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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Risk factors for pleural lung disease in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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To investigate the risk factors for pleural lung disease (PLD) in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and to provide a basis for the early diagnosis and timely treatment of this disease.
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Elevated plasma visfatin levels correlate with conversion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy to open surgery in acute cholecystitis.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Visfatin correlates with inflammation and its levels in peripheral blood are associated with some inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to assess the relationship between plasma visfatin levels and conversion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy to open surgery in acute cholecystitis. One hundred and forty-six acute cholecystitis patients and 146 sex- and age-matched healthy controls were recruited and their plasma visfatin levels were determined using an enzyme immunoassay. 17 patients (11.6%) underwent conversion. Plasma visfatin levels were statistically significantly elevated in all patients (97.2±41.8ng/mL), those with (161.4±71.3ng/mL) or without conversion (88.7±26.9ng/mL), compared to controls (40.3±13.3ng/mL, all P<0.001). A linear regression analysis showed that plasma visfatin levels were positively associated with plasma C-reactive protein levels (t=0.510, P<0.001). A logistic-regression analysis showed that age [odds ratio (OR) 1.160, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.011-1.332, P=0.035] and plasma visfatin levels (OR 1.035, 95% CI 1.005-1.066, P=0.022) appeared to be the independent predictors of conversion. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found that plasma visfatin levels predicted conversion with high area under curve (AUC) (AUC, 850; 95% CI, 0.781-0.903). The AUC of the visfatin concentration was similar to that of age (AUC, 0.738; 95% CI, 0.659-0.807) (P=0.188). Visfatin improved the AUC of age to 0.914 (95% CI, 0.856-0.954) (P=0.011) using a combined logistic-regression model. Thus, high plasma levels of visfatin are associated with systemic inflammation, and may independently predict conversion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy to open surgery in acute cholecystitis.
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Validation of a commercial insulated isothermal PCR-based POCKIT test for rapid and easy detection of white spot syndrome virus infection in Litopenaeus vannamei.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Timely pond-side detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) plays a critical role in the implementation of bio-security measures to help minimize economic losses caused by white spot syndrome disease, an important threat to shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. A portable device, namely POCKIT™, became available recently to complete fluorescent probe-based insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR), and automatic data detection and interpretation within one hour. Taking advantage of this platform, the IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system was established to allow simple and easy WSSV detection for on-site users. The assay was first evaluated for its analytical sensitivity and specificity performance. The 95% limit of detection (LOD) of the assay was 17 copies of WSSV genomic DNA per reaction (95% confidence interval [CI], 13 to 24 copies per reaction). The established assay has detection sensitivity similar to that of OIE-registered IQ2000™ WSSV Detection and Protection System with serial dilutions of WSSV-positive Litopenaeus vannamei DNA. No cross-reaction signals were generated from infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) positive samples. Accuracy analysis using 700 L. vannamei of known WSSV infection status shows that the established assayhassensitivity93.5% (95% CI: 90.61-95.56%) and specificity 97% (95% CI: 94.31-98.50%). Furthermore, no discrepancy was found between the two assays when 100 random L. vannamei samples were tested in parallel. Finally, excellent correlation was observed among test results of three batches of reagents with 64 samples analyzed in three different laboratories. Working in a portable device, IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system allows reliable, sensitive and specific on-site detection of WSSV in L. vannamei.
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Detection of Salmonella in chicken meat by insulated isothermal PCR.
J. Food Prot.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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Consumption of Salmonella-contaminated foods, such as poultry and fresh eggs, is known to be one of the main causes of salmonellosis. Conventional PCR methods, including real-time PCR for rapid detection of Salmonella, in general require skilled technicians and costly instruments. A recently developed novel convective PCR, insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR), is carried out in polycarbonate capillary tubes. In this study, we designed TaqMan probes and PCR primers based on the yrfH gene encoding a heat shock protein for the iiPCR detection of Salmonella in chicken meat samples. The TaqMan probe was labeled with 6-carboxyfluorescein and 6-carboxytetramethylrhodamine at the 5 and 3 ends, respectively. The PCR amplicon was 133 bp. A typical run of this iiPCR assay was completed within 1 h. Specific PCR products were obtained for 148 strains representing 49 serotypes of Salmonella tested. Under the same conditions, false-positive results were not obtained for 98 non-Salmonella strains tested, including strains of Enterobacteriaceae closely related to Salmonella. For chicken meat samples, with a 5-h enrichment step Salmonella at as low as 10? CFU/g of poultry meat could be detected. Because the amplification signals from the probes are detectable at 520 nm, identification of the PCR products by gel electrophoresis is not required. Compared with conventional PCR, the iiPCR system requires less expertise and provides an economical, reliable, and rapid tool for result interpretation. Detection results can be obtained within 8 h, including the enrichment and DNA extraction steps.
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[Inhibition of HIV-1 in vitro by combination of vpr and tat specific short hairpin RNA via lentiviral vectors].
Bing Du Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Gene therapy offers the promise of curing the HIV-infected patients. Specific, potent, and sustained short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated gene silencing is crucial for the successful application of RNA interference technology to therapeutic interventions. To reduce the probability of viral escape mutants, in this study, we constructed lentiviral vector containing vpr and tat shRNA, respectively, furthermore the bispecific lentiviral vector harboring vpr and tat shRNA expression cassettes from U6 promotor and H1 promotor was cotransfected with recombinant plasmid expressing the vpr and tat gene. The result showed that the bispecific lentiviral vector plvx-vpr-tatshRNA could inhibit the vpr and tat effectively,with ratios of 89.20% and 62.00% respectively. When cotransfected with pNL4-3 in 293T cell, plvx-vpr-tatshRNA showed higher efficacy in down regulating the HIV NL4-3 packaging production than the plvx-vprshRNA or plvx-tatshRNA individually. MT4 cell clones transduced with recombinant lentiviral vectors were screened and challenged with HIV NL4-3. P24 ELISA test showed that MT4 transduced with the combinational lentiviral vector could inhibit virus replication efficiently.
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Distribution of zinc and zinc transporters in the mouse ovarian follicles and corpus luteum.
Histol. Histopathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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Zinc is essential for female reproduction and it plays a role in sexual development, ovulation, menstruation and estrous cycles. Zinc deficiency may lead to female reproductive system dysfunction. The present study aimed to investigate the expression and distribution patterns of free zinc and the members of zinc transporter (ZnT) family, with zinc autometallographic (AMG), immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR, to explore the relationship of zinc homeostasis in the development and function of the ovary in the mouse. Our data revealed that the free zinc ions and ZnTs are predominantly distributed in the mouse ovarian follicles and corpus luteum. Specifically, AMG staining presented in various stages of the ovarian follicles and corpus luteum. ZnT1-9 mRNA was variously expressed, whereas ZnT10 mRNA was almost undetectable in the ovary. Moreover, the immunoreactivity of all the tested ZnTs, except for ZnT10, was detected with various intensity in the mouse primordial follicles, primary follicles, secondary follicles and antral follicles. In the corpus luteum, the immunoreactivity of ZnT1-5, 7, 8, 10, was abundantly observed in the granular and theca lutein cells and interstitial cells. Collectively, our results suggest that ZnT family proteins are differently distributed and might exert different biological functions in controlling cellular zinc levels, which regulate ovarian development and function in the mouse ovary.
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Visual detection of prion protein based on color complementarity principle.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Two complementary colors mixed in a proper proportion will produce a neutral color in the color theory. A novel colorimetric method on basis of the color complementarity principle has been well-established to detect recombinant prion protein (rPrP). We found that a colorless solution appeared after mixing orange CdTe quantum dots (QDs) with green-blue malachite green (MG) because of color complementarity. After the addition of rPrP into the mixed solution, the color changed from colorless to green-blue because rPrP could induce the aggregation of QDs, rapidly. And it could be observed by naked eyes. Based on this phenomenon, we developed a simple assay for visual detection of rPrP. At the same time, we obtained excellent correlation between absorption and concentrations of rPrP from 1 nmol L(-1) to 78 nmol L(-1) with the limit of detection of 0.3 nmol L(-1) (3?). Moreover, it can be applied to determine rPrP in human serum successfully. Importantly, this assay possesses the advantages of simplicity, rapidity, sensitivity, and selectivity, and shows the potential in the clinical diagnostic test of early prion disease and provides the possibility of preventing the spread of prion diseases.
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[One case of correlation between the human herpesvirus 7 DNA load and the hemo hagocytic syndrome].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2011
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To research the relationship between human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) viral Load and the etiopathogenisis of hemophagocytic syndrome, in order to provide evidence for the clinical diagnosis of hemophagocytic syndrome and anti-virus therapy.
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[Sex hormone-binding globulin of gestational diabetes mellitus pregnant women with well-controlled glucose and pregnancy outcomes].
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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To explore the relationship between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) pregnant women with well-controlled glucose and pregnancy outcomes.
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Cs sorption to potential host rock of low-level radioactive waste repository in Taiwan: experiments and numerical fitting study.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2011
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A reliable performance assessment of radioactive waste repository depends on better knowledge of interactions between nuclides and geological substances. Numerical fitting of acquired experimental results by the surface complexation model enables us to interpret sorption behavior at molecular scale and thus to build a solid basis for simulation study. A lack of consensus on a standard set of assessment criteria (such as determination of sorption site concentration, reaction formula) during numerical fitting, on the other hand, makes lower case comparison between various studies difficult. In this study we explored the sorption of cesium to argillite by conducting experiments under different pH and solid/liquid ratio (s/l) with two specific initial Cs concentrations (100mg/L, 7.5 × 10(-4)mol/L and 0.01 mg/L, 7.5 × 10(-8)mol/L). After this, numerical fitting was performed, focusing on assessment criteria and their consequences. It was found that both ion exchange and electrostatic interactions governed Cs sorption on argillite. At higher initial Cs concentration the Cs sorption showed an increasing dependence on pH as the solid/liquid ratio was lowered. In contrast at trace Cs levels, the Cs sorption was neither s/l dependent nor pH sensitive. It is therefore proposed that ion exchange mechanism dominates Cs sorption when the concentration of surface sorption site exceeds that of Cs, whereas surface complexation is attributed to Cs uptake under alkaline environments. Numerical fitting was conducted using two different strategies to determine concentration of surface sorption sites: the clay model (based on the cation exchange capacity plus surface titration results) and the iron oxide model (where the concentration of sorption sites is proportional to the surface area of argillite). It was found that the clay model led to better fitting than the iron oxide model, which is attributed to more amenable sorption sites (two specific sorption sites along with larger site density) when using clay model. Moreover, increasing s/l ratio would produce more sorption sites, which helps to suppress the impact of heterogeneous surface on Cs sorption behavior under high pH environments.
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Performance evaluation on an air-cooled heat exchanger for alumina nanofluid under laminar flow.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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This study analyzes the characteristics of alumina (Al2O3)/water nanofluid to determine the feasibility of its application in an air-cooled heat exchanger for heat dissipation for PEMFC or electronic chip cooling. The experimental sample was Al2O3/water nanofluid produced by the direct synthesis method at three different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 wt.%). The experiments in this study measured the thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluid with weight fractions and sample temperatures (20-60°C), and then used the nanofluid in an actual air-cooled heat exchanger to assess its heat exchange capacity and pressure drop under laminar flow. Experimental results show that the nanofluid has a higher heat exchange capacity than water, and a higher concentration of nanoparticles provides an even better ratio of the heat exchange. The maximum enhanced ratio of heat exchange and pressure drop for all the experimental parameters in this study was about 39% and 5.6%, respectively. In addition to nanoparticle concentration, the temperature and mass flow rates of the working fluid can affect the enhanced ratio of heat exchange and pressure drop of nanofluid. The cross-section aspect ratio of tube in the heat exchanger is another important factor to be taken into consideration.
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Preparation and characterization of carbon nanofluid by a plasma arc nanoparticles synthesis system.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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Heat dissipation from electrical appliances is a significant issue with contemporary electrical devices. One factor in the improvement of heat dissipation is the heat transfer performance of the working fluid. In this study, we used plasma arc technology to produce a nanofluid of carbon nanoparticles dispersed in distilled water. In a one-step synthesis, carbon was simultaneously heated and vaporized in the chamber, the carbon vapor and particles were then carried to a collector, where cooling furnished the desired carbon/water nanofluid. The particle size and shape were determined using the light-scattering size analyzer, SEM, and TEM. Crystal morphology was examined by XRD. Finally, the characterization include thermal conductivity, viscosity, density and electric conductivity were evaluated by suitable instruments under different temperatures. The thermal conductivity of carbon/water nanofluid increased by about 25% at 50°C compared to distilled water. The experimental results demonstrated excellent thermal conductivity and feasibility for manufacturing of carbon/water nanofluids.
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Expression, purification, and characterization of protective MPT64 antigen protein and identification of its multimers isolated from nontoxic Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra.
Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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MPT64, a secreted protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), stimulates the immune reactions within cells and is a protective antigen that is lost by the bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine during propagation. To minimize the toxicity caused by MTB, we used the MPT64 gene encoded by nontoxic H37Ra MTB to carry out genetic expansion via polymerase chain reaction and gene clone MPT64. The plasmid DNA encoded MPT64 was expressed at 20°C for 22 H, and a large quantity of MPT64 was obtained. In the absence of urea, MPT64 multimers with subunits being covalently connected via disulfide bonds were detected by Western blot showing strong protein-protein interactions, as evidenced by the formation of MPT64 tetramers. Finally, with urea of decreasing concentrations, we refolded MPT64 purified in the presence of urea and determined its secondary structures using circular dichroism. MPT64 was found to contain 2.2% ?-helix, 50.9% ?-sheet, 19.5% turn, and 27.4% random coil. The molecular weight of MPT64 was determined by a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometer and found to be 23,497 Da, very close to the theoretical molecular weight of MPT64. The results presented here provide a sound basis for future biochemical and biophysical studies of MPT64 or any other proteins encoded by nontoxic H37Ra MTB.
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Huperzine A activates Wnt/?-catenin signaling and enhances the nonamyloidogenic pathway in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse model.
Neuropsychopharmacology
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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Huperzine A (HupA) is a reversible and selective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and it has multiple targets when used for Alzheimers disease (AD) therapy. In this study, we searched for new mechanisms by which HupA could activate Wnt signaling and reduce amyloidosis in AD brain. A nasal gel containing HupA was prepared. No obvious toxicity of intranasal administration of HupA was found in mice. HupA was administered intranasally to ?-amyloid (A?) precursor protein and presenilin-1 double-transgenic mice for 4 months. We observed an increase in ADAM10 and a decrease in BACE1 and APP695 protein levels and, subsequently, a reduction in A? levels and A? burden were present in HupA-treated mouse brain, suggesting that HupA enhances the nonamyloidogenic APP cleavage pathway. Importantly, our results further showed that HupA inhibited GSK3?/? activity, and enhanced the ?-catenin level in the transgenic mouse brain and in SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing Swedish mutation APP, suggesting that the neuroprotective effect of HupA is not related simply to its AChE inhibition and antioxidation, but also involves other mechanisms, including targeting of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway in AD brain.
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Valproate reduces tau phosphorylation via cyclin-dependent kinase 5 and glycogen synthase kinase 3 signaling pathways.
Brain Res. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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Valproate (VPA) is a widely used anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug. Recent studies have shown that VPA could reduce amyloid-? generation, and improve memory deficits in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimers disease (AD). However, whether VPA affects tau phosphorylation and the underlying mechanism has not been established. Here, we showed that systemic treatment of APP and presenilin 1 double transgenic mice with VPA (50mg/kg, once a day for 12 weeks), significantly reduced the levels of tau phosphorylation at the sites of Thr205, Ser396 and Thr231. Meanwhile, VPA treatment markedly reduced the activities of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) and glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?), two protein kinases involved in abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau. In an okadaic acid-induced tau hyperphosphorylation SH-SY5Y cell model, the anti-tau-phosphorylation effect of VPA was further confirmed, accompanied by a marked decrease in the activities of CDK5 and GSK3?. Our present data suggest that the inhibitory effects of VPA on tau hyperphosphorylation might be mediated through both CDK5 and GSK3? signaling pathways.
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Real-time target-specific detection of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for white spot syndrome virus using fluorescence energy transfer-based probes.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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Aiming to establish a target amplicon-specific detection system for loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), the fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) probe technology was applied to develop the FRET LAMP platform. This report describes the development of the first FRET LAMP assay targeting white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of penaeid shrimp. A successful accelerated WSSV LAMP was assembled first in a conventional oven and confirmed by gel electrophoresis and dot-blot hybridization. Subsequently, two additional FRET probes designed to target one loop region within WSSV LAMP amplicons were added to the same LAMP reaction. The reactions were carried out in a LightCycler (Roche) and significant FRET signals were detected in real time. Optimization of the reaction using plasmid DNA shortened the time for the detection of 10(2) copies of the target DNA to less than 70min. Cross reactivity was absent with WSSV-free or infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus-infected Penaeus vannamei samples. The performance of this system was comparable with that of a nested PCR assay from 21 WSSV-infected shrimp. Specifically detecting target amplicons and requiring no post-amplification manipulation, the novel FRET LAMP assay should allow indisputable detection of pathogens with minimized risks of amplicon contamination.
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[Transient expression and identification of gene P and NP of NDV LaSota strain in two different cells].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2010
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To Construction of P and NP genes eukaryotic expression vectors of Newcastle Disease Virus LaSota strain,study its reverse genetics and functional genome of NDV.
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Insulin deficiency exacerbates cerebral amyloidosis and behavioral deficits in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse model.
Mol Neurodegener
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2010
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Although increasing evidence has indicated that brain insulin dysfunction is a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD), the underlying mechanisms by which insulin deficiency may impact the development of AD are still obscure. Using a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced insulin deficient diabetic AD transgenic mouse model, we evaluated the effect of insulin deficiency on AD-like behavior and neuropathology.
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Withering syndrome in the abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta.
Dis. Aquat. Org.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2010
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Abalone aquaculture is a small but growing industry in Thailand and is based on both the exotic Haliotis diversicolor supertexta and the native H. asinina. Withering syndrome (WS) in abalone is caused by an infection with the Rickettsia-like organism (RLO) Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis and has been spread to many countries globally. The present study reports the first observation of the WS-RLO agent in the small abalone, H. diversicolor supertexta in Thailand, Taiwan (ROC) and the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). Under light microscopy, the RLO was observed as intracytoplasmic inclusions within epithelial cells lining the post-esophagus and, to a minor extent, the intestine of H. diversicolor. Under transmission electron microscopy, inclusions were characterized as colonies of rod-shaped bacteria, 200 x 1800 nm in size, within a vesicle in the cytoplasm of the infected cell. The RLO from the small abalone bound with WS-RLO-specific in situ hybridization probes and was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using primers designed from the 16S rDNA sequence of the original WS-RLO from California, USA. The PCR product of RLO samples from both the PRC and Thailand showed extremely high identity with the California WS-RLO (100 and 99%, respectively). These data combined with the history of abalone movements for aquaculture purposes indicate that RLOs observed in Thailand, Taiwan and the PRC are the WS-RLO that originated from California.
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Effect of alkyl properties and head groups of cationic surfactants on retention of cesium by organoclays.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2010
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Cationic surfactants modified clays exhibit high sorptive capability toward anionic radionuclides but retention of cationic radionuclides was concurrently reduced. In this study, organoclays were synthesized by intercalating a variety of primary/quaternary alkylammonium species (NH(2)R/(CH(3))(3)N(+)RBr(-), where R = benzyl, dodecyl, and octadecyl) into bentonite MX-80. The effect of surfactants properties on enhancing or limiting cationic sorption capability was investigated by performing Cs sorption experiments. Experimental results were analyzed using the MINEQL+ software by considering Cs uptake by structural and edge sorption sites. Bentonites that were intercalated with primary alkylammonium surfactants had a higher sorptive capacity than those intercalated with quaternary alkylammonium surfactants. Samples intercalated with octadecyl-bearing surfactants had the lowest sorption rate. XRD and FTIR analyses revealed that each organoclay had a characteristic arrangement of alkyl chains. The cation retention of organoclays was dominated by the extent of hydrophobic interactions affected by the local distribution and arrangement of surfactants. The intercalated primary alkylammoniun surfactants tended to transform into local clusters with a high packing density, leaving more structural sites available for Cs uptake. In contrast, the NH(3)R(+)-surfactants tended to form a denser monolayer over clay surface, inhibiting the retention of Cs at structural sites.
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Desorption of cesium from granite under various aqueous conditions.
Appl Radiat Isot
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2010
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In this work the desorption of cesium ions from crushed granite in synthetic groundwater (GW) and seawater (SW) was investigated. Results were compared with those obtained in deionized water (DW) and in two kinds of extraction solutions, namely: MgCl(2) and NaOAc (sodium acetate). In general, the desorption rate of Cs from crushed granite increased proportionally with initial Cs loadings. Also, amounts of desorbed Cs ions followed the tendency in the order SW>GW>NaOAc approximately equal MgCl(2)>DW solutions. This indicated that the utilization of extraction reagents for ion exchange will underestimate the Cs desorption behavior. Fitting these experimental data by Langmuir model showed that these extraction reagents have reduced Cs uptake by more than 90%, while only less than 1% of adsorbed Cs ions are still observed in GW and SW solutions in comparison to those in DW. Further SEM/EDS mapping studies clearly demonstrate that these remaining adsorbed Cs ions are at the fracture areas of biotite.
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[The changes of thyrotropin level in euthyroid population: a 5-year follow-up study in communities with different iodine intakes].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2009
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To determine the factors that influence the development of abnormal thyrotropin (TSH) level in an euthyroid population.
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Performance of phosphoric acid activated montmorillonite as buffer materials for radioactive waste repository.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
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In this study, the performance of phosphoric acid activated montmorillonite (PAmmt) was evaluated by cesium ions adsorption experiments. The PAmmt samples were obtained by activating with 1, 3 and 5 mol L(-1) of phosphoric acid, respectively under reflux for 3, 12, and 24h. Experimental results demonstrated that the treatment of raw K-10 montmorillonite with phosphoric acid increased the materials affinity for Cs uptake and no significant amount of suspension solids were produced. A relatively insignificant variation in the CEC value was observed. Furthermore, PAmmt also showed high adsorption selectivity toward Cs ions. The improved sorptive properties were mainly related to the increased surface area and the relatively higher surface charge density. Increased specific surface area was the resulted from partial decomposition of lamellar structure of mmt; while the higher surface charge density was caused by the protonation of octahedral Al-OH sites during the acid activation. Generally speaking, stronger acid concentration and longer activation times would produce relatively more decomposed PAmmt particles. However, as the activation exceeds 3h, the precipitation of Si(4+) would passivate PAmmt against further acid attacks. Based upon our results, acid activation by phosphoric acid could produce PAmmt samples with high sorption capacity and selectivity, and good structural integrity, which are beneficial to be used at radioactive waste repository.
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Generation of group B soyasaponins I and III by hydrolysis.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2009
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Soyasaponins are a group of oleanane triterpenoids found in soy and other legumes that have been associated with some of the benefits achieved by consuming plant-based diets. However, these groups of compounds are diverse and structurally complicated to chemically characterize, separate from the isoflavones, and isolate in sufficient quantities for bioactive testing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to maximize the extraction of soyasaponins from soy flour, remove isoflavones, separate group B soyasaponins from group A, and produce an extract that contained a majority of non-DDMP (2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one)-conjugated group B soyasaponins I and III. Room temperature extraction in methanol for 24 or 48 h resulted in the maximum recovery of soyasaponins, and Soxhlet extraction resulted in the least. A solid-phase extraction using methanol (45%) was found to virtually eliminate the interfering isoflavones as compared to butanol-water liquid-liquid extraction and ammonium sulfate precipitation, while maximizing saponin recovery. Alkaline hydrolysis in anhydrous methanol produced the maximum amount of soyasaponins I and III as compared to aqueous methanol and acid hydrolysis in both aqueous and anhydrous methanol. The soyasaponin I amount was increased by 175%, and soyasaponin III was increased by 211% after alkaline hydrolysis. Furthermore, after alkaline hydrolysis, a majority of DDMP-conjugated group B soyasaponins such as betag, betaa, gammag, and gammaa transformed into the non-DDMP-conjugated soyasaponins I and III without affecting the glycosidic bond at position C-3 of the ring structure. Therefore, we have developed a method that maximizes the recovery of DDMP-conjugated saponins and uses alkaline hydrolysis to produce an extract containing mainly soyasaponins I and III.
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Experimental and numerical investigations of effect of column length on retardation factor determination: a case study of cesium transport in crushed granite.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2009
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This study investigated breakthrough curves (BTCs) from a series of column experiments, including different column lengths and flow rates, of a conservative tracer, tritium oxide (HTO), and a radionuclide, cesium, in crushed granite using a reactive transport model. Results of the short column, with length of 2cm, showed an underestimation of the retardation factor and the corresponding HTO BTCs cannot be successfully modeled even with overestimated fluid dispersivity. Column supporting elements, including filters and rings, on both ends of packed granite were shown to be able to induce additional dispersive mixing, thus significantly affecting BTCs of short columns while those of the long column, with length of 8cm, were less affected. By increasing flow rates from 1mL/min to 5mL/min, the contribution of structural dispersive mixing to the false tilting of short column BTCs still cannot be detached. To reduce the influence of structural dispersivity on BTCs, the equivalent pore volume of column supporting materials should be much smaller than that of packed porous medium. The total length of column supporting structures should be greatly shorter than that of porous medium column.
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Cesium adsorption and distribution onto crushed granite under different physicochemical conditions.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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The adsorption of cesium onto crushed granite was investigated under different physicochemical conditions including contact time, Cs loading, ionic strength and temperature. In addition, the distribution of adsorbed Cs was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and EDS mapping techniques. The results showed that Cs adsorption to crushed granite behaved as a first-order reaction with nice regression coefficients (R(2) > or = 0.971). Both Freundlich and Langmuir models were applicable to describe the adsorption. The maximum sorption capacity determined by Langmuir model was 80 micromol g(-1) at 25 degrees C and 10 micromol g(-1) at 55 degrees C. The reduced sorption capacity at high temperature was related to the partial enhancement of desorption from granite surface. In general, Cs adsorption was exothermic (DeltaH<0, with median of -12 kJ mol(-1)) and spontaneous (DeltaG<0, with median of -6.1 at 25 degrees C and -5.0 kJ mol(-1) at 55 degrees C). The presence of competing cations such as sodium and potassium ions in synthetic groundwater significantly reduces the Cs adsorption onto granite. The scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) mapping method provided substantial evidences that micaceous minerals (biotite in this case) dominate Cs adsorption. These adsorbed Cs ions were notably distributed onto the frayed edges of biotite minerals. More importantly, the locations of these adsorbed Cs were coincided with the potassium depletion area, implying the displacement of K by Cs adsorption. Further XRD patterns displayed a decreased intensity of signal of biotite as the Cs loading increased, revealing that the interlayer space of biotite was affected by Cs adsorption.
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Bridging the gap between batch and column experiments: A case study of Cs adsorption on granite.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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Both batch and column methods are conventionally utilized to determine some critical parameters for assessing the transport of contaminants of concern. The validity of using these parameters is somewhat confusing, however, since outputs such as distribution coefficient (Kd) from these two approaches are often discrepant. To bridge this gap, all possible factors that might contribute to this discrepancy were thoroughly investigated in this report by a case study of Cs sorption to crushed granite under various conditions. Our results confirm an important finding that solid/liquid (S/L) ratio is the dominant factor responsible for this discrepancy. As long as the S/L ratio exceeds 0.25, a consistent Kd value can be reached by the two methods. Under these conditions (S/L ratios>0.25), the sorption capacity of the solid is about an order of magnitude less than that in low S/L ratios (<0.25). Although low sorption capacity is observed in the cases of high S/L ratios, the sorption usually takes place preferentially on the most favorable (thermodynamically stable) sorption sites to form a stronger binding. This is verified by our desorption experiments in which a linear isotherm feature is shown either in deionized water or in 1M of ammonium acetate solutions. It may be concluded that batch experiment with an S/L ratio exceeding 0.25 is crucial to obtain convincing Kd values for safety assessment of radioactive waste repository.
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Multi-modality imaging on multiple evanescent white dot syndrome-A Spectralis Study.
Int J Ophthalmol
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To present retinal microstructure, metabolism and function abnormalities in the course of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) by Heidelberg spectralis modality imaging platform and observe its outcome by EDI-SD-OCT and two wavelength autofluorescence.
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[Effects of selenium supplementation on antibodies of autoimmune thyroiditis].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
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To evaluate the effects of selenium (Se) supplementation on concentrations of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) and TPOAb IgG subclasses in autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) patients with different thyroid functional status.
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Characteristics of phase-change materials containing oxide nano-additives for thermal storage.
Nanoscale Res Lett
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In this study, the authors report the production of nanocomposite-enhanced phase-change materials (NEPCMs) using the direct-synthesis method by mixing paraffin with alumina (Al2O3), titania (TiO2), silica (SiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO) as the experimental samples. Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, and ZnO were dispersed into three concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 wt.%. Through heat conduction and differential scanning calorimeter experiments to evaluate the effects of varying concentrations of the nano-additives on the heat conduction performance and thermal storage characteristics of NEPCMs, their feasibility for use in thermal storage was determined. The experimental results demonstrate that TiO2 is more effective than the other additives in enhancing both the heat conduction and thermal storage performance of paraffin for most of the experimental parameters. Furthermore, TiO2 reduces the melting onset temperature and increases the solidification onset temperature of paraffin. This allows the phase-change heat to be applicable to a wider temperature range, and the highest decreased ratio of phase-change heat is only 0.46%, compared to that of paraffin. Therefore, this study demonstrates that TiO2, added to paraffin to form NEPCMs, has significant potential for enhancing the thermal storage characteristics of paraffin.
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Development of TaqMan probe-based insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR) for sensitive and specific on-site pathogen detection.
PLoS ONE
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Insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR), established on the basis of Ralyeigh-Bénard convection, is a rapid and low-cost platform for nucleic acid amplification. However, the method used for signal detection, namely gel electrophoresis, has limited the application of iiPCR. In this study, TaqMan probe-based iiPCR system was developed to obviate the need of post-amplification processing. This system includes an optical detection module, which was designed and integrated into the iiPCR device to detect fluorescent signals generated by the probe. TaqMan probe-iiPCR assays targeting white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and infectious myonecrosis virus were developed for preliminary evaluation of this system. Significant elevation of fluorescent signals was detected consistently among positive iiPCR reactions in both assays, correlating with amplicon detection by gel electrophoresis analysis. After condition optimization, a threshold value of S/N (fluorescent intensity(after)/fluorescent intensity(before)) for positive reactions was defined for WSSV TaqMan probe-iiPCR on the basis of 20 blank reactions. WSSV TaqMan probe-iiPCR generated positive S/Ns from as low as 10(1) copies of standard DNA and lightly infected Litopenaeus vannamei. Compared with an OIE-certified nested PCR, WSSV TaqMan probe-iiPCR showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 96.67% in 120 WSSV-free or lightly infected shrimp samples. Generating positive signals specifically and sensitively, TaqMan probe-iiPCR system has a potential as a low-cost and rapid on-site diagnostics method.
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The development of a through-diffusion model with a parent-daughter decay chain.
J. Contam. Hydrol.
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A valid performance assessment of radioactive waste repositories strongly depends on the reliability of nuclide transport parameters, including distribution and diffusion coefficients. To reduce the waste produced and time spent conducting diffusion experiments, a robust model is required to accurately interpret the experiment results. Therefore, we developed a through-diffusion model with parent-daughter nuclide decay chain. We validated our model through comparisons with the Moridis model (Moridis, 1999) and Bharat model (Bharat et al., 2009), assessing our model and these two models using the distribution of parent nuclide concentrations. This strongly supports the rationality and functionality of extending our proposed model to daughter nuclides. In this study, we derived analytical solutions for the parent nuclides of the through-diffusion experiment using the multicompartment (MC) model. We also propose a simplified formula for estimating the apparent diffusion coefficient of parent nuclides based on the analytical solutions. Through numerical experiments, we verified the feasibility of the formula. Our models are useful for determining the apparent diffusion coefficient of daughter nuclides when conducting through-diffusion experiments with parent-daughter nuclide decay chains. Additionally, the proposed models offer the advantages of saving time and reducing experimental waste.
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Intranasal deferoxamine reverses iron-induced memory deficits and inhibits amyloidogenic APP processing in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimers disease.
Neurobiol. Aging
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Increasing evidence indicates that a disturbance of normal iron homeostasis and an amyloid-? (A?)-iron interaction may contribute to the pathology of Alzheimers disease (AD), whereas iron chelation could be an effective therapeutic intervention. In the present study, transgenic mice expressing amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 and watered with high-dose iron served as a model of AD. We evaluated the effects of intranasal administration of the high-affinity iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO) on A? neuropathology and spatial learning and memory deficits created in this AD model. The effects of Fe, DFO, and combined treatments were also evaluated in vitro using SHSY-5Y cells overexpressing the human APP Swedish mutation. In vivo, no significant differences in the brain concentrations of iron, copper, or zinc were found among the treatment groups. We found that high-dose iron (deionized water containing 10 mg/mL FeCl(3)) administered to transgenic mice increased protein expression and phosphorylation of APP695, enhanced amyloidogenic APP cleavage and A? deposition, and impaired spatial learning and memory. Chelation of iron via intranasal administration of DFO (200 mg/kg once every other day for 90 days) inhibited iron-induced amyloidogenic APP processing and reversed behavioral alterations. DFO treatment reduced the expression and phosphorylation of APP protein by shifting the processing of APP to the nonamyloidogenic pathway, and the reduction was accompanied by attenuating the A? burden, and then significantly promoted memory retention in APP/PS1 mice. The effects of DFO on iron-induced amyloidogenic APP cleavage were further confirmed in vitro. Collectively, the present data suggest that intranasal DFO treatment may be useful in AD, and amelioration of iron homeostasis is a potential strategy for prevention and treatment of this disease.
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Widespread expression of zinc transporter ZnT (SLC30) family members in mouse endocrine cells.
Histochem. Cell Biol.
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Zinc is abundant in most endocrine cell types, and plays a pivotal role in the synthesis and secretion of many hormones. Recent studies have demonstrated the expression of numerous zinc transporter (ZnT) family members in the pancreas, thyroid, and adrenal glands, suggesting a role for ZnTs in regulating cellular zinc homeostasis in endocrine cells. However, the cellular distribution of ZnTs in the endocrine organs has not been well established. In the present study, the mRNA expression level, cellular distribution of ZnTs as well as liable zinc ions were examined in the mouse pituitary, adrenal glands, thyroid, and pancreas. In general, ZnT1-10 mRNA was expressed to various degrees in the detected endocrine organs, with no detectable ZnT10 mRNA in the pancreas. In the anterior pituitary, both the acidophilic and basophilic cells were immunopositive to ZnT1-5, 7, 8, except for ZnT10. In the adrenal cortex, the immunoreactivity of all the tested ZnTs, including ZnT1-5, 7, 8, 10, was observed in the zona fasciculata, and some ZnTs were detected in the zona glomerulosa, zona reticularis, and the adrenal medulla. Both the follicle epithelial cells and parafollicular cells in the thyroid gland were immunostained with ZnT1-5, 7, 8, but not ZnT10. In the endocrine pancreas, the immunoreactivity of tested ZnTs was observed to various degrees except for ZnT10 in the cytoplasm of islet cells. Furthermore, autometallographic staining showed that liable zinc was observed in the endocrine cells, such as the adrenal cortical cells, thyroid follicle epithelial cells, and the pancreatic islet cells. All together, the wide distribution of liable zinc and the phenomenon that numerous ZnT family members are partially overlapped in a subset of endocrine cells suggest an important role for the ZnT family in controlling cellular zinc levels and subsequently regulating the synthesis and secretion of hormones in the endocrine system.
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Overexpression of P-glycoprotein, STAT3, phospho-STAT3 and KIT in spontaneous canine cutaneous mast cell tumours before and after prednisolone treatment.
Vet. J.
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Prednisolone is a glucocorticoid (GC) commonly used in the treatment of canine mast cell tumours (MCTs); however, resistance to GCs develops in many MCTs following repeated treatment. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and KIT (CD117) are involved in GC resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response to prednisolone treatment in canine cutaneous MCTs and to investigate the levels of P-gp, STAT3, phospho-STAT3 (pSTAT3) and KIT proteins in MCTs with or without prednisolone treatment. Immunohistochemistry was performed on tumour samples from 41 dogs with cutaneous MCTs. The overall objective response rate (including complete and partial responses) was 51.8% for dogs treated with prednisolone; poorly differentiated or higher stage MCTs had a lower response rate. The median time-span of tumours to reach maximal tumour regression was 14 d (range 3-77 d); 22 (81.5%) reached maximal regression at 21 d. The majority of MCTs overexpressed both P-gp and STAT3 before and after prednisolone treatment. Reduced expression of pSTAT3 and alterations in the KIT expression pattern were observed in MCTs post-treatment. Prednisolone treatment that caused a marked reduction in tumour volume was correlated with reduced pSTAT3 expression. A cytoplasmic KIT staining pattern was correlated with a lower tumour response rate to prednisolone treatment.
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Detection of white spot syndrome virus by polymerase chain reaction performed under insulated isothermal conditions.
J. Virol. Methods
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Aiming to develop a rapid, low-cost, and user-friendly system for the diagnosis of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a PCR assay performed in capillary tubes under insulated isothermal conditions (iiPCR assay) was established on the basis of Rayleigh-Benard convection. WSSV amplicons were generated reproducibly within 30 min from a target sequence-containing plasmid in an iiPCR device, in which a special polycarbonate capillary tube (R-tube™) was heated isothermally by a copper ring attached to its bottom and shielded by a thermal baffle around its upper half. Furthermore, WSSV-specific amplicons were produced from nucleic acid extracts of WSSV-infected Penaeus vannamei in the WSSV iiPCR assay, with sensitivity comparable to that of an OIE-certified commercial nested PCR kit (IQ2000™ WSSV Detection and Prevention System). Specificity of the WSSV iiPCR assay was demonstrated as no amplicons were generated from shrimp genomic DNA, and IHHNV, MBV, and HPV DNA. iiPCR has a potential as a low-cost method for sensitive, specific and rapid detection of pathogens.
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A thermally baffled device for highly stabilized convective PCR.
Biotechnol J
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Rayleigh-Bénard convective PCR is a simple and effective design for amplification of DNA. Convective PCR is, however, extremely sensitive to environmental temperature fluctuations, especially when using small- diameter test tubes. Therefore, this method is inherently unstable with limited applications. Here, we present a convective PCR device that has been modified by adding thermal baffles. With this thermally baffled device the influence from fluctuations in environmental temperature were significantly reduced, even in a wind tunnel (1 m/s). The thermally baffled PCR instrument described here has the potential to be used as a low-cost, point-of-care device for PCR-based molecular diagnostics in the field.
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