivia and Brazil revealed excellent diagnostic performance. The high sensitivity of the new test may allow future studies to use blood collected by finger prick and dried on filter paper, thus dramatically reducing the costs and effort for the detection of T. cruzi infection.
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Lpin1 in human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue: similar levels but different associations with lipogenic and lipolytic genes.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2010
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LPIN1 is a gene with important effects on lipidic and metabolic homeostasis. Human subcutaneous LPIN1 expression levels in adipose tissue are related with a better metabolic profile, including insulin sensitivity markers. However, there are few data on the regulation of LPIN1 in visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Our aim was to perform a cross-sectional analysis of VAT compared with subcutaneous (SAT) LPIN1 expression in a well-characterized obese cohort, its relation with the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, and the in vitro response to lipogenic and lipolytic stimuli. A downregulation of total LPIN1 mRNA expression in subjects with obesity was found in VAT similarly to that in SAT. Despite similar total LPIN1 mRNA levels in SAT and VAT, a close relationship with clinical parameters and with many lipogenic and lipolytic genes was observed primarily in SAT depot. As shown in the in vitro analysis, the low-grade proinflammatory environment and the insulin resistance associated with obesity may contribute to downregulate LPIN1 in adipose tissue, leading to a worse metabolic profile.
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A pilot study of HPV DNA and cytology testing in 50,159 women in the routine Mexican Social Security Program.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2010
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We present a large feasibility evaluation of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) DNA testing and cervical cytology as a primary screening strategy for cervical cancer precursor lesions in Mexican women, as part of a routine cancer control program (CCP).
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Migration of antimicrobial silver from composites of polylactide with silver zeolites.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2010
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Silver ion migration and antimicrobial activity of PLA (polylactic acid-polylactide)/silver zeolite composites were investigated. Films prepared by solution-casting/solvent evaporation, or by melt-mixing/compression molding were compared. Silver migration to food simulants and TSB (tryptone soy broth) was quantified at different temperatures. Antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was measured following the Japanese Industrial Standard JIS Z 2801. All types of PLA/silver zeolite composites released Ag(+) ions. A more intense ionic exchange with the zeolites and a significant, but low, antimicrobial activity in solution were found in cast films. To attain antimicrobial effects, however, migrated ions ought to be in the range of the legal limit of 0.05 mg Ag(+)/kg food stated by the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA). Silver migration and antimicrobial activity were sensitive to the methodology chosen to process the PLA films, the ionic strength of the medium, and the ion motility in the polymer matrix.
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Genetic structure and ecogeographical adaptation in wild barley (Hordeum chilense Roemer et Schultes) as revealed by microsatellite markers.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2010
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Multi-allelic microsatellite markers have become the markers of choice for the determination of genetic structure in plants. Synteny across cereals has allowed the cross-species and cross-genera transferability of SSR markers, which constitute a valuable and cost-effective tool for the genetic analysis and marker-assisted introgression of wild related species. Hordeum chilense is one of the wild relatives with a high potential for cereal breeding, due to its high crossability (both interspecies and intergenera) and polymorphism for adaptation traits. In order to analyze the genetic structure and ecogeographical adaptation of this wild species, it is necessary to increase the number of polymorphic markers currently available for the species. In this work, the possibility of using syntenic wheat SSRs as a new source of markers for this purpose has been explored.
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Laparoscopic rectal surgery: does immediate outcome differ in respect to sex?
Dis. Colon Rectum
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2010
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This study analyzed the immediate postoperative outcome of the laparoscopic approach to the rectum in relation to the sex of the patient.
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Single incision approach for splenic diseases: a preliminary report on a series of 8 cases.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
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There is a current trend to reduce the invasiveness of minimally invasive procedures, and the single-incision laparoscopic approach (SILS) has been proposed for several intra-abdominal surgical interventions. The spleen poses specific problems for techniques, such as SILS, due to its volume and texture, and little clinical information is available on the topic. We describe our initial experience using SILS for the management of splenic diseases.
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Next-generation bioinformatics: using many-core processor architecture to develop a web service for sequence alignment.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2010
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Bioinformatics algorithms and computing power are the main bottlenecks for analyzing huge amount of data generated by the current technologies, such as the next-generation sequencing methodologies. At the same time, most powerful microprocessors are based on many-core chips, yet most applications cannot exploit such power, requiring parallelized algorithms. As an example of next-generation bioinformatics, we have developed from scratch a new parallelization of the Needleman-Wunsch (NW) sequence alignment algorithm for the 64-core Tile64 microprocessor. The unprecedented performance it offers for a standalone personal computer (PC) is discussed, optimally aligning sequences up to 20 times faster than the non-parallelized version, thus saving valuable time.
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Immunomodulatory effect of 5-azacytidine (5-azaC): potential role in the transplantation setting.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2009
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Cytokine genes are targets of multiple epigenetic mechanisms in T lymphocytes. 5-azacytidine (5-azaC) is a nucleoside-based DNA methyltransferase inhibitor that induces demethylation and gene reactivation. In the current study, we analyzed the effect of 5-azaC in T-cell function and observed that 5-azaC inhibits T-cell proliferation and activation, blocking cell cycle in the G(0) to G(1) phase and decreasing the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma. This effect was not attributable to a proapoptotic effect of the drug but to the down-regulation of genes involved in T-cell cycle progression and activation such as CCNG2, MTCP1, CD58, and ADK and up-regulation of genes that induce cell-growth arrest, such as DCUN1D2, U2AF2, GADD45B, or p53. A longer exposure to the drug leads to demethylation of FOXP3 promoter, overexpression of FOXP3, and expansion of regulatory T cells. Finally, the administration of 5-azaC after transplantation prevented the development of graft-versus-host disease, leading to a significant increase in survival in a fully mismatched bone marrow transplantation mouse model. In conclusion, the current study shows the effect of 5-azaC in T lymphocytes and illustrates its role in the allogeneic transplantation setting as an immunomodulatory drug, describing new pathways that must be explored to prevent graft-versus-host disease.
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Both CD133(+) cells and monocytes provide significant improvement for hindlimb ischemia, although they do not transdifferentiate into endothelial cells.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2009
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To address a number of questions regarding the experimental use of bone marrow (BM) stem cells in hindlimb ischemia, including which is the best cell type (e.g., purified hematopoietic stem cell or monocytes), the best route of delivery [intramuscular (IM) or intravenous (IV)], and the mechanism of action (transdifferentiation or paracrine effects), we have compared the neovascularization capacities of CD133(+) stem cells and monocytes (CD11b(+)) from the BM of Tie2-GFP mice either via IV or IM in a murine severe hindlimb ischemia model. To test the effect of cytokine administration, an extra group received BM conditioned medium. Peripheral blood flow as well as capillary density and GPF-positivity detection in ischemic muscles was evaluated 7, 14, and 21 days postinjection. In addition, CD133(+) and CD11b(+) cells from transgenic animals were cultured in vitro with angiogenic media for 7, 14, and 21 days to assess GFP expression. In all four cell-treated groups, blood flow and capillary density significantly recovered compared with the mice that received no cells or conditioned medium. There were no differences with respect to cell types or administration routes, with the exception of a faster flow recovery in the CD133(+)-treated cell group. We did not find GFP(+) cells in the ischemic muscles and there was no GFP expression after in vitro proangiogenic culture. Our study shows that both purified CD133(+) stem cells and myeloid mononuclear cells, either IM or IV administered, have similar neoangiogenic ability. Nevertheless, transdifferentiation into endothelial cells is not the mechanism responsible for their beneficial effect.
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Initial surgical experience in laparoscopic total mesorectal excision for middle and lower third rectal cancer: short-term results.
Clin Transl Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2009
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Total mesorectal excision (TME) of the rectum has been advocated as the gold standard surgical treatment of middle and lower third rectal cancer. Laparoscopy has gained acceptance among surgeons in the treatment of colon malignancies, while scepticism exists about laparoscopic TME in terms of safety and its oncological adequacy.
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Impact of a quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine in Mexican women: public health implications for the region.
Arch. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2009
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Recognition of human papillomavirus (HPV) as a necessary cause of cervical cancer (CC) led to new perspectives for its control and the demonstration of an effective primary prevention strategy through vaccination. We undertook this study to evaluate the safety, efficacy and immunogenicity of a quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine in Mexican women.
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Ducts isolated from the pancreas of CFTR-null mice secrete fluid.
Pflugers Arch.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2009
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The pancreatic pathology in cystic fibrosis (CF) is normally attributed to the failure of ductal fluid secretion resulting from the lack of functional CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). However, murine models of CF show little or no pancreatic pathology. To resolve this dichotomy we analysed the transport mechanisms involved in fluid and electrolyte secretion by pancreatic ducts isolated from CFTR-null mice. Experiments were performed on cultured interlobular duct segments isolated from the pancreas of the Cftr(tm1Cam) strain of CFTR-null mouse. Fluid secretion to the closed luminal space was measured by video microscopy. The secretory response of ducts isolated from CF mice to cAMP-elevating agonists forskolin and secretin was significantly reduced compared with wild type but not abolished. The Cl(-)- and HCO(3) (-) -dependent components of the ductal secretion were affected equally by the absence of CFTR. The secretory response to carbachol stimulation was unaltered in CF ducts. Loading the ductal cells with the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA completely abolished carbachol-evoked secretion, but did not affect forskolin-evoked secretion in CF or wild-type ducts. We conclude that pancreatic duct cells from CF mice can secrete a significant amount of water and electrolytes by a cAMP-stimulated mechanism that is independent of CFTR and cannot be ascribed to the activation of calcium-activated chloride channels.
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Treatment with bortezomib of human CD4+ T cells preserves natural regulatory T cells and allows the emergence of a distinct suppressor T-cell population.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2009
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In vitro depletion of alloreactive T cells using the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is a promising approach to prevent graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We have previously described the ability of bortezomib to selectively eliminate alloreactive T cells in a mixed leukocyte culture, preserving non-activated T cells. Due to the role of regulatory T cells in the control of graft versus host disease, in the current manuscript we have analyzed the effect of bortezomib in regulatory T cells.
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Immunophenotypical, morphologic, and functional characterization of maturation-associated plasmacytoid dendritic cell subsets in normal adult human bone marrow.
Transfusion
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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Information about maturation of plasmacytoid dendritic cell precursors (pre-pDCs) in normal bone marrow (BM) remains limited.
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Saline infusion through the pancreatic duct leads to changes in calcium homeostasis similar to those observed in acute pancreatitis.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2009
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This work focuses on studying the early events associated with pancreatic damage after retrograde infusion through the pancreatic duct in rats. We have analyzed changes in calcium homeostasis and secretory response in pancreatic acini from rats with taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis. Moreover, in order to test whether pancreatic duct manipulation can trigger damage inside pancreatic acinar cells, we have studied both parameters in acini from animals infused with saline. Our study demonstrates that taurocholate causes evident damage to acinar cells, impairing both calcium homeostasis and secretory response to CCK. In saline, a significant decrease in calcium cytosolic response to CCK was observed. Calcium disturbances similar to those observed in acute pancreatitis appear before secretion blockade and inflammation processes in saline treated rats. These results could be interesting since pancreatitis is associated to clinical procedures that require duct manipulation such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.
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Evolution of selected volatiles in chitosan-coated strawberries ( Fragaria x ananassa ) during refrigerated storage.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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The effect of chitosan coating on the evolution of several volatile compounds relevant to the strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa cv. Camarosa) aroma profile has been investigated. Strawberries dipped in chitosan acetate solution at 1 or 1.5% (w/w) and uncoated controls were stored at 10 degrees C for 1 week. Significant differences in aroma profile between coated and uncoated samples were observed. Most importantly, the buildup of the off-flavors acetaldehyde and ethanol was largely delayed in coated berries. With regard to the effect of chitosan on ester evolution, the levels of ethyl butanoate and ethyl hexanoate, important contributors to strawberry aroma related to fruity and sweet notes, were found to be enhanced in coated fruit. Acetate esters also increased during storage but more markedly in uncoated strawberries. These results show the potential of chitosan coatings in maintaining strawberry flavor during storage, something difficult to achieve with current conservation technologies. Moreover, differences in results for different coating concentrations are reported.
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The cultural context model: how does it facilitate couples therapeutic change?
J Marital Fam Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2009
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This study examines how therapeutic change in couples is facilitated in the Cultural Context Model based on the models identified family processes: critical consciousness, empowerment, and accountability. Participants included four female therapists and three couples who sought treatment voluntarily, two heterosexual couples, and one lesbian couple with diverse class and ethnic backgrounds who had spent at least 12 months receiving services at the Institute for Family Services and who were compliant with treatment. Videotaped sessions were analyzed by coding descriptive data using a constant comparative analysis method. An analysis of therapeutic interventions and clients changes showed that the model works in four realms: conversational, behavioral, ritual, and community building.
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[Female sex is inversely and independently associated with marked ST-segment elevation. A study in patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction and early admission].
Rev Esp Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2009
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In patients with acute myocardial infarction, a number of variables in the initial ECG are useful prognostic indicators. The presence of ST-segment elevation, however, usually indicates the need for reperfusion therapy. The aims of this study were to investigate sex differences in the ECGs of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and to look for a possible association between sex and marked ST-segment elevation.
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Biological convergence of cancer signatures.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2009
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Gene expression profiling has identified cancer prognostic and predictive signatures with superior performance to conventional histopathological or clinical parameters. Consequently, signatures are being incorporated into clinical practice and will soon influence everyday decisions in oncology. However, the slight overlap in the gene identity between signatures for the same cancer type or condition raises questions about their biological and clinical implications. To clarify these issues, better understanding of the molecular properties and possible interactions underlying apparently dissimilar signatures is needed. Here, we evaluated whether the signatures of 24 independent studies are related at the genome, transcriptome or proteome levels. Significant associations were consistently observed across these molecular layers, which suggest the existence of a common cancer cell phenotype. Convergence on cell proliferation and death supports the pivotal involvement of these processes in prognosis, metastasis and treatment response. In addition, functional and molecular associations were identified with the immune response in different cancer types and conditions that complement the contribution of cell proliferation and death. Examination of additional, independent, cancer datasets corroborated our observations. This study proposes a comprehensive strategy for interpreting cancer signatures that reveals common design principles and systems-level properties.
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[Design of an HACCP program for a cocoa processing facility].
Arch Latinoam Nutr
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The HACCP plan is a food safety management tool used to control physical, chemical and biological hazards associated to food processing through all the processing chain. The aim of this work is to design a HACCP Plan for a Venezuelan cocoa processing facility.The production of safe food products requires that the HACCP system be built upon a solid foundation of prerequisite programs such as Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP). The existence and effectiveness of these prerequisite programs were previously assessed.Good Agriculture Practices (GAP) audit to cocoa nibs suppliers were performed. To develop the HACCP plan, the five preliminary tasks and the seven HACCP principles were accomplished according to Codex Alimentarius procedures. Three Critical Control Points (CCP) were identified using a decision tree: winnowing (control of ochratoxin A), roasting (Salmonella control) and metallic particles detection. For each CCP, Critical limits were established, the Monitoring procedures, Corrective actions, Procedures for Verification and Documentation concerning all procedures and records appropriate to these principles and their application was established. To implement and maintain a HACCP plan for this processing plant is suggested. Recently OchratoxinA (OTA) has been related to cocoa beans. Although the shell separation from the nib has been reported as an effective measure to control this chemical hazard, ochratoxin prevalence study in cocoa beans produced in the country is recommended, and validate the winnowing step as well
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Silver ions release from antibacterial chitosan films containing in situ generated silver nanoparticles.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
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This study aims to develop antimicrobial films consisting of chitosan and silver nanoparticles that are homogeneously distributed throughout the polymer matrix. Nanoparticles were generated in situ during the neutralization of the chitosan acetate film with sodium hydroxide. The temperature of neutralization and the concentration of silver in the film were crucial determinants of the shape and size of the nanoparticles. Neutralized films exhibited antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in liquid growth media. However, the effectiveness of the films was considerably greater in diluted growth media. Furthermore, no significant differences were found either in the antimicrobial capacities of films incorporating different amounts of silver or in the amount of silver that migrated into the liquid media after 18 h of immersion of the film. Neutralized films maintained their activity after 1 month of immersion in deionized water, which can be attributed to the slow sustained release of silver ions and thus efficacy over time.
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Pharmacogenetics of efficacy and safety of HCV treatment in HCV-HIV coinfected patients: significant associations with IL28B and SOCS3 gene variants.
PLoS ONE
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This was a safety and efficacy pharmacogenetic study of a previously performed randomized trial which compared the effectiveness of treatment of hepatitis C virus infection with pegylated interferon alpha (pegIFN?) 2a vs. 2b, both with ribavirin, for 48 weeks, in HCV-HIV coinfected patients.
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[Postoperative morbidity and mortality factors after laparoscopic resection for colon cancer in octogenarians].
Cir Esp
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Given the increase in the diagnosis in colon cancer and the access to treatment in patients over 80 years old, our aim is to assess whether laparoscopic surgery still has the demonstrated advantages in post-operative recovery, as well as to analyse the factors that may influence these results.
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[Self-administration of colony stimulating factors (CSFs): basic advice].
Rev Enferm
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As nurses we all know the importance of good health education to achieve the highest level of autonomy in our patients. In the Medical Day Unit of Palamós Hospital we treat cancer patients who need CSFs (Colony Stimulating Factors) medication. We thought it would be appropriate, therefore, to draw up an information leaflet on self-administration of CSFs. These kind of patients receive a lot of information through the different media but, unfortunately, it can get distorted, unclear, and often, not at all lawful. Our goal is that the patient or, in his absence, the main career can improve the self-administration of the drug. After several tests we have opted for a visual leaflet instead of a written one because we believe that "a picture is worth a thousand words".
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Speaking of privilege: family therapy educators journeys toward awareness and compassionate action.
Fam Process
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This study explores how family therapy educators from privileged social locations understand issues of privilege and the process by which they integrate their personal and professional journeys to create and model equity in family therapy training and professional development. These educators developed awareness about issues of privilege and oppression and owned their privilege. Increased awareness involved personal struggles with guilt and managing internalized voices of prejudice that are constantly reinforced in society. These educators adopted a stance of action and accountability for equity. We hypothesize that the process leading to owning ones privilege involves the ability to be compassionate for others suffering and ones own limitations.
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Antimicrobial food packaging film based on the release of LAE from EVOH.
Int. J. Food Microbiol.
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The aim of this work was to develop antimicrobial films for active packaging applications containing the natural antimicrobial compound LAE (lauramide arginine ethyl ester) in EVOH copolymers with different mol % ethylene contents (i.e. EVOH-29 and EVOH-44). EVOH-29 and EVOH-44 films were made by casting and incorporating 0.25%, 1%, 5%, and 10% LAE in the film forming solution (w/w with respect to polymer weight). Previously, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of LAE against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella enterica were determined by a microdilution assay. The antimicrobial activity of the resulting films was tested in vitro against these microorganisms in liquid culture media. The activity of the films was also evaluated over time. The results showed that films containing 5% and 10% LAE produced total growth inhibition and viable counts decreased with 0.25% and 1% LAE. Finally, the effectiveness of the films was tested by applying them to an infant formula milk inoculated with L. monocytogenes and S. enterica and stored for 6 days at 4°C. The application of films with LAE to infant formula milk inoculated with L. monocytogenes reduced at the end of storage period about 4 log in case of 10% LAE and with S. enterica reduced 3.74 log and 3.95 log with EVOH 29 5% and 10%, respectively, and EVOH-44 5% and 10% LAE reduced 1 log and 3.27 log, respectively, at the end of storage. The antimicrobial capacity of EVOH-29 films was greater than that of EVOH-44 films in all the cases tested. In general, the films were more effective in inhibiting the growth of L. monocytogenes than S. enterica, this inhibition being more acute at the end of the storage time.
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Development of antimicrobial films for microbiological control of packaged salad.
Int. J. Food Microbiol.
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The aim of the present work was to characterize the antimicrobial efficiency of films consisting of PP/EVOH structures with oregano essential oil and citral. Both substances are known for their antimicrobial activity based on their interaction with the cell membrane. The films developed were used to pack minimally processed salads, combining modified atmosphere technology to extend shelf-life and active packaging technology to reduce possible microbiological risks. The antimicrobial activity of the films against the pathogenic microorganisms Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes and natural microflora was investigated "in vitro" and also on the food itself. The effect of release of the antimicrobial agent on the sensory characteristics of the salad was also studied. The results showed that antimicrobial activity reduced spoilage flora on the salad as well as inhibited the growth of pathogens in contaminated salads. This effect was greater against Gram-negative bacteria. Sensory studies showed that the package that was most effective and most accepted by customers was the one containing 5% oregano essential oil.
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Subgenomic analysis of microRNAs in polyploid wheat.
Funct. Integr. Genomics
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In this study, a survey of miRNAs using the next-generation sequencing data was performed at subgenomic level. After analyzing shotgun sequences from chromosome 4A of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), a total of 68 different miRNAs were predicted in silico, of which 37 were identified in wheat for the first time. The long arm of the chromosome was found to harbor a higher variety (51) and representation (3,928) of miRNAs compared with the short arm (49; 2,226). Out of the 68 miRNAs, 32 were detected to be common to both arms, revealing the presence of separate miRNA clusters in the two chromosome arms. The differences in degree of representation of the different miRNAs were found to be highly variable, ranging 592-fold, which may have an effect on target regulation. Targets were retrieved for 62 (out of 68) of wheat-specific, newly identified miRNAs indicated that fundamental aspects of plant morphology such as height and flowering were predicted to be affected. In silico expression blast analysis indicated 24 (out of 68) were found to give hits to expressed sequences. This is the first report of species- and chromosome-specific miRNAs.
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Dasatinib as a bone-modifying agent: anabolic and anti-resorptive effects.
PLoS ONE
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Bone loss, in malignant or non-malignant diseases, is caused by increased osteoclast resorption and/or reduced osteoblast bone formation, and is commonly associated with skeletal complications. Thus, there is a need to identify new agents capable of influencing bone remodeling. We aimed to further pre-clinically evaluate the effects of dasatinib (BMS-354825), a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and function.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.