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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The Apelin-APJ Axis Is An Endogenous Counter-injury Mechanism In Experimental Acute Lung Injury.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Although mechanisms and pathways mediating acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have been extensively studied, less attention has been given to mechanisms and pathways that counteract injury responses. This study uncovered that the apelin-APJ pathway is an endogenous counter-injury mechanism that protects against ARDS.
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Mechanistic photodecarboxylation of pyruvic acid: Excited-state proton transfer and three-state intersection.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Photodissociation dynamics of pyruvic acid experimentally differs from that of commonly known ketones. We have employed the complete active space self-consistent field and its multi-state second-order perturbation methods to study its photodissociation mechanism in the S0, T1, and S1 states. We have uncovered four nonadiabatic photodecarboxylation paths. (i) The S1 system relaxes via an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) to a hydrogen-transferred tautomer, near which an S1/S0 conical intersection funnels the S1 to S0 state. Then, some trajectories continue completing the decarboxylation reaction in the S0 state; the remaining trajectories via a reverse hydrogen transfer return to the S0 minimum, from which a thermal decarboxylation reaction occurs. (ii) Due to a small S1 -T1 energy gap and a large S1/T1 spin-orbit coupling, an efficient S1 ? T1 intersystem crossing process happens again near this S1/S0 conical intersection. When decaying to T1 state, a direct photodecarboxylation proceeds. (iii) Prior to ESIPT, the S1 system first decays to the T1 state via an S1 ? T1 intersystem crossing; then, the T1 system evolves to a hydrogen-transferred tautomer. Therefrom, an adiabatic T1 decarboxylation takes place due to a small barrier of 7.7 kcal/mol. (iv) Besides the aforementioned T1 ESIPT process, there also exists a comparable Norrish type I reaction in the T1 state, which forms the ground-state products of CH3CO and COOH. Finally, we have found that ESIPT plays an important role. It closes the S1-T1 and S1-S0 energy gaps, effecting an S1/T1/S0 three-state intersection region, and mediating nonadiabatic photodecarboxylation reactions of pyruvic acid.
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Peritumoral Neuropilin-1 and VEGF receptor-2 expression increases time to recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma patients undergoing curative hepatectomy.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Purpose: To determined Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) expression in the tumoral and peritumoral tissues of 214 treatment-naïve HCC patients and its correlation with overall survival (OS) and time to recurrence (TTR). Experimental Design: NRP-1 and VEGFR-2 expression were examined by tissue microarray and peritumoral hypoxia by pimonidazole staining and angiogenesis by microvessel density (MVD). OS and TTR were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test. Results: Peritumoral NRP-1 and VEGFR-2 expression were significantly higher than that of the tumoral tissue (p < 0.001 for both), and high peritumoral expression of both factors was negatively associated with tumor size (p < 0.001 for both). Patients with high peritumoral expression of both proteins had the longest median OS (>94.0 months) and TTR (>84.0 months). The multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed that patients with high peritumoral expression of both NRP-1 and VEGFR-2 were more than 4 times less likely to have recurrence (p = 0.004) and more than 10 times likely to survive (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Peritumoral NRP-1 and VEGFR-2 expression is associated with prolonged TTR and extended OS of HCC patients and both may be useful as predictors of surgical outcome of HCC patients and explored as potential therapeutic targets.
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[Distribution and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments and soils from Ddishui Lake and its water exchange areas].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Twenty-three surface sediment samples were collected from Dishui Lake and its surroundings, and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using GC-MS. The distribution characteristics, possible sources and ecological risk were investigated. The results show that the concentrations of total PAHs range between 11.49 ng x g(-1) and 157.09 ng x g(-1) with a mean value of 66.60 ng x g(-1) in sediments from Dishui Lake, which is lower than the mean value in the catchment area but higher than that in the drainage area. Median and high molecular weight PAHs (4 rings, 5-6 rings) are the dominant compounds compared to the low molecular weight PAHs (2-3 rings) in surface sediments and soils from the lake's surroundings, while in Dishui Lake low and high molecular weight PAHs are the dominator. Based on the PAHs molecule ratios, using principal component analysis and multiple line regression, a combustion source is diagnosed in the lake's surroundings, while the mix sources of leakage of petroleum and combustion are found in Dishui Lake. Ecological risk assessment result indicates that PAHs in the sediments and soils in Dishui Lake and its water exchange areas pose little biological adverse impact.
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Synthesis and in vitro Anticancer Activity of Zinc(II) Phthalocyanines Conjugated with Coumarin Derivatives for Dual Photodynamic and Chemotherapy.
ChemMedChem
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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The combination of photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy is a promising strategy to overcome growing problems in contemporary medicine, such as low therapeutic efficacy and drug resistance. Four zinc(II) phthalocyanine-coumarin conjugates were synthesized and characterized. In these complexes, zinc(II) phthalocyanine was used as the photosensitizing unit, and a coumarin derivative was selected as the cytostatic moiety; the two components were linked via a tri(ethylene glycol) chain. These conjugates exhibit high photocytotoxicity against HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells, with low IC50 values in the range of 0.014-0.044??M. The high photodynamic activities of these conjugates are in accordance with their low aggregation tendency and high cellular uptake. One of these conjugates exhibits high photocytotoxicity and significantly higher chemocytotoxicity. The results clearly show that the two antitumor components in these conjugates work in a cooperative fashion. As shown by confocal microscopy, the conjugates can localize in the mitochondria and lysosomes, and one of the conjugates can also localize in the cell nuclei.
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[Preparation process of rutacarpine-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Rutaecarpine (Rut) is a type of indole quinazoline alkaloid exracted from Ruticarpum. Studies showed that Rut has a wide range of pharmacological effects, such as anti-hypertension, anticancer, anti-inflammation, anti-thrombus formation. Currently, many scholars are committed to developing it into a new antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory drug with all new mechanisms. But studies found that Rut is a highly fat-soluble drug with low water and oil solubility. Its high insolubility is the main obstacle in its oral absorption and application, which greatly reduced its bioavailability. Therefore, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) was used as the inclusion material to prepare Rut-HP-beta-CD inclusion complex in this experiment, in order to increase its water solubility and bioavailability. In this experiment, the inclusion complex was prepared by the stirring-freeze-dry method. The preparation process was optimized by the orthogonal test, with the inclusion rate as the index, and molar ratio between host and guest molecules, inclusion temperature, time and stirring speed as the impacting factors. Moreover, the inclusion complex was verified by detecting the apparent solubility, thin layer chromatography, microscopic identification, melting point detection and dissolution study. The results showed that under the conditions of the molar ratio between Rut and HP-beta-CD of 1: 1, temperature at 60 degrees C, inclusion time of 4h and stirring speed at 600 r x min(-1), the inclusion rate of Rut-HP-beta-CD reached 91.04%. Therefore, the preparation process of Rut-HP-beta-CD inclusion under the optimum conditions is simple and feasible, with a highest inclusion rate and reproducibility, and could significantly improve Rut's solubility and bioavailability, and provide a reliable experimental basis for its clinical application.
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Specific Cells in the Primary Salivary Glands of the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Control Retention and Transmission of Begomoviruses.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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The majority of plant viruses are vectored by arthropods via persistent-circulative or noncirculative transmission. Previous studies have shown that specific binding sites for noncirculative viruses reside within the stylet or foregut of insect vectors, whereas the transmission mechanisms of circulative viruses remain ambiguous. Here we report the critical roles of whitefly primary salivary glands (PSGs) in the circulative transmission of two begomoviruses. The Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex efficiently transmits both Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), whereas the Mediterranean (MED) species transmits TYLCV but not TYLCCNV. PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments showed that TYLCCNV efficiently penetrates the PSGs of MEAM1 but not MED whiteflies. When a fragment of the coat protein of TYLCCNV was exchanged with that of TYLCV, mutated TYLCCNV accumulated in the PSGs of MED whiteflies, while mutant TYLCV was nearly undetectable. Confocal microscopy revealed that virion transport in PSGs follows specific paths to reach secretory cells in the central region, and the accumulation of virions in the secretory region of PSGs was correlated with successful virus transmission. Our findings demonstrate that whitefly PSGs, in particular the cells around the secretory region, control the specificity of begomovirus transmission.
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Molecular-Target-Based Anticancer Photosensitizer: Synthesis and in vitro Photodynamic Activity of Erlotinib-Zinc(II) Phthalocyanine Conjugates.
ChemMedChem
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Targeted photodynamic therapy is a new promising therapeutic strategy to overcome growing problems in contemporary medicine, such as drug toxicity and drug resistance. A series of erlotinib-zinc(II) phthalocyanine conjugates were designed and synthesized. Compared with unsubstituted zinc(II) phthalocyanine, these conjugates can successfully target EGFR-overexpressing cancer cells owing to the presence of the small molecular-target-based anticancer agent erlotinib. All conjugates were found to be essentially non-cytotoxic in the absence of light (up to 50??M), but upon illumination, they show significantly high photo-cytotoxicity toward HepG2 cells, with IC50 values as low as 9.61-91.77?nM under a rather low light dose (?=670?nm, 1.5?J?cm(-2) ). Structure-activity relationships for these conjugates were assessed by determining their photophysical/photochemical properties, cellular uptake, and in vitro photodynamic activities. The results show that these conjugates are highly promising antitumor agents for molecular-target-based photodynamic therapy.
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Inhibition mechanism of Qingluo Tongbi Granule () on osteoclast differentiation induced by synovial fibroblast and monocytes co-culture in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To study the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of Qingluo Tongbi Granule (, QTG) on osteoclast differentiation in rheumatoid arthritis in rats.
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Comparative mitogenomic analysis reveals cryptic species: A case study in Mactridae (Mollusca: Bivalvia).
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part D Genomics Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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The Chinese surf clam Mactra chinensis Philippi, 1846 is a commercially important marine bivalve belonging to the family Mactridae (Mollusca: Bivalvia). In this study, the M. chinensis mitochondrial genomic features are analyzed. The genome has 34 genes on the same strand, lacking atp8 and both trnS (trnS1 and trnS2) as compared with the typical gene content of metazoan mitochondrial genomes. The A+T content of M. chinensis mitochondrial genome is 63.72%, which is slightly lower than that of M. veneriformis (67.59%) and Coelomactra antiquata (64.33% and 64.14% for the samples from Ri Zhao, Shandong Province, and Zhang Zhou, Fujian Province, China, respectively) in the same family. There are 22 NCRs in the M. chinensis mitochondrial genome, accounting for 12.91% of the genome length. The longest NCR (1,075bp in length) is located between trnT and trnQ. A TRS (127bp×8.15) accounts for 96.3% (1,035/1,075) of this NCR. The occurrence of TRS in NCR is shared by the two Mactra mitochondrial genomes, but is not found in the two Coelomactra mitochondrial genomes. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on 12 PCGs of 25 bivalve mitochondrial genomes shows that all seven genera (Mactra, Coelomactra, Paphia, Meretrix, Solen, Mytilus, and Crassostrea) constitute monophyletic groups with very high support values. Pairwise genetic distance analyses indicate that the genetic distance of C. antiquata from the two localities is 0.084, which is greater than values between congeneric species, such as those in Mactra, Mytilus, Meretrix, and Crassostrea. The results show that the C. antiquata from the two localities represent cryptic species.
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cDNA library preparation.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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The construction of full-length cDNA libraries allows researchers to study gene expression and protein interactions and undertake gene discovery. Recent improvements allow the construction of high-quality cDNA libraries, with small amounts of mRNA. In parallel, these improvements allow for the incorporation of adapters into the cDNA, both at the 5' and 3' end of the cDNA. The 3' adapter is attached to the oligo-dT primer that is used by the reverse transcriptase, whereas the 5' adapter is incorporated by the template switching properties of the MMLV reverse transcriptase. This allows directional cloning and eliminates inefficient steps like adapter ligation, phosphorylation, and methylation. Another important step in the construction of high-quality cDNA libraries is the normalization. The difference in the levels of expression between genes might be several orders of magnitude. Therefore, it is essential that the cDNA library is normalized. With a recently discovered enzyme, duplex-specific nuclease, it is possible to normalize the cDNA library, based on the fact that more abundant molecules are more likely to reanneal after denaturation compared to rare molecules.
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Validation of the moderate severity category of acute pancreatitis defined by determinant-based classification.
HBPD INT
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Recent international multidisciplinary consultation proposed the use of local (sterile or infected pancreatic necrosis) and/or systemic determinants (organ failure) in the stratification of acute pancreatitis. The present study was to validate the moderate severity category by international multidisciplinary consultation definitions.
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Improvement of Alcaligenes faecalis nitrilase by gene site saturation mutagenesis and its application in stereospecific biosynthesis of (R)-(-)-mandelic acid.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Nitrilases have recently received considerable attention as the biocatalysts for stereospecific production of carboxylic acids. To improve the activity, the nitrilase from Alcaligenes faecalis was selected for further modification by the gene site saturation mutagenesis method (GSSM), based on homology modeling and previous reports about mutations. After mutagenesis, the positive mutants were selected using a convenient two-step high-throughput screening method based on product formation and pH indicator combined with the HPLC method. After three rounds of GSSM, Mut3 (Gln196Ser/Ala284Ile) with the highest activity and ability of tolerance to the substrate was selected. As compared to the wild-type A. faecalis nitrilase, Mut3 showed 154% higher specific activity. Mut3 could retain 91.6% of its residual activity after incubation at pH 6.5 for 6 h. In a fed-batch reaction with 800 mM mandelonitrile as the substrate, the cumulative production of (R)-(-)-mandelic acid after 7.5 h of conversion reached 693 mM with an enantiomeric excess of 99%, and the space-time productivity of Mut3 was 21.50-fold higher than that of wild-type nitrilase. The Km, Vmax, and k(cat) of wild-type and Mut3 for mandelonitrile were 20.64 mM, 33.74 ?mol mg(-1) min(-1), 24.45 s(-1), and 9.24 mM, 47.68 ?mol mg(-1) min(-1), and 34.55 s(-1), respectively. A homology modeling and molecular docking study showed that the diameter of the catalytic tunnel of Mut3 became longer and that the tunnel volume was smaller. These structural changes are proposed to improve the hydrolytic activity and pH stability of Mut3. Mut3 has the potential for industrial applications in the upscale production of (R)-(-)-mandelic acid.
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The efficacy and safety of Jian-Wei-Qu-Tong Pills for the treatment of chronic non-atrophic gastritis (spleen and stomach qi deficiency with damp-heat stasis syndrome): study protocol for a phase II, randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2014
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Chronic gastritis (CG), a poorly understood entity, is a very common disease of the digestive tract and is difficult to cure. Chronic non-atrophic gastritis (CNG) is the most common type of CG. Even if treated with current standard chemotherapy, some patients will not be freed from this confusing disease. Many studies have shown traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is more effective compared to chemotherapy in the treatment of chronic gastritis and no serious side effects have been identified. However, the studies that have been carried out were not scientifically rigorous trials. Our aim is to design a high-quality trial for a new TCM drug, the Jian-Wei-Qu-Tong Pills (JWQTP), to investigate the efficacy and safety of this new drug in treating chronic non-atrophic gastritis patients with spleen and stomach qi deficiency with damp-heat stasis syndrome (SSQDDSS).
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Effect of Chaiqin Chengqi Decoction () on cholecystokinin receptor 1-mediated signal transduction of pancreatic acinar cells in acute necrotizing pancreatitis rats.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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To investigate the effect of Chaiqin Chengqi Decoction (,CQCQD) on cholecystokinin receptor 1 (CCKR1)-mediated signal transduction of pancreatic acinar cell in rats with acute necrotic pancreatitis (ANP).
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Chiral ligand-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography with copper (II)-L-phenylalanine complexes for separation of 3,4-dimethoxy-?-methylphenylalanine racemes.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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L-3, 4-dimethoxy-?-methylphenylalanine (L-DMMD) is an important intermediate for the synthesis of 3-hydroxy-?-methyl-L-tyrosine (L-methyldopa). This paper describes an efficient, accurate, and low-priced method of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using chiral mobile phase and conventional C18 column to separate L-DMMD from its enantiomers. The effects of ligands, copper salts, organic modifiers, pHs of mobile phase, and temperatures on the retention factors (k') and selectivity (?) were evaluated to achieve optimal separation performance. Then, thermal analysis of the optimal separation conditions was investigated as well. It was confirmed that the optimal mobile phase was composed of 20 % (v/v) methanol, 8 mM L-phenylalanine (L-Phe), and 4 mM cupric sulfate in water of pH 3.2, and the column temperature was set at 20 °C. Baseline separation of two enantiomers could be obtained through the conventional C18 column with a resolution (R) of 3.18 in less than 18 min. Thermodynamic data (??H and ??S) obtained by Van't Hoff plots revealed the chiral separation was an enthalpy-controlled process. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the enantioseparation of DMMD by chiral ligand-exchange HPLC.
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Inhibition of human natural killer cell functional activity by human aspartyl ?-hydroxylase.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Natural killer (NK) cells are a key component of the innate immune system and play pivotal roles as inflammatory regulators and in tumor surveillance. Human aspartyl ?-hydroxylase (HAAH) is a plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum protein with hydroxylation activity, which is over-expressed in many malignant neoplasms and can be detected from the sera of tumor patients. HAAH is involved in regulating tumor cell infiltration and metastasis. Escaping from immune surveillance may help tumor cell infiltration and metastasis. However, the effects of HAAH on tumor immune surveillance have not yet been investigated carefully. The present study investigated the potential use of HAAH as an immune regulator of human NK cells. We assessed the effects of recombinant HAAH (r-HAAH) on primary human NK cell morphology, viability, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, receptors expression and cytokine/cytolytic proteins production. Our results demonstrated that r-HAAH negatively affects NK cell activity in a time and dose-dependent manner. It noticeably reduces the viability of the NK cells by increasing apoptosis and necrosis via caspase signaling pathways. Moreover, r-HAAH reduces the NK cell cytotoxicity by inhibiting surface expression of NKG2D, NKp44 and IFN-? secretion. These findings suggest that one of the ways by which HAAH actively promotes tumor formation and proliferation is by inhibiting NK cell-surveillance activity.
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Plastid casein kinase 2 knockout reduces abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity, thermotolerance, and expression of ABA- and heat-stress-responsive nuclear genes.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Plastid casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a major Ser/Thr-specific enzyme for protein phosphorylation in the chloroplast stroma and its kinase activity is regulated by redox signals. To understand the role of CK2 phosphorylation of chloroplast proteins in abiotic stress signalling, an Arabidopsis plastid CK2 (CKA4) knockout mutant was investigated in terms of the plant response to abscisic acid (ABA) and heat stress. CKA4 expression was upregulated by ABA and heat treatment. The cka4 mutant showed reduced sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and seedling growth, and increased stomatal aperture and leaf water loss with a slightly reduced leaf ABA level. The cka4 mutant was more sensitive to heat stress than the wild-type Columbia-0. The expression levels of a number of genes in the ABA regulatory network were reduced in the cka4 mutant. Many heat-upregulated genes (heat-shock factors and heat-shock proteins) were also reduced in the cka4 mutant. The cka4 mutant showed reduced expression levels of plastid-encoded RNA polymerase target genes (atpB and psbA). CKA4 knockout mutation also resulted in a reduction in expression of some critical genes (PTM, ABI4, and PRS1) involved in retrograde signalling from the chloroplast to the nucleus. Similar results were observed in mutant plants with the knockout mutation in both CKA4 and CKA3, which encodes a nuclear CK2 ?3 subunit. CKA3 expression was not responsive to ABA and heat stress. These results suggest that CKA4 is an enhancing factor in abiotic stress signalling through modulating the expression of some molecular players in retrograde signalling.
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Chaiqinchengqi decoction regulates necrosis-apoptosis via regulating the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and caspase-3 in rats with acute necrotizing pancreatitis.
J Tradit Chin Med
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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To explore the effect and the mechanism of Chaiqinchengqi decoction (CQCQD) on the apoptosis-necrosis switch of pancreatic acinar cells in acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) in rats.
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Inhibitory effect of sihuangxiechai decoction on ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in Guinea pigs.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sihuangxiechai decoction on asthmatic Guinea pig model which was sensitized by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of ovalbumin (OVA) and challenged by OVA inhalation to induce chronic airway inflammation. Differential cell counts of cytospins were performed after staining with Giemsa solution. The quantity of leukocytes and its classification in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood were evaluated by blood cell analyzer and microscope. Histological analysis of the lung was performed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) in BALF and serum were detected by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The total number of leukocytes in BALF and blood has no significant difference between Sihuangxiechaitang decoction treated group and dexamethasone (DXM) treated group but was significantly lower than those of asthma group. The percentage of eosinophils in lung tissues of sihuangxiechai decoction treated group was significantly lower than that of asthma group. The results demonstrated that the levels of IL-4 and TNF-? in the sihuangxiechai decoction treated group were significantly reduced compared with the asthma group. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that sihuangxiechai decoction has a protective effect on OVA-induced asthma in reducing airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in a Guinea pig model and may be useful as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of bronchial asthma.
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Furazolidone-based triple and quadruple eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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To evaluate the efficacy of furazolidone-based triple and quadruple therapy in eradicating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in a multi-center randomized controlled trial.
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphisms and risk for sporadic Alzheimer's disease: a meta-analysis.
J Neural Transm
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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Numerous studies have tested for associations between common polymorphisms of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene and sporadic Alzheimer disease (SAD), but results have been inconclusive. Using meta-analysis, our study aimed to clarify the nature of the genetic risks contributed by the three polymorphisms (rs4291, rs4343, rs1800764) for developing SAD. Through searching of Pubmed, Embase, Alzgene and manually searching relevant references, a total of 14 articles with 26 independent studies were included. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of the association studies. The heterogeneity across the studies was tested, as was publication bias. We observed significant association between SNP rs4291 and SAD using allelic comparison (OR = 1.08, 95 % CI 1.03-1.14), homozygote comparison (OR = 1.16, 95 % CI 1.04-1.30) and the recessive model (OR = 1.10, 95 % CI 1.02-1.18). Association with SNP rs1800764 was revealed but it was not sufficiently robust to withstand the Benjamini-Hochberg method and stepdown Bonferroni correction. Significant association was not identified in the analysis for SNP rs4343. In subgroup analyses, the risk of SAD associated with SNP rs4291 appeared to be significant among Caucasians and in older cases (mean age ?75 years). Our results confirmed a significant but modest association between SNP rs4291 and SAD susceptibility. Further study of the pathogenetic characteristics of this polymorphism and independent confirmation of the association in larger studies are warranted.
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Novel MSVPWM to reduce the inductor current ripple for Z-source inverter in electric vehicle applications.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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A novel modified space vector pulse width modulation (MSVPWM) strategy for Z-Source inverter is presented. By rearranging the position of shoot-through states, the frequency of inductor current ripple is kept constant. Compared with existing MSVPWM strategies, the proposed approach can reduce the maximum inductor current ripple. So the volume of Z-source network inductor can be designed smaller, which brings the beneficial effect on the miniaturization of the electric vehicle controller. Theoretical findings in the novel MSVPWM for Z-Source inverter have been verified by experiment results.
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[Study on the effect of deficient ERCC2/XPD gene on the repair of DNA damage induced by UVC in CHO cell line].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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To explore the function of ERCC2/XPD in the repair of DNA damage induced by UVC.
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Linear-in-wavenumber swept laser with an acousto-optic deflector for optical coherence tomography.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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We report a novel linear-in-wavenumber (k-linear) swept laser source based on an acousto-optic deflector (AOD). The AOD-based optical filter includes an acousto-optic deflector and a reflection grating. The laser may tune k linearly in wavenumber over time due to its appropriate configuration and is favorable for fast imaging because it avoids data resampling and recalibration, as are required in conventional swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). We achieved k-linearity with Pearson's r correlation coefficients of 0.99995 without and 0.99997 with optimization. The laser has a tuning range of 50 nm, a 3 dB swept range of 42 nm (FWHM), output power of 2.56 mW, 6 dB sensitivity roll-off depth of 0.941 mm, and central wavelength of 1064 nm at a scanning rate of ?20 kHz. Scanning rate as high as ?400 kHz is also achieved for this laser with the tuning range 49 nm, swept linearity of 0.99990, output power of 2.30 mW, and a 6 dB sensitivity roll-off depth 0.550 mm. SS-OCT imaging with linear-in-wavenumber swept laser is also demonstrated.
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Compact piezoelectric transducer fiber scanning probe for optical coherence tomography.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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We developed a compact, optical fiber scanning piezoelectric transducer (PZT) probe for endoscopic and minimally invasive optical coherence tomography (OCT). Compared with previous forward-mount fiber designs, we present a reverse-mount design that achieves a shorter rigid length. The fiber was mounted at the proximal end of a quadruple PZT tube and scanned inside the hollow PZT tube to reduce the probe length. The fiber resonant frequency was 338 Hz using a 17-mm-long fiber. A 0.9 mm fiber deflection was achieved with a driving amplitude of 35 V. Using a GRIN lens-based optical design with a 1.3× magnification, a ?6 ?m spot was scanned over a 1.2 mm diameter field. The probe was encased in a metal hypodermic tube with a ?25 mm rigid length and covered with a 3.2 mm outer diameter (OD) plastic sheath. Imaging was performed with a swept source OCT system based on a Fourier domain modelocked laser (FDML) light source at a 240 kHz axial scan rate and 8 ?m axial resolution (in air). En face OCT imaging of skin in vivo and human colon ex vivo was demonstrated.
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SMN1 duplications contribute to sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis susceptibility: evidence from a meta-analysis.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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To investigate the association between SMN1 and SMN2 copy number variations (CNVs) and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS) by a meta-analysis.
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Short-term continuous high-volume hemofiltration on clinical outcomes of severe acute pancreatitis.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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This study aimed to conduct a single-center prospective trial of short-term continuous high-volume hemofiltration (HVHF) in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).
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Molecular variability and evolution of a natural population of tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Shanghai, China.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), belonging to the genus Begomovirus of the family Geminiviridae, is emerging as the most destructive pathogen of tomato plants. Since the first report of TYLCV in Shanghai, China in 2006, TYLCV has spread rapidly to 13 provinces or autonomous regions of China. In this study, the molecular variability and evolution of TYLCV were monitored in Shanghai from its first upsurge in 2006 until 2010. Full-length genomic sequences of 26 isolates were obtained by rolling circle amplification. Sequence analysis showed that the intergenic region was the most variable, with a mean mutation rate of 4.81×10(-3) nucleotide substitutions per site per year. Genetic differentiation was found within isolates obtained from 2006, 2009, and 2010, though a linear increase in genetic diversity over time was not evident. Whilst significant parts of TYLCV genes were under negative selection, the C4 gene embedded entirely within the C1 gene had a tendency to undergo positive selection. Our results indicate that a mechanism of independent evolution of overlapping regions could apply to the natural population of TYLCV in Shanghai, China.
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Expression and functional characterisation of a soluble form of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus coat protein.
Pest Manag. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a member of the genus Begomovirus within the family Geminiviridae, is an important pathogen of tomato in many tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. TYLCV is exclusively transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci in a circulative manner. The viral coat protein (CP) has been assumed to play important roles in the entry of TYLCV into the insect midgut cells.
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Changes of neuronal acetylcholine receptor alpha 7 of peritoneal macrophage in experimental acute pancreatitis treated by Chaiqin Chengqi Decoction ().
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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To investigate effect of Chaiqin Chengqi Decoction (, CQCQD) on changes of neuronal acetylcholine receptor alpha 7 (nAChR?7) of peritoneal macrophages in acute pancreatitis (AP).
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Highly efficient expression of functional recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor 1 and its protective effects on hepatocytes.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Three forms of recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor 1 (rhKGF1) with or without the native signal peptide or a 23-amino acid truncation were expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda 9 (Sf9) cells by designing with insect codon usage. Immunoblotting demonstrated that these rhKGF1 proteins were recognized by a human anti-KGF1 antibody. The multiplicity of infection and timing of harvest had a significant effect on protein yield, protein quality, and cytotoxicity. Our results indicated that the native signal peptide directed KGF1 secretion from insect cells, reaching a maximum at 60 h postinfection. Although secretion of rhKGF1194 was less efficient than that of rhKGF1163 and rhKGF1140, protein secretion is an attractive pathway for simple purification of biologically active rhKGF1 at a high yield. Moreover, the sizes of rhKGF1194 and rhKGF1163 were similar (20 kDa), suggesting that the signal peptide may be recognized and removed in Sf9 cells. A 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay was used to analyze the biological function of rhKGF1, indicating that the three forms of rhKGF1 had a similar mitogenic function in BaF3 cells. Furthermore, to elucidate the effect of rhKGF1 on cytoprotection of liver cells, we used KGF1 pretreatment of an acute liver injury model. The results indicated that rhKGF1 prevented necrosis and apoptosis of CCl4-treated HL7702 cells in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that KGF1 may be a candidate therapeutic drug for acute liver injury.
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism is not a major determining factor in the development of sporadic Alzheimer disease: evidence from an updated meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism have long been linked to sporadic Alzheimer disease (SAD), but the established data remained controversial. To clarify this inconsistency, a comprehensive meta-analysis was conducted. Through searching of Pubmed, Embase, Alzgene, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and manually searching relevant references, 53 independent studies from 48 articles were included, involving a total of 8153 cases and 14932 controls. The strength of association was assessed by using odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Further stratified analyses and heterogeneity analyses were tested, as was publication bias. Overall, significant associations were revealed between I/D polymorphism and SAD risk using allelic comparison (OR?=?1.09, 95%CI?=?1.01-1.17, p?=?0.030), homozygote comparison (OR?=?1.17, 95%CI?=?1.01-1.34, p?=?0.030) and the dominant model (OR?=?1.16, 95%CI?=?1.04-1.29, p?=?0.008), but they were not sufficiently robust to withstand the false-positive report probability (FPRP) analyses. Otherwise, in subgroup analyses restricted to the high quality studies, the large sample size studies and studies with population-based controls, no significant association was observed in any genetic models. In summary, the current meta-analysis suggested that the ACE I/D polymorphism is unlikely to be a major determining factor in the development of SAD.
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Genome-wide analysis of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) expression in hepatoblastoma tissues.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have crucial roles in cancer biology. We performed a genome-wide analysis of lncRNA expression in hepatoblastoma tissues to identify novel targets for further study of hepatoblastoma. Hepatoblastoma and normal liver tissue samples were obtained from hepatoblastoma patients. The genome-wide analysis of lncRNA expression in these tissues was performed using a 4×180 K lncRNA microarray and Sureprint G3 Human lncRNA Chips. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to confirm these results. The differential expressions of lncRNAs and mRNAs were identified through fold-change filtering. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway analyses were performed using the standard enrichment computation method. Associations between lncRNAs and adjacent protein-coding genes were determined through complex transcriptional loci analysis. We found that 2736 lncRNAs were differentially expressed in hepatoblastoma tissues. Among these, 1757 lncRNAs were upregulated more than two-fold relative to normal tissues and 979 lncRNAs were downregulated. Moreover, in hepatoblastoma there were 420 matched lncRNA-mRNA pairs for 120 differentially expressed lncRNAs, and 167 differentially expressed mRNAs. The co-expression network analysis predicted 252 network nodes and 420 connections between 120 lncRNAs and 132 coding genes. Within this co-expression network, 369 pairs were positive, and 51 pairs were negative. Lastly, qRT-PCR data verified six upregulated and downregulated lncRNAs in hepatoblastoma, plus endothelial cell-specific molecule 1 (ESM1) mRNA. Our results demonstrated that expression of these aberrant lncRNAs could respond to hepatoblastoma development. Further study of these lncRNAs could provide useful insight into hepatoblastoma biology.
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[Effects of Fe-Cd interaction on the lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activities of rice].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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Taking rice variety Shennong 265 as test material, a hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Fe (0, 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 mmol Fe2+ x L(-1)) and Cd (0, 0.1 and 1.0 umol Cd2+ x L(-1)) on the lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activities of rice plant. When the Fe was supplied alone, the shoot and root dry mass decreased significantly, but this phenomenon would not occur when the Cd was applied simultaneously. Applying Cd alone decreased the root malondialdehyde (MDA) and soluble protein contents, but applying Fe simultaneously alleviated the negative effects of Cd. Applying Fe decreased the Cd concentrations in shoots and roots, whereas applying Cd decreased the shoot and root Fe concentrations, indicating an obvious antagonistic interaction between Fe and Cd. The interaction of high concentration (1.0 micromol x L(-1)) Cd with Fe increased the root MDA and soluble protein contents, and decreased the root superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. These results indicated that applying definite amount of exogenous Fe could decrease the Cd accumulation in rice under low Cd stress, whereas high Cd stress would decrease the Fe absorption by rice and induce the lipid peroxidation in rice plant.
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NAC Transcription Factor SPEEDY HYPONASTIC GROWTH Regulates Flooding-Induced Leaf Movement in Arabidopsis.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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In rosette plants, root flooding (waterlogging) triggers rapid upward (hyponastic) leaf movement representing an important architectural stress response that critically determines plant performance in natural habitats. The directional growth is based on localized longitudinal cell expansion at the lower (abaxial) side of the leaf petiole and involves the volatile phytohormone ethylene (ET). We report the existence of a transcriptional core unit underlying directional petiole growth in Arabidopsis thaliana, governed by the NAC transcription factor SPEEDY HYPONASTIC GROWTH (SHYG). Overexpression of SHYG in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana enhances waterlogging-triggered hyponastic leaf movement and cell expansion in abaxial cells of the basal petiole region, while both responses are largely diminished in shyg knockout mutants. Expression of several EXPANSIN and XYLOGLUCAN ENDOTRANSGLYCOSYLASE/HYDROLASE genes encoding cell wall-loosening proteins was enhanced in SHYG overexpressors but lowered in shyg. We identified ACC OXIDASE5 (ACO5), encoding a key enzyme of ET biosynthesis, as a direct transcriptional output gene of SHYG and found a significantly reduced leaf movement in response to root flooding in aco5 T-DNA insertion mutants. Expression of SHYG in shoot tissue is triggered by root flooding and treatment with ET, constituting an intrinsic ET-SHYG-ACO5 activator loop for rapid petiole cell expansion upon waterlogging.
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The heat shock factor family from Triticum aestivum in response to heat and other major abiotic stresses and their role in regulation of heat shock protein genes.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
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Heat shock factors (Hsfs) play a central regulatory role in acquired thermotolerance. To understand the role of the major molecular players in wheat adaptation to heat stress, the Hsf family was investigated in Triticum aestivum. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses identified 56 TaHsf members, which are classified into A, B, and C classes. Many TaHsfs were constitutively expressed. Subclass A6 members were predominantly expressed in the endosperm under non-stress conditions. Upon heat stress, the transcript levels of A2 and A6 members became the dominant Hsfs, suggesting an important regulatory role during heat stress. Many TaHsfA members as well as B1, C1, and C2 members were also up-regulated during drought and salt stresses. The heat-induced expression profiles of many heat shock protein (Hsp) genes were paralleled by those of A2 and A6 members. Transactivation analysis revealed that in addition to TaHsfA members (A2b and A4e), overexpression of TaHsfC2a activated expression of TaHsp promoter-driven reporter genes under non-stress conditions, while TaHsfB1b and TaHsfC1b did not. Functional heat shock elements (HSEs) interacting with TaHsfA2b were identified in four TaHsp promoters. Promoter mutagenesis analysis demonstrated that an atypical HSE (GAACATTTTGGAA) in the TaHsp17 promoter is functional for heat-inducible expression and transactivation by Hsf proteins. The transactivation of Hsp promoter-driven reporter genes by TaHsfC2a also relied on the presence of HSE. An activation motif in the C-terminal domain of TaHsfC2a was identified by amino residue substitution analysis. These data demonstrate the role of HsfA and HsfC2 in regulation of Hsp genes in wheat.
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The effect of Chaiqin Chengqi Decoction () on modulating serum matrix metalloproteinase 9 in patients with severe acute pancreatitis.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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To investigate the effect of Chaiqin Chengqi Decoction (, CQCQD) on regulating serum matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).
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[Comprehensive measures for improving the radical resection rate and safety of Bismuth-Corlette type III hilar cholangiocarcinoma].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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To investigate the comprehensive measures for improving radical resection rate and safety of Bismuth-Corlette type III hilar cholangiocarcinoma.
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Genetic variability and evolution of rice stripe virus.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Rice stripe virus (RSV) is the type member of the genus Tenuivirus. RSV is known to have four segmented, single-stranded RNA molecules and causes rice stripe disease in the rice fields of China, Japan, and Korea. Based on the complete genomic sequences of the determined 6 RSV isolates (from Yunnan, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Liaoning Provinces, China) and 27 other RSV isolates (from Yunnan, Jiangsu, Anhui, Henan, and Shandong Provinces of China, also Japan and Korea) downloaded from GenBank, we provided a genotyping profile of RSV field isolates and described the population structure of RSV. All RSV isolates, except isolate CX, could be divided into two subtypes, one including 6 isolates from Yunnan Province, and the other including 26 isolates from different parts of China, Japan, and Korea, which were referred to as subtype II and subtype I, respectively. The amino acid distances between subtypes range from 0.053 to 0.085. RSV isolates in Yunnan Province were genetically differentiated from other parts of China, Japan, and Korea and showed infrequent gene flow. The RSV populations collected from other parts of China, Japan, and Korea were only composed of subtype I and showed very low genetic diversity. We speculated that isolate CX may be the result of recombination of isolates from two subtypes. Two potential recombination events were detected in RNA4 of isolate CX.
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One-pot, single-step deracemization of 2-hydroxyacids by tandem biocatalytic oxidation and reduction.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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A facile and efficient one-pot, single-step method for deracemizing a broad range of 2-hydroxyacids to (R)-2-hydroxyacids was established by combination of resting cells of an (S)-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase-producing microorganism and an (R)-ketoacid reductase-producing microorganism.
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Human leukocyte antigen-DR expression on peripheral monocytes may be an early marker for secondary infection in severe acute pancreatitis.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2013
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Background/Aims: To investigate whether the human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) expression on peripheral monocytes can be utilized as a precursor to a secondary infection of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Methodology: Patients diagnosed with SAP who were admitted into West China Hospital within 48 h after symptom onset from July 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010 (n = 40) were included. HLD-DR expression on peripheral monocytes on the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th day of hospitalization was detected with flow cytometry analysis to determine whether a prediction could be made in regards to development of a secondary infection. Results: There were 11 patients with secondary infection complications, 4 of which died during hospitalization. On the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th day, HLA-DR expression on monocytes in the infected patients was lower than those in the non-infected patients (P <0.05). There was no statistical significance in the serum CRP and APACHE II between the groups on the first day (P >0.05). Upon initial admission HLA-DR expression showed a negative correlation with longer-term admission APACHE II (r = -0.790, P = 0.000) and serum CRP (r = -0.642, P = 0.000). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.837 (95%CI: 0.685-0.989, P = 0.001) for admission HLA-DR, 0.809 (95% CI: 0.667-0.951; P = 0.003) for APACHE II score and 0.781 for serum CRP (95% CI: 0.627-0.934; P = 0.007) to predict secondary infection. The cut-off value of prediction of secondary infection was 35.8% in HLA-DR expression with a sensitivity of 81.8% and a specificity of 82.8%, 10.5 in APACHE II on admission with a sensitivity of 90.9% and a specificity of 48.3%, 155 mg/L in serum CRP on admission with a sensitivity of 90.9% and a specificity of 44.8%. Conclusions: The HLA-DR expression on monocytes may be an ideal marker for an early prediction of secondary infection in SAP.
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A novel strategy for targeting photodynamic therapy. Molecular combo of photodynamic agent zinc(II) phthalocyanine and small molecule target-based anticancer drug erlotinib.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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In this study, two phthalocyanine-erlotinib conjugates linked by an oligoethylene glycol chain have been synthesised and fully characterised. Having erlotinib as the targeting moiety, the two conjugates exhibited high specific affinity to HepG2 cancer cells and tumour tissues, therefore leading to high photodynamic activity.
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[The effect of drainage in cavities on preventing from grade B and C of the pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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To explore the effect of drainage in cavities on preventing from grade B and C of the pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD).
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Tiny endoscopic optical coherence tomography probe driven by a miniaturized hollow ultrasonic motor.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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We present an endoscopic probe for optical coherence tomography (OCT) equipped with a miniaturized hollow ultrasonic motor that rotates the objective lens and provides an internal channel for the fiber to pass through, enabling 360 deg unobstructed circumferential scanning. This probe has an outer diameter of 1.5 mm, which is ultra-small for motorized probes with an unobstructed view in distal scanning endoscopic OCT. Instead of a mirror or prism, a customized aspheric right-angle lens is utilized, leading to an enlargement of the numerical aperture and thus high transverse resolution. Spectral-domain OCT imaging of bio-tissue and a phantom are demonstrated with resolution of 7.5???m(axial)×6.6???m(lateral) and sensitivity of 96 dB.
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Urinary trypsinogen-2 for diagnosing acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis.
HBPD INT
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Currently, serum amylase and lipase are the most popular laboratory markers for early diagnosis of acute pancreatitis with reasonable sensitivity and specificity. Urinary trypsinogen-2 (UT-2) has been increasingly used but its clinical value for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis and post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis has not yet been systematically assessed.
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Therapeutic effects of electroacupuncture at ST36 acupoint on sodium-taurocholate-induced severe acute pancreatitis.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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To explore the protective effects and mechanisms of electroacupuncture (EA) at Zusanli (ST36) acupoint in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).
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TaMYB13-1, a R2R3 MYB transcription factor, regulates the fructan synthetic pathway and contributes to enhanced fructan accumulation in bread wheat.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Fructans are the major component of temporary carbon reserve in the stem of temperate cereals, which is used for grain filling. Three families of fructosyltransferases are directly involved in fructan synthesis in the vacuole of Triticum aestivum. The regulatory network of the fructan synthetic pathway is largely unknown. Recently, a sucrose-upregulated wheat MYB transcription factor (TaMYB13-1) was shown to be capable of activating the promoter activities of sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) and sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) in transient transactivation assays. This work investigated TaMYB13-1 target genes and their influence on fructan synthesis in transgenic wheat. TaMYB13-1 overexpression resulted in upregulation of all three families of fructosyltransferases including fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT). A ?-vacuolar processing enzyme (?-VPE1), potentially involved in processing the maturation of fructosyltransferases in the vacuole, was also upregulated by TaMYB13-1 overexpression. Multiple TaMYB13 DNA-binding motifs were identified in the Ta1-FFT1 and Ta?-VPE1 promoters and were bound strongly by TaMYB13-1. The expression profiles of these target genes and TaMYB13-1 were highly correlated in recombinant inbred lines and during stem development as well as the transgenic and non-transgenic wheat dataset, further supporting a direct regulation of these genes by TaMYB13-1. TaMYB13-1 overexpression in wheat led to enhanced fructan accumulation in the leaves and stems and also increased spike weight and grain weight per spike in transgenic plants under water-limited conditions. These data suggest that TaMYB13-1 plays an important role in coordinated upregulation of genes necessary for fructan synthesis and can be used as a molecular tool to improve the high fructan trait.
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Synthesis and in Vitro Photodynamic Activity of Oligomeric Ethylene Glycol-Quinoline Substituted Zinc(II) Phthalocyanine Derivatives.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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A new series of zinc(II) phthalocyanine derivatives have been synthesized and characterized. These macrocycles exhibited a sharp absorption band in the red visible region in DMF, which indicated that they were dissolved well and almost did not aggregate in this solvent. Compared with the unsubstituted zinc(II) phthalocyanine, all these phthalocyanines have a red-shifted Q-band (at 678-699 vs 670 nm) and exhibit a relatively weaker fluorescence emission and a higher efficiency at generating singlet oxygen. The monosubstituted photosensitizers also exhibit high photocytotoxicity toward HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells with IC50 values as low as 0.02-0.05 ?M (? = 670 nm, 80 mW·cm(-2), 1.5 J·cm(-2)). The high photodynamic activities of these compounds are in accordance with their low aggregation tendency and high cellular uptake. Their structure-activity relationship was assessed by determining the photophysical properties, cellular uptake, and in vitro photodynamic activities of this series of compounds. As shown by confocal microscopy, monosubstituted phthalocyanines can target the mitochondria and lysosomes of the cells, and tetrasubstituted phthalocyanines tend to target the lysosomes of the cells.
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Monoclonal antibody-based serological methods for maize chlorotic mottle virus detection in China.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) infects maize plants and causes significant losses in corn production worldwide. In this study, purified MCMV particles were used as the immunogen to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and polyclonal antibodies (PAbs). Four murine MAbs (4B8, 8C11, 6F4, and 9G1) against MCMV were obtained through the hybridoma technology. The triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA), dot-immunobinding assay (DIBA), and immunocapture reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR) using the MAb 4B8 were then developed for sensitive, specific, and rapid detection of MCMV in fields. MCMV could be detected in infected leaf crude extracts at dilutions of 1:327680, 1:64000, and 1:3276800 (w/v, g/ml) by TAS-ELISA, DIBA, and IC-RT-PCR, respectively. One hundred and sixty-one maize field samples showing virus-like symptoms and sixty-nine symptomless maize field samples from ten different provinces of China were collected and screened for the presence of MCMV using the established serological methods. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the full length CP genes and Chinese MCMV isolates formed one branch with Thailand isolates. The detection results demonstrated that MCMV is one of most prevalent viruses infecting maize in the Yunnan and Sichuan provinces of China.
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SIRT2 polymorphism rs10410544 is associated with Alzheimers disease in a Han Chinese population.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is a strong protein deacetylase, which is highly expressed in central nervous system. Recently, an association between SIRT2 rs10410544 polymorphism and late-onset Alzheimers disease (LOAD) was found in the APOE?4-negative Caucasian population. To investigate the potential association between the rs10410544 C/T polymorphism of SIRT2 and the risk of LOAD, we conducted an independent replication case-control study in a Northern Han Chinese population comprising 1133 cases and 1159 healthy controls being matched for age and gender. The results revealed that there were significant differences in genotype and allele frequencies between LOAD cases and controls (genotype P=0.008, allele P=0.009). When compared with the C allele, the T allele of rs10410544 demonstrated a 1.709-fold risk for developing LOAD. After stratification by apolipoprotein E (APOE) ?4-carrying status, only APOE?4 noncarriers (P=0.035, adjusted OR=1.656, 95% CI: 1.036-2.647) showed the relation between LOAD and SIRT2 rs10410544 T allele. This study provides the evidence that the rs10410544 C/T polymorphism of SIRT2 was associated with genetic susceptibility to LOAD in a Northern Han Chinese population.
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Understanding three-dimensional spatial relationship between the mouse second polar body and first cleavage plane with full-field optical coherence tomography.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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The morphogenetic relationship between early patterning and polarity formation is of fundamental interest and remains a controversial issue in preimplantation embryonic development. We use a label-free three-dimensional (3-D) imaging technique of full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT) successfully for the first time to study the dynamics of developmental processes in mouse preimplantation lives. Label-free 3-D subcellular time-lapse images are demonstrated to investigate 3-D spatial relationship between the second polar body (2PB) and the first cleavage plane. By using FF-OCT together with quantitative study, we show that only 25% of the predicted first cleavage planes, defined by the apposing plane of two pronuclei, pass through the 2PB. Also only 27% of the real cleavage planes pass through the 2PB. These results suggest that the 2PB is not a convincing spatial cue for the event of the first cleavage. Our studies demonstrate the feasibility of FF-OCT in providing new insights and potential breakthroughs to the controversial issues of early patterning and polarity in mammalian developmental biology.
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Noninvasive three-dimensional live imaging methodology for the spindles at meiosis and mitosis.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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The spindle plays a crucial role in normal chromosome alignment and segregation during meiosis and mitosis. Studying spindles in living cells noninvasively is of great value in assisted reproduction technology (ART). Here, we present a novel spindle imaging methodology, full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT). Without any dye labeling and fixation, we demonstrate the first successful application of FF-OCT to noninvasive three-dimensional (3-D) live imaging of the meiotic spindles within the mouse living oocytes at metaphase II as well as the mitotic spindles in the living zygotes at metaphase and telophase. By post-processing of the 3-D dataset obtained with FF-OCT, the important morphological and spatial parameters of the spindles, such as short and long axes, spatial localization, and the angle of meiotic spindle deviation from the first polar body in the oocyte were precisely measured with the spatial resolution of 0.7 ?m. Our results reveal the potential of FF-OCT as an imaging tool capable of noninvasive 3-D live morphological analysis for spindles, which might be useful to ART related procedures and many other spindle related studies.
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Speckle-constrained variational methods for image restoration in optical coherence tomography.
J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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A number of despeckling methods for optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been proposed. In these digital filtering techniques, speckle noise is often simplified as additive white Gaussian noise due to the logarithmic compression for the signal. The approximation is not completely consistent with the characteristic of OCT speckle noise, and cannot be reasonably extended to deconvolution algorithms. This paper presents a deconvolution model that combines the variational regularization term with the statistical characteristic constraints of data corrupted by OCT speckle noise. In the data fidelity term, speckle noise is modeled as signal dependent, and the point spread function of OCT systems is included. The regularization functional introduces a priori information on the original images, and a regularization term based on block matching 3D modeling is used to construct the variational model in the paper. Finally, the method is applied to the restoration of actual OCT raw data of human skin. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed deconvolution algorithm can simultaneously enhance regions of images containing detail and remove OCT speckle noise.
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MicroRNAs dysregulation in epilepsy.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2013
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Epilepsy is a syndrome characterized by recurrent spontaneous seizures due to neuronal hyperactivity in the brain. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate post-transcriptional expression of protein-coding mRNAs, which may have key roles in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. Evidence indicates that miRNAs are emerging as a critical new layer of gene expression regulation with implications for the cause and treatment of epilepsy. Accumulating studies in epilepsy suggest that numerous specific miRNAs are dysregulated. Recent studies have explored several target genes and pathways of miRNAs in order to find out therapeutic approaches to epilepsy. Here, we review current findings regarding miRNA research in humans and animal models to provide a solid foundation for further research aiming at understanding the potential contribution of miRNAs to epilepsy pathophysiology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled RNA Metabolism 2013.
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Short-term microbiological effects of scaling and root planing and essential-oils mouthwash in Chinese adults.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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To assess the short-term effect of scaling and root planing (SRP) and essential-oils mouthwash on the levels of specific bacteria in Chinese adults.
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Changes in the balance between Treg and Th17 cells in patients with chronic hepatitis B.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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The purpose of this study was to explore the role of Treg cells, Th17 cells and cytokines associated with Treg/Th17 differentiation in the occurrence, development and outcome of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). To do so, we detected populations of Treg and Th17 cells and their associated cytokines in the peripheral blood of CHB patients. The populations of Treg cells (CD4(+)CD25(high)CD127(low) T cells) and Th17 cells (CD3(+)CD8(-)IL-17(+) T cells) were analyzed in 46 patients with low to moderate chronic hepatitis B (CHB-LM), 24 patients with severe chronic hepatitis B (CHB-S) and 20 healthy controls (HC) using flow cytometry. The levels of cytokines associated with Treg/Th17 differentiation, including IL-10, TGF-?1, IL-17 and IL-23, were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our study showed that the imbalance of Treg and Th17 cells might play an important role in the occurrence, development and outcome of CHB.
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Long-term fertilisation causes excess supply and loss of phosphorus in purple paddy soil.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Phosphorus (P) loss from cropland is accelerating the eutrophication of waters around the world such as the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China. We investigated whether purple paddy soil under long-term P applications was a major source of P efflux to the TGR.
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Bioactive phenylalanine derivatives and cytochalasins from the soft coral-derived fungus, Aspergillus elegans.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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One new phenylalanine derivative 4-OMe-asperphenamate (1), along with one known phenylalanine derivative (2) and two new cytochalasins, aspochalasin A1 (3) and cytochalasin Z24 (4), as well as eight known cytochalasin analogues (5-12) were isolated from the fermentation broth of Aspergillus elegans ZJ-2008010, a fungus obtained from a soft coral Sarcophyton sp. collected from the South China Sea. Their structures and the relative configurations were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by chemical synthesis and Marfeys method. All isolated metabolites (1-12) were evaluated for their antifouling and antibacterial activities. Cytochalasins 5, 6, 8 and 9 showed strong antifouling activity against the larval settlement of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite, with the EC50 values ranging from 6.2 to 37 ?M. This is the first report of antifouling activity for this class of metabolites. Additionally, 8 exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, especially against four pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus albus, S. aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus.
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Concurrent obtaining of aromatic (R)-2-hydroxyacids and aromatic 2-ketoacids by asymmetric oxidation with a newly isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa ZJB1125.
J. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2013
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa ZJB1125 harboring a stereoselective 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase (2-HADH) can catalyze asymmetric oxidation of mandelic acid and 2-chloromandelic acid into (R)-isomers and corresponding 2-ketoacids with high activity and enantioselectivity, while no consecutive oxidation of 2-ketoacids was observed during whole-cell catalysis. The 2-HADH in P. aeruginosa ZJB1125 is a FMN-dependent flavoprotein and did not require NAD(P)? as cofactors to catalyze the oxidation reaction. Enzyme activity staining identified 2-HADH as the key enzyme that enantioselectively oxidized (S)-hydroxyacid to 2-ketoacid. The 2-HADH in P. aeruginosa ZJB1125 is inducible and 2-chloromandelic acid was found to induce its synthesis efficiently. The bacterium displayed pretty high activity and enantioselectivity for most of the aromatic 2-hydroxyacids examined, and have a potential for the concurrent obtaining of aromatic (R)-2-hydroxyacids and aromatic 2-ketoacids in near theoretical conversions. Using a simple organic extract process, aromatic (R)-2-hydroxyacids and aromatic 2-ketoacids can be effectively separated from the biocatalytic reaction mixture with high yield (>95%). This work provided a novel method for the concurrent obtaining of aromatic (R)-2-hydroxyacids and aromatic 2-ketoacids by oxidation of aromatic 2-hydroxyacids in one-step biotransformation, which would be a valuable process due to its high atom economy.
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Anti-tumor activity of a novel monoclonal antibody, NPC-1C, optimized for recognition of tumor antigen MUC5AC variant in preclinical models.
Cancer Immunol. Immunother.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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NPC-1C is a chimeric immunoglobulin IgG1 developed from antigen tested in the Hollinshead tumor vaccine trials that recognizes an immunogenic MUC5AC-related tumor-associated antigen. In this article, we describe the pre-clinical characterization of this antibody that is currently being tested in human clinical trials.
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Prediction of the severity of acute pancreatitis on admission by urinary trypsinogen activation peptide: a meta-analysis.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
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To undertake a meta-analysis on the value of urinary trypsinogen activation peptide (uTAP) in predicting severity of acute pancreatitis on admission.
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[Association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms with Parkinson disease].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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Vitamin D receptor (VDR) has been proposed as a candidate gene for susceptibility to Parkinsons disease (PD). This study was set to assess the association between VDR gene Apa I and Taq I polymorphisms and PD in a Chinese Han population.
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A formal metal-free N-arylation via the Schmidt reaction of aromatic aldehydes with an azido amine.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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A formal metal-free N-arylation of aromatic aldehydes with 3-azido-N-tosylpropan-1-amine through the Schmidt process was realized in the presence of acids. TfOH was found to be a good promoter, and the exclusive 1,2-aryl migration was observed. Furthermore, the conversion of an aliphatic aldehyde to the N,N-disubstituted formamide was achieved in excellent yield.
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Optimal treatment opportunity for mTHPC-mediated photodynamic therapy of liver cancer.
Lasers Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2013
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been clinically used for liver cancer. The pharmacokinetics of a photosensitizer needs to be monitored so that PDT can be performed at the most favorable time and with the proper dose to increase the cure rate. As mTHPC is a fluorescent compound, we investigate its pharmacokinetics, distribution, and elimination in the rat orthotropic liver cancer model in order to confirm an optimal treatment opportunity of liver cancer PDT. After intravenous administration at a single dose of 300 ?g/kg, mTHPC was extracted from tissue homogenates or plasma. Then, mTHPC concentrations were assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy and the data were processed with PK-GRAPH pharmacokinetic procedure. The plasma concentration-time profile of mTHPC showed a short distribution half-life (T½? = 0.082 h) and a relatively longer elimination half-life (T½? = 28.23 h), which quite fitted with a two-compartment model. The results of mTHPC tissue distributions showed that the highest drug accumulation was in tumor tissue, and successively decreased in liver, heart, spleen, muscle, and skin tissues. The drug distribution ratio of tumor to normal tissue reached the peak at 24 h after mTHPC administration. mTHPC was eliminated at a suitable rate in rat orthotropic liver cancer model, and there was no long-term accumulation of mTHPC in rat tissues. For PDT of orthotropic liver cancer, 24 h after mTHPC intravenous injection may be the optimal treatment time point, which might provide higher clinical efficacy and reduce side effects.
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Enhanced production of acarbose and concurrently reduced formation of impurity c by addition of validamine in fermentation of Actinoplanes utahensis ZJB-08196.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Commercial production of acarbose is exclusively via done microbial fermentation with strains from the genera of Actinoplanes. The addition of C7N-aminocyclitols for enhanced production of acarbose and concurrently reduced formation of impurity C by cultivation of A. utahensis ZJB-08196 in 500-mL shake flasks was investigated, and validamine was found to be the most effective strategy. Under the optimal conditions of validamine addition, acarbose titer was increased from 3560 ± 128 mg/L to 4950 ± 156 mg/L, and impurity C concentration was concurrently decreased from 289 ± 24 mg/L to 107 ± 29 mg/L in batch fermentation after 168 h of cultivation. A further fed-batch experiment coupled with the addition of validamine (20 mg/L) in the fermentation medium prior to inoculation was designed to enhance the production of acarbose. When twice feedings of a mixture of 6 g/L glucose, 14 g/L maltose, and 9 g/L soybean flour were performed at 72 h and 96 h, acarbose titer reached 6606 ± 103 mg/L and impurity C concentration was only 212 ± 12 mg/L at 168 h of cultivation. Acarbose titer and proportion of acarbose/impurity C increased by 85.6% and 152.9% when compared with control experiments. This work demonstrates for the first time that validamine addition is a simple and effective strategy for increasing acarbose production and reducing impurity C formation.
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Effects of nerve growth factor on the action potential duration and repolarizing currents in a rabbit model of myocardial infarction.
J Geriatr Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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To investigate the effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on the action potential and potassium currents of non-infarcted myocardium in the myocardial infarcted rabbit model.
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Genomic insights into the glutathione S-transferase gene family of two rice planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) and Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes control crucial traits for the metabolism of various toxins encountered by insects in host plants and the wider environment, including insecticides. The planthoppers Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera are serious specialist pests of rice throughout eastern Asia. Their capacity to rapidly adapt to resistant rice varieties and to develop resistance to various insecticides has led to severe outbreaks over the last decade.
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Expression of glioma-associated oncogene 2 (Gli 2) is correlated with poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing hepatectomy.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2013
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Our previous studies showed that glioma-associated oncogene (Gli)2 plays an important role in the proliferation and apoptosis resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical significance of Gli2 expression in HCC.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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