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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Inflammatory Stress Exacerbated Mesangial Foam Cell Formation and Renal Injury via Disrupting Cellular Cholesterol Homeostasis.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Inflammation and lipids play significant roles in the progression of chronic kidney disease. This study was designed to investigate whether inflammation disrupts cellular cholesterol homeostasis and causes the lipid nephrotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, and explored its underlying mechanisms. Inflammatory stress was induced by cytokines (interleukin-1? (IL-1?); tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?)) to human mesangial cells (HMCs) in vitro and by subcutaneous casein injection in C57BL/6J mice in vivo. The data showed that inflammatory stress exacerbated renal cholesterol ester accumulation in vitro and in vivo. Inflammation increased cellular cholesterol uptake and synthesis via upregulating the expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoA-R), while it decreased cholesterol efflux via downregulating the expression of liver X receptor alpha and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1. The increased lipid accumulation by inflammatory stress induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers (inositol-requiring protein 1 and activating transcription factor 6) in HMCs and kidneys of C57BL/6J mice. This study implied that inflammation promoted renal lipid accumulation and foam cell formation by disrupting cellular cholesterol homeostasis. Increased intracellular lipids under inflammatory stress caused oxidative stress and ER stress in vitro and in vivo which may contribute to renal injury and progression of chronic kidney disease.
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Identification of Independent Primary Tumors and Intrapulmonary Metastases Using DNA Rearrangements in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Distinguishing independent primary tumors from intrapulmonary metastases in non-small-cell carcinoma remains a clinical dilemma with significant clinical implications. Using next-generation DNA sequencing, we developed a chromosomal rearrangement-based approach to differentiate multiple primary tumors from metastasis.
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17-Dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin Attenuates Inflammatory Responses in Experimental Stroke.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a ubiquitous molecular chaperone involved in the proper conformation of many proteins. HSP90 inhibitors (17-dimethyl aminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin hydrochloride [17-DMAG]) bind to and inactivate HSP90, suppressing some key signaling pathways involved in the inflammatory process. Since considerable evidence suggests that inflammation accounts for the progression of cerebral ischemic injury, we investigated whether 17-DMAG can modulate inflammatory responses in middle cerebral artery occluded (MCAO) mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were pretreated with 17-DMAG or vehicle for 7?d before being subjected to transient occlusion of middle cerebral artery and reperfusion. Mice were evaluated at 24?h after MCAO for neurological deficit scoring. Moreover, the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of 17-DMAG was investigated with a focus on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) pathway. 17-DMAG significantly reduced cerebral infarction and improved neurological outcome. 17-DMAG suppressed activation of microglia and decreased phosphorylation of inhibitory (I)?B and subsequent nuclear translocation of p65, which eventually downregulated expression of NF-?B-regulated genes. These results suggest that 17-DMAG has a promising therapeutic effect in ischemic stroke treatment through an anti-inflammatory mechanism.
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Embelin Sensitizes Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells to TRAIL through XIAP Inhibition and NF-?B Inactivation.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) shows promising result in cancer therapy and induces apoptosis in a wide variety of tumor cells, without causing toxicity to normal cells. However, many tumor cells including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) showed certain degrees of resistance to TRAIL and the mechanism remains largely unknown. Embelin is a potent XIAP inhibitor which has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells and cause cell apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of Embelin on the TRAIL-induced apoptosis and the underlying mechanism. Here, we chose an adenovirus vector as the expression vector for TRAIL, which was named Ad-TRAIL. The results in vitro showed that the co-treatment of Embelin and Ad-TRAIL has synergistically suppressed the proliferation of AML cells. Embelin has the ability to enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis and activate caspase pathway. More interestingly, we found that the underlying mechanism for these talent skills of Embelin is through reducing the TRAIL-mediated activation of NF-?B and decreasing its transcriptional activity. Furthermore, our results in vivo suggest that combined therapy of Embelin and Ad-TRAIL caused significant growth inhibition of HL-60 xenograft tumors. Our results suggested that Embelin could sensitize AML cell to TRAIL through the repression of NF-?B signal pathway in vitro and in vivo, and combined therapy of Ad-TRAIL and Embelin may be the attractive candidate for clinical application in treatment of AML.
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Genetic variations underlying self-reported physical functioning: a review.
Qual Life Res
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Genetic associations with self-reported physical functioning (SPF) are less well-studied than genetic associations with performance-measured physical functioning (PPF). We review the literature on the associations of genetic variations on SPF. We provide an overview of SPF assessment, genetic contributions to SPF including heritability, effects of genetic variations and mutations, and effects of interventions on the gene-SPF relationship. We also aim to provide directions for future research.
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Potential Mechanisms of Benzyl Isothiocyanate Suppression of Invasion and Angiogenesis by the U87MG Human Glioma Cell Line.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Glioma is one of the most common tumors in China and chemotherapy is critical for its treatment. Recent studies showed that benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) could inhibit the growth of glioma cells, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. This study explored the inhibitory effect of BITC on invasion and angiogenesis of U87MG human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo, as well as potential mechanisms. It was found that BITC could inhibit invasion and angiogenesis of human glioma U87MG cells by inducing cell cycle arrest at phase G2/M. It also was demonstrated that BITC decreased expression of cyclin B1, p21, MMP-2/9, VE-cadherin, CD44, CXCR4 and MTH1, the activity of the telomerase and PKC? pathway. Microarray analysis was thus useful to explore the potential target genes related to tumorigenic processes. BITC may play important roles in the inhibition of invasion and angiogenesis of human glioma cells.
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Photoluminescence properties of hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe/CdSe quantum dots.
Luminescence
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe/CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were prepared using CdTe/CdSe QDs prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. A CdSe interlayer made CdTe/CdSe cores with unique type II heterostructures. The hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe/CdSe QDs revealed excellent photoluminescence (PL) properties compared with hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe QDs. Because of the existence of spatial separations of carriers in the type II CdTe/CdSe core/shell QDs, the hybrid QDs had a relatively extended PL lifetime and high stability in phosphate-buffered saline buffer solutions. This is ascribed to the unique components and stable surface state of hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe/CdSe QDs. During the stabilization test in phosphate-buffered saline buffer solutions, both static and dynamic quenching occurred. The quenching mechanism of the hybrid QDs was not suited with the Stern–Volmer equation. However, the relative stable surface of CdTe/CdSe QDs resulted in lower degradation and relative high PL quantum yields compared with hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe QDs. As a result, hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe/CdSe QDs can be used in bioapplications.
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The effective equivalence of geometric irregularity and surface roughness in determining particle single-scattering properties.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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This study investigates the effects of geometric irregularity and surface roughness on the single-scattering properties of randomly oriented dielectric particles. Starting from a regular crystal with smooth faces, effects of roughening are compared with effects of perturbing the regular configuration of the smooth faces. Using the same slope distribution for small roughness facets and tilted faces provides a natural way to compare the effects on the single-scattering properties. It is found that the geometric irregularity and surface roughness have similar effects on the single-scattering properties of an ensemble of randomly oriented particles. In other words, particles with irregular geometries and those with surface roughness are optically equivalent if the slope distributions are the same. Furthermore, an ensemble of particles with irregular geometries can be used as an effective approximation for simulation of the scattering properties of roughened particles, and vice versa. This approach also provides new interpretation of the observed, relatively featureless and smooth, scattering phase functions of naturally occurring particles.
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Visible-Light-Assisted Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Methanol Using Reduced Graphene Oxide Modified Pt Nanoflowers-TiO2 Nanotube Arrays.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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In this work, Pt nanoflowers deposited on highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTs) by modification of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanostructures have been synthesized. The ternary complex (Pt-TNTs/RGO) displays efficient electrocatalytic performance toward methanol oxidation in alkaline medium. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and responsive photocurrent results indicate that the presence of graphene could effectively promote charge separation during electrocatalytic process. Interestingly, with assistance of visible light illumination, the electrocatalytic activity and stability of the ternary complex electrode toward methanol oxidation are distinctly improved. Both electro- and photo-catalytic processes for methanol oxidation contribute to the enhanced catalytic performance and stability. Moreover, the ternary electrode also displays efficient photoelectrocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light illumination. The present work sheds light on developing highly efficient and long-term stability catalysts for methanol oxidation with assistance of visible-light illumination.
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A DRD1 Polymorphism Predisposes to Lung Cancer among Those Exposed to Secondhand Smoke during Childhood.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Lung cancer has a familial component which suggests a genetic contribution to its etiology. Given the strong evidence linking smoking with lung cancer, we studied miRNA-related loci in genes associated with smoking behavior. CHRNA, CHRNB gene families, CYP2A6, and DRD1 (dopamine receptor D1) were mined for SNPs that fell within the seed region of miRNA binding sites and then tested for associations with risk in a three-stage validation approach. A 3'UTR (untranslated region) SNP in DRD1 was associated with a lower risk of lung cancer among individuals exposed to secondhand smoke during childhood [OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.60-0.79; P < 0.0001]. This relationship was evident in both ever (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.62-0.88; P = 0.001) and never smokers (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.47-0.79; P < 0.0001), European American (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.53-0.80; P < 0.0001), and African American (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.62-0.88; P = 0.001) populations. Although much remains undefined about the long-term risks associated with exposure to secondhand smoke and heterogeneity between individuals in regard to their susceptibility to the effects of secondhand smoke, our data show an interaction between an SNP in the 3'UTR of DRD1 and exposure to secondhand smoke during childhood. Further work is needed to explore the mechanistic underpinnings of this SNP and the nature of the interaction between DRD1 and exposure to secondhand smoke during childhood. Cancer Prev Res; 7(12); 1-9. ©2014 AACR.
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Imaging diagnosis for left ventricular thrombosis in idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome: two case reports.
Medicine (Baltimore)
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (IHES) is a rare disease that is frequently associated with cardiac thrombosis and endocardial wall thickness. This case report describes 2 patients who had IHES associated with left ventricular (LV) thrombi. The patients' symptoms are atypical. Peripheral blood and bone marrow tests showed markedly elevated eosinophils. Electrocardiography showed ischemic changes in both patients. Negative computed tomography (CT) angiography excluded coronary artery stenosis. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), conventional multislice spiral CT, gemstone spectral CT, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging were used to identify the LV intraluminal thrombus and endocardial thickening, and the diagnostic values of each imaging method were analyzed and compared. These patients were clinically diagnosed as "IHES, LV thrombosis, NYHA heart function classification I." Both patients received oral prednisone and warfarin therapy. At 5 month follow-up, TTE rechecks showed that the size of the LV thrombotic lesion was reduced in the first case but substantially increased in the second case.
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blaNDM-5 Carried by an IncX3 Plasmid in Escherichia coli Sequence Type 167.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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blaNDM-5 was found in Escherichia coli strain 0215 from a Chinese patient without travel history. Genomic sequencing and conjugation experiments were performed. Strain 0215 belonged to sequence type 167 (ST167) and had other resistance determinants, including blaTEM-135, blaCTX-M-14, and aac(6')-Ib. blaNDM-5 was carried by a 47-kb self-transmissible IncX3 plasmid and was in a complex genetic context similar to that of blaNDM-1 on IncX3 plasmids. IncX3 plasmids might have emerged as a common vehicle mediating the spread of blaNDM.
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3D reconstruction of ultrasound scanned data for tissue mimicking material sample.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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This paper investigates a 3D reconstruction based on the ultrasonic scanned data for tissue mimicking material (TMM) sample. A two-step varied window filter is developed to smooth ultrasound backscatter signals at first. Next, the anisotropic diffusion filter with a triangular window is presented to reduce the noise of the 2D images by aligning one-dimensional signals. Finally, the 3D structure of the object embedded in the TMM sample is reconstructed using the detected edges images. The performance of the proposed method is analyzed and validated through a number of experiments in both 2D imaging and 3D reconstruction.
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Two apextrin-like proteins mediate extracellular and intracellular bacterial recognition in amphioxus.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Animals exploit different germ-line-encoded proteins with various domain structures to detect the signature molecules of pathogenic microbes. These molecules are known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and the host proteins that react with PAMPs are called pattern recognition proteins (PRPs). Here, we present a novel type of protein domain structure capable of binding to bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) and the minimal PGN motif muramyl dipeptide (MDP). This domain is designated as apextrin C-terminal domain (ApeC), and its presence was confirmed in several invertebrate phyla and subphyla. Two apextrin-like proteins (ALP1 and ALP2) were identified in a basal chordate, the Japanese amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum (bj). bjALP1 is a mucosal effector secreted into the gut lumen to agglutinate the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus via PGN binding. Neutralization of secreted bjALP1 by anti-bjALP1 monoclonal antibodies caused serious damage to the gut epithelium and rapid death of the animals after bacterial infection. bjALP2 is an intracellular PGN sensor that binds to TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and prevents TRAF6 from self-ubiquitination and hence from NF-?B activation. MDP was found to compete with TRAF6 for bjALP2, which released TRAF6 to activate the NF-?B pathway. BjALP1 and bjALP2 therefore play distinct and complementary functions in amphioxus gut mucosal immunity. In conclusion, discovery of the ApeC domain and the functional analyses of amphioxus ALP1 and ALP2 allowed us to define a previously undocumented type of PRP that is represented across different animal phyla.
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[Relationship between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and obesity/metabolic syndrome in children].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To explore the relationship between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and obesity/metabolic syndrome (MetS) related factors in children.
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Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction among HIV-positive patients with early syphilis: azithromycin versus benzathine penicillin G therapy.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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The Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction, a febrile inflammatory reaction that often occurs after the first dose of chemotherapy in spirochetal diseases, may result in deleterious effects to patients with neurosyphilis and to pregnant women. A single 2-g oral dose of azithromycin is an alternative treatment to benzathine penicillin G for early syphilis in areas with low macrolide resistance. With its potential anti-inflammatory activity, the impact of azithromycin on the incidence of the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction in HIV-positive patients with early syphilis has rarely been investigated.
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The effect of full/partial UV-irradiation of TiO2 films on altering the behavior of fibrinogen and platelets.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Titanium oxide (TiO2) thin film is a potential candidate for the surface modification of blood-contacting devices. It has previously been reported that ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation could alter the biocompatibility of TiO2 films. However, the effect of UV-irradiated TiO2 films on blood compatibility has rarely been reported. This study attempts to determine: (1) whether UV-irradiation of TiO2 films enhances their blood compatibility, (2) the interaction between UV-irradiated TiO2 films, fibrinogen (Fgn), and platelets, especially how Fgn and platelets respond to the geometry of the partially UV-irradiated TiO2 film surface. Anatase TiO2 films were subjected to full and partial UV-irradiation. Full UV-irradiation improved the blood compatibility of TiO2 films by almost completely inhibiting the adhesion and activation of platelets, strongly suppressing the adsorption and conformational change of Fgn, and preventing the formation of fibrin fibers. Additionally, hemolysis was not observed. After partial UV-irradiation, the regions where Fgn adsorption was reduced (Fgn-dark regions) were formed at regions where UV-irradiation had occurred, but were extended in comparison with the UV-irradiated regions, which could be related to the generation and diffusion of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the UV-irradiated TiO2 surface. It is worthwhile to study how ROS altered the nature of TiO2 films, thereby enhancing their blood compatibility. Furthermore, platelets were found adhering to the Fgn-adsorbed regions (Fgn-bright regions) selectively, suggesting that the inhibition of platelet adhesion could be related to the suppression of Fgn adsorption on the UV-irradiated TiO2 surface. It was also noted that platelet surface coverage (Sp) was not linearly correlated with Fgn-bright region surface coverage (Sf), which indicated that the adhesion and spreading of platelets were regulated by both Sf and the geometry of Fgn.
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Levocarnitine protects H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes from H2O2-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Although the protective effects of levocarnitine in patients with ischemic heart disease are related to the attenuation of oxidative stress injury, the exact mechanisms involved have yet to be fully understood. Our aim was to investigate the potential protective effects of levocarnitine pretreatment against oxidative stress in rat H9c2 cardiomyocytes.
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Assessment of type 2 diabetes risk conferred by SNPs rs2241766 and rs1501299 in the ADIPOQ gene, a case/control study combined with meta-analyses.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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We conducted a case/control study to assess the impact of two SNPs, rs2241766 and rs1501299 within the ADIPOQ gene, on type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility in a Chinese Han dataset (741 cases and 902 controls). SNP rs2241766 was found significantly associated with T2D risk in the additive model, dominant model and recessive model. A marginal association was detected for SNP rs1501299 in the additive model and recessive model after Bonferroni correction, and haplotype analysis provided additional evidence supporting the association between these two SNPs and T2D risk. A meta-analysis including 29 published datasets along with current dataset was next carried out to further confirm the association. In consistent with our case/control results, rs2241766 showed a significant association with T2D in the dominant model and additive model, and the association between rs1501299 and T2D was also characterized in the homozygote model, dominant model, recessive model, and additive model. Of note, the association became much stronger in East Asians after exclusion of ethnic stratification. Together, our data support that the rs2241766 and rs1501299 polymorphisms within the ADIPOQ gene confer genetic susceptibility for type 2 diabetes, especially in the Chinese Han population.
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Comorbidities among the HIV-infected patients aged 40 years or older in Taiwan.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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With the widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), life expectancy of HIV-infected patients has significantly prolonged. An increasing number of HIV-infected patients are aging and concurrent use of medications are not uncommon for management of metabolic complications and cardiovascular diseases related to aging and prolonged exposure to cART.
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TiO? nanoparticles-functionalized N-doped graphene with superior interfacial contact and enhanced charge separation for photocatalytic hydrogen generation.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles-functionalized N-doped graphene (NGR) composites (NGR/TiO2) were prepared through solvothermal treatment approach using exfoliated NGR and tetrabutyl titanate as the staring materials. The composites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, photoelectrochemical, and electrochemical measurements. Nitrogen doping provides favorable nucleation and anchor sites for TiO2 nanocrystals formation on NGR sheets, helping to form an intimate interfacial contact between NGR and TiO2 nanoparticles. Moreover, NGR has higher electrical conductivity than the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) due to the recovery of the sp(2) graphite network and decrease of defects, resulting in more effective charge transfer and charge separation in the NGR/TiO2 composite. NGR/TiO2 nanocomposite demonstrated a higher photocatalytic activity for hydrogen production as compared to its counterpart, TiO2-functionalized RGO composite (RGO/TiO2). This work provides new insights to design new more efficient graphene-based nanocomposite photocatalysts for solar energy conversion.
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miR-19a acts as an oncogenic microRNA and is up-regulated in bladder cancer.
J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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The application of microRNAs (miRNAs) as potential biomarkers and therapy targets has been widely investigated in many kinds of cancers. The discovery of tumor associated miRNAs in serum of patients supported the use of plasma/serum miRNAs as noninvasive means of cancer detection. However, the aberrant expression of miRNAs in bladder cancer patients and their intensive roles and mechanisms in bladder cancer are poorly understood.
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Incidence and risk factors of skin rashes and hepatotoxicity in HIV-infected patients receiving nevirapine-containing combination antiretroviral therapy in Taiwan.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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To retrospectively investigate the incidence of and factors associated with skin rashes and hepatotoxicity in HIV-infected patients who initiated combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) containing nevirapine plus two nucleos(t)ide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors.
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Association between retinol-binding protein 4 and polycystic ovary syndrome: A meta-analysis.
Endocr. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Studies have examined the association between retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, the results have been inconsistent. To investigate the association between RBP4 and PCOS, we performed a meta-analysis. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, the ISI Web of Science, and EMBASE were searched to identify all of the studies that examined the relationship between circulating RBP4 levels and PCOS. Standard mean difference (SMD) values and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated and pooled using meta-analysis methodology. A total of seven studies were involved in the meta-analysis, which included a total of 636 subjects (260 controls and 376 patients with PCOS). The RBP4 level was higher in PCOS patients than in non-PCOS patients (random effects MD (95% CI)=0.69, [0.20, 1.18], P=0.006). However, the RBP4 level was not higher in nonobese PCOS patients than in nonobese controls (random effects MD (95% CI)=0.38, [-0.21, 0.98], P=0.20). The effect size revealed that the RBP4 level was higher in overweight or obese PCOS patients than weight-matched controls (fixed effects MD (95% CI)=7.95, [5.96, 9.93], P<0.05). In the subgroup analysis by region, the RBP4 level was higher in PCOS patients in Asia than controls (random effects MD (95% CI)=0.85, [0.54, 1.15], P<0.05), but not in European PCOS patients compared with controls (random effects MD (95% CI)=0.34, [-1.12, 1.80], P=0.65). This subgroup analysis also showed that nonobese PCOS patients have higher RBP4 levels than controls in Asia. Our meta-analysis results indicated that RBP4 might be a useful tool for identifying PCOS women.
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Effect of exogenous methanol on glycolate oxidase and photorespiratory intermediates in cotton.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Application of methanol (MeOH) inhibits photorespiration and enhances growth and yield in C3 plants. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are not clear. In this study, we investigated the effects of foliar application of MeOH (30%, v/v) on glycolate oxidase (GO) activity and photorespiratory intermediates in cotton leaves in a field experiment. MeOH treatment significantly inhibited GO activity (by 30% compared with the controls). We also found that endogenous glyoxylate, a photorespiratory intermediate, increased and glycine decreased significantly in MeOH-treated plants. Serine increased significantly in MeOH-treated plants. These results thus demonstrated that exogenous MeOH can modulate GO activity and the production of photorespiratory intermediates, and sheds new lights on our current understanding of how exogenous MeOH inhibits photorespiration and enhances the growth and yield of C3 plants such as cotton.
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[Oral-appliance for erectile dysfunction induced by obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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To evaluate the effect of the oral-appliance in the treatment of ED induced by obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS).
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[Trends on the prevalence rates of obesity and cardiometabolic among children and adolescents in Beijing, during 2004-2013].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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To analyze the trends on the prevalence rates of obesity and cardiometabolic among children and adolescents in Beijing, during 2004-2013.
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Clinical biomarkers of pulmonary carcinoid tumors in never smokers via profiling miRNA and target mRNA.
Cell Biosci
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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miRNAs play key regulatory roles in cellular pathological processes. We aimed to identify clinically meaningful biomarkers in pulmonary carcinoid tumors (PCTs), a member of neuroendocrine neoplasms, via profiling miRNAs and mRNAs.
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Epitaxy-enabled vapor-liquid-solid growth of tin-doped indium oxide nanowires with controlled orientations.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Controlling the morphology of nanowires in bottom-up synthesis and assembling them on planar substrates is of tremendous importance for device applications in electronics, photonics, sensing and energy conversion. To date, however, there remain challenges in reliably achieving these goals of orientation-controlled nanowire synthesis and assembly. Here we report that growth of planar, vertical and randomly oriented tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires can be realized on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates via the epitaxy-assisted vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism, by simply regulating the growth conditions, in particular the growth temperature. This robust control on nanowire orientation is facilitated by the small lattice mismatch of 1.6% between ITO and YSZ. Further control of the orientation, symmetry and shape of the nanowires can be achieved by using YSZ substrates with (110) and (111), in addition to (100) surfaces. Based on these insights, we succeed in growing regular arrays of planar ITO nanowires from patterned catalyst nanoparticles. Overall, our discovery of unprecedented orientation control in ITO nanowires advances the general VLS synthesis, providing a robust epitaxy-based approach toward rational synthesis of nanowires.
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Orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 is a novel negative regulator of endothelin-1 expression in vascular endothelial cells.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Endothelin-1 (ET-1) produced by vascular endothelial cells plays essential roles in the regulation of vascular tone and development of cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study is to identify novel regulators implicated in the regulation of ET-1 expression in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). By using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we show that either ectopic expression of orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 or pharmacological activation of Nur77 by 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) substantially inhibits ET-1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), under both basal and thrombin-stimulated conditions. Furthermore, thrombin-stimulated ET expression is significantly augmented in both Nur77 knockdown ECs and aort from Nur77 knockout mice, suggesting that Nur77 is a negative regulator of ET-1 expression. Inhibition of ET-1 expression by Nur77 occurs at gene transcriptional levels, since Nur77 potently inhibits ET-1 promoter activity, without affecting ET-1 mRNA stability. As shown in electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), Nur77 overexpression markedly inhibits both basal and thrombin-stimulated transcriptional activity of AP-1. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that Nur77 specially interacts with c-Jun and inhibits AP-1 dependent c-Jun promoter activity, which leads to a decreased expression of c-Jun, a critical component involved in both AP-1 transcriptional activity and ET-1 expression in ECs. These findings demonstrate that Nur77 is a novel negative regulator of ET-1 expression in vascular ECs through an inhibitory interaction with the c-Jun/AP-1 pathway. Activation of Nur77 may represent a useful therapeutic strategy for preventing certain cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and pulmonary artery hypertension.
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[Investigation on the psychological quality of mine rescue staff].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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To evaluate the psychological quality and its influencing factors of mine rescue staff.
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Histone deacetylation modification participates in the repression of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed storage protein gene Ara h 2.02 during germination.
Plant Biol (Stuttg)
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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GENES encoding seed storage proteins (SSPs) are specifically and highly expressed during seed maturation. In Arabidopsis, chromatin-based mechanisms involved in the repression of SSPs during germination have been proposed. However, epigenetic regulation involved in repressing SSPs in vegetative tissues of peanut is not well understood. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) is a chromatin-remodelling factor that contributes to transcriptional repression in eukaryotes. To address whether histone deacetylation modification is involved in the repression of SSP genes during germination in peanut, we generated an Ara h 2.02pro ?-glucuronidase (GUS) construct by fusing the 1972 bp Ara h 2.02 promoter of peanut (from -1972 to -1) to the GUS reporter gene and transformed it into wild-type Arabidopsis plants and HDAC mutants. GUS staining revealed that the mutation in HISTONE DEACETYLASE19 (HDA19) resulted in the ectopic expression of peanut SSP gene Ara h 2.02 in seedlings. In addition, Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed that the ectopic expression of Ara h 2.02 was accompanied by histone hyperacetylation during germination. These results suggest that histone deacetylation modification may play a vital role in repressing embryonic properties during the peanut vegetative growth. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Identification of gene expression profile in the rat brain resulting from acute alcohol intoxication.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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This study aimed to identify gene expression profile in the rat brain resulting from acute alcohol intoxication (AAI). Eighteen SD rats were divided into the alcohol-treated group (n = 9) and saline control group (n = 9). Periorbital blood samples were taken to determine their blood alcohol content by gas chromatography. Tissue sections were analyzed by H and E staining and biochemical assays. Real-time reverse transcription PCR was used to validate microarray data. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS18.0 software (Version 18.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). H and E staining demonstrated that alcohol-treated rats showed no obvious pathological changes in nerve cells compared with those in the control group. Biochemical tests revealed that alcohol-treated rats had lower superoxide dismutase activity than those in the control group (167.3 ± 10.3 U/mg vs. 189.2 ± 5.9 U/mg, P < 0.05). Furthermore, the malondialdehyde levels in alcohol-treated rats were higher than those in the control group (3.48 ± 0.24 mmol/mg vs. 2.51 ± 0.23 mmol/mg, P < 0.05). Microarray data presented 366 up-regulated genes and 300 down-regulated genes in the AAI rat brain. Gene ontology analysis identified 31 genes up-regulated and 39 down-regulated among all differentially expressed genes. Twenty-four pathways showed significant differences, including 12 pathways involved with up-regulated genes and 12 pathways involved with down-regulated genes. Selected genes showed significantly different expression in both alcohol-treated and control groups (P < 0.05). Gene expression analysis enabled clustering of alcohol intoxication-related genes by function. These genes expression may be potential targets for treatment or drug screening for acute alcohol intoxication.
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Prognostic value of hormone receptor status conversion following neoadjuvant chemotherapy in a series of operable breast cancer patients.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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To investigate the prognostic value of hormone receptor (HR) status conversion after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with primary breast cancer.
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MicroRNA-16 suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition?related gene expression in human glioma.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Glioma is one of the most prevalent types of brain tumor and is associated with the highest mortality rate of all CNS cancers. Epithelial?mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been recognized as an important factor in tumor metastasis. Previously, it has been demonstrated that microRNA-16 (miR-16) has an important role in tumor metastasis in human cancer cell lines. However, the role of miR-16 in epithelial?mesenchymal transition of human glioma cells remains unclear. In the present study, U87 and U251 glioma cell lines overexpressing miR-16 were established and it was identified that miR-16 suppressed invasion, adhesion, cell cycle, production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and transforming growth factor-?, and EMT-related gene expression, including vimentin, ?-catenin and E-cadherin in miR-16 overexpressing U87 and U251 glioma cells. Furthermore, miR-16 suppressed EMT mainly through the downregulation of p-FAK and p-Akt expression, and nuclear factor-?B and Slug transcriptional activity. Therefore, miR-16 may be an important therapeutic target and predictor for glioma therapy.
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The ultrasonic characteristics of high frequency modulated arc and its application in material processing.
Ultrasonics
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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To solve the difficulty of introducing traditional ultrasonic transducers to welding molten pool, high frequency current is used to modulate plasma arc and ultrasonic wave is excited successfully. The characteristics of the excited ultrasonic field are studied. The results show that the amplitude-frequency response of the ultrasonic emission is flat. The modulating current is the main factor influencing the ultrasonic power and the sound pressure depends on the variation of arc plasma stream force. Experimental study of the welding structure indicates grain refinement by the ultrasonic emission of the modulated arc and the test results showed there should be an energy region for the arc ultrasonic to get best welding joints.
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Dopamine D2 receptor agonists inhibit lung cancer progression by reducing angiogenesis and tumor infiltrating myeloid derived suppressor cells.
Mol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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We sought to determine whether Dopamine D2 Receptor (D2R) agonists inhibit lung tumor progression and identify subpopulations of lung cancer patients that benefit most from D2R agonist therapy. We demonstrate D2R agonists abrogate lung tumor progression in syngeneic (LLC1) and human xenograft (A549) orthotopic murine models through inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and reduction of tumor infiltrating myeloid derived suppressor cells. Pathological examination of human lung cancer tissue revealed a positive correlation between endothelial D2R expression and tumor stage. Lung cancer patients with a smoking history exhibited greater levels of D2R in lung endothelium. Our results suggest D2R agonists may represent a promising individualized therapy for lung cancer patients with high levels of endothelial D2R expression and a smoking history.
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Clinical features, outcomes and treatment-related pneumonitis in elderly patients with esophageal carcinoma.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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To investigate the clinical features and prognoses of elderly patients with esophageal carcinoma and to compare the effects of radiotherapy and rates of treatment-related pneumonitis (TRP) between elderly and non-elderly patients.
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Role of p38 MAPK in enhanced human cancer cells killing by the combination of aspirin and ABT-737.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Regular use of aspirin after diagnosis is associated with longer survival among patients with mutated-PIK3CA colorectal cancer, but not among patients with wild-type PIK3CA cancer. In this study, we showed that clinically achievable concentrations of aspirin and ABT-737 in combination could induce a synergistic growth arrest in several human PIK3CA wild-type cancer cells. In addition, our results also demonstrated that long-term combination treatment with aspirin and ABT-737 could synergistically induce apoptosis both in A549 and H1299 cells. In the meanwhile, short-term aspirin plus ABT-737 combination treatment induced a greater autophagic response than did either drug alone and the combination-induced autophagy switched from a cytoprotective signal to a death-promoting signal. Furthermore, we showed that p38 acted as a switch between two different types of cell death (autophagy and apoptosis) induced by aspirin plus ABT-737. Moreover, the increased anti-cancer efficacy of aspirin combined with ABT-737 was further validated in a human lung cancer A549 xenograft model. We hope that this synergy may contribute to failure of aspirin cancer therapy and ultimately lead to efficacious regimens for cancer therapy.
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Current states of endogenous stem cells in adult spinal cord.
J. Neurosci. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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New neurons are continuously generated throughout life in the subgranular zone in the dentate gyrus of the mammalian hippocampus and in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. With the aid of new methodologies, significant progress has been made in the characterization of endogenous stem cells (ependymal cells) and their development in the adult spinal cord. Recent studies have shed light on essential extrinsic and intrinsic molecular mechanisms that govern sequential steps of neurogenesis in the adult spinal cord. This review discusses the occurrence, origin, and specific makers of ependymal cells; the factors regulating neurogenesis of multipotent ependymal cells; and the implications of ependymal cells in the repair of spinal cord injuries. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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[Construction and identification of lentiviral vector containing human ILK-shRNA and mda7 gene].
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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To construct and identify lentiviral vector containing human ILK-shRNA and mda7 gene.
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The novel bis-benzylisoquinoline PY35 reverses P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Multidrug resistance (MDR) to chemotherapeutic drugs is the main cause of chemotherapy failure in cancer treatment, and it generally results from expression of ATP-dependent efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp). MDR reversal agents typically act by inhibiting the drug efflux activity of P-gp, thereby increasing intracellular drug levels. PY35 is a novel 5-substituted tetrandrine (Tet) derivative (CN Application No. 201210238709.6). The present study was performed to investigate the ability of PY35 to reverse P-gp-mediated MDR and its mechanism in resistant K562/Adriamycin (ADM), MCF-7/ADM cells and their sensitive cell lines K562 and MCF-7. The ability of PY35 to reverse drug resistance was evaluated by MTT assay. The results showed that PY35 can reverse MDR more effectively than the drug prototype?Tet. The P-gp function was assessed by the Rhodamine 123 (Rho-123; a P-gp substrate) uptake assay with flow cytometry (FCM) and laser scanning confocal microscopes (LSCM); it showed that the MDR cells pumped Rho-123 out the cells, while their sensitive cells scarcely showed efflux. The presence of PY35 efficiently decreased the efflux of the Rho-123, showing that PY35 can reverse P-gp-mediated MDR by increasing the intracellular concentration of Rho-123. The intracellular accumulation of ADM was analyzed by FCM and showed that the coadministration of PY35 and ADM had clearer accumulation than the treatment of Tet and ADM, and was also more evident than treatment with only ADM. The effect of PY35 on the expression of P-gp was assessed by western blotting. The results indicated that PY35 does not inhibit the expression level of the P-gp. This study indicated that PY35 can effectively reverse P-gp-mediated MDR, not by inhibiting the expression of P-gp, but by the coadministration of PY35 and ADM that could increase the intracellular accumulation of drugs. Thus, PY35 may be a potential inhibitor to overcome drug resistance.
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Clusterin variants are not associated with southern Chinese patients with Alzheimer's disease.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Recent genome-wide association studies identified clusterin (CLU) to be associated with sporadic Alzheimer's disease. To help clarify the relevance of CLU as genetic determinant of AD, we analyzed its association in southern Chinese Han population. This study comprised 499 sporadic Alzheimer's disease patients and 592 unrelated age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2279590, rs9331888, rs11136000, and rs1532278) within CLU were selected for genotyping. No positive association was found between the CLU variants and AD. Our study suggests that CLU variants may not be an AD susceptibility factor in southern Chinese Han population.
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Identification and characterization of telocytes in the uterus of the oviduct in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis: TEM evidence.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Telocytes (Tcs) are cells with telopodes (Tps), which are very long cellular extensions with alternating thin segments (podomers) and dilated bead-like thick regions known as podoms. Tcs are a distinct category of interstitial cells and have been identified in many mammalian organs including heart, lung and kidney. The present study investigates the existence, ultrastructure, distribution and contacts of Tcs with surrounding cells in the uterus (shell gland) of the oviduct of the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis. Samples from the uterine segment of the oviduct were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Tcs were mainly located in the lamina propria beneath the simple columnar epithelium of the uterus and were situated close to nerve endings, capillaries, collagen fibres and secretory glands. The complete morphology of Tcs and Tps was clearly observed and our data confirmed the existence of Tcs in the uterus of the Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis. Our results suggest these cells contribute to the function of the secretory glands and contraction of the uterus.
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Red yeast rice repairs kidney damage and reduces inflammatory transcription factors in rat models of hyperlipidemia.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Xuezhikang (XZK), an extract of red yeast rice, has been widely used for the management of hyperlipidemia and coronary heart disease (CHD); however, the effects of XZK treatment on kidney injury have not yet been fully identified. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of XZK on the kidneys and investigate the related mechanisms in a rat model of hyperlipidemia. Thus, the effect on inflammatory transcription factors and kidney damage was investigated with in vitro and in vivo experiments on hyperlipidemic rats following XZK treatment. The results revealed that the plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly decreased, while the levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly upregulated in the XZK treatment group, as compared with those in the hyperlipidemia group (P<0.05). In addition, the results demonstrated that XZK was able to repair the kidney damage caused by hyperlipidemia. Furthermore, the expression levels of the inflammatory transcription factors, tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6, were shown to be reduced in the XZK group when compared with the hyperlipidemia group. In summary, XZK reduces kidney injury, downregulates the levels of TG, TC and LDL-C, as well as the expression levels of inflammatory transcription factors, and upregulates HDL-C. These results further the understanding of the molecular pathogenic mechanisms underlying hyperlipidemia and aid the development of XZK as an effective therapeutic agent for hyperlipidemia.
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Sorafenib-based therapy in HER2-negative advanced breast cancer: Results from a retrospective pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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A standard systemic therapy for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC) is yet to be identified. Sorafenib has been developed for the treatment of solid tumors, including breast cancer, as an oral multikinase inhibitor with antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activity. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy and safety of sorafenib in patients with HER2-negative ABC by performing a meta-analysis. A literature search was applied to databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library Databases, American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society for Medical Oncology, with the search terms 'advanced breast cancer' and 'sorafenib' and relevant studies were selected for analysis. The data extracted from the selected studies included progression-free survival (PFS), time to progression (TTP), overall survival (OS) and overall response rate (ORR). Major adverse events (AEs) were also analyzed. A total of four randomized controlled trials containing 844 cases were identified. Combined results revealed that when compared with chemotherapy (or with anti-hormone receptor therapy) alone, sorafenib-based therapy significantly increased the PFS [hazard ratio (HR), 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54-1.02] and TTP (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.50-0.97), but not the OS (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.75-1.15) and ORR (relative risk, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.01-1.39). In addition, the incidence of grade 3/4 AEs, including hand-foot skin syndrome, anemia, fatigue, rash and stomatitis, were significantly increased in patients that received sorafenib-based therapy. Therefore, the results from the current meta-analysis indicated that sorafenib-based therapy improved the PFS and TTP in patients with HER2-negative ABC, but not the OS and ORR. In addition, combination treatment was associated with increased toxicities and frequently required dose reductions.
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Effects of epigallocatechin gallate on the proliferation and apoptosis of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE2.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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The present study explored the effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the cell cycle, proliferation and apoptosis of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE2 in vitro. The proliferation of CNE2 cells was detected using the cell counting kit-8 method. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were detected using flow cytometry. The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA expression was determined using reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions. The protein expression of hTERT and Myc proto-oncogene protein (c-Myc) was observed using western blot analysis. EGCG inhibited the proliferation of CNE2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner (P<0.05) and blocked the cell cycle progression of the cells. In the low concentration (100 ?g/ml) group, the cell cycle arrest showed a time-dependent manner. However, as the concentration increased and action time was prolonged, this time dependency became less marked. EGCG promoted the apoptosis of CNE2 cells in a time-dependent manner. In addition, EGCG downregulated the mRNA and protein expression of hTERT and downregulated the expression of c-Myc protein. Downregulation of the expression of hTERT and c-Myc was more evident in the high-dose group (200 ?g/mL). In conclusion, EGCG has proliferation-inhibiting, cell cycle-blocking and apoptosis-promoting effects on CNE2 cells. EGCG may be developed into an auxiliary therapeutic agent for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
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Synthesis, characterization and in vitro and in vivo investigation of C3F8-filled poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles as an ultrasound contrast agent.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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The present study aimed to prepare perfluoropropane (C3F8)-filled poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles and investigate the feasibility of using PLGA nanoparticles as an ultrasound contrast agent. The PLGA nanoscale ultrasound contrast agent was prepared using a modified double-emulsion solvent evaporation method. Camphor in the form of a sublimable porogen was added to render the nanoparticles hollow and enable C3F8 gas introduction. Various physicochemical properties of PLGA nanoparticles, including morphology, size and dispersion, were analyzed by electron microscopy and dynamic laser scattering. In vitro ultrasound imaging of C3F8-filled PLGA nanoparticles was also investigated under various imaging conditions. Further in vivo ultrasound imaging was conducted on male rats following intratesticular injection of PLGA nanoparticles. C3F8-filled PLGA nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 152.0±58.08 nm were obtained. Electron microscopy revealed spherical-shaped nanoparticles with smooth surfaces, a capsular morphology and a large hollow within. In vitro ultrasound imaging of hollow PLGA nanoparticles indicated marked signal enhancement. Local intensity of the acoustical signal continued to increase during PLGA-nanoparticle injection into the testicle and the ability of hollow PLGA nanoparticles to enhance ultrasound imaging in vivo was demonstrated. The enhancement image of testicular tissue following injection with C3F8-filled PLGA nanoparticles was sustained for a minimum of five minutes. In conclusion, the hollow C3F8-filled PLGA nanoparticles were demonstrated to have potential for applications as a novel ultrasound contrast agent.
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Pre-spermiogenic initiation of flagellar growth and correlative ultrastructural observations on nuage, nuclear and mitochondrial developmental morphology in the zebrafish Danio rerio.
Micron
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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The microstructural and ultrastructural changes of germ cells during spermatogenesis of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were examined using light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Generally the process of spermatogenesis in zebrafish is similar to that of other teleosts, however, here we describe some peculiar features of zebrafish spermatogenic cells which have a limited report in this species. (1) The basic events of spermiogenesis are asynchronous, location of flagellum finished in initial stage, while chromatin condensation sharply occurred in intermediate stage and elimination of excess cytoplasm mainly taken place in final stages. (2) Surprisingly, the cilia or initial flagellae are created in spermatocytes, approach toward the nucleus of early stage spermatids, and then the centrioles depress into nuclear fossa and change their orientation to each other from right angle to obtuse angle about 125°. (3) During spermatogenesis, the chromatin compaction performs in a distinctive pattern, condensed heterogeneously from granular into chromatin clumps with central electron-lucent areas, round or long, which diminished to small nuclear vacuoles in spermatozoa. This finding demonstrates the origin of nuclear vacuoles in zebrafish spermatozoa for the first time. (4) Nuages are observed in both spermatogonia and spermatocytes. They are connected with the mitochondria and nuclear membrane, and are even located in the perinuclear spaces of spermatogonia nuclei. (5) Mitochondrial morphology and distribution shows diversity in different germ cells. The condensed mitochondria appear in pachytene spermatocytes, and mitochondria including membrane conglomerate exist in both spermatocytes and spermatids. This study was undertaken in order to disclose specific spermatogenic cells features in zebrafish that could be helpful for understanding the correlative function in this model species.
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microRNA-99a acts as a tumor suppressor and is down-regulated in bladder cancer.
BMC Urol
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Increasing evidences have documented that microRNAs (miRNAs) act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in a variety types of cancer. The discovery of tumor associated miRNAs in serum of patients gives rise to extensive investigation of circulating miRNAs in many human cancers which support the use of plasma/serum miRNAs as noninvasive means of cancer detection. However, the aberrant expression of miRNAs and the circulating miRNAs in bladder cancer are less reported.
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Prognostic value of Ki67 expression in HR-negative breast cancer before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of Ki67 has been identified as a prognostic and predictive marker in hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer, however, there is little evidence of the association of Ki67 with prognosis in HR-negative patients. We aimed to assess the benefit of Ki67 assessment in HR-negative breast cancers after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC).
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Antiretroviral therapy (ART) management of Low-Level Viremia in Taiwan (ALLEVIATE).
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This retrospective study aimed to investigate that if switch of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) would result in viral suppression (<40 copies/mL) at 48 weeks for patients with persistent low-level viremia after having received cART for six months or more at two hospitals designated for HIV care in Taiwan.
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Safety of rilpivirine plus nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors in HIV-infected Taiwanese with a higher prevalence of hepatitis virus infection.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) containing rilpivirine plus 2 NRTIs are effective antiretroviral (ARV) regimens for ARV-naive HIV-infected patients who had baseline plasma HIV RNA load (PVL) <5 log10 copies/mL and as switch therapy for those with viral suppression. In this study, we aimed to assess the short-term safety of rilpivirine-containing regimens among HIV-infected patients who initiated or switched to rilpivirine plus two NRTIs in Taiwan.
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Effectiveness of a reduced dose of efavirenz plus 2 NRTIs as maintenance antiretroviral therapy with the guidance of therapeutic drug monitoring.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Wide inter-patient variation of plasma efavirenz (EFV) concentrations has been observed, and a substantial proportion of HIV-positive patients may have unnecessarily higher plasma EFV concentrations than recommended while receiving EFV-containing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) at the currently recommended daily dose of 600 mg. A lower daily dose (400 mg) of EFV has recently been demonstrated to be as efficacious as the recommended 600 mg when combined with tenofovir/mtricitabine in a multinational clinical trial, with a lower incidence of adverse effects. We aimed to use a therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM)-guided strategy to optimize the EFV dose in HIV-positive Taiwanese patients.
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Telmisartan protects 5/6 Nx rats against renal injury by enhancing nNOS-derived NO generation via regulation of PPAR? signaling.
Am J Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A 5/6 nephrectomized (Nx) rat model was employed to address the impact of telmisartan on CKD related renal injury and the underlying molecular mechanisms. It was noted that telmisartan provided protection for rats against 5/6 Nx induced lethality. Telmisartan treated 5/6 Nx rats manifested improved renal function as characterized by the higher GFR but lower urinary albumin, BUN and Scr as compared with that of control rats. Telmisartan treatment also significantly decreased systolic blood pressure and alleviated glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that telmisartan possesses the capability to increase NO generation in the kidney. Further studies demonstrated that telmisartan promotes PPAR? expression, by which it specifically enhances nNOS expression in the kidneys after 5/6 Nx insult. Particularly, blockade of PPAR? signaling by GW9662 abolished the protective effect conferred by telmisartan, indicating that telmisartan induction of renal nNOS expression along with NO generation is dependent on PPAR? signaling. Together, our data support that telmisartan could be a promising drug for treatment of chronic kidney diseases in diverse clinical settings.
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Sumoylation modulates oxidative stress relevant to the viability and functionality of pancreatic beta cells.
Am J Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Sumoylation is an evolutionarily conserved regulatory mechanism to play an important role in various cellular processes through modulation of protein localization, stability and functionality. Recent studies including ours have consistently demonstrated that sumoylation provides protection for cells against oxidative stress. Given that pancreatic beta cells are a vulnerable target of oxidative stress, we thus in this minireview, updated the advancement of sumoylation in the regulation of ROS generation, and discussed its impact on several critical signaling pathways relevant to beta cells against oxidative stress and maintenance of functionality. Specifically, we bring together how sumoylation represses intracellular ROS formation, and protects beta cells against oxidative stress through regulating I?B/NF?B, JNK/c-Jun, and Maf/Nrf2 pathways. The tight implication of sumoylation in oxidative stress reflects that it could be an essential mechanism for beta cells to adapt to the detrimental cellular microenvironment.
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Inflammatory stress increases hepatic CD36 translational efficiency via activation of the mTOR signalling pathway.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Inflammatory stress is an independent risk factor for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although CD36 is known to facilitate long-chain fatty acid uptake and contributes to NAFLD progression, the mechanisms that link inflammatory stress to hepatic CD36 expression and steatosis remain unclear. As the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway is involved in CD36 translational activation, this study was undertaken to investigate whether inflammatory stress enhances hepatic CD36 expression via mTOR signalling pathway and the underlying mechanisms. To induce inflammatory stress, we used tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) stimulation of the human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells in vitro and casein injection in C57BL/6J mice in vivo. The data showed that inflammatory stress increased hepatic CD36 protein levels but had no effect on mRNA expression. A protein degradation assay revealed that CD36 protein stability was not different between HepG2 cells treated with or without TNF-? or IL-6. A polysomal analysis indicated that CD36 translational efficiency was significantly increased by inflammatory stress. Additionally, inflammatory stress enhanced the phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream translational regulators including p70S6K, 4E-BP1 and eIF4E. Rapamycin, an mTOR-specific inhibitor, reduced the phosphorylation of mTOR signalling pathway and decreased the CD36 translational efficiency and protein level even under inflammatory stress resulting in the alleviation of inflammatory stress-induced hepatic lipid accumulation. This study demonstrates that the activation of the mTOR signalling pathway increases hepatic CD36 translational efficiency, resulting in increased CD36 protein expression under inflammatory stress.
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Associations between apolipoprotein E genotypes and serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population.
Clin Interv Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To determine the associations between apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes and serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population.
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Clinical and genetic characteristics for the Urofacial Syndrome (UFS).
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The Urofacial (Ochoa) Syndrome (UFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder and over 100 patients have been reported thus far. UFS is characterized by the abnormal facial expression and dysfunctional voiding. The patients show a peculiar distortion of the facial expression (grimacing as if in pain or sadness when they tried to smile or laugh) along with urinary tract infection, enuresis, vesicoureteral reflux and hydronephrosis without any underlying neurological lesion and previous urinary obstruction. Some patients are also noted with nocturnal lagophthalmos. Until 2010, HPSE2, the gene encodes Heparanse 2 on chromosome 10, was thought to be the only culprit gene for this syndrome. However, another criminal gene, LRIG2, which encodes leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 2, was also come into the light in 2012. Studies for dissecting the biological functions of HPSE2 and LRIG2 in urinary abnormalities are ongoing. In this minireview, we will update the discovery of novel clinical manifestations relevant to this syndrome and discuss with focus for the impact of HPSE2 on voiding dysfunction.
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[Clinical observation of preoperative administration of enteral nutrition support in gastric cancer patients at risk of malnutrition].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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To evaluate safety and efficacy of preoperative administration of enteral nutrition support in gastric cancer patients at risk of malnutrition.
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Covalently Bound Tetracoordinated Organoborons as Superhalogens: A Combined Negative Ion Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Theoretical Study.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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Molecular species with electron affinities (EAs) larger than that of the chlorine atom (3.6131 eV) are superhalogens. The corresponding negative ions, namely, superhalogen anions, are intrinsically very stable with high electron binding energies (EBEs) and widely exist as building blocks of bulk materials and ionic liquids. The most common superhalogen anions proposed and experimentally confirmed to date are either ionic salts or compact inorganic species. Herein, we report a new class of superhalogen species, a series of tetracoordinated organoboron anions [BL4](-) (L = phenyl (1), 4-fluorophenyl (2), 1-imidazolyl (3), L4 = H(pyrazolyl)3 (4)) with bulky organic ligands covalently bound to the central B atom. Negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES) reveals that all of these anions possess EBEs higher than that of Cl(-) with the adiabatic/vertical detachment energy (ADE/VDE) of 4.44/4.8 (1), 4.78/5.2 (2), 5.08/5.4 (3), and 4.59/4.9 eV (4), respectively. First-principles calculations confirmed high EBEs of [BL4](-) and predicted that these anions are thermodynamically stable against fragmentation. The unraveled superhalogen nature of these species provides a molecular basis to explain the wide-ranging applications of tetraphenylborate (TPB) (1) and trispyrazolylborate (Tp) (4) in many areas spanning from industrial waste treatment to soft material synthesis and organometallic chemistry.
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A contemporary carbon balance for the northeast region of the United States.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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Development of regional policies to reduce net emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) would benefit from the quantification of the major components of the regions carbon balance-fossil fuel CO2 emissions and net fluxes between land ecosystems and the atmosphere. Through spatially detailed inventories of fossil fuel CO2 emissions and a terrestrial biogeochemistry model, we produce the first estimate of regional carbon balance for the Northeast United States between 2001 and 2005. Our analysis reveals that the region was a net carbon source of 259 Tg C/yr over this period. Carbon sequestration by land ecosystems across the region, mainly forests, compensated for about 6% of the regions fossil fuel emissions. Actions that reduce fossil fuel CO2 emissions are key to improving the regions carbon balance. Careful management of forested lands will be required to protect their role as a net carbon sink and a provider of important ecosystem services such as water purification, erosion control, wildlife habitat and diversity, and scenic landscapes.
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Assessing the optimal dose for Cetrorelix in Chinese women undergoing ovarian stimulation during the course of IVF-ET treatment.
Am J Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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We conducted a prospective, randomized, and controlled trial to assess the optimal dose for GnRH antagonist, cetrorelix, for Chinese women during the course of ovarian stimulation. The patients were randomly divided into two groups, in which 48 patients were advised to inject 0.25 mg Cetrorelix daily (the 0.25 mg group), while 39 patients were instructed to receive a daily dose of 0.125 mg cetrorelix (the 0.125 mg group). In general, a daily dose of 0.125 mg cetrorelix could be more optimal for Chinese women as manifested by the lower cancellation rate, higher implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate. Specifically, daily administration of 0.125 mg cetrorelix for patients under 35 years old is associated with a 3-fold higher implantation rate and a 5-fold higher clinical pregnancy rate as compared with that of those patients ? 35 years old. On the contrary, higher rates for implantation and clinical pregnancy were noted by daily injection of 0.25 mg cetrorelix in elder patients (? 35 years old) as compared with that of young patients (< 35 years old). Together, our data suggest that a daily dose of 0.125 mg cetrorelix could be more optimal for patients < 35 years old, while 0.25 mg/day of cetrorelix are likely conducive to higher implantation and clinical pregnancy rate for those patients ? 35 years old. These data could be important for preventing LH surge while maintaining optimal LH levels necessary for embryo implantation for Chinese women during the course of IVF-ET treatment.
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Architectural heterogeneity and cribriform pattern predict adverse clinical outcome for Gleason grade 4 prostatic adenocarcinoma.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Gleason grade 4 defines a group of prostatic adenocarcinomas with a variety of architectural patterns, including poorly formed glands, fused glands, and cribriform pattern. To address the relative contribution to clinical prognosis by these distinct patterns, the histology of 241 consecutive radical prostatectomy specimens with the highest Gleason grade of 4 was reviewed. The presence of poorly formed glands, fused glands, and cribriform pattern was recorded for each case, and the types of architectural patterns present were associated with patient outcome. In this population, prostatic adenocarcinomas demonstrated architectural heterogeneity, with 17% of cases exhibiting a single Gleason grade 4 pattern, and 41% of cases exhibiting all 3 morphologic patterns. Patients exhibiting all 3 architectural patterns had lower rates of biochemical disease-free survival (66% vs. 76% at 5 y; log rank P=0.006). Twenty-two of 165 patients (13.3%) with cribriform pattern adenocarcinoma developed metastasis, whereas 2 of 76 patients (2.6%) without cribriform pattern developed metastasis at a median postoperative follow-up of 10.0 years. The presence of a cribriform pattern was an independent predictor for biochemical recurrence (hazard ratio 2.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-4.32; P=0.003) as well as metastasis after radical prostatectomy (hazard ratio 5.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-24.5; P=0.02). These results suggest that the morphologic subclassification of distinct Gleason grade 4 architectural patterns provides prognostic information beyond the current Gleason classification system.
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Oxygen-driven anisotropic transport in ultra-thin manganite films.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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Transition metal oxides have a range of unique properties due to coupling of charge, spin, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom and nearly degenerate multiple ground states. These properties make them interesting for applications and for fundamental investigations. Here we report a new phase with abnormal transport anisotropy in La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO3 ultra-thin films under large tensile strain. This anisotropy is absent in films under smaller tensile strain or compressive strain. Furthermore, thickness and magnetic-field-dependent experiments suggest that the tensile-strain-induced two-dimensional character is crucial for the observed phenomena. X-ray absorption spectroscopy results indicate that this anisotropy is likely driven by O 2p orbital, which hybridizes with Mn 3d. Ab initio calculations confirm this result. Our results may help to understand the anisotropic transport behaviour observed in other systems.
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A Zernike mode decomposition decoupling control algorithm for dual deformable mirrors adaptive optics system.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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A simple but effective decoupling control algorithm based on Zernike mode decomposition for adaptive optics systems with dual deformable mirrors is proposed. One of the two deformable mirrors is characterized with a large stroke (woofer) and the other with high spatial resolutions (tweeter). The algorithm works as follows: wavefront gradient vector is decoupled using the Zernike modes at first, and then the control vector for the woofer is generated with low order Zernike coefficients to eliminate high order modes. At the same time the control vector for the tweeter is reset by a constraint matrix in order to avoid coupling error accumulation. Simulation indicates the algorithm could get better performance compared with traditional Zernike mode decomposition control algorithms. Experiments demonstrate that this algorithm can effectively compensate for phase distortions and significantly suppress the coupling between the woofer and tweeter.
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Quantitative changes of nitrergic neurons during postnatal development of chicken myenteric plexus.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Information regarding the development of the enteric nervous system (ENS) is important for understanding the functional abnormalities of the gut. Because fertilized chicken eggs provide easy access to embryos, chicken models have been widely used to study embryonic development of myenteric plexus; however, no study has been focused on the postnatal period. The aim of this study was to perform a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the nitrergic neurons in the myenteric plexus of developing chickens in the postnatal period.
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Aryl hydrocarbon receptor deficiency causes dysregulated cellular matrix metabolism and age-related macular degeneration-like pathology.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a nuclear receptor that regulates xenobiotic metabolism and detoxification. Herein, we report a previously undescribed role for the AhR signaling pathway as an essential defense mechanism in the pathogenesis of early dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly. We found that AhR activity and protein levels in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, cells vulnerable in AMD, decrease with age. This finding is significant given that age is the most established risk factor for development of AMD. Moreover, AhR(-/-) mice exhibit decreased visual function and develop dry AMD-like pathology, including disrupted RPE cell tight junctions, accumulation of RPE cell lipofuscin, basal laminar and linear-like deposit material, Bruchs membrane thickening, and progressive RPE and choroidal atrophy. High-serum low-density lipoprotein levels were also observed in AhR(-/-) mice. In its oxidized form, this lipoprotein can stimulate increased secretion of extracellular matrix molecules commonly found in deposits from RPE cells, in an AhR-dependent manner. This study demonstrates the importance of cellular clearance via the AhR signaling pathway in dry AMD pathogenesis, implicating AhR as a potential target, and the mouse model as a useful platform for validating future therapies.
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Deletion of circadian gene Per1 alleviates acute ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.
Toxicology
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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The severity of ethanol-induced liver injury is associated with oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in the liver. Core circadian clock is known to mediate antioxidative enzyme activity and lipid metabolism. However, the link between circadian clock and ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity remains unclear. Here we showed that extents of acute ethanol-induced liver injury and steatosis in mice exhibit circadian variations consistent with hepatic expression of Period (Per) genes. Mice lacking clock gene Per1 displayed less susceptible to ethanol-induced liver injury, as evidenced by lower serum transaminase activity and less severe histopathological changes. Ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation was alleviated in Per1-/- mice. However, Per1 deletion had no effect on antioxidants depletion caused by ethanol administration. Ethanol-induced triglycerides (TG) accumulation in the serum and liver was significantly decreased in Per1-/- mice compared with that in wild-type (WT) mice. Analysis of gene expression in the liver revealed peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-gamma (PPAR?) and its target genes related to TG synthesis are remarkably down-regulated in Per1-/- mice. HepG2 cells were treated with ethanol at 150mM for 3 days. Per1 overexpression augmented lipid accumulation after treatment with ethanol in HepG2 cells, but had no effect on ethanol-induced oxidative stress. Expression of genes related to lipogenesis, including PPAR? and its target genes, was up-regulated in cells overexpressing Per1. In conclusion, these results indicated that circadian rhythms of ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity are controlled by clock gene Per1, and deletion of Per1 protected mice from ethanol-induced liver injury by decreasing hepatic lipid accumulation.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.