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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Effects of rosuvastatin on arterial stiffness in hyperlipidemia patients].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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To evaluate the effects of rosuvastatin on arterial stiffness in hyperlipidemia patient without hypertension.
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Evidence-based Analysis on The Clinical Impact of Intraoperative Neuromonitoring in Thyroid Surgery: State of the Art and Future Perspectives.
Surg Technol Int
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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Laryngeal nerve injuries are one the most critical complications during thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Iatrogenic damages to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) are relevant in terms of clinical implications, economic costs, and for malpractice litigation. In order to minimize potential neural damages, a standardized surgical technique is mandatory. Intraoperatory neuromonitoring (IONM) of the RLN is an important adjunct to the traditional approach and is a reliable tool for neural mapping and in dissection and prognostication of postoperative neural function 4. Because of this, most of the iatrogenic damages are not related to direct transection, but they are visually undetectable. Notwithstanding the increasing use of IONM at this stage, there is still the need for prospective, randomized, well-powered, and well-designed trials in order to further validate (via evidence-based data) the role of IONM in thyroid surgery. The aim of this review is to provide a critical analysis of the scientific evidences on the clinical impact of IONM in thyroid surgery showing the unsolved problems and the future challenges.
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Evaluation of the Etoricoxib-Mediated Pain-Relieving Effect in Patients Undergoing Lumbar Fusion Procedures for Degenerative Lumbar Scoliosis: A Prospective Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Study.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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This randomized, double-blind study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of etoricoxib in controlling the pain during lumbar fusion surgery of the degenerative lumbar scoliosis patients. We found that perioperative use of etoricoxib produced a significant reduction in the degree of pain compared to the patients treated with placebo. Etoricoxib eased the pain and helped to manage the discomfort of lumbar fusion surgery. In addition, etoricoxib was well tolerated as it caused no serious adverse reaction, suggesting a safe profile. Etoricoxib also appeared to ensure and promote the positive effect of surgery, however, insignificantly. Thus, the results suggest that etoricoxib was effective in safely managing the pain during the lumbar fusion surgery and recovery thereafter.
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High-Efficiency Plasmon-Enhanced and Graphene-Supported Semiconductor/Metal Core-Satellite Hetero-Nanocrystal Photocatalysts for Visible-Light Dye Photodegradation and H2 Production from Water.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Solar-driven photocatalytic process based on electron-hole pair production in semiconductors is a long sought-after solution to a green and renewable energy and has attracted a renaissance of interest recently. The relatively low photocatalytic efficiency, however, is a main obstacle to their practical applications. A promising attempt to solve this problem is by combined use of metal nanoparticles, by taking advantage of strong and localized plasmonic near-field to enhance solar absorption and to increase the electron-hole pair generation rate at the surface of semiconductor. Here, we report a semiconductor/metal visible-light photocatalyst based on CdSe/CdS-Au (QD-Au) core-satellite heteronanocrystals, and assemble them on graphene nanosheets for better photocatalytic reaction. The as-synthesized photocatalyst exhibits excellent plasmon-enhanced photocatalytic activities toward both photodegradation of organic dye and visible-light H2 generation from water. The H2 evolution rate achieves a maximum of 3113 ?mol h(-1) g(-1) for the heteronanocrystal-graphene composites, which is about 155% enhancement compared to nonplasmonic QD-G sample and 340% enhancement compared to control QD-Au-G sample, and the apparent quantum efficiency (QE) reaches to 25.4% at wavelength of 450 nm.
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Simultaneous determination by UPLC-MS/MS of seven bioactive compounds in rat plasma after oral administration of Ginkgo biloba tablets: application to a pharmacokinetic study.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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A rapid, reliable, and sensitive method was developed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source for determination of seven bioactive compounds in rat plasma after oral administration of Ginkgo biloba tablets (GBTs). The method simultaneously detects bilobalide (BB), ginkgolide A (GA), ginkgolide B (GB), ginkgolide C (GC), quercetin (QCT), kaempferol (KMF), and isorhamnetin (ISR) for pharmacokinetic study. The analytes and internal standard (IS) were extracted from rat plasma by acetidin. An MS/MS detection was conducted using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and operating in the negative ionization mode. The calibration curve ranges were 5-500, 5-500, 2.5-250, 1-100, 1-100, 1-100, and 1-100 ng/ml for BB, GA, GB, GC, QCT, KMF, and ISR, respectively. The mean recovery of the analytes ranged from 68.11% to 84.42%. The intra- and inter-day precisions were in the range of 2.33%-9.86% and the accuracies were between 87.67% and 108.37%. The method was used successfully in a pharmacokinetic study of GBTs. The pharmacokinetic parameters of seven compounds were analyzed using a non-compartment model. Plasma concentrations of the seven compounds were determined up to 48 h after administration, and their pharmacokinetic parameters were in agreement with previous studies.
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[Analysis of the stability and adaptability of near infrared spectra qualitative analysis model].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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The stability and adaptability of model of near infrared spectra qualitative analysis were studied. Method of separate modeling can significantly improve the stability and adaptability of model; but its ability of improving adaptability of model is limited. Method of joint modeling can not only improve the adaptability of the model, but also the stability of model, at the same time, compared to separate modeling, the method can shorten the modeling time, reduce the modeling workload; extend the term of validity of model, and improve the modeling efficiency. The experiment of model adaptability shows that, the correct recognition rate of separate modeling method is relatively low, which can not meet the requirements of application, and joint modeling method can reach the correct recognition rate of 90%, and significantly enhances the recognition effect. The experiment of model stability shows that, the identification results of model by joint modeling are better than the model by separate modeling, and has good application value.
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"Ready-to-use" hollow nanofiber membrane-based glucose testing strips.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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A novel "ready-to-use" glucose test strip based on a polyurethane hollow nanofiber membrane was fabricated through facile co-axial electrospinning. By utilizing glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase in the core-phase solution, and a chromogenic agent either in the core solution (in which case 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) was used) or in the shell-phase solution (in which case o-dianisidine was used) for co-axial electrospinning, in situ co-encapsulation of the two enzymes within the hollow nano-chamber and incorporation of chromogenic agents either inside the nano-chamber or in the shell of the hollow nanofibers was realized. Such unique "all-in-one" feature enabled the prepared hollow nanofiber membrane-based test strips to be applied either as colorimetric sensors in solution or as an optical biosensor operated in the "dip-and-read" mode. When used as a colorimetric biosensor in solution, the test strip with o-dianisidine as chromogenic agent shows an excellent linear response range between 0.01 mM to 20 mM and a high apparent lumped activity recovery of 62.1% as compared to the reaction rate of the free bi-enzyme system. While the activity recovery of the test strip with ABTS as chromogenic agent is only 18.0%, and the test strip is found to be unstable due to spontaneous-oxidation of the ABTS. The o-dianisidine test strip was also applied as an optical biosensor, visible rufous color was quickly developed on the surface of the membrane upon dropping 10 ?L of glucose sample, and an excellent correlation between differential diffusive reflectance of the test strip at 440 nm and glucose concentration was obtained in the range of 0.5-50 mM. The test strips also exhibited excellent long-term storage stability with a half-life at 25 °C as long as four months.
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The value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in detecting minute renal cell carcinoma.
Discov Med
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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To investigate the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the detection of minute renal cell carcinoma (MRCC) compared to conventional ultrasound (US) and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT).
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Phase-transition contrast nanocapsules triggered by low-intensity ultrasound.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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A polymeric nanocapsule encapsulated with 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane was developed, in which 2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluoro-1-butyl groups were introduced to the polymer terminal for high loading of liquid fluorocarbon. In vitro experiments demonstrate that its liquid/gas-phase transition can be triggered by mild heating. This nanocapsule can be harnessed as a contrast agent for tumor imaging under diagnostic ultrasound.
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Novel Rolling Circle Amplification and DNA Origami-Based DNA Belt-Involved Signal Amplification Assay for Highly Sensitive Detection of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA).
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is one of the most important biomarkers for the early diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer. Although many efforts have been made to achieve significant progress for the detection of PSA, challenges including relative low sensitivity, complicated operation, sophisticated instruments, and high cost remain unsolved. Here, we have developed a strategy combining rolling circle amplification (RCA)-based DNA belts and magnetic bead-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the highly sensitive and specific detection of PSA. At first, a 96-base circular DNA template was designed and prepared for the following RCA. Single stranded DNA (ssDNA) products from RCA were used as scaffold strand for DNA origami, which was hybridized with three staple strands of DNA. The resulting DNA belts were conjugated with multiple enzymes for signal amplification and then employed to magnetic bead based ELISA for PSA detection. Through our strategy, as low as 50 aM of PSA can be detected with excellent specificity.
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Average BER of subcarrier intensity modulated free space optical systems over the exponentiated Weibull fading channels.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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The average bit error rate (BER) for binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation in free-space optical (FSO) links over turbulence atmosphere modeled by the exponentiated Weibull (EW) distribution is investigated in detail. The effects of aperture averaging on the average BERs for BPSK modulation under weak-to-strong turbulence conditions are studied. The average BERs of EW distribution are compared with Lognormal (LN) and Gamma-Gamma (GG) distributions in weak and strong turbulence atmosphere, respectively. The outage probability is also obtained for different turbulence strengths and receiver aperture sizes. The analytical results deduced by the generalized Gauss-Laguerre quadrature rule are verified by the Monte Carlo simulation. This work is helpful for the design of receivers for FSO communication systems.
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Complete mitochondrial genome of the Eurasian siskin, Spinus spinus (Passeriformes: Fringillidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Abstract The Eurasian siskin (Spinus spinus), also called the European siskin, common siskin or just siskin, is found throughout Europe and Asia. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of S. spinus was determined to be 16,828?bp. The size of protein-coding genes (PCGs) in the S. spinus mitochondrial genome was 11,400?bp. The longest PCG of S. spinus mtDNA was nad5 (1818?bp), whereas the shortest is atp8 (168?bp). The nad6 gene of S. spinus mitogenome had strong skews of T versus A (-0.54), and G versus C (0.64). According to the distribution of the conserved motifs in other avian CRs, the CR of S. spinus can be divided into three domains: ETAS domain I, central conserved domain II, and CSB domain III.
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Two Strandberg-type organophosphomolybdates: synthesis, crystal structures and catalytic properties.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Two novel Strandberg-type organophosphomolybdate hybrid compounds [(Cu(H2O))2(?-bipy)2(C6H5PO3)2Mo5O15]n () and [(Cu(H2O)2)2(?-bipy)(C6H5PO3)2Mo5O15]n () (bipy = 4,4'-bipyridyl) were prepared under mild hydrothermal conditions and structurally characterized by physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that compounds and are polyoxometalate-based Cu-coordination polymers with a three-dimensional framework. In , the Cu(2+) ions not only link [(C6H5PO3)2Mo5O15](4-) (abbreviated as {(C6H5P)2Mo5}) polyanions, but also act as connectors of bipy ligands to produce two symmetrical 1-D chains, all 1-D chains are further held together by polyanions to generate a 3-D network. In , each {(C6H5P)2Mo5} polyanion acting as a hexadentate ligand links four Cu(ii)-bipy/H2O units, forming 2-D plane structures, which are further bridged by Cu(ii)-bipy-Cu(ii) fragments to generate a 3-D network. Their fluorescence properties and catalytic properties for the synthesis of cyclohexanone ethylene ketal were also investigated.
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Predicting cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients.
Ann. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is a critical clinical challenge due to poor clinical outcome and increasing prevalence. Nephrologists and transplant specialists need suitable biomarkers to predict the occurrence of cardiovascular events and/or mortality in practice. At the technical level, development of a non-invasive repetitive sampling procedure is required to develop applicable biomarkers, offering a platform for clinicians to dynamically monitor the alteration of patient condition. Apart from specificity and sensitivity, the ideal biomarkers should be independent of various confounders such as sex, sex, age, kidney function, diabetes, and blood pressure. This article reviews recent studies on the identified potential biomarkers to analyze their predictive value and significance. The present study revealed that the identified potential biomarkers are involved in magnesium and phosphate metabolism, hormone dysregulation, pro-inflammatory process, and cardiovascular pathogenesis. Combined use of those biomarkers might allow early identification of subclinical cardiovascular system organ damage, effectively predict cardiovascular mortality, and significantly deepen our mechanistic understanding of the occurrence of cardiovascular events and mortality, which will help to develop preventive measures.
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Efficient visible light-driven H2 production in water by CdS/CdSe core/shell nanocrystals and an ordinary nickel-sulfur complex.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Solar energy conversion to hydrogen has gained tremendous interest due to its great potential in solving the problem of energy crisis. Among different ways to achieve the goals of H2 photogeneration, the quantum dot (QD)-based multicomponent system has been proven to be one of the most prominent methods. Although significant advances have been made recently, the development of a practical visible light-driven hydrogen generation system with high efficiency and low-cost is still challenging. In this work, we report that a highly active catalyst could be simply obtained through the complexing of nickel ions with S(2-) or 3-mercaptopropionic acid, and after further combination with the carefully designed CdS/CdSe core/shell nanocrystals, the aqueous system exhibits a good stability and high efficiency for the H2 photogeneration. It is expected that our findings would provide new insights for the facile construction of a highly efficient and cost-effective solar H2 generation system for practical applications.
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[Purification technology of procymidone residues in ginseng extracts by macroporous resins].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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The macroporous resin separation technology has been mainly applied in the enrichment of saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and other ingredients, and used in the removal of heavy metal impurities and pesticide residues in recent years. This paper focuses on the synthesis of the new-type macroporous adsorption resin LKS-11 according to the molecular structure characteristics of procymidone. Specifically, the selective absorptive property and other advantages of macroporous resin were utilized to analyze the procymidone removal efficiency in ginseng extracts from different sources. The type of macroporous resins, absorptive property and desorption conditions were observed respectively by static and dynamic adsorption methods to determined the optimum process conditions. According to the results, LKS-11 showed a good absorptive property to procymidone in ginseng extracts and provided a theoretical basis for studies on the removal of procymidone residues from ginseng extracts by using macroporous adsorption resin. Because of no secondary pollution on samples, low production and operation costs, high procymidone removal efficiency and high product recovery rate, this method is suitable to be applied in production.
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Effects of Flip Angle Uncertainty and Noise on the Accuracy of DCE-MRI Metrics: Comparison Between Standard Concentration-Based and Signal Difference Methods.
Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is becoming an increasingly important tool to assess tumors and their response to treatment. In the most common method of computing tumor perfusion parameters, the concentration of the injected contrast agent is first computed in both tumor and blood which is subsequently fit to a perfusion model, typically the Tofts two compartment model. However, this strategy can be highly sensitive to errors in the excitation flip angle and noise. More recently, a simpler method of determining perfusion was developed in which the difference signal, obtained by subtracting the measured time course signal by the signal prior to bolus arrival, is utilized in lieu of the concentration values. The goal of this work is to compare the performance of these two strategies with simulation experiments in the presence of flip angle errors and different levels of image signal to noise ratios (SNRs). Results show that with the conventional method, if assumed pre-contrast T1 of blood is used, large errors in perfusion (exceeding 400% and 200% for K(trans) and ve, respectively) can occur in the presence of flip angle deviations typically observed in vivo. However, when baseline T1 values are measured for both tumor and blood, the errors become a function of flip angle difference between the two locations, with nearly no error if the flip angle errors are identical at both locations. The errors are substantially smaller with the signal difference strategy (less than 100% for both K(trans) and ve). The latter method also yields more consistent perfusion values at varying SNR levels. The results suggest that measuring the actual flip angle may be critical for obtaining absolute perfusion values, but in studies in which relative changes in perfusion is of primary interest or if true flip angles are not known, the signal difference strategy may be preferred over the standard concentration-based method.
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Biogeographic variation in evergreen conifer needle longevity and impacts on boreal forest carbon cycle projections.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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Leaf life span is an important plant trait associated with interspecific variation in leaf, organismal, and ecosystem processes. We hypothesized that intraspecific variation in gymnosperm needle traits with latitude reflects both selection and acclimation for traits adaptive to the associated temperature and moisture gradient. This hypothesis was supported, because across 127 sites along a 2,160-km gradient in North America individuals of Picea glauca, Picea mariana, Pinus banksiana, and Abies balsamea had longer needle life span and lower tissue nitrogen concentration with decreasing mean annual temperature. Similar patterns were noted for Pinus sylvestris across a north-south gradient in Europe. These differences highlight needle longevity as an adaptive feature important to ecological success of boreal conifers across broad climatic ranges. Additionally, differences in leaf life span directly affect annual foliage turnover rate, which along with needle physiology partially regulates carbon cycling through effects on gross primary production and net canopy carbon export. However, most, if not all, global land surface models parameterize needle longevity of boreal evergreen forests as if it were a constant. We incorporated temperature-dependent needle longevity and %nitrogen, and biomass allocation, into a land surface model, Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange, to assess their impacts on carbon cycling processes. Incorporating realistic parameterization of these variables improved predictions of canopy leaf area index and gross primary production compared with observations from flux sites. Finally, increasingly low foliage turnover and biomass fraction toward the cold far north indicate that a surprisingly small fraction of new biomass is allocated to foliage under such conditions.
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The relationship between the plant-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 and alternative oxidase in tomato basal defense against Tobacco mosaic virus.
Planta
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in plant defense against pathogen attack. The SA-induced viral defense in plants is distinct from the pathways mediating bacterial and fungal defense, which is pathogenesis-related protein-independent but involves an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 (RDR1)-mediated RNA silencing mechanism and/or an alternative oxidase (AOX)-associated defense pathway. However, the relationship between these two viral defense-related pathways remains unclear. In this study, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) inoculation onto Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) leaves induced a rapid induction of the SlAOX1a transcript level as well as the total and CN-resistant respiration at 0.5 dpi, followed by an increase in SlRDR1 gene expression at 1 dpi in the upper uninoculated leaves. Silencing SlRDR1 using virus-induced gene silencing system significantly reduced SlRDR1 expression and tomato defense against TMV but had no evident effect on SlAOX1a transcription. Conversely, silencing SlAOX1a not only effectively reduced the AOX1a transcript level, but also blocked the TMV-induced SlRDR1 expression and decreased the basal defense against TMV. Furthermore, the application of an exogenous AOX activator on empty vector-silenced control plants greatly induced the accumulation of SlRDR1 and SlAOX1a transcript and reduced TMV viral RNA accumulation, but failed to have such effects on SlRDR1-silenced plants. Moreover, RDR1-overexpressed transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants enhanced defense against TMV than the empty vector-transformed plants, but these effects were not affected by the exogenous AOX activator or inhibitor. These results indicate that RDR1 is involved in the AOX-mediated defense pathway against TMV infection and plays a crucial role in enhancing RNA silencing to limit virus systemic spread.
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Basic and clinical research on the regulation of the intestinal barrier by Lactobacillus and its active protein components: a review with experience of one center.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Probiotics got protective effects on the intestinal barrier. Our present study is to review the basic and clinical progress on the regulation of the intestinal barrier by Lactobacillus and its active protein components, combing the study of our center. Our study have isolated the active component of micro integral membrane protein (MIMP) within the media place of the integral membrane protein of Lactobacillus plantarum, which was verified about the protective effects against the intestinal epithelial dysfunction. On the other hand, we also found the effects of perioperative use of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of postoperative intestinal barrier dysfunction, and reduction of the postoperative infective complications. In this review, we would like to report the founding of our center, involving in the basic and clinical research progress of regulation of intestinal barrier by Lactobacillus and its active protein component MIMP. Furthermore, we may also promote our following studies about the MIMP and its clinical verification.
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Elevated microRNA-185 is associated with high vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 expression levels and high microvessel density in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in a number of biological processes, including tumor biology. Previous studies have demonstrated that miRNA-185 regulates signaling downstream of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) and, consequently, angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential relationship between miRNA-185, VEGFR-2, and angiogenesis in samples from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. Tumor tissue was obtained from 82 patients. The miRNA-185 and VEGFR-2 gene expression levels were analyzed by PCR, and the protein concentrations of VEGFR-2 were detected by ELISA. Angiogenesis, visualized by the endothelial cell marker CD34 combined with caldesmon, was assessed by immunohistochemistry and the microvessel density (MVD) technique. In situ hybridization was performed for miRNA-185. Tumors were classified as low or high miRNA-185-expressing using the median as the cutoff. The median gene expression levels of VEGFR-2 were significantly lower in the tumors expressing low levels of miRNA-185, 0.31 (95 % CI, 0.25-0.37), compared to those expressing high levels of miRNA-185, 0.47 (95 % CI, 0.27-0.59), p?=?0.02. A positive association was certified with VEGFR-2 protein levels, p?=?0.06. The median MVD was significantly lower in the tumors expressing low levels of miRNA-185, 6.8 (95 % CI, 6.33-7.67), compared to those expressing high levels, 8.0 (95 % CI, 6.33-9.00), p?
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Spatially programmed assembling of oxidoreductases with single-stranded DNA for cofactor-required reactions.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Cofactor is especially important for biotransformation catalyzed by oxidoreductases. Many attempts in enhancing performance of the reactions by improving cofactor utilization have been reported. In this study, efficiency of cofactor-requiring biocatalysis was enhanced by improving cofactor recycling via spatially programmed assembling glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH, Escherichia coli MG1655) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GluDH, Bacillus subtilis str168), with the aid of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The two enzymes were first independently expressed as molecules fused with a phage protein A* that could covalently link ssDNA with certain features. After an enzymatic cross-linking reaction taking place under mild conditions, the conjugate of fused enzyme and ssDNA was assembled into desired structures through base pairing enabled by the ssDNA. Results showed that, to some extent, the fusion with protein A* could improve the specific activity of the enzymes (GlyDH-A*/GlyDH?=?116.0 %; GluDH-A*/GluDH?=?105.2 %). Additionally, in the coupled reaction system with glycerol and ?-ketoglutaric acid as substrates, regarding the production of glutamic acid based on HPLC analysis, the efficiency of cofactor utilization was significantly enhanced (by 23.8- to 41.9-folds), indicating the existence of a substrate-channeling mechanism for cofactor utilization in the assembled reaction system due to the proximity effects. The degree of substrate channeling was calculated as from 1.65 to 1.73. Furthermore, the efficiency of cofactor utilization was influenced in an architecture-dependent manner when complexes with different stoichiometry of GlyDH and GluDH were utilized in biotransformation. This study demonstrated a novel strategy of cofactor recycling for enhanced performance of coupled oxidoreductive reactions.
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X-ray-Induced Changes in the Expression of Inflammation-Related Genes in Human Peripheral Blood.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array, we explored and compared the expression changes of inflammation-related genes in human peripheral blood irradiated with 0.5, 3, and 10 Gy doses of X-rays 24 h after exposure. Results indicated that the expression of 62 out of 84 genes was significantly altered after X-ray radiation. Among these 62 genes, 35 (such as TNFSF4) are known to be associated with radiation response, but others are novel. At a low radiation dose (0.5 Gy), 9 genes were up-regulated and 19 were down-regulated. With further increased dose to 3 Gy, 8 unique genes were up-regulated and 19 genes were down-regulated. We also identified 48 different genes that were differentially expressed significantly after 10 Gy of irradiation, and among these transcripts, up-regulated genes accounted for only one-third (16 genes) of the total. Of the 62 genes, 31 were significantly altered only at a specific dose, and a total of 10 genes were significantly expressed at all 3 doses. The dose- and time-dependent expression of CCL2 was confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR. A number of candidate genes reported herein may be useful molecular biomarkers of radiation exposure in human peripheral blood.
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Papillary breast lesions on contrast-enhanced ultrasound: morphological enhancement patterns and diagnostic strategy.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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To identify features which determine the papillary nature of breast lesions by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) based on morphological and pathological correlations, and predict which papillomas are malignant.
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Assessment of liver fibrosis: The relationship between point shear wave elastography and quantitative histological analysis.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Traditional pathological scoring systems for liver fibrosis progression are predominantly based on the description of architectural changes with no consideration of the amount of collagen fiber deposition. Our purpose was to explore a true histological standard in accordance with the liver stiffness measured by point shear wave elastography (PSWE) in patients with chronic hepatitis B.
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Genetic variability and population structure of the potential bioenergy crop Miscanthus sinensis (Poaceae) in Southwest China based on SRAP markers.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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The genus Miscanthus has great potential as a biofuel feedstock because of its high biomass, good burning quality, environmental tolerance, and good adaptability to marginal land. In this study, the genetic diversity and the relationship of 24 different natural Miscanthus sinensis populations collected from Southwestern China were analyzed by using 33 pairs of Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) primers. A total of 688 bands were detected with 646 polymorphic bands, an average of 19.58 polymorphic bands per primer pair. The average percentage of polymorphic loci (P), gene diversity (H), and Shannon's diversity index (I) among the 24 populations are 70.59%, 0.2589, and 0.3836, respectively. The mean value of total gene diversity (HT) was 0.3373±0.0221, while the allelic diversity within populations (HS) was 0.2589±0.0136 and the allelic diversity among populations (DST) was 0.0784. The mean genetic differentiation coefficient (Gst=0.2326) estimated from the detected 688 loci indicated that there was 76.74% genetic differentiation within the populations, which is consistent with the results from Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) analysis. Based upon population structure and phylogenetic analysis, five groups were formed and a special population with mixed ancestry was inferred indicating that human-mediated dispersal may have had a significant effect on population structure of M. sinensis. Evaluating the genetic structure and genetic diversity at morphological and molecular levels of the wild M. sinensis in Southwest China is critical to further utilize the wild M. sinensis germplasm in the breeding program. The results in this study will facilitate the biofuel feedstock breeding program and germplasm conservation.
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Triphasic and epithelioid minimal fat renal angiomyolipoma and clear cell renal cell carcinoma: qualitative and quantitative CEUS characteristics and distinguishing features.
Abdom Imaging
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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To determine the contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) characteristics of minimal fat renal angiomyolipoma (AML) (triphasic and epithelioid) and compare them to each other and to clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) to explore their differential diagnostic clue.
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Phosphorylated p38, a negative prognostic biomarker, complements TNM staging prognostication in colorectal cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) played a pivotal role in the regulation of disease progression and correlated with tumor prognosis. Here, we characterized the prognostic effect of p-p38 in colorectal cancer (CRC). Three hundred and sixteen CRC patients in stages I-III were recruited in this study. P-p38 expression was semi-quantitatively evaluated using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry staining. Overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), local failure-free survival (LFFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) of patient subgroups, segregated by p-p38 expression level and clinical stage, were compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis. We found that p-p38 was overexpressed in 48.1 % (152/316) CRC tissues, whereas low or deficiently expressed in normal adjacent epithelia. Overexpression of p-p38 predicted poor OS (P?
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Protective effects of Vitamin C against spinal cord injury-induced renal damage through suppression of NF-?B and proinflammatory cytokines.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Spinal cord injury [SCI] leads to complex cellular and molecular interactions which affects various organ systems. The present study focused on determining the protection offered by Vitamin C against spinal injury-induced kidney damage in wistar rats. The experimental protocol was performed with three groups; Sham, SCI and Vitamin C [20 mg/kg/bw] followed by SCI. The kidney tissue was investigated for oxidative stress parameters [reactive oxygen species, protein carbonyl, sulphydryl content, thiobarbituric acid reactive species [TBARS], and myeloperoxidase activity] and antioxidant status [glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase activity]. Further, inflammation studies were performed by analyzing expression of NF-?B, cycloxygenase-2, iNOS through western blot analysis and inflammatory cytokines by TNF-? and IL-1? levels. The present study shows clear evidence that Vitamin C treatment abrogated spinal injury-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses and enhanced the antioxidant status. Thus, the protection offered by Vitamin C against spinal cord injury-induced kidney damage is attributed to its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
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Gender-specific genetic associations of polymorphisms in ACE, AKR1C2, FTO and MMP2 with weight gain over a 10-year period.
Genes Nutr
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Weight gain, when it leads to overweight or obesity, is nowadays one of the major health problems. ACE, FTO, AKR1C2, TIMP4 and MMP2 genes have been implicated in previous studies on weight regulation. This study investigated the contribution of polymorphisms in these five candidate genes to the risk of weight gain over a 10-year time period. Two groups were selected from participants of the Doetinchem cohort study who were followed over a 10-year period: A stable weight group (±2 kg/10 year; n = 259) and a weight gainers group who increased their body weight by roughly 10 % (>8 kg/10 year; n = 237). Starting BMI was between 20 and 35 kg/m(2) and baseline age between 20 and 45 years. Selected SNPs and insert/deletion in candidate genes were measured in each group. In men, the allelic distribution of FTO rs9939609 (? (2) p = 0.005), ACE rs4340 (? (2) p = 0.006) and AKR1C2 rs12249281 (? (2) p = 0.019) differed between the weight stable and weight gainers group. Interaction between FTO rs9939609 and ACE rs4340 was observed. In women, the allelic distribution of MMP2 rs1132896 differed between the weight stable and weight gainers group (? (2) p = 0.00001). The A-allele of FTO was associated with a 1.99× higher risk of gaining weight in men (OR 1.99, p = 0.020), while in women, the C-allele of MMP2 was associated with a 2.50× higher risk of weight gain (OR 2.50, p = 0.001) over the 10-year period. We found that FTO in men and MMP2 in women are associated with weight gain over a 10-year follow-up period.
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Blood-brain barrier permeability change and regulation mechanism after subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Metab Brain Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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We aimed to investigate the blood brain barrier (BBB) change caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and to explore the molecular mechanisms of acute brain injury after SAH. The SD rat model of SAH was firstly established by endovascular filament perforation technique. The changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), BBB permeability and ultrastructure of brain tissue at different time points after SAH were respectively observed by Doppler flowmetry, evans blue extravasation and transmission electron microscopy. Meanwhile, the expression changes of Claudin-5, Occludin, Zo-1 and Caveolin-1 were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Furthermore, the expressions of Akt, P-Akt and Foxo1A were also measured by Western blot. The change of BBB permeability showed two peaks at 3 and 72 h after SAH, corresponding to the change of rCBF. The BBB tight junction opening can be observed after SAH, and the largest opening was occurred at 3 h and 72 h. There was no significant change in Caveolin-1, Claudin-5 and Akt expressions after SAH (P?>?0.05), while Zo-1 and Occludin were significantly down-regulated (P?
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Dopamine D2 receptors preferentially regulate the development of light responses of the inner retina.
Eur. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Retinal light responsiveness measured via electroretinography undergoes developmental modulation, and is thought to be critically regulated by both visual experience and dopamine. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether dopamine D2 receptors regulate the visual experience-dependent functional development of the retina. Accordingly, we recorded electroretinograms from wild-type mice and mice with a genetic deletion of the gene that encodes the D2 receptor raised under normal cyclic light conditions and constant darkness. Our results demonstrate that D2 receptor mutation preferentially increases the amplitude of the inner retinal light responses evoked by high-intensity light measured as oscillatory potentials in adult mice. During postnatal development, all three major components of electroretinograms, i.e. a-waves, b-waves, and oscillatory potentials, increase with age. Comparatively, D2 receptor mutation preferentially reduces the age-dependent increase in b-waves evoked by low-intensity light. Light deprivation from birth reduces b-wave amplitudes and completely abolishes the increased amplitude of oscillatory potentials of D2 receptor mutants. Taken together, these results demonstrate that D2 receptors play an important role in the activity-dependent functional development of the mouse retina.
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Dopamine inhibits excitatory neurotransmission in basolateral amygdala during development via pre-synaptic mechanism.
Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Dopaminergic signaling in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is important for emotion-related activity. However, little is known about the influence of dopamine (DA) on excitatory synaptic transmission of pyramidal neurons in BLA at early developmental stage. Here in this study, we observed the effect of DA on excitatory neurotransmission in the pyramidal cells of BLA in acute slices. Methods: Acute slices from amygdala of rats at the age of 14-16 days were prepared and maintained in vitro using standard method. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were performed to examine the evoked excitatory postsynaptic current (eEPSC), spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC) and miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC). Drugs including DA and synaptic blockers were added in recording solution due to different experimental designs. Results: We found that bath application of DA at a concentration of 100 ?M significantly inhibited the amplitude of evoked EPSC. However, the amplitude and frequency of mEPSC were not affected. We also found increased pair pulse facilitation after DA application, indicating DA inhibited excitatory neurotransmission through suppression of release probability at the pre-synaptic terminals. Importantly, DA was also effective in decreasing activity induced upregulation in sEPSCs. Moreover, the DA effects were not affected by either antagonist of dopamine 1 or dopamine 2-like receptors. Conclusion: We studied the effects of DA on excitatory neurotransmission and found that DA inhibited glutamatergic synaptic transmission via modulation of pre-synaptic release probability.
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Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the uterus confirmed with fluorescence in situ hybridization in a 29-year-old Chinese female: A case report and published work review.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (ES/pPNET) are a group of small round cell sarcomas that show varying degrees of neuroectodermal differentiation characterized by translocation involving the EWS gene. Uterine ES/pPNET is a rare entity. A 29-year-old Chinese female who presented with abdominal swelling and pain was diagnosed with a primary uterine ES/pPNET on the basis of clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) data. She was given a multimodal treatment, including neoadjuvant, 95% cytoreductive, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The patient is currently alive with persistent disease after 18?months of follow-up. We emphasized the crucial role of molecular techniques in the differential diagnosis of small round cell tumors in this unusual location. Multimodal therapy may improve the outcomes of patients.
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Three-dimensional contrast-enhanced sonography in the assessment of breast tumor angiogenesis: correlation with microvessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor expression.
J Ultrasound Med
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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The purpose of this study was to differentiate perfusion and vascular characteristics between benign and malignant breast lesions by 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced sonography and evaluate their correlation with microvessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression for further clinical exploration.
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[Preparation and optimization of zhitong micro-emulsion formula].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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To prepare Zhitong micro-emulsion in this study, with the empirical formula of Zhitong preparation as the model medicine, the essential oil in the formula as the oil phase, and the water decoction as the water phase. The types of surfactant and co-surfactant were investigated. The changes in micro-emulsion conductivity and construction, the water percentage in the micro-emulsion system, the changing curve of conductivity and the fine pseudo-ternary phase diagram of micro-emulsion were drawn to determine the surfactant-co-surfactant mass ratio (K(m)). Subsequently, the D-mixture design was used to optimize Zhitong Micro-emulsion formula, with particle size and surface tension of micro-emulsion as the indexes. Finally, efforts were made to determine part of physical parameters of Zhitong micro-emulsion and preliminarily detect its stability. The results showed that the micro-emulsion was optimal with the EL-35-tween 20 ratio of 4:1 in surfactant, whereas the absolute ethyl alcohol was recommended as the co-surfactant. The ratio between surfactant and co-surfactant (K(m)) was 1.5. The finalized micro-emulsion formula contains 12% surfactant, 8% co-surfactant, 70% 1 g x mL(-1) water decoction and 8% oil. The results of the preliminary stability experiment showed a better stability of Zhitong micro-emulsion.
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Magnetic detection of mercuric ion using giant magnetoresistance-based biosensing system.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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We have demonstrated a novel sensing strategy employing a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) biosensor and DNA chemistry for the detection of mercuric ion (Hg(2+)). This assay takes advantages of high sensitivity and real-time signal readout of GMR biosensor and high selectivity of thymine-thymine (T-T) pair for Hg(2+). The assay has a detection limit of 10 nM in both buffer and natural water, which is the maximum mercury level in drinking water regulated by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The magnitude of the dynamic range for Hg(2+) detection is up to three orders (10 nM to 10 ?M). Herein, GMR sensing technology is first introduced into a pollutant monitoring area. It can be foreseen that the GMR biosensor could become a robust contender in the areas of environmental monitoring and food safety testing.
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Cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes, many years after exposure of workers to low-dose ionizing radiation.
Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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The present study aims to measure chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes from 25 subjects exposed to 0.10-0.33Gy external or internal irradiation 32-41 years ago using conventional cytogenetic analysis methods. The frequencies of total chromosome-type aberrations and micronucleus significantly increased in the exposed group compared with that in age-matched control group (p<0.001); chromatid-type aberrations showed no difference between the two groups (p>0.05). When exposed subjects were divided into two groups based on exposure dose, higher levels of dicentric plus translocation frequencies were observed in the ?0.15Gy dose group compared with those in the <0.15Gy dose group, though the difference was not significant. Borderline association between exposure dose and dicentric frequency was detected in the exposed group (r=0.358; p=0.079). These results suggest that the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation remain in subjects exposed to low-dose radiation even decades after exposure.
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C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) contributes to hepatocyte death via the promotion of ERO1? signaling in acute liver failure.
Biochem. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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C/EBP Homologous Protein (CHOP) has been shown to be a key molecule in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis. ERO1?, a target of CHOP, is an important oxidizing enzyme to regulate ROS, which play a prominent role in hepatocellular death during acute liver failure (ALF). However, little is known how CHOP facilitates ROS-induced hepatocellular injury. This study was designed to investigate the roles and molecular mechanisms of CHOP in ALF. In the liver tissues from ALF patients, the expression of CHOP was significantly increased, which accompanied by increased expression of PERK signaling, ATF6 signaling, IRE1 signaling and ERO1a, as compared with healthy controls. In the mouse model of GaIN/LPS-induced ALF, the hepatocellular injury was accompanied by upregulated PERK signaling, ATF6 signaling, IRE1 signaling, CHOP and ERO1a. In contrast, CHOP deficiency decreased hepatocellular apoptosis/necrosis and increased animal survival. Furthermore, disruption of CHOP decreased ERO1a expression leading to reducing ROS-induced cell death in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, ERO1a overexpression restored GaIN/LPS-induced hepatocellular injury in CHOP-deficient mice. Our studies demonstrate for the first time that CHOP promotes liver damage during ALF through activation of ERO1a, a key mediator to link ER stress and ROS. Therefore, targeting CHOP/ERO1a signaling could be a novel therapeutic approach during ALF.
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Use of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt combined with autologous bone marrow cell infusion in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis: an exploratory study.
Cytotherapy
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Currently, there is no treatment for decompensated liver cirrhosis except for liver transplantation. The safety and effect on liver function of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) with and without autologous bone marrow cell (BMC) infusion in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis were determined.
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Postoperative haemodynamic changes in transplanted liver: Long-term follow-up with ultrasonography.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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To investigate haemodynamic changes in the transplanted liver without postoperative complications.
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Analysis of apparent integrated backscatter coefficient and backscattered spectral centroid shift in Calcaneus in vivo for the ultrasonic evaluation of osteoporosis.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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The purposes of our study were to evaluate the correlation among apparent integrated backscatter coefficient (AIB), spectral centroid shift (SCS) of ultrasonic backscatter signals and bone mineral density (BMD) and to examine the effectiveness of ultrasound variables as predictors of osteoporosis. A total of 1011 persons aged 21-80 y old were included. All study participants underwent BMD measurements of the lumbar spine (LSBMD) and the femoral neck (FNBMD). The participants also underwent calcaneal measurements to determine AIB and SCS with central frequencies of 3.5 (one transducer) and 5.0 MHz (the other transducer). AIB decreased with age and was positively correlated with BMD, while SCS increased with age and was negatively correlated with BMD. The correlation coefficient of SCS with LSBMD and FNBMD at 3.5 MHz was -0.72 and -0.70, respectively. The correlation coefficient at 5.0 MHz was -0.75 and -0.74, respectively. The correlation coefficient of AIB with LSBMD and FNBMD at 3.5 MHz was 0.65 and 0.63. The correlation coefficient at 5.0 MHz was 0.59 and 0.55, respectively. The correlation between SCS and BMD was significantly better than the correlation between AIB and BMD. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, a significant difference was found between the areas under the curve for SCS and AIB at 3.5 MHz (0.781 vs. 0.715, respectively, p < 0.05), as well as at 5.0 MHz (0.782 vs. 0.709, respectively, p < 0.05). The optimum T-score threshold for SCS was -1.3 for both transducers. The sensitivity and specificity of SCS at 3.5 MHz and 5.0 MHz for the optimum threshold were 64%, 85%, 63% and 86%, respectively. In conclusion, the correlations among the ultrasound parameters and BMDs are strong. SCS performs better than AIB in differentiating patients with osteoporosis. Ultrasound variables may be taken into consideration as predictors of osteoporosis in the future considering its portability.
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Three molybdophosphates based on Strandberg-type anions and Zn(II)-H2biim/H(2)O subunits: syntheses, structures and catalytic properties.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Three new inorganic-organic hybrid compounds based on Strandberg-type anions and Zn(ii)-H2biim/H2O subunits, namely {H4(H2biim)3}[Zn(H2biim)(H3biim)(H2O)(HP2Mo5O23)]2·3H2O (1), {H9(H2biim)7}[(?-biim){(Zn(H2O)2)0.5(HP2Mo5O23)}2]·7H2O (2) and {H7(H2biim)7}[Zn(H2biim)(H2O)2(HP2Mo5O23)][H2P2Mo5O23]·8H2O (3) (H2biim = 2,2'-biimidazole), have been synthesized in aqueous solutions and characterized. They were also used as efficient and reusable catalysts for the protection of carbonyl compounds. Their fascinating structural features are that mono Zn(ii)-supporting biphosphopentamolybdate ({P2Mo5}) clusters exist in their crystal structures, and the nitrogen donor ligand H2biim exhibits three different coordination modes in these three compounds, respectively: for 1, two 2,2'-biimidazole molecules, as mono- and bidentate ligands coordinate to the same Zn(ii) ion; for 2, one bi-negative tetradentate ligand ?-biim bridges two Zn(ii) ions, while for 3, one neutral bidentate H2biim ligand links one Zn(ii) ion. Most importantly, compounds 1-3 represent the first example where Strandberg-type POMs are used as acid-catalysts in an organic reaction.
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Transcription Factor CREB is Involved in CaSR-mediated Cytoskeleton Gene Expression.
Anat Rec (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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Our previous studies illustrated that a steady increase of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i) was important for maintaining microtubules (MTs) rearrangement in apoptotic cells. However, little is known about the effect of calcium sensing receptor (CaSR)-mediated increase in [Ca(2+) ]i on cytoskeleton gene expression. We examined the impact of taxol or CaSR agonist/antagonist on the regulation of [Ca(2+) ]i concentration, cytoskeleton arrangement, phosphorylated CREB and cytoskeleton gene expressions in HeLa cells with dominant negative plasmid of CREB (PM). The present study demonstrated that Gdcl3 (a specific CaSR agonist) evoked a rapid increase of [Ca(2+) ]i, formed a rigid bundle of MTs which surrounded the nucleus and decreased the cytoskeleton gene expressions in HeLa cells. These effects were rescued by addition of NPS2390 (a specific CaSR antagonist). Moreover, CaSR activity affected cytoskeleton gene expression through transcription factor CREB. Histoscores of pCREB immunoreactivity in tissues of cervical adenocarcinoma, renal clear cell carcinoma, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were markedly increased compared with non malignant tissue. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that CaSR-mediated increase in [Ca(2+) ]i probably modulate cytoskeleton organization and gene expression via transcription factor CREB. Anat Rec, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Diagnostic value of automated 3D ultrasound for incisional hernia.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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The automated volume scanning system (AVSS) has been applied in breast diseases, but its use in incisional hernias has not been reported. In this study, conventional handheld B-mode ultrasound (HHUS) and AVSS examined a total of 122 hernia defects in 78 patients. The results from two modalities were then compared with surgical findings for the purpose of assessing the diagnostic value of AVSS. Statistics showed that surgeries identified 38 small, 23 medium and 17 large incisional hernias. The results of AVSS completely agreed with surgical findings; however, HHUS misidentified nine large hernias as medium and seven medium hernias as large. AVSS proved to be more accurate than HHUS in measuring the length and width of the hernia. It also outperformed HHUS in both detecting the incisional hernias (91.8% vs. 78.7%, p = 0.00) and determining hernia contents (89.3% vs. 68.0%, p = 0.00). Moreover, the coronal images AVSS obtained clearly displayed the shapes of the hernias, with 46 being regular and 32 irregular. Overall, AVSS can be used as a promising diagnostic modality for incisional hernias.
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Cytotoxicity and enhancement activity of essential oil from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. as a natural transdermal penetration enhancer.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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The aim of this present study is to investigate the effect of Zanthoxylum bungeanum oil (essential oil from Z. bungeanum Maxim.) on cytotoxicity and the transdermal permeation of 5-fluorouracil and indomethacin. The cytotoxicity of Z. bungeanum oil on dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes was studied using an MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The rat skin was employed to determine the percutaneous penetration enhancement effect of Z. bungeanum oil on hydrophilic and lipophilic model drugs, i.e., 5-fluorouracil and indomethacin. The secondary structure changes of the rat stratum corneum (SC) were determined using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and saturated solubilities and SC/vehicle partition coefficients of two model drugs with and without Z. bungeanum oil were also measured to understand its related mechanisms of action. It was found that the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of Z. bungeanum oil were significantly lower in HaCaT and CCC-ESF-1 cell lines compared to the well-established and standard penetration enhancer Azone. The Z. bungeanum oil at various concentrations effectively facilitated the percutaneous penetration of two model drugs across the rat skin. In addition, the mechanisms of permeation enhancement by Z. bungeanum oil could be explained with saturated solubility, SC/vehicle partition coefficient, and secondary structure changes of SC.
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Single-stage surgical repair of airway gastric fistula after esophagectomy.
J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Airway gastric fistula (AGF) is a rare but catastrophic complication after esophagectomy. Surgical repair with viable tissue interposed between the airway and alimentary tracts remains the definitive treatment. However, it is challenging for surgeons, and only anecdotally described in sporadic case reports due to the complexity of the techniques necessary for successful surgical intervention. Here, we report two cases successfully managed via single-stage surgical re-exploration. On outpatient follow-up, the two Chinese patients were progressing satisfactorily without complaint of any dyspnea or dysphagia.
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Evaluation of 11 terrestrial carbon-nitrogen cycle models against observations from two temperate Free-Air CO2 Enrichment studies.
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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We analysed the responses of 11 ecosystem models to elevated atmospheric [CO2 ] (eCO2 ) at two temperate forest ecosystems (Duke and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments) to test alternative representations of carbon (C)-nitrogen (N) cycle processes. We decomposed the model responses into component processes affecting the response to eCO2 and confronted these with observations from the FACE experiments. Most of the models reproduced the observed initial enhancement of net primary production (NPP) at both sites, but none was able to simulate both the sustained 10-yr enhancement at Duke and the declining response at ORNL: models generally showed signs of progressive N limitation as a result of lower than observed plant N uptake. Nonetheless, many models showed qualitative agreement with observed component processes. The results suggest that improved representation of above-ground-below-ground interactions and better constraints on plant stoichiometry are important for a predictive understanding of eCO2 effects. Improved accuracy of soil organic matter inventories is pivotal to reduce uncertainty in the observed C-N budgets. The two FACE experiments are insufficient to fully constrain terrestrial responses to eCO2 , given the complexity of factors leading to the observed diverging trends, and the consequential inability of the models to explain these trends. Nevertheless, the ecosystem models were able to capture important features of the experiments, lending some support to their projections.
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Contribution of contrast-enhanced sonography in the detection of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
J Ultrasound Med
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of contrast-enhanced sonography in the diagnosis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma up to 3 cm and analyze its dynamic enhancement patterns.
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Meta-analysis of the therapeutic effects of antibiotic versus appendicectomy for the treatment of acute appendicitis.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Appendicectomy has been the gold standard treatment of acute appendicitis for more than a century, while nonoperative therapies, including antibiotics, have acquired increased interest in recent years. The present meta-analysis aimed to compare the therapeutic effects of antibiotics versus appendicectomy for the treatment of acute appendicitis. Medline, Embase and The Cochrane Library databases were searched. Prospective randomized controlled trials that compared antibiotic treatment with surgery were included. The outcomes evaluated included the time of hospital stay, complications and time to work. There were no statistically significant differences between the antibiotic and appendicectomy groups with regard to the time of hospital stay and complications. However, the time to work was significantly longer in the appendicectomy group when compared with the antibiotic group. In addition, the therapeutic effects of antibiotics and appendicectomy were comparable for the treatment of acute appendicitis.
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Where does the carbon go? A model-data intercomparison of vegetation carbon allocation and turnover processes at two temperate forest free-air CO2 enrichment sites.
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (eCO2) has the potential to increase vegetation carbon storage if increased net primary production causes increased long-lived biomass. Model predictions of eCO2 effects on vegetation carbon storage depend on how allocation and turnover processes are represented. We used data from two temperate forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments to evaluate representations of allocation and turnover in 11 ecosystem models. Observed eCO2 effects on allocation were dynamic. Allocation schemes based on functional relationships among biomass fractions that vary with resource availability were best able to capture the general features of the observations. Allocation schemes based on constant fractions or resource limitations performed less well, with some models having unintended outcomes. Few models represent turnover processes mechanistically and there was wide variation in predictions of tissue lifespan. Consequently, models did not perform well at predicting eCO2 effects on vegetation carbon storage. Our recommendations to reduce uncertainty include: use of allocation schemes constrained by biomass fractions; careful testing of allocation schemes; and synthesis of allocation and turnover data in terms of model parameters. Data from intensively studied ecosystem manipulation experiments are invaluable for constraining models and we recommend that such experiments should attempt to fully quantify carbon, water and nutrient budgets.
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Magnetoresistive performance and comparison of supermagnetic nanoparticles on giant magnetoresistive sensor-based detection system.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Giant magnetoresistive (GMR) biosensors have emerged as powerful tools for ultrasensitive, multiplexed, real-time electrical readout, and rapid biological/chemical detection while combining with magnetic particles. Finding appropriate magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and its influences on the detection signal is a vital aspect to the GMR bio-sensing technology. Here, we report a GMR sensor based detection system capable of stable and convenient connection, and real-time measurement. Five different types of MNPs with sizes ranging from 10 to 100 nm were investigated for GMR biosensing. The experiments were accomplished with the aid of DNA hybridization and detection architecture on GMR sensor surface. We found that different MNPs markedly affected the final detection signal, depending on their characteristics of magnetic moment, size, and surface-based binding ability, etc. This work may provide a useful guidance in selecting or preparing MNPs to enhance the sensitivity of GMR biosensors, and eventually lead to a versatile and portable device for molecular diagnostics.
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ClC-3 chloride channel/antiporter defect contributes to inflammatory bowel disease in humans and mice.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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ClC-3 channel/antiporter plays a critical role in a variety of cellular activities. ClC-3 has been detected in the ileum and colon.
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Dose-volume histogram predictors of chronic gastrointestinal complications after radical hysterectomy and postoperative intensity modulated radiotherapy for early-stage cervical cancer.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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The small bowel is one of the critical organs involved in gastrointestinal complications in cervical cancer treated with postoperative intensity modulated radiotherapy. Even with modest doses of radiation therapy (45-50Gy), the risk of severe injury from postoperative radiation therapy is between 5% and 15%. Up to now, a predictive model of acute GI complications of the small bowel has been established with the aid of Quantitative Analyses of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic. However, the correlation between dose-volume effect and chronic GI complications of the small bowel has not been extensively investigated. In the article, the correlation has been studied preliminarily.
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Effect of bowel obstruction on stage IV colorectal cancer.
Mol Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide, with a high mortality rate, particularly among patients with advanced-stage disease complicated by bowel obstruction. The present study aimed to investigate the value of different surgical procedures and potential predictors of survival for patients with stage IV CRC, with or without bowel obstruction. Between August, 1994 and December, 2005, a total of 2,950 CRC patients were diagnosed and treated at our hospital. Among these, 381 patients had stage IV disease and were divided into two groups according to the presence (n=295) or absence (n=86) of bowel obstruction. The clinical data of all the patients with stage IV CRC were retrospectively analyzed and all the patients were followed up. Our results demonstrated statistically significant differences in gender, radical resection, histological type, ascites, tumor location, peritoneal and liver metastases between the obstruction and non-obstruction groups. We also observed that hepatic metastases and radical resection were factors associated with prognosis according to the univariate and multivariate analyses. Furthermore, the mean/median survival time was 49.4/21.6 and 37.2/17.1 months in the non-obstruction and obstruction groups, respectively. In conclusion, obstruction was not found to be an independent indicator of survival for patients with stage IV CRC, with patients in the obstruction group exhibiting a worse overall survival compared to those in the non-obstruction group, whereas active radical surgery significantly improved the prognosis of patients with stage IV CRC.
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Effect of perioperative glucocorticoid administration on postoperative complications following esophagectomy: A meta-analysis.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Perioperative corticosteroid administration is a controversial therapy for improving the short-term prognosis following surgery. The objective of the current meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of the perioperative use of corticosteroids during esophagectomy for esophageal carcinoma. A comprehensive study was performed using references selected from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, MEDLINE (Ovid databases), EMBASE and three Chinese databases (Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals). Eligible studies were restricted to randomized clinical trials that reported data from patients undergoing esophagectomy. In addition, treated groups of patients received perioperative corticosteroid administration and control groups received a placebo infusion, such as saline water. The studies evaluated the incidence of postoperative complications and the variation of inflammatory mediators. All extracted data underwent meta-analysis using Review Manager 5.1 software. Only six studies were eligible for selection. The following parameters were found to be reduced following the use of methylprednisolone: Interleukin (IL)-6 immediately following surgery and on postoperative days (PODs) 1 and 3; IL-8 immediately following surgery; and PaO2/FiO2 on POD 3. Moreover, organ failure, cardiovascular complications and pulmonary morbidity were all reduced in patients with corticosteroid usage. Certain factors showed no significant differences between the treated and control groups, including IL-8 on POD 1, IL-6 prior to surgery and on POD 5, PaO2/FiO2 following surgery, mortality, anastomotic leakage, severe infection and renal and hepatic failure. Prophylactic administration of methylprednisolone during the perioperative period may reduce the incidence of specific types of postoperative complications and inhibit the postoperative inflammatory reaction. Additional randomized controlled trials must be performed.
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Medical treatment of osteonecrosis of the knee associated with thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis.
Orthopedics
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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In 6 patients with stage II knee osteonecrosis, all 6 with thrombophilia and 4 with concurrent hypofibrinolysis, the authors prospectively determined whether anticoagulation with enoxaparin could prevent collapse and progression to osteoarthritis, ameliorate pain, and restore function. The 6 patients were treated with enoxaparin (40 to 60 mg/d for 3 or more months) as mandated by a US Food and Drug Administration-approved protocol. In post-enoxaparin prospective follow-up, patients were reassessed clinically every 4 to 6 months, and radiographs were obtained every year. The 6 patients followed up at 15.1, 7.5, 3.9, 2.25, 2, and 1 year, respectively. None progressed to joint collapse or severe osteoarthritis. Four became and remained asymptomatic at 2-, 3.9-, 7.5-, and 15.1-year follow-up, respectively. A fifth patient did not progress to collapse or severe osteoarthritis but had residual pain at 2.25-year follow-up. The sixth patient had no symptomatic benefit on enoxaparin but improved on rivaroxaban at 1-year follow-up. Two patients had recurrences of knee pain 1 and 4 years after their initial treatment with enoxaparin. One resolved after a second course of enoxaparin, and the other, with a second recurrence 1 year after the second course, resolved after a third course. Pretreatment, all 6 patients required canes, crutches, or wheelchairs, but after enoxaparin, no patient required them, and walking was unrestricted. Thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis contributes to the pathogenesis of knee osteonecrosis. Thrombophilic-hypofibrinolytic patients with stage II knee osteonecrosis treated with enoxaparin have had no collapse or progression to severe osteoarthritis, and most have had resolution of pain and restoration of full function. This represents a major improvement compared with the natural history of untreated spontaneous knee osteonecrosis.
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Comprehensive analysis of the association of EGFR, CALM3 and SMARCD1 gene polymorphisms with BMD in Caucasian women.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Three genes, including EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), CALM3 (calmodulin 3, calcium-modulated protein 3) and SMARCD1 (SWI/SNF-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily d member 1), play different roles in bone and/or fat metabolism in Caucasian women. In this population-based investigation of 870 unrelated postmenopausal Caucasian women, CALM3 polymorphisms were significantly associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (FNK BMD), hip BMD and spine BMD. Age and tobacco status also affected BMD levels and were therefore corrected for in our statistical analysis.
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Transplantation of ATP7B-Transduced Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Decreases Copper Overload in Rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recent studies have demonstrated that transplantation of ATP7B-transduced hepatocytes ameliorates disease progression in LEC (Long-Evans Cinnamon) rats, a model of Wilson's disease (WD). However, the inability of transplanted cells to proliferate in a normal liver hampers long-term treatment. In the current study, we investigated whether transplantation of ATP7B-transduced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) could decrease copper overload in LEC rats.
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Amniotic membrane covering promotes healing of cornea epithelium and improves visual acuity after debridement for fungal keratitis.
Int J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate the effect of amniotic membrane covering (AMC) on the healing of cornea epithelium and visual acuity for fungal keratitis after debridement.
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Bacterial community structure is indicative of chemical inputs in the Upper Mississippi River.
Front Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Local and regional associations between bacterial communities and nutrient and chemical concentrations were assessed in the Upper Mississippi River in Minnesota to determine if community structure was associated with discrete types of chemical inputs associated with different land cover. Bacterial communities were characterized by Illumina sequencing of the V6 region of 16S rDNA and compared to >40 chemical and nutrient concentrations. Local bacterial community structure was shaped primarily by associations among bacterial orders. However, order abundances were correlated regionally with nutrient and chemical concentrations, and were also related to major land coverage types. Total organic carbon and total dissolved solids were among the primary abiotic factors associated with local community composition and co-varied with land cover. Escherichia coli concentration was poorly related to community composition or nutrient concentrations. Abundances of 14 bacterial orders were related to land coverage type, and seven showed significant differences in abundance (P ? 0.046) between forested or anthropogenically-impacted sites. This study identifies specific bacterial orders that were associated with chemicals and nutrients derived from specific land cover types and may be useful in assessing water quality. Results of this study reveal the need to investigate community dynamics at both the local and regional scales and to identify shifts in taxonomic community structure that may be useful in determining sources of pollution in the Upper Mississippi River.
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A Novel Neurotoxin from Venom of the Spider, Brachypelma albopilosum.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Spiders have evolved highly selective toxins for insects. There are many insecticidal neurotoxins in spider venoms. Although a large amount of work has been done to focus on neurotoxicity of spider components, little information, which is related with effects of spider toxins on tumor cell proliferation and cytotoxicity, is available for Brachypelma albopilosum venom. In this work, a novel spider neurotoxin (brachyin) was identified and characterized from venoms of the spider, Brachypelma albopilosum. Brachyin is composed of 41 amino acid residues with the sequence of CLGENVPCDKDRPNCCSRYECLEPTGYGWWYASYYCYKKRS. There are six cysteines in this sequence, which form three disulfided bridges. The serine residue at the C-terminus is amidated. Brachyin showed strong lethal effects on American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) and Tenebrio molitor (common mealbeetle). This neurotoxin also showed significant analgesic effects in mice models including abdominal writhing induced by acetic acid and formalin-induced paw licking tests. It was interesting that brachyin exerted marked inhibition on tumor cell proliferation.
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Crenolanib, a PDGFR inhibitor, suppresses lung cancer cell proliferation and inhibits tumor growth in vivo.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptors (PDGFR), including PDGFR? and PDGFR?, play important roles in tumorigenesis, tumor progression, and the regulation of stromal cell function. Constitutive activation of PDGFR signaling, gene rearrangement, and activating mutations of PDGFR have been identified in various types of human tumors and malignancies. PDGFR? and PDGFR? belong to the family of type III receptor tyrosine kinases and, upon stimulation, activate downstream signaling cascades. Crenolanib is a specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets and inhibits the kinase activity of PDGFR and the FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3. Its clinical efficacy in several human tumors is currently under investigation in Phase II clinical trials. In this study, we examined the potential role of crenolanib in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using A549 cells as a model system, we have shown that crenolanib is capable of suppressing proliferation and inducing apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Crenolanib-treated cells have reduced migratory activity in response to inducers of chemotaxis. Furthermore, the in vivo antitumor activity of crenolanib was confirmed in an NSCLC xenograft tumor model. Injection of crenolanib significantly inhibited the growth of tumor mass by inducing apoptosis in tumor cells. Our results provide strong evidence supporting the use of crenolanib as a potential therapeutic agent in treating NSCLC. This work sets a foundation for further development of targeted and personalized therapeutics for lung cancer.
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Feasibility study of dual energy radiographic imaging for target localization in radiotherapy for lung tumors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Dual-energy (DE) radiographic imaging improves tissue discrimination by separating soft from hard tissues in the acquired images. This study was to establish a mathematic model of DE imaging based on intrinsic properties of tissues and quantitatively evaluate the feasibility of applying the DE imaging technique to tumor localization in radiotherapy.
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[Chemical constituents from roots and rhizomes of Panax ginseng cultivated in Jilin province].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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The chemical constituents of the roots and rhizomes of Panax ginseng were systematically investigated by various column chromatographic methods including Amberlite XAD-4 macroporous adsorptive resins and silica gel as well as high-performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were identified by physico-chemical properties and spectral analyses. Twenty-eight compounds were isolated from the 70% ethanolic-aqueous extract and identified as koryoginsenoside R1 (1), ginsenoside Rg1 (2), ginsenoside Rf (3), notoginsenoside R2 (4), ginsenoside Rg2 (5), notoginsenoside Fe (6), ginsenjilinol (7), ginsenoside Re5 (8), noto-ginsenoside N (9), notoginsenoside R1 (10), ginsenoside Re2 (11), ginsenoside Re1 (12), ginsenoside Re (13), ginsenoside Rs2 (14), ginsenoside Ro methyl ester (15), ginsenoside Rd (16), ginsenoside Re3 (17), ginsenoside Re4 (18), 20-gluco-ginsenoside Rf (19), ginsenoside Ro (20), ginsenoside Rc (21), quinquenoside-R1 (22), ginsenoside Ra2 (23), ginsenoside Rb1 (24), ginsenoside Ra1 (25), ginsenoside Ra3 (26), ginsenoside Rb2 (27), and notoginsenoside R4 (28). All isolated compounds are 20 (S) -protopanaxadiol or protopanaxatriol type triterpenoid saponins. Compound 1 was isolated from the roots and rhizomes of P. ginseng cultivated in Jilin province for the first time and compound 6 was isolated from the roots and rhizomes of P. ginseng for the first time. The 1H-NMR data of compounds 6, 14 and 19 were assigned for the first time.
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[Research on parameters of dynamic colorimetric temperature sensor and its application to fuel air explosion temperature field detection].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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According to the theory of colorimetric thermometry,the influences of center wavelength, wavelength bandwidth and solid angle on response speed and the precision of the sensor was analyzed systematically, and the operating parameters for transient high temperature measurement system were determined. A calculation method based on photoelectric conversion coefficient, and higher and lower operating wavelength of the colorimetric temperature sensor was given. At the optimal operating temperature, calibration experiment was conducted in a high temperature blackbody furnace. Based on the experimental results, the operating parameters of the sensor were determined and the colorimetric temperature response was calculated. The results show that the errors between the calculated response and the experiment one are less than 1%. By using the colorimetric temperature sensor, the temperature response of fuel air explosion field was detected and the variations of temperature with time and space in detonation field were obtained.
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Identification and control of a poliomyelitis outbreak in Xinjiang, China.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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The last case of infection with wild-type poliovirus indigenous to China was reported in 1994, and China was certified as a poliomyelitis-free region in 2000. In 2011, an outbreak of infection with imported wild-type poliovirus occurred in the province of Xinjiang.
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[Effect of microemulsion technology on release of compounds in Zhitong cataplasm and content variation].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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To study the varieties of adhesives in gels on the basis of previous studies, dosage of adhesives required for forming of gels by using the single factor design, as well as the drug loading capacity of gels with the adhesiveness and stickiness as the scoring indicators, in order to determine the forming method of analgesic micro-emulsion gel. Subsequently, the improved Franz diffusing cell method was adopted to study the release of water-soluble components and liposoluble components in analgesic gels, with imperatorin and ferulic acid as index components. The results showed that analgesic micro-emulsion gel could promote the release of imperatorin and ferulic acid. Finally, HPLC was used to detect that the loss amount of volatile components in analgesic micro-emulsion gel was 23.13% lower than that in the original analgesic gel. In the experiment, we finally prepared finished products of micro-emulsion gel, discovered that the micro-emulsion technology is helpful to improve the synchronous release of water-soluble components and liposoluble components in prescriptions and can reduce the loss of volatile components.
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Diagnostic Performances of Various Gray-Scale, Color Doppler, and Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography Findings in Predicting Malignant Thyroid Nodules.
Thyroid
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Background: Ultrasonography is the most frequently used clinical tool for the identification, assessment, and follow-up of thyroid nodules. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the value of diagnostic ultrasonography indicators, to obtain rankings of the most valuable indicators in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules, and to analyze the optimal diagnostic points and clinical values. Methods: One hundred forty-four patients with 172 thyroid nodules underwent preoperative ultrasonography examinations, including gray-scale ultrasonography (GSUS), color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS), and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS). Fourteen indicators of thyroid nodules on GSUS, CDUS, and CEUS were selected to evaluate all thyroid nodules. The differences between the benign and malignant thyroid nodules in all indicators were analyzed by the chi-squared test; the diagnostic ultrasonography values were obtained by logistic regression; and the optimal diagnostic points were explored by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: Of the 172 thyroid nodules that were surgically removed, 78 were benign and 94 were malignant. Ten indicators of GSUS and CEUS showed significant differences between the benign and malignant nodules (p<0.05), whereas four CDUS indicators had no value. The rankings of the valuable indicators were obtained according to their odds ratios (ORs). The top four indicators were ring enhancement and homogeneity of enhancement on CEUS, and microcalcification and halo on GSUS. These indicators were the most valuable, with ORs of greater than 20 in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The other six indicators-the relative arrival time of the nodule on CEUS, interior echogenicity on GSUS, peak interior echogenicity on CEUS, shape on GSUS, peak peripheral echogenicity on CEUS, and orientation on GSUS-were also valuable, with ORs less than 20. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for GSUS, CEUS, and the combination of GSUS and CEUS in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules were 0.936, 0.910, and 0.966, respectively. Five positive features of the 10 valuable indicators on GSUS and CEUS defined the cut-off for the diagnosis of malignant thyroid nodules, with a sensitivity of 89.4% (84/94), specificity of 93.6% (73/78), and accuracy of 91.3% (157/172). Conclusions: The ring enhancement and homogeneity of enhancement of thyroid nodules on CEUS and the microcalcification and halo on GSUS were the four most valuable indicators in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Conjoint analysis of specific features of thyroid nodules on GSUS and CEUS could enhance the diagnostic value of thyroid nodules.
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