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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Supramolecular Hybrid Hydrogel Based on Host-Guest Interaction and Its Application in Drug Delivery.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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In this work, we developed a simple, novel method for constructing gold nanocomposite supramolecular hybrid hydrogels for drug delivery, in which gold nanocrystals were utilized as building blocks. First, methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) thiol (mPEG-SH, molecular weight (MW) = 5 K) capped gold nanocrystals (nanospheres and nanorods) were prepared via a facile one-step ligand-exchange procedure. Then, the homogeneous supramolecular hybrid hydrogels were formed, after adding ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) into PEG-modified gold nanocrystal solutions, due to the host-guest inclusion. Both gold nanoparticles and inclusion complexes formed between ?-CD and PEG chain provided the supra-cross-links, which are beneficial to the gelation formation. The resulting hybrid hydrogels were fully characterized by a combination of techniques including X-ray diffraction, rheology studies, and scanning electron microscopy. Meanwhile, the hybrid hydrogel systems demonstrated unique reversible gel-sol transition properties at a certain temperature caused by the temperature-responsive reversible supramolecular assembly. The drug delivery applications of such hybrid hydrogels were further investigated in which doxorubicin was selected as a model drug for in vitro release, cytotoxicity, and intracellular release studies. We believe that the development of such hybrid hydrogels will provide new and therapeutically useful means for medical applications.
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[Study on method and its optimization of improving seed germination of Astragalus membranaceus as gansu traditional medicinal herb].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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To break the hard testa and improve seed germination situation of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, in order to solve the problems of low success rate of seed germination and seedling.
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[Discussion on reduction potential of CH4 emission intensity for early off-take practice of grazing yak].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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The case study preliminarily compared the CH4 reduction potential and CH4 emission intensity of 7 year-old and 4 year-old grazing yak after early off-take practice based on the 2006 IPCC GHG inventory guidelines and under the premise of equal herbage consumption. Our results showed that the total CH4 emission was greater by about 86.3 kg for 2.1 4-year yaks compared with 7 years old yak during their life assuming that their total herbage consumption was the same, because total herbage consumption for a 7-year yak was equal to that of 2.1 4-year yaks. However, CH4 emission per unit body weight (1.374 kg x kg(-1)) for a 7-year yak (i. e. emission intensity) was higher than that of 2.1 4-year yaks (0.973 kg x kg(-1)) because total body weight of 2.1 4-year yaks was higher by 192 kg than that of a 7-year yak. According to CH4 emission intensity, change of the early off-take practice from 7-year to 4-year yak could reduce 77 kg CH4 if producing 192 kg body weight through 2.1 4-year yaks compared with a 7-year yak, i. e. reduction potential was about 1 600 kg CO2 equivalent under the same consuming forage. Therefore, for grassland-based animal husbandry, early off-take practice for grazing animals had a great reduction potential in the intensity of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions per unit output rather than total emissions of GHGs.
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Co?culture with human fetal epidermal keratinocytes promotes proliferation and migration of human fetal and adult dermal fibroblasts.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
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The repair strategy for the healing of skin wounds in fetuses differs from that in adults. Proliferation and migration of dermal fibroblasts are the main mechanisms associated with skin wound healing, as well as the complex interactions between epidermal keratinocytes (KCs) and dermal fibroblasts. In order to investigate the effects of fetal skin epidermal KCs on fetal and adult human dermal fibroblasts, KCs and fibroblasts were isolated from the skin tissue of mid?gestational human fetuses and adults, and co?cultured using a Transwell® system. When fetal mid?gestational KCs were co?cultured with either fetal or adult dermal fibroblasts, the proliferative and migratory potential of the fibroblasts was significantly enhanced. Furthermore, these phenotypic changes were concomitant with the upregulation of numerous proteins including mouse double minute 2 homolog, cyclin B1, phospho?cyclin?dependent kinase 1, phospho?extracellular signal?regulated kinase, and phospho?AKT, along with C?X?C chemokine receptor 4, phospho?p38 mitogen activated protein kinase, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)?2 and MMP?9. Notably, no significant differences were observed between fetal and adult dermal fibroblasts in their responses to fetal mid?gestational epidermal KCs, indicating that the cells from these two developmental stages respond in a similar manner to co?culture with KCs.
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Covalent Functionalization of Graphene Oxide with Biocompatible Poly(ethylene glycol) for Delivery of Paclitaxel.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Graphene oxide (GO), a novel 2D nanomaterial prepared by the oxidation of natural graphite, has been paid much attention in the area of drug delivery due to good biocompatibility and low toxicity. In the present work, 6-armed poly(ethylene glycol) was covalently introduced into the surface of GO sheets via a facile amidation process under mild conditions, making the modified GO, GO-PEG (PEG: 65 wt %, size: 50-200 nm), stable and biocompatible in physiological solution. This nanosized GO-PEG was found to be nontoxic to human lung cancer A549 and human breast cancer MCF-7 cells via cell viability assay. Furthermore, paclitaxel (PTX), a widely used cancer chemotherapy drug, was conjugated onto GO-PEG via ?-? stacking and hydrophobic interactions to afford a nanocomplex of GO-PEG/PTX with a relatively high loading capacity for PTX (11.2 wt %). This complex could quickly enter into A549 and MCF-7 cells evidenced by inverted fluorescence microscopy using Fluorescein isothiocyanate as a probe, and it also showed remarkably high cytotoxicity to A549 and MCF-7 cells in a broad range of concentration of PTX and time compared to free PTX. This kind of nanoscale drug delivery system on the basis of PEGylated GO may find potential application in biomedicine.
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Immunohistochemical staining reveals C-reactive protein existing predominantly as altered conformation forms in inflammatory lesions.
Acta. Biol. Hung.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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C-reactive protein (CRP) is an established marker of inflammation and has been proposed to play a proinflammatory role in pathologies of several diseases. CRP is primarily produced by the liver and released into circulation as a pentameric molecule composed of five identical subunits. It has been suggested that the activation of the proinflammatory actions of CRP requires sequential conformational changes triggered by local inflammatory conditions. These include the dissociation into the subunit form (monomeric CRP, mCRP) and further reduction of the intra-subunit disulfide bond of mCRP. This model predicts that mCRP is the primary isoform present in inflamed but not healthy tissues, however the supporting evidence is lacking. Herein, we stained tissue samples across multiple anatomical locations from several types of human diseases with highly selective monoclonal antibodies that can differentiate CRP and mCRP. The results indicated that mCRP is the predominant form existing in the lesions. Further immunoblotting of the patient tissue samples revealed the potential presence of reduced mCRP. Together, we conclude that mCRP but not CRP is the major isoform present in local inflammatory lesions, supporting the so-called cascading model of CRP function and regulation.
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[Relationship of genetic variants and cardiovascular risk factors with interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 secreted by monocytes].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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To examine the relationship of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 genetic variants and cardiovascular factors [oxygenized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), lower physical activity, overweight, etc.] with IL-6 and IL-10 secreted by monocytes.
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Genotoxicity of tri- and hexavalent chromium compounds in vivo and their modes of action on DNA damage in vitro.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Chromium occurs mostly in tri- and hexavalent states in the environment. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds are extensively used in diverse industries, and trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] salts are used as micronutrients and dietary supplements. In the present work, we report that they both induce genetic mutations in yeast cells. They both also cause DNA damage in both yeast and Jurkat cells and the effect of Cr(III) is greater than that of Cr(VI). We further show that Cr(III) and Cr(VI) cause DNA damage through different mechanisms. Cr(VI) intercalates DNA and Cr(III) interferes base pair stacking. Based on our results, we conclude that Cr(III) can directly cause genotoxicity in vivo.
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Simultaneous determination of eight flavonoids in the flowers of Matricaria chamomilla by high performance liquid chromatography.
J AOAC Int
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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An HPLC method was developed for simultaneous determination of five flavones (apigenin, three apigenin 7-O-glucoside acylated derivatives, and luteolin) and three methoxylated flavonols in Matricaria chamomilla. Full validation of the assay was carried out including linearity, LODs, LOQs, precision, repeatability, stability, and accuracy. The results demonstrated that the method developed was simple, accurate, and reliable. Five batches of M. chamomilla samples were determined using the developed method, and total contents of the eight flavonoids ranged from 1.843 to 2.134 mg/g. Among them, the content of apigenin was the highest with values of 0.538 to 0.618 mg/g. In addition, the extract solution from M. chamomilla exhibited a significant dose-dependent inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity, with a 50% inhibition (SC50) at a concentration of 3.06 +/- 0.09 mg/mL, and the flavonoids apigenin-7-O-(6"-acetyl)-glucoside, luteolin, apigenin, eupatolitin, and chrysosplenol D played an important role in the antioxidant activities of the extract solution from M. chamomilla.
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[Application of linear and nonlinear characteristics of heart rate variability in assessment of autonomic nervous system activity].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Calculation of linear parameters, such as time-domain and frequency-domain analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), is a conventional method for assessment of autonomic nervous system activity. Nonlinear phenomena are certainly involved in the genesis of HRV. In a seemingly random signal the Poincaré plot can easily demonstrate whether there is an underlying determinism in the signal. Linear and nonlinear analysis methods were applied in the computer words inputting experiments in this study for physiological measurement. This study therefore demonstrated that Poincaré plot was a simple but powerful graphical tool to describe the dynamics of a system.
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The ALK inhibitor ASP3026 eradicates NPM-ALK? T-cell anaplastic large-cell lymphoma in vitro and in a systemic xenograft lymphoma model.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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NPM-ALK? T-cell anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an aggressive type of cancer. Standard treatment of NPM-ALK? ALCL is CHOP polychemotherapy. Although patients initially respond favorably to CHOP, resistance, relapse, and death frequently occur. Recently, selective targeting of ALK has emerged as an alternative therapeutic strategy. ASP3026 is a second-generation ALK inhibitor that can overcome crizotinib resistance in non-small cell lung cancer, and is currently being evaluated in clinical trials of patients with ALK? solid tumors. However, NPM-ALK? ALCL patients are not included in these trials. We studied the effects of ASP3026 on NPM-ALK? ALCL cell lines in vitro and on systemic lymphoma growth in vivo. ASP3026 decreased the viability, proliferation, and colony formation, as well as induced apoptotic cell death of NPM-ALK? ALCL cells. In addition, ASP3026 significantly reduced the proliferation of 293T cells transfected with NPM-ALK mutants that are resistant to crizotinib and downregulated tyrosine phosphorylation of these mutants. Moreover, ASP3026 abrogated systemic NPM-ALK? ALCL growth in mice. Importantly, the survival of ASP3026-treated mice was superior to that of control and CHOP-treated mice. Our data suggest that ASP3026 is an effective treatment for NPM-ALK? ALCL, and support the enrollment of patients with this lymphoma in the ongoing clinical trials.
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HUWE1 is a molecular link controlling RAF-1 activity supported by the Shoc2 scaffold.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Scaffold proteins play a critical role in controlling the activity of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway. Shoc2 is a leucine-rich repeat scaffold protein that acts as a positive modulator of ERK1/2 signaling. However, the precise mechanism by which Shoc2 modulates the activity of the ERK1/2 pathway is unclear. Here we report the identification of the E3 ubiquitin ligase HUWE1 as a binding partner and regulator of Shoc2 function. HUWE1 mediates ubiquitination and, consequently, the levels of Shoc2. Additionally, we show that both Shoc2 and HUWE1 are necessary to control the levels and ubiquitination of the Shoc2 signaling partner, RAF-1. Depletion of HUWE1 abolishes RAF-1 ubiquitination, with corresponding changes in ERK1/2 pathway activity occurring. Our results indicate that the HUWE1-mediated ubiquitination of Shoc2 is the switch that regulates the transition from an active to an inactive state of the RAF-1 kinase. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HUWE1 is a novel player involved in regulating ERK1/2 signal transmission through the Shoc2 scaffold complex.
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[Effects of extensively hydrolyzed protein formula on feeding and growth in preterm infants: a multicenter controlled clinical study].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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To study the effects of extensively hydrolyzed protein formula (eHF) on the feeding and growth in preterm infants through a multicenter controlled clinical study.
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Tunable temperature-responsive supramolecular hydrogels formed by prodrugs as a codelivery system.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Taking advantage of the strong hydrophobicity of the anticancer drug camptothecin (CPT), the CPT molecule was conjugated to a class of low-molecular-weight (MW) poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains (MW = 500, 1000, and 2000), forming an amphiphilic prodrug. The CPT-PEG prodrug formed stable hydrogels based on a combination of the partial inclusion complexation between one end of the PEG blocks and ?-CD and the hydrophobic aggregation of CPT groups. Meanwhile, the formed hydrogels could be loaded with water-soluble drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which is always combined with CPT drugs to enhance their anticancer activity. Moreover, the hydrogel systems demonstrate unique structure-related reversible gel-sol transition properties at a certain temperature due to the reversible supramolecular assembly, and the gel-sol transition temperature could be modulated by varying the length of the PEG chain and the concentrations of ?-CD, demonstrating the possibility of achieving on-demand gel-sol transitions. The structure-related reversible gel-sol transition properties were proved by rheological property, XRD, DSC, and SEM measurements. The different controlled release profiles of two different anticancer drugs showed significant temperature-dependent properties. This easily prepared supramolecular hydrogel with excellent biocompatibility and tunable temperature responsiveness has significant potential for controlled drug release applications.
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Potential role of the OPG/RANK/RANKL axis in prostate cancer invasion and bone metastasis.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Receptor activator of NF-?B (RANK), RANK ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) are key regulators of bone metabolism under both normal and pathological conditions, including prostate cancer (PCa) bone metastases. However, little is known concerning the expression and function of these regulators in prostate tumor samples and PCa cells and their correlation with invasion and bone metastasis. In the present study, we determined the expression of RANK, RANKL and OPG in 3 human PCa cell lines and 40 PCa patient samples by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). As controls, samples from 20 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and normal prostate epithelial RWPE2 cells were also included in the analyses. The effects of soluble RANKL (sRANKL) and OPG as well as RANK knockdown on PCa invasion were examined in Transwell assays. Immunohistochemical staining detected little RANK, OPG and RANKL expression in hyperplasia prostate while the percentages of positivity were increased to 50, 45 and 52.5%, respectively, in prostate tumor tissues. OPG and sRANKL levels in the prostate tumor samples as measured by ELISA were ~10-fold that in the BPHs (P<0.01) and the levels were higher in aggressive tumors than non-aggressive ones (P<0.05). The sRANKL level in the serum of PCa patients was the same as that in the patients with BPH, yet the serum OPG levels correlated with the tissue levels (R2=0.620, P<0.01, which both showed a 10-fold increase in PCa over BPH (P<0.01) with higher levels in aggressive PCa than non-aggressive ones (P<0.05). Consistent with the tissue analyses, expression levels of RANK mRNA and protein were detected in multiple human PCa cell lines by RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. The treatment of PCa cells with RANKL significantly increased the number of invaded cells (P<0.01), which was suppressed by the decoy receptor OPG. RANK siRNA transfection dramatically dampened the stimulatory effect of RANKL on PCa cell invasion. Our findings indicate that the expression of RANK, RANKL and OPG may be used as diagnostic markers to identify patients at high risk for aggressive PCa and that the effective suppression of PCa cell migration by OPG via the blockage of RANKL activity represents a potential therapeutic strategy for interfering with prostate tumor metastasis and progression to bone.
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Characteristics of community mental health clinics associated with treatment engagement.
Psychiatr Serv
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Past literature documents many individual predictors of treatment engagement among mental health clients in community settings, but few studies have examined clinic characteristics that may be associated with treatment engagement. With data from a patient activation and self-management trial, this study examined the variation in demographic and clinic characteristics across community mental health clinics and whether this variation predicted differences in treatment engagement in mental health services.
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In vitro anti-inflammatory effects of diterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids from traditional Chinese medicine Siegesbeckia pubescens.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Oxidative stress imposed by reactive oxygen species plays a crucial role in pathophysiology of inflammatory diseases. In the present study, sesquiterpenoids and diterpenoids isolated from Siegesbeckia pubescens, a Chinese traditional medicine used to treat arthritis, were evaluated for inhibition of NO production in activated RAW 264.7 macrophages and FMLP/CB induced O2(·-) generation and elastase release in human neutrophils. In the former assay, sesquiterpenoids were more potent than diterpenoids. The C-4 carbonyl group in the carabrane-type sesquiterpenoid 3 and the C-9 ether linkage in the germacrane sesquiterpene 7 were associated with the enhanced potency. Also, for the active ent-kaurane type diterpenoids, esterification of 17-OH with isobutyric acid and acetylation of 18-OH affected the inhibition of O2(·-) generation and elastase release. This report is the first to describe the inhibitory effects on oxidative stress of secondary metabolites from S. pubescens. Its findings suggest that active terpenoids from the herb could be used as lead anti-inflammatory agents.
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Effect of oleic acid on the levels of eight metal ions in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease. Its incidence is rising worldwide. However, no specific therapy has been shown to be effective in its treatment. In the present study, the in vitro NAFLD model was established in human SMMC-7721 cells by using oleic acid (OA). Then, content changes of eight cations, including sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese, were investigated in the experimental model. The results showed that OA induced a decrease in magnesium level, while an increase in iron one. Additionally, the supplementation of magnesium in the cell culture model was studied. It showed that magnesium ameliorated lipid accumulation induced by OA. Our results suggest that magnesium could decrease the risk of NAFLD and be used as a promising candidate for the treatment of NAFLD.
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Effects of urbanization expansion on landscape pattern and region ecological risk in Chinese coastal city: a case study of Yantai city.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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Applied with remote sensing, GIS, and mathematical statistics, the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics of urbanization expansion of Yantai city from 1974 to 2009 was studied. Based on landscape pattern metrics and ecological risk index, the landscape ecological risk from the landscape pattern dynamics was evaluated. The results showed that the area of urban land increased by 189.77 km(2) with average expansion area of 5.42 km(2) y(-1) from 1974 to 2009. The urbanization intensity index during 2004-2009 was 3.92 times of that during 1974-1990. The land use types of urban land and farmland changed greatly. The changes of landscape pattern metrics for land use patterns indicated that the intensity of human activities had strengthened gradually in study period. The landscape ecological risk pattern of Yantai city shaped half-round rings along the coastline. The ecological risk index decreased with increase of the distance to the coastline. The ratio of high ecological risk to subhigh ecological risk zones in 2009 was 2.23 times of that in 1990. The significant linear relationship of urbanization intensity index and regional ecological risk indicated that the anthropological economic activities were decisive factors for sustainable development of costal ecological environment.
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Synthesis, characterization and in vitro and in vivo investigation of C3F8-filled poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles as an ultrasound contrast agent.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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The present study aimed to prepare perfluoropropane (C3F8)-filled poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles and investigate the feasibility of using PLGA nanoparticles as an ultrasound contrast agent. The PLGA nanoscale ultrasound contrast agent was prepared using a modified double-emulsion solvent evaporation method. Camphor in the form of a sublimable porogen was added to render the nanoparticles hollow and enable C3F8 gas introduction. Various physicochemical properties of PLGA nanoparticles, including morphology, size and dispersion, were analyzed by electron microscopy and dynamic laser scattering. In vitro ultrasound imaging of C3F8-filled PLGA nanoparticles was also investigated under various imaging conditions. Further in vivo ultrasound imaging was conducted on male rats following intratesticular injection of PLGA nanoparticles. C3F8-filled PLGA nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 152.0±58.08 nm were obtained. Electron microscopy revealed spherical-shaped nanoparticles with smooth surfaces, a capsular morphology and a large hollow within. In vitro ultrasound imaging of hollow PLGA nanoparticles indicated marked signal enhancement. Local intensity of the acoustical signal continued to increase during PLGA-nanoparticle injection into the testicle and the ability of hollow PLGA nanoparticles to enhance ultrasound imaging in vivo was demonstrated. The enhancement image of testicular tissue following injection with C3F8-filled PLGA nanoparticles was sustained for a minimum of five minutes. In conclusion, the hollow C3F8-filled PLGA nanoparticles were demonstrated to have potential for applications as a novel ultrasound contrast agent.
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Ionic liquid-based electromembrane extraction and its comparison with traditional organic solvent based electromembrane extraction for the determination of strychnine and brucine in human urine.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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An ionic liquid-based electromembrane extraction (IL-EME) method was presented, and its performance was compared with 2-ethylnitrobenzene (ENB) based EME for the determination of strychnine and brucine in human urine. For the two methods, the fundamental extraction parameters such as supported liquid membrane, voltage, extraction time, pH values of sample solution and acceptor solution, temperature and salting-out effect were separately optimized. IL-EME provided 96- and 122-fold enrichment factors for strychnine and brucine, respectively, which were better than those obtained in EME (83- and 86-fold, respectively). The calibration curves were linear over the ranges of 20-720 ?g L(-1) for strychnine and 20-640 ?g L(-1) for brucine with the correlation coefficients higher than 0.9950. The repeatability of EME and IL-EME were evaluated by five parallel experiments giving the relative standard deviations of 5.12-6.98%. As the results indicated, compared with ENB based EME, the proposed IL-EME is more reliable and could provide better extraction performance for the determination of strychnine and brucine in human urine.
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Isothiafludine, a novel non-nucleoside compound, inhibits hepatitis B virus replication through blocking pregenomic RNA encapsidation.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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To investigate the action of isothiafludine (NZ-4), a derivative of bis-heterocycle tandem pairs from the natural product leucamide A, on the replication cycle of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in vitro and in vivo.
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Effects of L-carnitine on high glucose-induced oxidative stress in retinal ganglion cells.
Pharmacology
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Oxidative stress plays a role in diabetic retinopathy. L-Carnitine is an endogenous mitochondrial membrane compound.
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The effects of asymmetrical loading on gait characteristics.
Biomed Tech (Berl)
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Abstract Asymmetrical load carriage is a popular method used among people in daily life. This study investigated the impact of asymmetrical load carriage and the load mass spatiotemporal parameters associated with gait patterns. Twelve participants were recorded as they walked under six load conditions. The loads included a control condition in which individuals carried no added load and loads of 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% body weight carried with their right hand. Parameters used to describe the spatiotemporal characteristics of gait were quantified and analyzed. The results of the study demonstrated that the gait patterns of the individuals were affected by increases in the carried load. The loaded right side was more sensitive to changes in the loads carried. Overall, we conclude that the spatiotemporal parameters actually depend on the combination of both loading mass and the side that was loaded.
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Toona Sinensis and Moschus Decoction Induced Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Cervical Carcinoma HeLa Cells.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Toona sinensis and Moschus are two herb materials used in traditional Chinese medicine, most commonly for their various biological activities. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of three decoctions from Toona sinensis, Moschus, and Toona sinensis and Moschus in combination on cell growth in several normal and cancer cell lines by cell viability assay. The results showed that the combined decoction exhibited the strongest anticancer effects, compared to two single decoctions. The observations indicated that the combined decoction did not induce cell apoptosis and autophagy in HeLa cells by fluorescence microscopy. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the combined decoction arrested HeLa cell cycle progression in S-phase. After the decoction incubation, among 41 cell cycle related genes, eight were reduced, while five were increased in mRNA levels by real-time PCR assay. Western blotting showed that there were no apparent changes of protein levels of Cyclin E1, while P27 expression significantly declined and the levels of CDC7 and CDK7 obviously increased. The data suggest that the RB pathway is partially responsible for the decoction-induced S-phase cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells. Therefore, the combined decoction may have therapeutic potential as an anticancer formula for certain cancers.
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Multiple functional ionic liquids based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high performance chromatography for the determination of phenolic compounds in water samples.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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A new mode of ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-DLLME) is developed. In this work, [C6MIm][PF6] was chosen as the extraction solvent, and two kinds of hydrophilic ionic liquids, [EMIm][BF4] and [BSO3HMIm][OTf], functioned as the dispersive solvent. So in the whole extraction procedure, no organic solvent was used. With the aid of SO3H group, the acidic compound was extracted from the sample solution without pH adjustment. Two phenolic compounds, namely, 2-naphthol and 4-nitrophenol were chosen as the target analytes. Important parameters affecting the extraction efficiency, such as the type of hydrophilic ionic liquids, the volume ratio of [EMIm][BF4] to [BSO3HMIm][OTf], type and volume of extraction solvent, pH value of sample solution, sonication time, extraction time and centrifugation time were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the method exhibited good sensitivity with the limits of detection (LODs) at 5.5 ?g L(-1)and 10.0 ?g L(-1) for 4-nitrophenol and 2-naphthol, respectively. Good linearity over the concentration ranges of 24-384 ?g L(-1) for 4-nitrophenol and 28-336 ?g L(-1) for 2-naphthol was obtained with correlation coefficients of 0.9998 and 0.9961, respectively. The proposed method can directly extract acidic compound from environmental sample or even more complex sample matrix without any pH adjustment procedure.
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Effects of medication methods after simple and effective probing of lacrimal passage.
Int J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To evaluate the effect of reducing the use of antibiotics in the treatment of infant bacterial dacryocystitis after probing of the lacrimal duct.
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Baseline health-related quality of life and 10-year all-cause mortality among 1739 Chinese adults.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) may be associated with the longevity of patients; yet it is not clear whether this association holds in a general population, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this study was to determine whether baseline HRQOL was associated with 10-year all-cause mortality in a Chinese general population.
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CCNG2 Suppressor Biological Effects on Thyroid Cancer Cell through Promotion of CDK2 Degradation.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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This study aimed to analyze the expression and clinical significance of cyclin G2 (CCNG2) in thyroid carcinoma and the biological effects of CCNG2 overexpression in a cell line. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to analyze CCNG2 protein expression in 63 cases of thyroid cancer and normal tissues to allow the relationship with clinical factors to be assessed. CCNG2 lentiviral and empty vectors were transfected into the thyroid cancer K1 cell line. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were applied to detect the mRNA and protein levels of CCNG2. MTT assay and cell cycle were also conducted to assess the influence of up-regulated expression of CCNG2 on K1 cell biology. The level of CCNG2 protein expression was found to be significantly lower in thyroid cancer tissue than normal tissues (P<0.05). Western blot: The relative amount of CCNG2 protein in thyroid cancer tissue was respectively found to be significantly lower than in normal tissues (P<0.05), correlating with lymph node metastasis, clinic stage and histological grade (P<0.05), but not gender, age or tumor size (P>0.05). Loss of CCNG2 expression correlated significantly with poor overall survival time on Kaplan-Meier analysis (P<0.05). The results for biological functions showed that K1 cell transfected CCNG2 had a lower survival fraction, a greater percentage in the G0/G1 phases, and lower cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) protein expression compared with K1 cells non-transfected with CCNG2 (P<0.05). CCNG2 expression decreased in thyroid cancer and correlated significantly lymph node metastasis, clinic stage, histological grade and poor overall survival, suggesting that CCNG2 may play important roles as a negative regulator in thyroid cancer K1 cells by promoting degradation of CDK2.
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[Diagnostic value of amplitude-integrated electroencephalography in predicting outcome of newborn patients in neonatal intensive care unit].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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To assess the diagnostic value of amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) in predicting outcome of newborns who were at high risk for central nervous system without severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.
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[Chemical constituents from rizomes of Homalomena occulta].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
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Column chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 was used to study the chemical constituents of Homalomena occulta. The chemical structures of the separated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data analyseS. Twelve compounds were obtained and identified as 5-pentylresorcinol-b-glucoside (1), protocatechuic acid (2), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (3), vanillic acid (4), 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furancarboxylic acid (5), 2-furoic acid (6), 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (7), (R) -malic acid (8), (R) -dimethyl malate (9), trimethyl 1,2,3-propanetricarboxylate (10), 4-hydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-one (11) and (1S, 2S, 4S)-p-menthane-1,2, 4-triol (12). Among them, compound 1 was a new natural product, and compounds 4-12 were isolated from the genus for the first time.
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[Expression of subtilisin-like protease gene from Hirsutella sinensis before and after infecting Hepialus gonggaensis].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2013
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To address the role of Pr1 gene in the process of Hirsutella sinensis infecting Hepialus gonggaensis, differential expression of subtilisin-like protease gene was detected. In the present study, Pr1 gene analogues from H. sinensis were obtained by PCR strategy using specific primers designed from conserved regions of Pr1 gene reported in the GenBank. Then we detected the changes in the expression of Pr1 gene before and after infecting H. gonggaensis using real-time quantitative PCR. We obtained the partial sequence of Pr1 gene with the length of 535 bp (GenBank accession: KC009680). Real-time PCR results showed that the expression level of Pr1 gene was significantly different among 8 samples (P < 0.01). Pr1 gene showed the obvious higher expression level (2-3 folds) after infecting the H. gonggaensis, suggesting that the Pr1 gene may play an important role in the process of H. sinensis infecting H. gonggaensis. The present study paves a way for further identification on infectivity assessment of H. sinensis.
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[Principles of photoplethysmography and its applications in physiological measurements].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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The electro-optic technique of measuring the cardiovascular pulse wave, known as photoplethysmography (PPG), is clinically utilised for noninvasive characterisation of physiological components by dynamic monitoring of tissue optical absorption. Non-invasive PPG technology has been used in a wide range of individual, home or public health monitoring. The application of PPG has become one of the hot topics in the fields of biomedical engineering recently. This paper reviews the optical origins of PPG signal, the feature of PPG technology, the applications of PPG in physiological measurements and its development in the future.
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[Application of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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To observe the effects of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) on the patient-ventilator synchrony, gas exchange, and ventilatory parameters in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) during mechanical ventilation.
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Synthesis and antitumor-evaluation of 1,3-selenazole-containing 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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A series of novel 1,3-selenazole-containing 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives bearing Schiff base moieties were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antiproliferative activities against human breast cancer cell MCF-7 and mouse lymphocyte leukemia cell L1210 by CCK-8 assay. The majority of the compounds showed better activity against MCF-7 cell, compared with lead compound PCS. In particular, compound 6c was the most potent compound with IC50 value of 4.02?M.
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Comparative Studies of Tri- and Hexavalent Chromium Cytotoxicity and Their Effects on Oxidative State of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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Chromium is a significant mutagen and carcinogen in environment. We compared the effects of tri- and hexavalent chromium on cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in yeast. Cell growth was inhibited by Cr(3+) or Cr(6+), and Cr(6+) significantly increased the lethal rate compared with Cr(3+). Both Cr(3+) and Cr(6+) can enter into the yeast cells. The percent of propidium iodide permeable cells treated with Cr(3+) is almost five times as that treated with the same concentration of Cr(6+). Levels of TBARS, O2 (-), and carbonyl protein were significantly increased in both Cr(6+)- and Cr(3+)-treated cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, the accumulation of these stress markers in Cr(6+)-treated cells was over the Cr(3+)-treated ones. The decreased GSH level and increased activity of GPx were observed after 300 ?M Cr(6+)-exposure compared with the untreated control, whereas there was no other change of GSH content in cells treated with Cr(3+) even at very high concentration. Exposure to both Cr(3+) and Cr(6+) resulted in the decrease of activities of SOD and catalase. Furthermore, the effect of Cr(6+) is stronger than that of Cr(3+). Null mutation sensitivity assay demonstrated that the gsh1 mutant was sensitive to Cr(6+) other than Cr(3+), the apn1 mutant is more sensitive to Cr(6+) than Cr(3+), and the rad1 mutant is sensitive to both Cr(6+) and Cr(3+). Therefore, Cr(3+) can be concluded to inhibit cell growth probably due to the damage of plasma membrane integrality in yeast. Although both tri- and hexavalent chromium can induce cytotoxicity and oxidative stress, the action mode of Cr(3+) is different from that of Cr(6+), and serious membrane damage caused by Cr(3+) is not the direct consequence of the increase of lipid peroxidation.
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[Infantile polycystic kidney disease: a case report and literature review].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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To summarize the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatments and outcomes of perinatal autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.
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[Predicting outcome in necrotizing enterocolitis with the score for neonatal acute physiology: a retrospective study of 62 cases].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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To explore the value of the score for neonatal acute physiology (score for neonatal acute physiology, SNAP) in predicting outcome and risk of surgery of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC).
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Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of polyhalobenzonitrile quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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A novel series of polyhalobenzonitrile quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives were synthesized and characterized by NMR, IR, MS, and HRMS spectra. All of the newly prepared compounds were screened for antimicrobial activities against four strains of bacteria (Gram-positive bacterial: Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus; Gram-negative bacterial: Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and one strain of fungi (Candida albicans). Among the synthesized compounds, 5-(dimethylamino)-8-(2,4,5-trichloro-isophthalonitrile) quinazolin-4(3H)-one (7k) exhibited significant activity towards Gram-positive bacterial, Gram-negative bacterial, and the fungi strains. The MIC (0.8-3.3?g/mL) and MBC (2.6-7.8?g/mL) for this compound were close to those of nofloxacin, chlorothalonil, and fluconazole, making it the most potent antimicrobial agents in the series.
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[Amplitude-integrated electroencephalographic changes in neonates with acute bilirubin encephalopathy].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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To characterize amplitude-integrated electroencephalo graphic (aEEG) traces in neonates with acute bilirubin encephalopathy (ABE), explore the value of aEEG in early diagnosis and prediction of neurological outcome of ABE.
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[Application of occlusal guide plate combined with intermaxillary fixation screw in mandibular defect repair with free fibular flap].
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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To investigate the clinical value of occlusal guide plate combined with intermaxillary fixation screw in mandibular defect repair with free fibular flap.
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Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective extraction of sildenafil, vardenafil and their analogs from herbal medicines.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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The successfully developed magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) toward six synthetic phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors were described. Sildenafil was used as template for the preparation of MMIPs using superparamagnetic core-shell nanoparticle as supporter. The obtained MMIPs were characterized using transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometer. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detector (DAD) was used for the analysis of target analytes. The application of MMIPs as selective sorbent in the cleanup of herbal medicine samples prior to HPLC offered simple sample preparation. The adsorption capacity and selectivity of prepared MMIPs and magnetic non-molecularly imprinted polymers were investigated. The binding isotherms were obtained for sildenafil and fitted by Freundlich isotherm model. Structurally similar compound of sildenafil and a reference compound protocatechuic acid were used for investing the selective recognition of MMIPs.
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Two new tigliane diterpene esters from the flower buds of Daphne genkwa.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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The phytochemical investigation of the flower buds of Daphne genkwa yielded four highly oxygenated tigliane diterpene esters (1-4), including two new phorbol derivatives, 12-O-(2E,4E-decadienoyl)-7-oxo-5-ene-phorbol-13-acetate (1) and 12-O-neodecanoyl-7-oxo-5-ene-phorbol-13-acetate (2). The molecular structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR.
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Quality control of traditional Chinese medicines: a review.
Chin J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) are in great demand all over the world, especially in the developing world, for primary health care due to their superior merits such as low cost, minimal side effects, better cultural acceptability, and compatibility with humans. However, Chinese medicines consist of several herbs which may contain tens, hundreds, or even thousands of constituents. How these constituents interact with each other, and what the special active ones are, may be the biggest bottleneck for the modernization and globalization of TCMs. Valid methods to evaluate the quality of TCMs are therefore essential and should be promoted and be developed further through advanced separation and chromatography techniques. This paper reviews the strategies used to control the quality of TCMs in a progressive perspective, from selecting single or several ingredients as the evaluation marker, to using different kinds of chromatography fingerprint methods. In summary, the analysis and quality control of TCMs are developing in a more effective and comprehensive manner to better address the inherent holistic nature of TCMs.
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Molecular and functional characterizations of the association and interactions between nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase and type I insulin-like growth factor receptor.
Neoplasia
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
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Nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK) is aberrantly expressed in a subset of T cell lymphoma that commonly affects children and young adults. NPM-ALK possesses significant oncogenic potential that was previously documented using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. The exact mechanisms by which NPM-ALK induces its effects are poorly understood. We have recently demonstrated that NPM-ALK is physically associated with type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR). A positive feedback loop appears to exist between NPM-ALK and IGF-IR through which these two kinases interact to potentiate their effects. We have also found that a single mutation of the Tyr(644) or Tyr(664) residue of the C terminus of NPM-ALK to phenylalanine decreases significantly, but does not completely abolish, the association between NPM-ALK and IGF-IR. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the dual mutation of Tyr(644) and Tyr(664) abrogates the association and interactions between NPM-ALK and IGF-IR. We also examined the impact of this dual mutation on the oncogenic potential of NPM-ALK. Our results show that NPM-ALK(Y644,664F) completely lacks association with IGF-IR. Importantly, we found that the dual mutation of Tyr(644) and Tyr(664) diminishes the oncogenic effects of NPM-ALK, including its ability to induce anchorage-independent colony formation and to sustain cellular transformation, proliferation, and migration. Furthermore, the association between NPM-ALK and IGF-IR through Tyr(644) and Tyr(664) appears to contribute to maintaining the stability of NPM-ALK protein. Our results provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which NPM-ALK induces its oncogenic effects through interactions with IGF-IR in this aggressive lymphoma.
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Using a discrete choice experiment to elicit time trade-off and willingness-to-pay amounts for influenza health-related quality of life at different ages.
Pharmacoeconomics
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Recent research suggests that values for health-related quality of life may vary with the age of the patient. Traditional health state valuation questions and discrete choice experiments are two approaches that could be used to value health.
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Carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber solid phase microextraction for the determination of strychnine and brucine in urine.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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A mixed matrix membrane (MMM), based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and hollow fiber (HF), was prepared and combined with solid phase microextraction (SPME) mode to determine strychnine and brucine in urine. This MMM was prepared by dispersing CNTs in water via surfactant assistance, and then immobilizing CNTs into the pores of HF by capillary forces and sonification. The prepared carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber (CNTs-HF) was subsequently wetted by a few microliters of organic solvent (1-octanol), and then applied to extract the target analytes in direct immersion sampling mode. After extraction, analytes were desorbed via ultrasonic-assisted effect, and then detected via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To achieve the highest extraction efficiency, main extraction parameters such as the type and amount of surfactant, the diameter and doping level of CNTs, extraction time, desorption condition, pH value, stirring rate and volume of the donor phase were optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method showed good linearity ranges with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9990, good repeatability and batch-to-batch reproducibility with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 6% and 5% for strychnine and brucine, respectively, and low limits of detection (0.7 and 0.9 µg L(-1) for strychnine and brucine, respectively). The recoveries were in the range of 83.81-116.14% at three spiked levels. The developed method was successfully applied to real urine sample with mean relative recoveries of 94.28% and 91.30% for strychnine and brucine, respectively. The developed method shows comparable results against reference methods and is a simple, green, and cost-effective microextraction technique.
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[Association of tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene polymorphisms with Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis in children].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
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To study the relationship of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?)-308G/A gene polymorphisms with Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) in children.
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New cytotoxic steroids from the leaves of Clerodendrum trichotomum.
Steroids
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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A phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Clerodendrum trichotomum led to the isolation of five new (2-6) and two known (1 and 7) steroids, whose structures and relative configurations were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of their NMR data with those of related compounds. Steroids 2 and 5 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity in vitro against HeLa cell line.
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Preparation of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for selective recognition of resveratrol in wine.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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The magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) for resveratrol were prepared by using surface molecular imprinting technique with a super paramagnetic core-shell nanoparticle as a supporter. Rhapontigenin, which is the analogues of resveratrol, was selected as dummy template molecules to avoid the leakage of trace amount of resveratrol. Acrylamide and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate were chosen as functional monomers and cross-linker, respectively. The obtained MMIPs were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrum, X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer. High performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze the target analytes. The resulting MMIPs exhibited high saturation magnetization of 53.14emug(-1) leading to the fast separation. The adsorption test showed that the MMIPs had high adsorption capacity for resveratrol and contained homogeneous binding sites. The MMIPs were employed as adsorbent of solid phase extraction for determination of resveratrol in real wine samples, and the recoveries of spiked samples ranged from 79.3% to 90.6% with the limit of detection of 4.42ngmL(-1). The prepared MMIPs could be employed to selectively pre-concentrate and determine resveratrol from wine samples.
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Prevention and control system of hypokalemia in fast recovery after abdominal surgery.
Curr Ther Res Clin Exp
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Blood potassium levels were very important during perioperative management of patients undergoing abdominal surgery. According to various worldwide studies on the causes of hypokalemia and fast-track surgeries, prehospital hypokalemia was ignored.
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Celastrol suppresses tumor cell growth through targeting an AR-ERG-NF-?B pathway in TMPRSS2/ERG fusion gene expressing prostate cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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The TMPRSS2/ERG (T/E) fusion gene is present in the majority of all prostate cancers (PCa). We have shown previously that NF-kB signaling is highly activated in these T/E fusion expressing cells via phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 Ser536 (p536). We therefore hypothesize that targeting NF-kB signaling may be an efficacious approach for the subgroup of PCas that carry T/E fusions. Celastrol is a well known NF-kB inhibitor, and thus may inhibit T/E fusion expressing PCa cell growth. We therefore evaluated Celastrols effects in vitro and in vivo in VCaP cells, which express the T/E fusion gene. VCaP cells were treated with different concentrations of Celastrol and growth inhibition and target expression were evaluated. To test its ability to inhibit growth in vivo, 0.5 mg/kg Celastrol was used to treat mice bearing subcutaneous VCaP xenograft tumors. Our results show Celastrol can significantly inhibit the growth of T/E fusion expressing PCa cells both in vitro and in vivo through targeting three critical signaling pathways: AR, ERG and NF-kB in these cells. When mice received 0.5 mg/kg Celastrol for 4 times/week, significant growth inhibition was seen with no obvious toxicity or significant weight loss. Therefore, Celastrol is a promising candidate drug for T/E fusion expressing PCa. Our findings provide a novel strategy for the targeted therapy which may benefit the more than half of PCa patients who have T/E fusion expressing PCas.
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Carbon nanotubes-reinforced hollow fibre solid-phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of carbamate pesticides in apples.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2013
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An effective and sensitive method to determinate five carbamate pesticides in apples was developed by using carbon nanotubes-reinforced hollow fibre solid-phase microextraction (CNTs-HF-SPME) combined with high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The CNTs were dispersed in water via adding surfactant, and then were held in the pores of HF supported by capillary forces and sonification. The SPME device, which was wetted with 1-octanol, was placed in a stirred apple samples to extract target analytes. After extraction, analytes were desorbed and analyzed using HPLC-DAD. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the enrichment factors were achieved in the range from 49 to 308 with good inter-fibre repeatability and batch-to-batch reproducibility, while good linearity ranges and recoveries were obtained. The limits of detection ranged from 0.09 to 6.00 ng/g. Therefore, the results demonstrated that this novel method was an efficient pretreatment and enrichment procedure for the determination of trace carbamate pesticides in apples.
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Proteomic changes induced by podophyllotoxin in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Podophyllotoxin, a kind of lignan extracted from the Podophyllum plant, has been shown to inhibit the growth of various carcinoma cells. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the inhibition of cell growth and changes in protein expression induced by podophyllotoxin were investigated in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. Our results demonstrate that Podophyllotoxin inhibits HeLa cell growth and induces apoptosis. By using proteomic techniques, seven proteins were found to be significantly regulated by podophyllotoxin compared to the untreated control; among them, four were down-regulated and three were up-regulated. All of the seven proteins were identified with peptide mass fingerprinting using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) after in-gel trypsin digestion. Five of these proteins are involved in protein metabolism, and the other two play roles in cell communication and signaling transduction pathways. It is suggested that the effect of podophyllotoxin on the growth of tumor cells is significantly related to the metabolism-associated proteins.
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[Infant Neurological International Battery predicts neurological outcomes of preterm infants discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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To explore the Infant Neurological International Battery (Infanib) as a screening tool for early detection of gross motor developmental delay in preterm infants discharged from NICU, and to predict their later neuromotor dysfunction (cerebral palsy or motor retardation).
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Relationship of serum interleukin-10 and its genetic variations with ischemic stroke in a Chinese general population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Anti-inflammatory cytokine and its genetic variations may play an important role in the process of atherosclerosis. We assessed whether serum interleukin-10 (IL-10) and its genetic variations are associated with ischemic stroke in a Chinese general population.
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Magnetic retrieval of chitosan: extraction of bioactive constituents from green tea beverage samples.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2011
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A new solid-phase extraction mode for magnetic retrieval of chitosan combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection was proposed for the pre-concentration and determination of flavonoids in green tea beverage samples. In the experiment, chitosan was used as sorbents for the extraction of target analytes; after completion of the extraction process, Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles acted as carrier to retrieve chitosan from the sample solution. Some important parameters influenced extraction efficiency of flavonoids, including the extraction mode, amounts of chitosan, pH of sample solution, extraction time, salt addition, amounts of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles, desorption solvent and desroption time, were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the recoveries of analytes done on samples spiked with the target analytes were between 96.4% and 108.6%; relative standard deviations ranged from 0.6% to 8.7%. The correlation coefficients varied from 0.9917 to 0.9988. The limits of detection ranged from 5.4 to 16.8 ng mL(-1) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. All four different brands of green tea beverage samples were successfully analyzed by the proposed method.
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A high-throughput screening method for small-molecule inhibitors of the aberrant mutant SOD1 and dynein complex interaction.
J Biomol Screen
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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Aberrant protein-protein interactions are attractive drug targets in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases due to the common pathology of accumulation of protein aggregates. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, mutations in SOD1 cause the formation of aggregates and inclusions that may sequester other proteins and disrupt cellular processes. It has been demonstrated that mutant SOD1, but not wild-type SOD1, interacts with the axonal transport motor dynein and that this interaction contributes to motor neuron cell death, suggesting that disrupting this interaction may be a potential therapeutic target. However, it can be challenging to configure a high-throughput screening (HTS)-compatible assay to detect inhibitors of a protein-protein interaction. Here we describe the development and challenges of an HTS for small-molecule inhibitors of the mutant SOD1-dynein interaction. We demonstrate that the interaction can be formed by coexpressing the A4V mutant SOD1 and dynein intermediate complex in cells and that this interaction can be disrupted by compounds added to the cell lysates. Finally, we show that some of the compounds identified from a pilot screen to inhibit the protein-protein interaction with this method specifically disrupt the interaction between the dynein complex and mtSOD1 but not the dynein complex itself when applied to live cells.
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[Tympanoplasty with soft-wall reconstruction of ear canal].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2011
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To observe the therapeutic effect of tympanoplasty with soft-wall reconstruction of ear canal for chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma.
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Anthraquinones and stilbenes from the roots and rhizomes of Rhubarb.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2011
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Two new anthraquinone glucosides [aloe-emodin 8-O-?-d-(6-galloyl)glucopyranoside (1) and rhein 8-O-?-d-(6-galloyl)glucopyranoside (2)], together with 16 known compounds (3-18), were isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Rheum hotaoense C.Y. Cheng et C.T. Kao. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive investigation of 1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS, and chemical evidence. In addition, the free-radical-scavenging activity was tested using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay.
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Sesquiterpenoids and other constituents from the flower buds of Tussilago farfara.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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One new norsesquiterpenoid, namely tussfarfarin A (1), and four new artifacts resulting from extraction procedure, namely tussfarfarin B (2), 6-(1-ethoxyethyl)-2,2-dimethylchroman-4-ol (3), 5-ethoxymethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (4), and 3?-hydroxy-7?-ethoxy-24?-ethylcholest-5-ene (5), along with 18 known compounds, were isolated from the flower buds of Tussilago farfara. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis.
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Top scoring pairs for feature selection in machine learning and applications to cancer outcome prediction.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
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The widely used k top scoring pair (k-TSP) algorithm is a simple yet powerful parameter-free classifier. It owes its success in many cancer microarray datasets to an effective feature selection algorithm that is based on relative expression ordering of gene pairs. However, its general robustness does not extend to some difficult datasets, such as those involving cancer outcome prediction, which may be due to the relatively simple voting scheme used by the classifier. We believe that the performance can be enhanced by separating its effective feature selection component and combining it with a powerful classifier such as the support vector machine (SVM). More generally the top scoring pairs generated by the k-TSP ranking algorithm can be used as a dimensionally reduced subspace for other machine learning classifiers.
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Structurally diverse terpenoids from the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus L.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2011
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An extract of the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus L. afforded two new sesquiterpenoids (2 and 3) with rearranged secoeudesmane and germacrane skeletons, and a new 9,10-seco-cycloartane triterpenoid (9), as well as seven previously reported terpenoids, including a monoterpenoid (1), five sesquiterpenoids (4-8) with guaiane, patchoulane, and eudesmane skeletons, and a 3,4- seco-dammarane nortriterpenoid (10). The structures of 1-10 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods and comparison with the literature data. The structures of 2 and 6 were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The carbon skeleton of 2 is the third example reported thus far of such a skeleton and the 9,10-seco-cycloartane framework of 9 has rarely been found from a natural source. Compound 7 was a new natural product and compounds 1-5 and 7-10 were discovered from the genus Cyperus for the first time. This study may provide some useful information for the chemotaxonomy for the plant Cyperus rotundus.
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Development of a network FES system for stroke rehabilitation.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
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This paper describes a Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) system based on the distributed network structure for rehabilitation of stroke patients. This FES system performs surface stimulation to activate the nerve of paretic muscles for training stroke patients to relearn motor functions. The main components of the networked FES system include a master unit (MU), a distributed stimulation-sensor unit (DSSU), and a clinical computer. In this system, the MU can drive a set of DSSUs, which is located at the node on the distributed network structure. The MU also stores the stimulation plan of rehabilitation training prescribed by clinicians. The DSSU serves as a single channel stimulator whose current amplitude, duration and frequency can be modulated by the MU. This system has two distinctive characters. First, since a stimulator is designed as a node on the network, the number of stimulation channels could be expanded according to specific needs. Second, a sensor component can be incorporated in the DSSU to allow monitoring physiological variables. The two features of system design make the networked FES system practical and flexible in clinical applications. We have completed a prototype of system including hardware and software. The evaluation test indicates that the system performance meets design specifications.
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[Monitoring "green tide" in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea using multi-temporal and multi-source remote sensing images].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2011
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Landsat-TM (Theme Mapper) and EOS (Earth Observing System)-MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrora-diometer) Terra/Aqua images were used to monitor the macro-algae (Ulva prolifera) bloom since 2007 at the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. At the turbid waters of Northern Jiangsu Shoal, there is strong spectral mixing behavior, and satellite images with finer spatical resolution are more effective in detection of macro-algae patches. Macro-algae patches were detected by the Landsat images for the first time at the Sheyang estuary where is dominated by very turbid waters. The MODIS images showed that the macro-algae from the turbid waters near the Northern Jiangsu Shoal drifted southwardly in the early of May and affected the East China Sea waters; with the strengthening east-asian Summer Monsoon, macro-algae patches mainly drifted in a northward path which was mostly observed at the Yellow Sea. Macro-algae patches were also found to drift eastwardly towards the Korea Peninsular, which are supposed to be driven by the sea surface wind.
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Relative distribution of West Nile virus RNA in blood compartments: implications for blood donor nucleic acid amplification technology screening.
Transfusion
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2011
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Despite implementation of targeted individual-donor nucleic acid test (NAT) screening of blood donors for West Nile virus (WNV), three "breakthrough" WNV transfusion transmission cases were reported (2004-2008), suggesting that current plasma-based assays are unable to detect all WNV-infectious donations. A 2007 report found that 19 of 20 red blood cell components from WNV-infected donors contained 1 log higher viral load than plasma components. This studys aim was to further establish the value of screening whole blood relative to plasma for WNV RNA by generating differential viral loads on paired samples derived from blood screening tubes.
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[Studies on the chemical constituents of Codonopsis pilosula].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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To study the chemical constituents of Codonopsis pilosula.
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Ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography for sensitive determination of trace celastrol in urine.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
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Ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA IL-DLLME) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed for the determination of celastrol in human urine samples. In the microextraction procedure, ionic liquid (IL) was used as extraction solvent and dispersed into the aqueous sample solution as fine droplets by means of dispersive solvent and ultrasonication which promoted the analyte to migrate into IL phase more easily. Several important parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized, including the type and volume of extraction solvent and dispersive solvent, sample pH, ultrasonication time, cooling time, centrifugation time and salting-out effect. Under the optimized conditions, 110-fold enrichment factor was obtained and the limit of detection (LOD) was 1.6 ?g/L at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 10-1000 ?g/L for celastrol in human urine sample, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9980. Intra- and inter-assay precision were 0.43% and 2.78%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the real human urine samples and good spiked recoveries in the range of 93.2-109.3% were obtained.
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