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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A Chemical Tuned Strategy to Develop Novel Irreversible EGFR-TK Inhibitors with Improved Safety and Pharmacokinetic Profiles.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Gatekeeper T790M mutation in EGFR is the most prevalent factor underlying acquired resistance. Acrylamide-bearing quinazoline derivatives are powerful irreversible inhibitors for overcoming resistance. Nevertheless, concerns about the risk of non-specific covalent modification have motivated the development of novel cysteine-targeting inhibitors. In this paper, we demonstrate that fluoro-substituted olefins can be tuned to alter Michael addition reactivity. Incorporation of these olefins into the quinazoline templates produced potent EGFR inhibitors with improved safety and pharmacokinetic properties. A lead compound 5a was validated against EGFRWT, EGFR T790M as well as A431 and H1975 cancer cell lines. Additionally, compound 5a displayed a weaker inhibition against the EGFR-independent cancer cell line SW620 when compared withafatinib. Oral administration of 5a at a dose of 30mg/kg induced tumor regression in a murine-EGFRL858R/T790M driven H1975 xenograft model. Also, 5a exhibited improved oral bioavailability and safety, as well as favorable tissue distribution properties and enhanced brain uptake. These findings provide the basis of a promising strategy toward the treatment of NSCLC patients with drug resistance.
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[Clinical significance of serum intestinal fatty acid-binding protein in full-term infants with necrotizing enterocolitis.]
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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To evaluate the clinical value of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) in full-term newborn infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC).
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Mechanistic Insight into Size-dependent Activity and Durability in Pt/CNT Catalyzed Hydrolytic Dehydrogenation of Ammonia Borane.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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We report a size-dependent activity in Pt/CNT catalyzed hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane. Kinetic study and model calculations revealed that Pt(111) facet is the dominating catalytically active surface. There is an optimized Pt particle size of ca. 1.8 nm. Meanwhile, the catalyst durability was found to be highly sensitive to the Pt particle size. The smaller Pt particles appear lower durability, which could be related to more significant adsorption of B-containing species on Pt surfaces as well as easier changes in Pt particle size and shape. The insights reported here may pave the way for the rational design of highly active and durable Pt catalysts for hydrogen generation.
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High-power dual-wavelength eye-safe ceramic Nd:YAG/SrWO4 Raman laser operating at 1501 and 1526??nm.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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By employing SrWO4 as a Raman active medium and a ceramic Nd:YAG laser operating at 1319 and 1338 nm as a pump source, an efficient eye-safe dual-wavelength Raman laser operating at 1501 and 1526 nm has been demonstrated. A maximum total output power as high as 3.36 W is obtained under a pump power of 33.3 W and a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 30 kHz. The highest optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 11.2% is achieved at the pump power of 27.3 W. To our knowledge, 3.36 W is the highest output power of a 1.5 ?m eye-safe Raman laser.
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Comparison of Chemical Profiling and Antioxidant Activities of Fruits, Leaves, Branches, and Flowers of Citrus grandis 'Tomentosa'
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Citrus grandis 'Tomentosa' (CGT) is particularly cultivated in China and widely used in health foods. In this study, the chemical profiles of different parts of CGT were comprehensively compared by rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method. A total of 22 compounds were identified and two C-glucosyl flavones were found for the first time in CGT. Four main constituents (rhiofolin, naringin, meranzin hydrate, and isoimperatorin) in different parts of CGT were simultaneously determined. Overall, the contents of the four main compounds decreased with the ripening process. In parallel, the antioxidant activities of their extracts were also evaluated by three assays (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazolinesulfonic acid) diammonium salt, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, ferric reducing antioxidant power), and the results indicated a similar tendency: small fruit > flower ? medium fruit > large fruit > leaf ? branch. The results obtained in the present work may provide useful information for future utilization of CGT.
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Efficacy and Safety of Metformin for Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis.
Diabetes Technol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Abstract Background: Insulin is an essential therapy for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). With the progression of the disease, many patients with T1DM may have an increased prevalence of insulin resistance; thus the common standard insulin therapy requires a high insulin dosage (>1 unit/kg/day) and is usually associated with many side effects. Studies have shown that metformin may benefit those insulin-resistant individuals with T1DM. This meta-analysis was performed to provide the evidence of clinical efficacy and safety of metformin in T1DM. Materials and Methods: We conducted a search on Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for relevant studies published before May 2014 based on "metformin" and "diabetes mellitus, type 1." The following outcomes were evaluated: hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), lipid metabolism, weight, insulin dosage, hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, or gastrointestinal adverse events (AEs). The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager version 5.2 software (The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark). Results: In total, eight randomized controlled trials were included. Metformin was associated with a reduction in daily insulin dosage, body weight, total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein level, and high-density lipoprotein level but an increase in risk of gastrointestinal AEs compared with placebo treatment in T1DM patients. No significant difference was found between the metformin group and the placebo group in HbA1c level, FPG level, or triglycerides level. No significant difference was found between the metformin group and the placebo group in the risk of severe hypoglycemia or diabetic ketoacidosis. Conclusions: Metformin may decrease the daily insulin dosage, body weight, and lipid levels in T1DM. However, metformin does not increase the incidence of hypoglycemia and ketoacidosis. High-quality, large-sample, and long-term follow-up clinical trials are needed to confirm these conclusions.
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Accuracy of real-time tissue elastography for the evaluation of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B: a prospective multicenter study.
Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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The prognosis and management of hepatic fibrosis are closely related to the stage of the disease. The limitations of liver biopsy, which is the gold standard for treatment, include its invasiveness and sampling error. Ultrasound elasticity might be the most promising imaging technology for the noninvasive and accurate assessment of hepatic fibrosis. Real-time tissue elastography (RTE) measures the relative stiffness of the tissue in the region of interest caused by the heartbeat. Many studies have verified that RTE is useful for the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC).
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[Effect of xy2004, a centchroman derivative, on proliferation of MCF-7 cells in vitro and the mechanism].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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To investigate the effect of xy2004, a centchroman derivative, on the proliferation of MCF-7 cells and the mechanisms.
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[Downregulation of 53BP1 by short hairpin RNA enhances radiosensitivity in laryngeal carcinoma cells].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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To determine the effect of downregulation of 53BP1 expression on cell growth and radiosensitivity in laryngeal carcinoma Hep-2 cells.
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[Treatment of type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients of qi-yin deficiency complicated phlegm-dampness blocking collaterals syndrome by internal application of qigui mixture and external application of qigui huoxue lotion: a clinical study].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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To evaluate the efficacy of internal application of Qigui Mixture (QM) and external application of Qigui Huoxue Lotion (QHL) in treating type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DNP) patients of qi-yin deficiency complicated phlegm-dampness blocking collaterals syndrome (QYD-PDBCS), and to primarily discuss its mechanism.
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Rosuvastatin may reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndromes receiving acute coronary syndromes by suppressing miR-155/SHIP-1 signaling pathway.
Cardiovasc Ther
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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The benefical effect of rosuvastatin against percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) related procedural myocardial injury has been determined mostly in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). However, the detailed therapeutic mechanism has not been well studied.
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Lung squamous carcinoma with two paraneoplastic syndromes -Dermatomyositis and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome.
Clin Respir J
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
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Paraneoplastic syndrome is a disease or symptom that is the consequence of cancer in the body but, unlike mass effect, is not due to the local presence of cancer cells. An overlap of two paraneoplastic syndromes secondary to lung cancer in a patient is very rare. We reported a case of a 60-year-old male smoker who presented multiple erythematous lesion for six months with progressive proximal muscular weakness, and developed to dysphonia in two months. His chest computed tomography showed a spiculate pulmonary nodule near the hilar in the right upper lobe and mediastinal lymph nodes enlargement. Lung biopsy showed squamous cell carcinoma. The patients'blood test revealed elevated creatine kinase levels. Electromyography results was consistent with moderate myopathy accompanied with a pattern suggestive of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. So we made the diagnosis of an overlap of two para-neoplastic syndromes (Dermatomyositis and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome) secondary to lung squamous carcinoma. Recognition of paraneoplastic syndrome is crucial for early diagnosis of lung cancer because up to 80% of patients may present paraneoplastic syndromes before any other direct indication of malignancy. Early diagnosis and treatment of paraneoplastic syndrome is also important because delayed diagnosis may result in rapid disease progression and irreversible neurological damage.
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Assessing the suitability of 8-OHdG and micronuclei as genotoxic biomarkers in chromate-exposed workers: a cross-sectional study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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We aimed to investigate suitable conditions of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and micronucleus (MN) as genotoxic biomarkers at different levels of occupational chromate exposure.
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Th2 cytokine-primed airway smooth muscle cells induce mast cell chemotaxis via secretion of ATP.
J Asthma
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Abstract Objective: Mast cell infiltration into airway smooth muscle (ASM) bundle is an important feature of asthma. Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (eATP) contributes to the initiation of airway inflammation. eATP induces mast cells migration by acting through purinergic receptors. CD39 is an ectonucleotidase that degrades ATP to ADP and AMP. Whether eATP participates in the migration of mast cell towards ASM cells is still unknown.
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Erythropoietin (EPO) Protects Against High Glucose-Induced Apoptosis in Retinal Ganglional Cells.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect and mechanism of EPO on the apoptosis induced by high levels of glucose in retinal ganglial cells (RGCs). High glucose-induced apoptosis model was established in RGCs isolated from SD rats (1-3 days old) and identified with Thy1.1 mAb and MAP-2 pAb. The apoptosis was determined by Hochest assay. The levels of ROS were quantitated by staining the cells with dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) and measure by flow cytometry. The SOD, GSH-Px, CAT activities, and levels of T-AOC and MDA were determined by ELISA. Change in mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) was also assessed by flow cytometry, and expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, and cytochrome C were assessed by western blotting. The RGCs treated with high glucose levels exhibited significantly increased apoptotic rate and concentrations of ROS and MDA. Pretreatment of the cells with EPO caused a significant blockade of the high glucose-induced increase in ROS and MDA levels and apoptotic rate. EPO also increased the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT, and recovered the levels of T-AOC levels. As a consequence, the mitochondrial membrane potential was improved and Cyt c release into the cytoplasm was prevented which led to significantly suppressed up-regulation of Bax reducing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. The expressions of caspase-3 and caspase-9 induced by high glucose exposure were also ameliorated in the RGCs treated with EPO. The protective effect of EPO against apoptosis was mediated through its antioxidant action. Thus, it blocked the generation of pro-apoptotic proteins and apoptotic degeneration of the RGCs by preventing the mitochondrial damage.
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High-efficiency inverted polymer solar cells controlled by the thickness of polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE) interfacial layers.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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In this work, we investigate the effect of the thickness of the polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE) interface layer on the performance of two types of polymer solar cells based on inverted poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl C61-butryric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and thieno[3,4-b]thiophene/benzodithiophene (PTB7):[6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM). Maximum power conversion efficiencies of 4.18% and 7.40% were achieved at a 5.02 nm thick PEIE interface layer, for the above-mentioned solar cell types, respectively. The optimized PEIE layer provides a strong enough dipole for the best charge collection while maintaining charge tunneling ability. Optical transmittance and atomic force microscopy measurements indicate that all PEIE films have the same high transmittance and smooth surface morphology, ruling out the influence of the PEIE layer on these two parameters. The measured external quantum efficiencies for the devices with thick PEIE layers are quite similar to those of the optimized devices, indicating the poor charge collection ability of thick PEIE layers. The relatively low performance of devices with a PEIE layer of thickness less than 5 nm is the result of a weak dipole and partial coverage of the PEIE layer on ITO.
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[Determination of piperidinium ionic liquid cations by ion-pair chromatography-indirect ultraviolet detection].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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A method was developed for the determination of piperidinium cations by ion-pair chromatography with indirect ultraviolet detection. Chromatographic separation was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column using background ultraviolet absorption reagent-ion-pair reagent/organic solvent as mobile phase. The effects of the background ultraviolet absorption reagent, detection wavelength, ion-pair reagent, organic solvent, column temperature and flow rate on the determination of piperidinium cations were investigated and the retention rules were studied. The optimized chromatographic conditions for the determination of piperidinium cations were as follows: mobile phase, 0.5 mmol/L 4-aminophenol hydrochloride-0.1 mmol/L 1-heptanesulfonic acid sodium aqueous solution/methanol (80:20, v/v); detection wavelength, 210 nm; column temperature, 30 degrees C; flow rate, 1.0 mL/min. Under these conditions, the three piperidinium cations were baseline separated within 4 min. The detection limits (S/N = 3) of the piperidinium cations were 0.137-0.545 mg/L. The relative standard deviations (n = 5) for peak area and retention time were 0.72% and 0.37% respectively. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of piperidinium cations in ionic liquids synthesized by chemistry laboratory. The recoveries of piperidinium cations after spiking were 97.0%-98.4%. The method is simple, rapid, reproducible, linear, and can meet the quantitative analysis requirement for the determination of piperidinium cations.
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[Emissions of NH3, N2O, and NO from swine manure solid storage in winter].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Swine manure solid storage is a typical management in rural area of China. In order to investigate the characteristics of NH3, N2O and NO emissions during manure storage in winter (Nov., 2012 to Feb., 2013), two treatments were conducted: non-covered (NC) and covered (C) with straws, and each treatment had three times of pile-turning during the 73 days storage. The emission fluxes of three nitrogen gases (NH3, N2O and NO) were measured and the profile-N2O concentrations inside the swine pile profile and in the soil under the pile were also measured. The results indicated that 2.1%-2.6%, 0.02% and -0.000 25% of total nitrogen were lost in the form of NH3, N2O and NO respectively during the whole swine manure solid storage. The nitrogen gases in the two treatments had the same variation characteristics, but all the nitrogen gases were reduced in the covered treatment. In the early storage stage, NH3 emission peak occurred first and then the emissions of N2O and NO started increasing. In the middle storage stage, the emissions of NH3 and NO showed mutual growth and decline trend. In the late storage stage, N2O emission peak was twice higher than that in the early stage, while NH3 and NO emissions showed a slight increase. Before and after pile-turning operation, NH3 emission had little change, but N2O emission was decreasing and NO emission was rising after pile-turning.
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[Determination of six chlorogenic acids in lonicerae flos extract by quantitative analysis multi-components with single marker].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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This study is to determine six chlorogenic acids (chlorogenic acid, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid) by quantitative analysis of multi-components with a single marker (QAMS). Chlorogeinc acid was used as internal reference to calculate the relative correction factors (RCF) of five compounds. Then the ruggedness of relative correction factors was tested on different instruments and columns. Meanwhile, a total of 4 batches of Lonicerae Flos and 20 batches of Lonicerae Flos extract with five different processing procedures were analyzed by external standard method (ESM) and QAMS, respectively. The ruggedness of relative correction factors was good. And the analytical results calculated by ESM and QAMS showed no difference. The quantitative method established was suitable for the quality evaluation of Lonicerae Flos extract.
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Epitaxial growth of large-gap quantum spin Hall insulator on semiconductor surface.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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Formation of topological quantum phase on a conventional semiconductor surface is of both scientific and technological interest. Here, we demonstrate epitaxial growth of 2D topological insulator, i.e., quantum spin Hall state, on Si(111) surface with a large energy gap, based on first-principles calculations. We show that the Si(111) surface functionalized with one-third monolayer of halogen atoms [Si(111)-[Formula: see text]×[Formula: see text]-X (X = Cl, Br, I)] exhibiting a trigonal superstructure provides an ideal template for epitaxial growth of heavy metals, such as Bi, which self-assemble into a hexagonal lattice with high kinetic and thermodynamic stability. Most remarkably, the Bi overlayer is atomically bonded to but electronically decoupled from the underlying Si substrate, exhibiting isolated quantum spin Hall state with an energy gap as large as ?0.8 eV. This surprising phenomenon originates from an intriguing substrate-orbital-filtering effect, which critically selects the orbital composition around the Fermi level, leading to different topological phases. In particular, the substrate-orbital-filtering effect converts the otherwise topologically trivial freestanding Bi lattice into a nontrivial phase; and the reverse is true for Au lattice. The underlying physical mechanism is generally applicable, opening a new and exciting avenue for exploration of large-gap topological surface/interface states.
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Additivity of Substituent Effects in Aromatic Stacking Interactions.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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The goal of this study was to experimentally test the additivity of the electrostatic substituent effects (SEs) for the aromatic stacking interaction. The additivity of the SEs was assessed using a small molecule model system that could adopt an offset face-to-face aromatic stacking geometry. The intramolecular interactions of these molecular torsional balances were quantitatively measured via the changes in a folded/unfolded conformational equilibrium. Five different types of substituents were examined (CH3, OCH3, Cl, CN, and NO2) that ranged from electron-donating to electron-withdrawing. The strength of the intramolecular stacking interactions was measured for 21 substituted aromatic stacking balances and 21 control balances in chloroform solution. The observed stability trends were consistent with additive SEs. Specifically, additive SE models could predict SEs with an accuracy from ±0.01 to ±0.02 kcal/mol. The additive SEs were consistent with Wheeler and Houk's direct SE model. However, the indirect or polarization SE model cannot be ruled out as it shows similar levels of additivity for two to three substituent systems, which were the number of substituents in our model system. SE additivity also has practical utility as the SEs can be accurately predicted. This should aid in the rational design and optimization of systems that utilize aromatic stacking interactions.
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?-Aminobutyric Acid Type A ?4, ?2, and ? Subunits Assemble to Produce More Than One Functionally Distinct Receptor Type.
Mol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Native ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors consisting of ?4, ?1-3, and ? subunits mediate responses to the low, tonic concentration of GABA present in the extracellular milieu. Previous studies on heterologously expressed ?4?? receptors have shown a large degree of variability in functional properties, including sensitivity to the transmitter. We studied properties of ?4?2? receptors employing free subunits and concatemeric constructs, expressed in Xenopus oocytes, HEK 293 cells, and cultured hippocampal neurons. The expression system had a strong effect on the properties of receptors containing free subunits. The midpoint of GABA activation curve was 10 nM for receptors in oocytes versus 2300 nM in HEK cells. Receptors activated by the steroid alfaxalone had an estimated maximal open probability of 0.6 in oocytes and 0.01 in HEK cells. Irrespective of the expression system, receptors resulting from combining the tandem construct ?2-? and a free ?4 subunit exhibited large steroid responses. We propose that free ?4, ?2, and ? subunits assemble in different configurations with distinct properties in oocytes and HEK cells, and that subunit linkage can overcome the expression system-dependent preferential assembly of free subunits. Hippocampal neurons transfected with ?4 and the picrotoxin-resistant ?(T269Y) subunit showed large responses to alfaxalone in the presence of picrotoxin, suggesting that ?4?? receptors may assemble in a similar configuration in neurons and oocytes.
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The CH-? interactions of methyl ethers as a model for carbohydrate-N-heteroarene interactions.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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CH-? interactions have been cited as an important contributor to carbohydrate recognition. To determine whether N-heterocycles form stronger CH-? interactions, the interactions of methyl ether groups with heterocyclic and nonheterocyclic aromatic surfaces were studied. Both experimental and computational experiments found that N-heterocyclic aromatic surfaces formed stronger interactions. This enhancement was attributed to attractive dipole-dipole interactions between the methyl ether C-O bond and the N-heterocyclic aromatic dipole.
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Hypoglossal-facial nerve 'side'-to-side neurorrhaphy using a predegenerated nerve autograft for facial palsy after removal of acoustic tumours at the cerebellopontine angle.
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Hypoglossal-facial nerve (HN-FN) neurorrhaphy is a method commonly used to treat facial palsy when the proximal stump of the injured FN is unavailable. Since the classic HN-FN neurorrhaphy method that needs to section the injured FN is not suitable for incomplete facial palsy, we investigated a modified method that consists of HN-FN 'side'-to-side neurorrhaphy, retaining the remaining or spontaneously regenerated FN axons while preserving hemihypoglossal function.
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The Human Ether-A-Go-Go-Related Gene Activator NS1643 Enhances Epilepsy-Associated KCNQ Channels.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) and KCNQ channels are two classes of voltage-gated potassium channels. Specific mutations have been identified that are causal for type II long QT (LQT2) syndrome, neonatal epilepsy, and benign familial neonatal convulsions. Increasing evidence from clinical studies suggests that LQT2 and epilepsy coexist in some patients. Therefore, an integral approach to investigating and treating the two diseases is likely more effective. In the current study, we found that NS1643 [1,3-bis-(2-hydroxy-5-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-urea], a previously reported hERG activator, is also an activator of KCNQ channels. It potentiates the neuronal KCNQ2, KCNQ4, and KCNQ2/Q3 channels, but not the cardiac KCNQ1. The effects of NS1643 on the KCNQ2 channel include left shifting of voltage for reaching 50% of the maximum conductance and slowing of deactivation. Analysis of the dose-response curve of NS1643 revealed an EC50 value of 2.44 ± 0.25 ?M. A hydrophobic phenylalanine (F137) located at the middle region of the voltage-sensing domain was identified as critical for NS1643 activity on KCNQ2. When testing NS1643 effects in rescuing LQT2 hERG mutants and the KCNQ2 BFNC mutants, we found it is particularly efficacious in some cases. Considering the substantial relationship between LQT2 and epilepsy, these findings reveal that NS1643 is a useful compound to elucidate the causal connection of LQT2 and epilepsy. More generally, this may provide a strategy in the development of therapeutics for LQT2 and epilepsy.
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Modified Classification and Repair of Perineal Soft Tissue Injuries Associated with Open Pelvic Fractures.
J Reconstr Microsurg
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Background?This study describes a modified classification and management protocol for perineal soft tissue injuries associated with pelvic fractures. Methods?A total of 11 patients with perineal soft tissue injuries associated with open pelvic fractures were studied retrospectively. The patients were classified into three types based on the area of defect: type A (urogenital zone), type B (anal zone), and type C (both urogenital and anal zones). Each type included the following subclasses: A1 (without urethra injuries), A2 (with urethra injuries), B1 (without anorectal injuries), B2 (with anorectal injuries), C1 (with types A1 and B1), C2 (with types A2 and B1), C3 (with types A1 and B2), and C4 (with types A2 and B2). The management protocol was planned according to the individual classifications. Protocol A1 (for type A1) involved skin graft or myocutaneous flap transplantation. Protocol A2 (for type A2) involved the same protocol combined with urine diversion. Protocol B1 (for type B1) involved skin graft or myocutaneous flap transplantation. Protocol B2 (for type B2) involved the same management combined with fecal diversion. Protocol C involved the correspondent protocol used for each subtype of type C. Results?Out of the 11 patients, there were 5, 3, and 3 cases of types A, B, and C, respectively. One patient died due to sepsis, and the wounds of the remaining patients healed well. No anal incontinence had occurred. Conclusions?Perineal soft tissue injuries associated with pelvic fractures can be classified into three types, and the management protocol can be planned according to the classification.
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[From microdosimetry to nanodosimetry--the link between radiobiology and radiation physics].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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The link between micro- and macro-parameters for radiation interactions that take place in living biological systems is described in this paper. Meanwhile recent progress and development in microdosimetry and nanodosimetry are introduced, including the methods to measure and calculate these micro- or nano-parameters. The relationship between radiobiology and physical quantities in microdosimetry and nanodosimetry was presented. Both the current problems on their applications in radiation protection and radiotherapy and the future development direction are proposed.
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[Research on increasing X-ray protection capability based on photonic crystal technology].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Light cannot be propagated within the range of photonic crystal band gaps. Based on this unique property, we proposed a method to improve anti-radiation capability through one-dimensional photonic crystal coating. Using transmission matrix method, we determined the appropriate dielectric materials, thickness and periodic numbers of photonic crystals through Matlab programming simulation. Then, compound one-dimensional photonic crystal coating was designed which was of high anti-radiation rate within the range of X-ray. As is shown through simulation experiments, the reflection rate against X-ray was higher than 90 percent, and the desired anti-radiation effect was achieved. Thus, this method is able to help solve the technical problems facing the inorganic lead glass such as thickness, weightiness, costliness, high lead equivalent, low transparency and high cost. This method has won China's national invention patent approval, and the patent number is 201220228549.2.
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Expression of microRNA-96 and its potential functions by targeting FOXO3 in non-small cell lung cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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MicroRNAs are implicated in the regulation of various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, cell death, and cell mobility, and can function either as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in tumor progression. The effects of the expression of miR-96 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain unclear. In our study, qRT-PCR (quantitative reverse transcription PCR) was performed to identify the miR-96 expression level in 68 paired NSCLC and adjacent normal lung tissues. Trans-well, cell counting kit-8, and apoptosis assays were used to evaluate the effects of miR-96 expression on cell invasion, proliferation, and apoptosis. Dual-luciferase reporter assay and Western blotting were used to verify whether FOXO3 was a potential major target gene of miR-96. Finally, the effect of FOXO3 on miR-96-induced cell survival was determined by transfection of the genes expressing FOXO3 lacking 3'UTR and miR-96. The expression level of miR-96 in NSCLC tissues was higher than that in adjacent normal lung tissues, and this increased expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis. In contrast to the cells in the blank and negative control groups, the number of cells migrating through the matrigel was significantly lower and the incidence of apoptosis was significantly higher in cells transfected with a miR-96 inhibitor. Western blotting and dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that miR-96 can bind to the putative seed region in FOXO3 mRNA 3'UTR, and can significantly lower the expression of FOXO3. The introduction of FOXO3 cDNA without 3'UTR restored miR-96 induced cell apoptosis and invasion. MiR-96 is up-regulated in NSCLC tissues. Downregulation of miR-96 inhibits invasion and promotes apoptosis in NSCLC cells A549 and SPC-A-1 by targeting FOXO3. Therefore, our study improves our understanding of the mechanisms underlying NSCLC pathogenesis and may promote the development of novel targeted therapies.
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Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis will increase the risk of lung cancer.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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To review the studies investigating the increased risk of lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).
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Systematic review of traditional chinese medicine for depression in Parkinson's disease.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Depression is the most common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent clinical trials have evaluated the effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of depression in PD (dPD). However, the results are conflicting rather than conclusive. To investigate the effectiveness of TCM for the treatment of dPD, a systematic review was conducted. Literature searches and collections were performed to identify studies addressing the treatment of TCM for dPD. The methodological quality and risk of bias in all studies included were evaluated. Weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as the effect measure. Finally, a total of 10 studies involving 582 patients were identified. The pooled results revealed that TCM combined with conventional drugs significantly improved the total scores of the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (WMD = -7.35, 95% CI: -11.24 to -3.47) and the score of the Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAM-D) (WMD = -4.19, 95% CI: -5.14 to -3.24) compared with conventional drug, respectively. Conclusively, there is evidence that TCM may be beneficial to the treatment of dPD in spite of the methodological weakness of the included studies.
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) gene are associated with microscopic polyangiitis in the northern Han Chinese population.
Mod Rheumatol
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Objectives. Our study was designed to evaluate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TLR2 gene with antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCAs)-associated vasculitides (AAV) in the northern Han Chinese population. Methods. The TLR2 SNPs rs1898830, rs11938228, rs3804099, rs3804100, and rs7656411 were analyzed in 195 AAV patients [granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), n = 100; microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), n = 76; eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), n = 19] and 501 ethnically and geographically matched healthy controls. Genetic association analysis was carried out using PLINK (version 1.07). For multiple comparisons, a Bonferroni adjustment was conducted (pc = p*n, where n was the number of tested SNPs). Results. The overall frequencies of alleles and genotypes of TLR2 polymorphisms did not differ significantly between AAV patients and controls. The C allele of rs3804100 and the haplotype (C-C) formed by rs3804100 and rs3804099, however, were over-represented in the MPA patient group (pc = 0.018, pc = 0.016, respectively). Moreover, the frequencies of the C allele of both rs3804100 and rs3804099 were higher in the anti-MPO ANCA positive subgroup vs. healthy controls (pc = 0.003, pc = 0.013, respectively). Conclusions. We conclude that rs3804100 of TLR2 predisposes to MPA in northern Han Chinese. Future studies with larger sample sizes in the northern Han Chinese and other populations are required to extend and verify our current findings.
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Efficient generation of genetically distinct pigs in a single pregnancy using multiplexed single-guide RNA and carbohydrate selection.
Xenotransplantation
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Manipulating the pig genome to increase compatibility with human biology may facilitate the clinical application of xenotransplantation. Genetic modifications to pig cells have been made by sequential recombination in fetal fibroblasts and liver-derived cells followed by cross-breeding or somatic cell nuclear transfer. The generation of pigs for research or organ donation by these methods is slow, expensive and requires technical expertise. A novel system incorporating the bacterial nuclease Cas9 and single-guide RNA targeting a 20 nucleotide site within a gene can be expressed from a single plasmid leading to a double-strand break and gene disruption. Coexpression of multiple unique single-guide RNA can modify several genetic loci in a single step. We describe a process for increasing the efficiency of selecting cells with multiple genetic modifications.
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MiRNA-15a mediates cell cycle arrest and potentiates apoptosis in breast cancer cells by targeting synuclein-?.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Recent studies have indicated that microRNA-15a (miR-15a) is dysregulated in breast cancer (BC). We aimed to evaluate the expression of miR-15a in BC tissues and corresponding para-carcinoma tissues. We also focused on effects of miR-15a on cellular behavior of MDA-MB-231 and expression of its target gene synuclein-? (SNCG).
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Novel band structures in silicene on monolayer zinc sulfide substrate.
J Phys Condens Matter
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Opening a sizable band gap in the zero-gap silicene without lowering the carrier mobility is a key issue for its application in nanoelectronics. Based on ?rst-principles calculations, we find that the interaction energies are in the range of -0.09?0.3?eV?per Si atom, indicating a weak interaction between silicene and ZnS monolayer and the ABZn stacking is the most stable pattern. The band gap of silicene can be effectively tuned ranging from 0.025 to 1.05?eV in silicene and ZnS heterobilayer (Si/ZnS HBL). An unexpected indirect-direct band gap crossover is also observed in HBLs, dependent on the stacking pattern, interlayer spacing and external strain effects on silicene. Interestingly, the characteristics of Dirac cone with a nearly linear band dispersion relation of silicene can be preserved in the ABS pattern which is a metastable state, accompanied by a small electron effective mass and thus the carrier mobility is expected not to degrade much. These provide a possible way to design effective FETs out of silicene on a ZnS monolayer.
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Vertical distribution of bacterial communities in high arsenic sediments of Hetao Plain, Inner Mongolia.
Ecotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Vertical distribution of bacterial communities was detected in high arsenic (As) sediments in a representative high As area in Inner Mongolia. Nineteen sediment samples were collected from a 30 m borehole and detected by geochemistry and molecular ecological approaches including polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), 16S rRNA gene clone library and 454 pyrosequencing. As contents ranged from 42.1 to 111.3 mg kg(-1) which fluctuated with different depth and significantly high in clay and mild clay sediment samples at depth of 8, 20, 25 and 28 m respectively. The ratios of As(III) to total As generally increased with depth but As(V) dominated in all sediment samples. High concentrations of total As, sulfur, iron and total organic carbon were generally found in clay and low in sand samples. Both DGGE patterns and 454 pyrosequencing results indicated that bacterial communities dynamically diversified with increasing depth and were dominated by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi. Most of the sediment samples were dominated by populations including Sporosarcina, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Halomonas, Polaromonas, Paenibacillus and Flavobacterium. These populations were found with high similarities with those microbes capable of denitrification, sulfur oxidation, organic matter degradation and As resistance and reduction. These results implied that microbes might play an important role in As mobilization in the shallow aquifers of Hetao Plain, Inner Mongolia.
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Comparative survey of bacterial and archaeal communities in high arsenic shallow aquifers using 454 pyrosequencing and traditional methods.
Ecotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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A survey of bacterial and archaeal community structure was carried out in 10 shallow tube wells in a high arsenic groundwater system located in Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia by 16S rRNA gene based two-step nested PCR-DGGE, clone libraries and 454 pyrosequencing. 12 bacterial and 18 archaeal DGGE bands and 26-136 species-level OTUs were detected for all the samples. 299 bacterial and 283 archaeal 16S rRNA gene clones for two typical samples were identified by phylogenetic analysis. Most of the results from these different methods were consistent with the dominant bacterial populations. But the proportions of the microbial populations were mostly different and the bacterial communities in most of these samples from pyrosequencing were both more abundant and more diverse than those from the traditional methods. Even after quality filtering, pyrosequencing revealed some populations including Alishewanella, Sulfuricurvum, Arthrobacter, Sporosarcina and Algoriphagus which were not detected with traditional techniques. The most dominant bacterial populations in these samples identified as some arsenic, iron, nitrogen and sulfur reducing and oxidizing related populations including Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Brevundimonas, Massilia, Planococcus, and Aquabacterium and archaeal communities Nitrosophaera and Methanosaeta. Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas were distinctly abundant in most of these samples. Methanogens were found as the dominant archeal population with three methods. From the results of traditional methods, the dominant archaeal populations apparently changed from phylum Thaumarchaeota to Euryarchaeota with the arsenic concentrations increasing. But this structure dynamic change was not revealed with pyrosequencing. Our results imply that an integrated approach combining the traditional methods and next generation sequencing approaches to characterize the microbial communities in high arsenic groundwater is recommended.
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Phenotypic and Genotypic Changes over Time and across Facilities of Serial Colonizing and Infecting Escherichia coli Isolates Recovered from Injured Service Members.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Escherichia coli is the most common colonizing and infecting organism isolated from U.S. service members injured during deployment. Our objective was to evaluate the phenotypic and genotypic changes of infecting and colonizing E. coli organisms over time and across facilities to better understand their transmission patterns. E. coli isolates were collected via surveillance cultures and infection workups from U.S. military personnel injured during deployment (June 2009 to May 2011). The isolates underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and multiplex PCR for phylotyping to determine their resistance profiles and clonality. A total of 343 colonizing and 136 infecting E. coli isolates were analyzed, of which 197 (57%) and 109 (80%) isolates, respectively, produced extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBL). Phylogroup A was predominant among both colonizing (38%) and infecting isolates (43%). Although 188 unique pulsed-field types (PFTs) were identified from the colonizing isolates, and 54 PFTs were identified from the infecting isolates, there was a lack of PFT overlap between study years, combat zones, and military treatment facilities. On a per-subject basis, 26% and 32% of the patients with serial colonizing isolates and 10% and 21% with serial infecting isolates acquired changes in their phylogroup and PFT profiles, respectively, over time. The production of ESBL remained high over time and across facilities, with no substantial changes in antimicrobial susceptibilities. Overall, our results demonstrated an array of genotypic and phenotypic differences for the isolates without large clonal clusters; however, the same PFTs were occasionally observed in the colonizing and infecting isolates, suggesting that the source of infections may be endogenous host organisms.
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Distribution and determinants of non communicable diseases among elderly Uyghur ethnic group in Xinjiang, China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are showing an increasing trend globally as well as in China. Elderly population are more prone to these NCDs. Situation in China is worse owing to the higher proportion of geriatric population. Burden of NCDs and the role of their socio-demographic and behavioral predictors among these elderly and more so among the ethnic minority groups among them, need to be investigated specifically, owing to their distinct genetic background, lifestyles and behavior.
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Isoselective ring-opening polymerization of rac-lactide initiated by achiral heteroscorpionate zwitterionic zinc complexes.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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A highly isotactic stereoblock PLA has been obtained using the achiral heteroscorpionate zwitterionic zinc complexes as catalysts, for the first time, via a chain-end control mechanism.
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Molecular responses in digestive tract of juvenile common carp after chronic exposure to sublethal tributyltin.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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The effect of long-term exposure to tributyltin (TBT) on the intestine-related biochemical biomarkers in common carp was investigated in this study. Fish were exposed at sub-lethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 and 7.5 ?g/L) for 60 days. Multiple biomarkers were measured, including digestive enzymes (trypsin, lipase and amylase), antioxidant responses (malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC)), RNA/DNA ratio and the expression of digestive-related genes (try, lipc and amy). TBT exposure at 0.75 and 7.5 ?g/L led to significantly inhibited activities of all digestive enzymes. At higher concentration of TBT, oxidative stress was apparent as reflected by the significant higher MDA content in the fish intestine, associated with an inhibition of T-AOC activities. After 60 days, the RNA/DNA ratio in fish intestine was significantly lower in groups exposed to TBT at higher concentrations (0.75 and 7.5 ?g/L). In addition, the expression levels of try, lipc and amy in intestine of all treated fish were inhibited, even at the environmental concentration (75 ng/L). Our results suggest that long-term exposure to TBT could result in different responses of intestine-related biochemical biomarkers in fish, which could be used as new potential indicators for monitoring residual TBT present in aquatic environment.
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Prognostic role of circulating tumor cells in patients with pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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Isolation and characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in patients suffering from a variety of different cancers have become hot biomarker topics. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic value of CTCs in pancreatic cancer.
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Next generation genetic mapping of the Ligon-lintless-2 (Li?) locus in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).
Theor. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Mapping-by-sequencing and novel subgenome-specific SNP markers were used to fine map the Ligon-lintless 2 ( Li 2 ) short-fiber gene in tetraploid cotton. These methodologies will accelerate gene identification in polyploid species. Next generation sequencing offers new ways to identify the genetic mechanisms that underlie mutant phenotypes. The release of a reference diploid Gossypium raimondii (D5) genome and bioinformatics tools to sort tetraploid reads into subgenomes has brought cotton genetic mapping into the genomics era. We used multiple high-throughput sequencing approaches to identify the relevant region of reference sequence and identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the short-fiber mutant Ligon-lintless 2 (Li 2) gene locus. First, we performed RNAseq on 8-day post-anthesis (DPA) fiber cells from the Li 2 mutant and its wild type near isogenic line (NIL) Gossypium hirsutum cv. DP5690. We aligned sequence reads to the D5 genome, sorted the reads into A and D subgenomes with PolyCat and called SNPs with InterSNP. We then identified SNPs that would result in non-synonymous substitutions to amino acid sequences of annotated genes. This step allowed us to identify a 1-Mb region with 24 non-synonymous SNPs, representing the introgressed region that differentiates Li 2 from its NIL. Next, we sequenced total DNA from pools of F2 plants, using a super bulked segregant analysis sequencing (sBSAseq) approach. The sBSAseq predicted 82 non-synonymous SNPs among 3,494 SNPs in a 3-Mb region that includes the region identified by RNAseq. We designed subgenome-specific SNP markers and tested them in an F2 population of 1,733 individuals to construct a genetic map. Our resulting genetic interval contains only one gene, an aquaporin, which is highly expressed in wild-type fibers and is significantly under-expressed in elongating Li 2 fiber cells.
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Novel syngeneic mouse mammary carcinoma cell lines from aggressive ErbB2/Neu-overexpressing/PTEN-deficient tumors.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Breast cancer cell lines and mouse models are valuable tools for investigating the biology of and developing potential therapeutics for human breast carcinoma. The PTEN-/-/NIC mouse is a genetically engineered mouse model for ErbB2/Neu-overexpressing/?PTEN deficient breast carcinoma with histopathological and molecular features relevant to the luminal subtype of primary human breast cancer. However, the PTEN-/-/NIC model develops multifocal and aggressive mammary tumors with a short life-span, which greatly impedes its preclinical usage. To complement the genetic engineering approach and to facilitate the future application of this model, in the present study, two newly established cell lines, NICP20 and NICP21, from PTEN-/-/NIC mammary tumors are described. These NICP20 and NICP21 cells retained the crucial molecular phenotype similar to the origin, as confirmed by genotyping and western blot analysis. These cells induced tumors in immunocompetent syngeneic mice by mammary fat pad injection and produced lung metastasis when injected intravenously. Tumors induced by these cells displayed luminal?like histologic morphology and hyperactivation of Akt which are similar to PTEN-/-/NIC tumors. Immunohistochemical staining also revealed that tumors induced by the NICP20 and NICP21 cells showed a high proliferative level, comparable angiogenesis and T-cell infiltration properties similar to PTEN-/-/NIC tumors. Therefore, these NICP20 and NICP21 cells represent an alternative and useful model system to enhance our understanding of the nature of ErbB2-positive breast cancers, particularly accompanying PTEN loss and to facilitate further experimental therapeutic studies.
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Mitotic DNA damages induced by carbon-ion radiation incur additional chromosomal breaks in polyploidy.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Compared with low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, carbon-ion radiation has been proved to induce high frequency of more complex DNA damages, including DNA double strands (DSBs) and non-DSB clustered DNA lesions. Chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin has been reported to elicit additional H2AX phosphorylation in polyploidy. Here, we investigated whether mitotic DNA damage induced by high-LET carbon-ion radiation could play the same role. We demonstrate that impairment of post-mitotic G1 and S arrest and abrogation of post-mitotic G2-M checkpoint failed to prevent mis-replication of damaged DNA and mis-separation of chromosomes. Meanwhile, mitotic slippage only nocodazole-related, cytokinesis failure and cell fusion collectively contributed to the formation of binucleated cells. Chk1 and Cdh1 activation was inhibited when polyploidy emerged in force, both of which are critical components for mitotic exit and cytokinesis. Carbon-ion radiation irrelevant of nocodazole incurred additional DNA breaks in polyploidy, manifesting as structural and numerical karyotype changes. The proliferation of cells given pre-synchronization and radiation was completely inhibited and cells were intensely apoptotic. Since increased chromosomal damage resulted in extensive H2AX phosphorylation during polyploidy, we propose that the additional ?-H2AX during polyploidy incurred by carbon-ion radiation provides a final opportunity for these dangerous and chromosomally unstable cells to be eliminated.
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New guaiane sesquiterpenes from Artemisia rupestris and their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Artemisia rupestris resulted in the isolation of three new guaiane sesquiterpenes, (1R,7R,10S)-1-hydroxy-3-oxoguaia-4,11(13)-dien-12-oic acid (1), (1R,7R,10S)-10-hydroxy-3-oxoguaia-4,11(13)-dien-12-oic acid (2), pechueloic acid 12-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (3), together with 12 known compounds (4-15). The structures of these new compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation. All isolates were evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages cells, and the structure-activity relationships were also discussed.
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Relative quantification of multi-components in Panax notoginseng (Sanqi) by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry using mobile phase compensation.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Relative quantification of multi-components in complex mixture is significantly affected by the ionization variance caused by mobile phase composition in high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analyses. The normalization methods for eliminating the variance are still less investigated. Herein, the mobile-phase compensation (MPC) method was applied to overcome the above problem. The developed method was firstly used for convenient evaluation of the coeluent interference and subsequently applied for relative quantification of the identified multi-components in Panax notoginseng (Sanqi) samples. The good linearity, precision and low limit of quantification of targeted analytes confirmed that the MPC-HPLC-ESI-MS method in gradient elution could achieve the isocratic test results compared with classical HPLC-ESI-MS. The established method was used for relative quantification of the minor Sanqi saponins by their detected peak areas divided by that of ginsenoside Rd. The results demonstrated the potential of the newly developed method for obtaining the normalized data shared in different laboratories.
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Down-regulated miR-22 as predictive biomarkers for prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer.
Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2014
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BackgroundRecent studies have demonstrated that microRNA-22 (miR-22) was deregulated in many types of cancers and was involved in various cellular processes related to carcinogenesis. However, the clinical significance and prognostic value of miR-22 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) haven¿t been investigated.Methods109 pairs of fresh EOC tissue and matched adjacent normal tissue specimens were collected between May 2007 and March 2013. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay was performed to evaluate the expression levels of miR-22. The chi-square test was used to assess miR-22 expression with respect to clinicopathological parameters. The survival curves of the patients were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression, and the log-rank test was used for statistical evaluations.ResultsmiR-22 expression in EOC tissues was significantly lower than that in matched normal adjacent tissues (mean¿±¿SD: 1.944¿±¿1.026 vs. 4.981¿±¿1.507, P¿<¿0.0001). Low miR-22 expression level was correlated with FIGO stage (P¿=¿0.006), tumor grade (P¿=¿0.03), and lymph node metastases (P¿=¿0.01). Kaplan-Meier analysis with the log-rank test indicated that low miR-22 expression had a significant impact on overall survival (44.4% vs. 64.5%; P¿=¿0.005) and progression-free survival (23.5% vs. 52.6%; P¿=¿0.004).ConclusionsOur data demonstrated that the expression of miR-22 was downregulated in EOC, and associated with overall survival as well as progression-free survival, suggesting that miR-22 could serve as an efficient prognostic factor for EOC patients.Virtual SlidesThe virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/13000_2014_178.
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Simultaneous determination of 16 phenolic constituents in Spatholobi Caulis by high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Spatholobi Caulis, the vine stem of Spatholobus suberectus Dunn, has been widely used in traditional Chinese and folk medicines for treatment of irregular menstruation, blood deficiency and rheumatalgia in clinic. In this study, an accurate and reliable high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was established for simultaneous determination of 16 phenolic bioactive constituents, including five flavanols, seven isoflavonoids, three flavanones and one chalcone in Spatholobi Caulis. The method validation results exhibited that the developed method had desirable specificity, linearity, precision and accuracy. The quantitative analysis results showed that flavanols were the abundant constituents in Spatholobi Caulis. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to assess the quality variation of samples collected from different regions in China. The PCA results indicated the quantitative analysis based on HPLC-MS/MS is a feasible method for quality assessment and control of Spatholobi Caulis.
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Inhibitors of Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Synthases: Synthesis, Molecular Docking, and Implications.
Chembiochem
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases (PhaCs) catalyze the formation of biodegradable PHAs that are considered to be ideal alternatives to non-biodegradable synthetic plastics. However, study of PhaCs has been challenging because the rate of PHA chain elongation is much faster than that of initiation. This difficulty, along with lack of a crystal structure, has become the main hurdle to understanding and engineering PhaCs for economical PHA production. Here we report the synthesis of two carbadethia CoA analogues-sT-CH2 -CoA (26?a) and sTet-CH2 -CoA (26?b)-as well as sT-aldehyde (saturated trimer aldehyde, 29), as new PhaC inhibitors. Study of these analogues with PhaECAv revealed that 26?a/b and 29 are competitive and mixed inhibitors, respectively. Both the CoA moiety and extension of PHA chain will increase binding affinity; this is consistent with our docking study. Estimation of the Kic values of 26?a and 26?b predicts that a CoA analogue incorporating an octameric hydroxybutanoate (HB) chain might facilitate the formation of a kinetically well-behaved synthase.
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Investigating the role of acute mental stress on endothelial dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Clin Res Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Chronic stress is a known risk factor for both endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but less is known of how acute mental stress affects the vasculature. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we analyzed the impact of acute mental stress on flow-mediated dilation (FMD), an indicator of endothelial function. We searched the Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases through May 2014, to identify publications in English-language journals. The primary outcome was the change in FMD from baseline to the time of measurement. We also assessed the risk of bias and the heterogeneity of included studies. Our search identified eight prospective studies, which displayed significant heterogeneity. Four studies measured FMD while the subject was performing the task; six measured FMD after the task had been completed. The total number of participants was 164. The pooled results indicate that FMD did not change significantly while the task was being performed (pooled difference in means: -0.853; 95 % confidence interval (CI), -3.926/2.220; P = 0.586); however, FMD measured after the task was completed was significantly less than baseline (pooled difference in means: -2.450; 95 %CI, -3.925/-0.975; P = 0.001). In conclusions, our findings provide evidence that an acute stressful experience has a delayed, negative impact on the function of the endothelium. Repeated exposure to short-term stress may lead to permanent injury of the vasculature. Therefore, assessment of patients' exposure to both repeated acute mental stress and chronic stress may be useful in determining their risk of developing CVD.
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Application of magnesium modified corn biochar for phosphorus removal and recovery from swine wastewater.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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The recycling of lost phosphorus (P) is important in sustainable development. In line with this objective, biochar adsorption is a promising method of P recovery. Therefore, our study investigates the efficiency and selectivity of magnesium modified corn biochar (Mg/biochar) in relation to P adsorption. It also examines the available P derived from postsorption Mg/biochar. Mg/biochar is rich in magnesium nanoparticles and organic functional groups, and it can adsorb 90% of the equilibrium amount of P within 30 min. The Mg/biochar P adsorption process is mainly controlled by chemical action. The maximum P adsorption amount of Mg/biochar is 239 mg/g. The Langmuir-Freundlich model fits the P adsorption isotherm best. Thermodynamics calculation shows ?H > 0, ?G < 0, ?S > 0, and it demonstrates the P adsorption process is an endothermic, spontaneous, and increasingly disordered. The optimal pH is 9. The amounts of P adsorbed by Mg/B300, Mg/B450, and Mg/B600 from swine wastewater are lower than that adsorbed from synthetic P wastewater by 6.6%, 4.8%, and 4.2%, respectively. Mg/biochar is more resistant to pH and to the influence of coexisting ions than biochar. Finally, postsorption Mg/biochar can release P persistently. The P release equilibrium concentrations are ordered as follows: Mg/B600 > Mg/B450 > Mg/B300. The postsorption Mg/B300, Mg/B450, and Mg/B600 can release 3.3%, 3.9%, and 4.4% of the total adsorbed P, respectively, per interval time.
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Intraportal infusion of ghrelin could inhibit glucose-stimulated GLP-1 secretion by enteric neural net in Wistar rat.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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As a regulator of food intake and energy metabolism, the role of ghrelin in glucose metabolism is still not fully understood. In this study, we determined the in vivo effect of ghrelin on incretin effect. We demonstrated that ghrelin inhibited the glucose-stimulated release of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) when infused into the portal vein of Wistar rat. Hepatic vagotomy diminished the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on glucose-stimulated GLP-1 secretion. In addition, phentolamine, a nonselective ? receptor antagonist, could recover the decrease of GLP-1 release induced by ghrelin infusion. Pralmorelin (an artificial growth hormone release peptide) infusion into the portal vein could also inhibit the glucose-stimulated release of GLP-1. And growth hormone secretagogue receptor antagonist, [D-lys3]-GHRP-6, infusion showed comparable increases of glucose stimulated GLP-1 release compared to ghrelin infusion into the portal vein. The data showed that intraportal infusion of ghrelin exerted an inhibitory effect on GLP-1 secretion through growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1? (GHS1? receptor), which indicated that the downregulation of ghrelin secretion after food intake was necessary for incretin effect. Furthermore, our results suggested that the enteric neural net involved hepatic vagal nerve and sympathetic nerve mediated inhibition effect of ghrelin on incretin effect.
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C60 carboxyfullerene-based functionalised nanohybrids as signal-amplifying tags for the ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of procalcitonin.
Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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In this work, a novel signal amplification strategy was developed by fabricating an electrochemical immunosensor for the sensitive detection of procalcitonin (PCT). Amino group-functionalised C60 nanoparticles were used as a matrix to immobilise a redox probe, ferrocene carboxylic acid (Fc), and were subsequently coated with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) to form PtNP-Fc-C60 nanocomposites. Following the preparation of the nanocomposites, a signal amplification strategy was developed based on the use of enzyme (glucose oxidase)-modified PtNP-Fc-C60 nanocomposites as tracer labels for a secondary antibody (anti-PCT II) in a sandwich assay. Gold nanoparticle-functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (AuNP@MWCNTs) were used as the biosensor platform to enhance the electrode surface area to capture a large amount of primary antibody (anti-PCT I), thus amplifying the detection response. The experimental results demonstrated that the multi-labelled PtNP-Fc-C60 nanocomposites displayed satisfactory electrochemical redox activity and high electrocatalytic activity from the PtNPs and glucose oxidase, consequently resulting in high sensitivity for the detection of PCT. The linear range of PCT was 0.01-10ng/mL, with a detection limit of 6pg/mL (S/N=3).
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Association between four common microRNA polymorphisms and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and HBV infection.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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microRNAs (miR/miRNAs) have been demonstrated to function as tumor suppressors and oncogenes, and miRNA polymorphisms may have a role in cancer development. The present study aimed to investigate the association between the miR-146aG>C, miR-149C>T, miR-196a2C>T and miR-499A>G polymorphisms and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. A total of 271 patients with HCC and 532 healthy control participants were enrolled in the present study. miR-146aG>C, miR-149C>T, miR-196a2C>T and miR-499A>G polymorphisms were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. A significant difference was identified in the genotype frequency of miR-196a2C>T in the patients in the case group compared with the control group (?(2)=6.88; P=0.032). Compared with the CC genotype, the miR-196a2 TT genotype was associated with a significantly reduced risk of HCC [odds ratio (OR), 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.38-0.99], and a significantly reduced risk was also found in the dominant (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.49-0.98) and recessive (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.46-1.02) models. Moreover, individuals with HBV who were carrying the miR-196a2 CT and TT genotypes had a significantly reduced risk of HCC (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.41-0.95; and OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.20-0.73, respectively). In conclusion, the present study found that the miR-196a2C>T polymorphism has a protective effect in patients with HCC, particularly in those with HBV infection.
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Overexpression of miR-200b inhibits the cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis of human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts in vitro.
J. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Hypertrophic scarring leads to a deformed appearance and contracted neogenetic tissue, resulting in physiological and psychological problems for patients. Millions of people suffer these discomforts each year. Emerging evidence has reported that miRNA contributed to hypertrophic scarring or keloid formation. In this study, nine hypertrophic scar samples and the matched normal skin tissues were used to perform a miRNA microarray. The results of miRNA array showed that miR-200b was downregulated by more than 2-fold, validated by qPCR in hypertrophic scar tissues and human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts, suggesting that there was an important correlation between miR-200b and hypertrophic scarring. We also found that miR-200b affected hypertrophic scarring through regulating the cell proliferation and apoptosis of human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts by affecting the collagen I and III synthesis, fibronectin expression and TGF-?1/?-SMA signaling. Thus, our study provides evidence to support that miR-200b may be a useful target for hypertrophic scarring management.
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The integrated pharmacokinetics of major rhodojaponins correlates with the cardiotoxicity after oral administration of Rhododendri Mollis Flos extract in rats.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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Rhododendri Mollis Flos (RMF), termed as Naoyanghua in Chinese, is a traditional anti-rheumatoid arthritis and bruises herb with associated cardiotoxicity. The predominant rhodojaponins occurring in RMF are responsible for its efficacy and toxicity. The narrow therapeutic window of rhodojaponins necessitates monitoring the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics so as to ensure the safety in practical applications of RMF.
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Effects of American ginseng on pharmacokinetics of 5-fluorouracil in rats.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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The pharmacokinetics of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in combination with or without American ginseng (seven-consecutive days oral dose) in rats were evaluated using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Chromatographic separation was performed on a reverse LC column within a total run time of 6.5?min, which allowed for a relatively quick analysis. The limit of quantification for 5-FU was 15?ng/mL and this method was linear over 15-50,000?ng/mL. This method supported stabilizing determination of the plasma concentration of 5-FU over a period of 24?h. Precision both interday and intraday (coefficient of variation) was within 14% and accuracy (relative error) ranged from -5 to 14%. In view of the observed pharmacokinetic parameters, including maximum concentration, time to maximum concentration, area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), mean residence time, elimination half-life and clearance, our results showed no significant differences in all of the pharmacokinetic parameters between the ginseng co-treated group and 5-FU alone group. Some increase in AUC was observed in 5-FU plus ginseng group; however, the difference did not reach statistical significance compared with 5-FU alone. It appeared that American ginseng administration did not significantly alter the kinetics of 5-FU. More studies are still needed to confirm our results. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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SiLEA14, a novel atypical LEA protein, confers abiotic stress resistance in foxtail millet.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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BackgroundLate embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are involved in protecting higher plants from damage caused by environmental stresses. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is an important cereal crop for food and feed in semi-arid areas. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying tolerance to these conditions are not well defined.ResultsHere, we characterized a novel atypical LEA gene named SiLEA14 from foxtail millet. It contains two exons separated by one intron. SiLEA14 was expressed in roots, stems, leaves, inflorescences and seeds at different levels under normal growth conditions. In addition, SiLEA14 was dramatically induced by osmotic stress, NaCl and exogenous abscisic acid. The SiLEA14 protein was localized in the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Overexpression of SiLEA14 improved Escherichia coli growth performance compared with the control under salt stress. To further assess the function of SiLEA14 in plants, transgenic Arabidopsis and foxtail millet plants that overexpressed SiLEA14 were obtained. The transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings showed higher tolerance to salt and osmotic stress than the wild type (WT). Similarly, the transgenic foxtail millet showed improved growth under salt and drought stresses compared with the WT. Taken together, our results indicated that SiLEA14 is a novel atypical LEA protein and plays important roles in resistance to abiotic stresses in plants.ConclusionWe characterized a novel atypical LEA gene SiLEA14 from foxtail millet, which plays important roles in plant abiotic stress resistance. Modification of SiLEA14 expression may improve abiotic stress resistance in agricultural crops.
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A fluorescence nanosensor for glycoproteins with activity based on the molecularly imprinted spatial structure of the target and boronate affinity.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Glycoproteins are closely associated with the occurrence of diverse diseases, and they have been used as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in clinical diagnostics. Currently, mass spectrometry has proven to be a powerful tool for glycoprotein analysis, but it is almost impossible to directly identify glycoproteins without the preparation and pretreatment of samples. Furthermore, biological samples, especially proteins, are damaged by this process. Herein, we describe a novel fluorescence nanosensor based on a molecularly imprinted spatial structure and boronate affinity that is well-suited for monitoring glycoproteins selectively. Results showed that the recognition performance of the nanosensor for glycoproteins was regulated by controlling the pH?value and temperature. Moreover, the nanosensor was successfully applied to the detection of HRP in biological fluids. This study provides a facile and efficient fluorescence tool for glycoprotein detection in clinical diagnostics.
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Total polysaccharide of Yupingfeng protects against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via inhibiting transforming growth factor-?1-mediated type I collagen abnormal deposition in rats.
J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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This study was to explore the antifibrotic effect and the possible mechanism of total polysaccharides of Yupingfeng (YPF-P) on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.
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Controlled Attenuation Parameter for Noninvasive Assessment of Hepatic Steatosis Using Fibroscan(®): Validation in Chronic Hepatitis B.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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The controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) using transient elastography (TE) was validated in chronic hepatitis C to evaluate hepatic steatosis; however, limited data are available on chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Therefore, we assessed the accuracy and the efficacy of CAP for the detection of steatosis in CHB.
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A four-long non-coding RNA signature in predicting breast cancer survival.
J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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BackgroundMany long non-coding RNAs(lncRNAs) have been found to be a good marker for several tumors. Using lncRNA-mining approach, we aimed to identify lncRNA expression signature that can predict breast cancer patient survival.MethodsWe performed LncRNA expression profiling in 887 breast cancer patients from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets. The association between lncRNA signature and clinical survival was analyzed using the training set(n = 327,from GSE 20685). The validation for the association was performed in another three independent testing sets(252 from GSE21653, 204 from GSE12276, and 104 from GSE42568).ResultsA set of four lncRNA genes (U79277, AK024118, BC040204, AK000974) have been identified by the random survival forest algorithm. Using a risk score based on the expression signature of these lncRNAs, we separated the patients into low-risk and high-risk groups with significantly different survival times in the training set. This signature was validated in the other three cohorts. Further study revealed that the four-lncRNA expression signature was independent of age and subtype. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) suggested that gene sets were involved in several cancer metastasis related pathways.ConclusionsThese findings indicate that lncRNAs may be implicated in breast cancer pathogenesis. The four-lncRNA signature may have clinical implications in the selection of high-risk patients for adjuvant therapy.
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A case of heart failure due to alcoholic cardiomyopathy combined with acute pulmonary embolism.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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It has not been reported that cases of alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) combined with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). We hereby present a case of a 48-year-old male with ACM with significant enlargement of the heart and heart failure is described. Then, the patient was seized with acute PE which was confirmed by specific examination and his symptoms.
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Serum thyrotropin is positively correlated with the metabolic syndrome components of obesity and dyslipidemia in chinese adolescents.
Int J Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Metabolic syndrome is a medical disorder characterized by obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Thyroid hormone has been shown to affect many metabolic processes. This study was undertaken to explore the relationship between serum thyrotropin and components of metabolic syndrome in Chinese adolescents. Waist circumference (76.4 ± 10.7 versus 70.0 ± 10.6?cm, P = 0.006) and body mass index (23.90 ± 4.20 versus 21.51 ± 4.16?kg/m(2), P = 0.011) were significantly greater among adolescents with subclinical hypothyroidism compared with euthyroid subjects. The risk of obesity in the subclinical hypothyroid group was 3.444 times that in the euthyroid group (odds ratio = 3.444, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.570-7.553). Serum TSH was significantly positively correlated with waist circumference (? = 1.512, P = 0.019), TC (? = 0.160, P = 0.003), LDL-C (? = 0.032, P = 0.008), and TG (? = 0.095, P = 0.001). The TSH level in the metabolic syndrome group was significantly higher than that in nonmetabolic syndrome group (2.65 [2.28-3.80] versus 2.53 [1.92-3.45] mIU/L, P = 0.032). Serum TSH within the reference range was positively associated with TC (? = 0.173, P = 0.013), LDL-C (? = 0.031, P = 0.043), and TG (? = 0.132, P = 0.021). Increased serum TSH in adolescents may be a potential risk factor for metabolic syndrome.
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Safety of fast-track rehabilitation after gastrointestinal surgery: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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To compare the safety of fast-track rehabilitation protocols (FT) and conventional care strategies (CC), or FT and laparoscopic surgery (LFT) and FT and open surgery (OFT) after gastrointestinal surgery.
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Comparision of modified and conventional delta-shaped gastroduodenostomy in totally laparoscopic surgery.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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To evaluate the safety and feasibility of a modified delta-shaped gastroduodenostomy (DSG) in totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (TLDG).
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Effects of essential oil supplementation of a low-energy diet on performance, intestinal morphology and microflora, immune properties and antioxidant activities in weaned pigs.
Anim. Sci. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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A total of 144 weaned piglets were used to evaluate the effects of essential oil (EO) supplementation of a low-energy diet on performance, apparent nutrient digestibility, small intestinal morphology, intestinal microflora, immune properties and antioxidant activities in weaned pigs. Pigs received a low-energy diet (negative control, NC, digestible energy?=?3250?kcal/kg), NC plus 0.025% EO or a positive control diet (PC, digestible energy?=?3400?kcal/kg) for 28 days. Growth performance was similar between the EO group and PC group. However, EO supplementation increased (P?
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Downregulation of osteopontin enhances the sensitivity of glioma U251 cells to temozolomide and cisplatin by targeting the NF-?B/Bcl?2 pathway.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Glioma is resistant to the apoptotic effects of chemotherapy and the mechanism underlying its chemoresistance is not currently understood. In a previous study, we reported that osteopontin (OPN) was overexpressed in glioma tissues and had an important anti?apoptotic effect. Furthermore, overexpression of OPN was observed following chemotherapy. To elucidate whether OPN plays a role in chemotherapy resistance and to investigate its downstream signaling pathway, this study used small interfering RNA (siRNA) to silence the expression of OPN in U251 human neuronal glioma astrocytoma cells. OPN downregulation in U251 cells enhanced the apoptotic effects induced by temozolomide (TMZ) and cisplatin (DDP). Furthermore, OPN siRNA suppressed the nuclear factor ??light?chain?enhancer of activated B cells (NF??B) activation and B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl?2) expression that was induced by chemotherapy. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the expression levels of OPN are involved in glioma chemoresistance. Knockdown of OPN through siRNA enhanced the effects of TMZ and DDP chemotherapy by targeting the NF??B/Bcl?2 pathway.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.