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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Gene mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Multidrug-resistant TB as an emerging global public health crisis.
Tuberculosis (Edinb)
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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Against a constant background of established infections, epidemics of new and old infectious diseases periodically emerge, greatly magnifying the global burden of infections. TB poses formidable challenges to the global health at the public health and scientific level by acquiring gene mutation into anti TB drugs specially rifampin and isoniazid which leads resistant to drug regime and treatment forms. Our tools to combat MDR (multidrug resistant) TB are dangerously out of date and ineffective. Besides new tools (TB drugs, vaccines, diagnostics), we also need new strategies to identify key Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human host interaction. It is all equally important that we build up high quality clinical trial capacity and bio banks for TB biomarkers identification. But most important is global commitment at all levels to roll back TB before it expose us again. Rapid development of drug resistance caused by M. tuberculosis has lead to measure resistance accurately and easily. This knowledge will certainly help us to understand how to prevent the occurrence of drug resistance as well as identifying genes associated with new drug resistance.
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Enhanced immunoprotective effects by anti-IL-17 antibody translates to improved skeletal parameters under estrogen deficiency compared with anti-RANKL and anti-TNF-? antibodies.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Activated T cell has a key role in the interaction between bone and immune system. T cells produce proinflammatory cytokines, including receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL), tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), and interleukin 17 (IL-17), all of which augment osteoclastogenesis. RANKL and TNF-? are targeted by inhibitors such as denosumab, a human monoclonal RANKL antibody, and infliximab, which neutralizes TNF-?. IL-17 is also an important mediator of bone loss, and an antibody against IL-17 is undergoing phase II clinical trial for rheumatoid arthritis. Although there are a few studies showing suppression of Th17 cell differentiation and induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs) by infliximab, the effect of denosumab remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of anti-TNF-?, anti-RANKL, or anti-IL-17 antibody administration to estrogen-deficient mice on CD4(+) T-cell proliferation, CD28 loss, Th17/Treg balance and B lymphopoesis, and finally, the translation of these immunomodulatory effects on skeletal parameters. Adult Balb/c mice were treated with anti-RANKL/-TNF-?/-IL-17 subcutaneously, twice a week, postovariectomy (Ovx) for 4 weeks. Animals were then autopsied; bone marrow cells were collected for FACS and RNA analysis and serum collected for ELISA. Bones were dissected for static and dynamic histomorphometry studies. We observed that although anti-RANKL and anti-TNF-? therapies had no effect on Ovx-induced CD4(+) T-cell proliferation and B lymphopoesis, anti-IL-17 effectively suppressed both events with concomitant reversal of CD28 loss. Anti-IL-17 antibody reduced proinflammatory cytokine production and induced Tregs. All three antibodies restored trabecular microarchitecture with comparable efficacy; however, cortical bone parameters, bone biomechanical properties, and histomorphometry were best preserved by anti-IL-17 antibody, likely attributable to its inhibitory effect on osteoblast apoptosis and increased number of bone lining cells and Wnt10b expression. Based on the superior immunoprotective effects of anti-IL-17, which appears to translate to a better skeletal preservation, we propose beginning clinical trials using a humanized antibody against IL-17 for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
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Cross-species infections of cultured cells by hepatitis E virus and discovery of an infectious virus-host recombinant.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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The RNA virus, hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most or second-most important cause of acute clinical hepatitis in adults throughout much of Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. In these regions it is an important cause of acute liver failure, especially in pregnant women who have a mortality rate of 20-30%. Until recently, hepatitis E was rarely identified in industrialized countries, but Hepatitis E now is reported increasingly throughout Western Europe, some Eastern European countries, and Japan. Most of these cases are caused by genotype 3, which is endemic in swine, and these cases are thought to be zoonotically acquired. However, transmission routes are not well understood. HEV that infect humans are divided into nonzoonotic (types 1, 2) and zoonotic (types 3, 4) genotypes. HEV cell culture is inefficient and limited, and thus far HEV has been cultured only in human cell lines. The HEV strain Kernow-C1 (genotype 3) isolated from a chronically infected patient was used to identify human, pig, and deer cell lines permissive for infection. Cross-species infections by genotypes 1 and 3 were studied with this set of cultures. Adaptation of the Kernow-C1 strain to growth in human hepatoma cells selected for a rare virus recombinant that contained an insertion of 174 ribonucleotides (58 amino acids) of a human ribosomal protein gene.
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The entire core protein of HCV JFH1 is required for efficient formation of infectious JFH1 pseudoparticles.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2010
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The vast majority of hepatitis C virus (HCV) strains cannot be grown in cell culture. Therefore, tests for neutralizing antibodies have relied heavily on retrovirus pseudoparticles displaying the envelope glycoproteins of HCV on their surface (HCVpp). Unfortunately, the envelope proteins of some strains, especially of JFH1, did not efficiently form functional HCVpp. We have manipulated the length and composition of the HCV core gene in the HCVpp expression vectors for three strains of HCV in an attempt to obtain more efficient production of pseudoparticles. The results demonstrated that the truncated core region included in the HCV expression plasmids of the classic pseudoparticle system was optimal for formation of strain H77pp, suboptimal for strain J6pp, and insufficient for strain JFH1pp. Efficiency of JFH1pp formation increased 20-fold when the truncated core gene was replaced with the entire core gene. The full core from J6 and HK had modest effect on the production of infectious J6 and HKpp. The data suggested that pairs of HCV glycoproteins differ inherently in their ability to associate into functional heterodimers and that the core protein, provided in cis as the beginning of the polyprotein product, can in some cases facilitate this process, possibly by increasing the rate of proper folding of the glycoproteins.
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The puzzling uniqueness of the heterotrimeric G15 protein and its potential beyond hematopoiesis.
J. Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2010
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Heterotrimeric G proteins transduce the signals of the largest family of membrane receptors (G protein-coupled receptors, GPCRs) hence triggering the activation of a wide variety of physiological responses. G15 is a G protein characterized by a number of functional peculiarities that make its signaling exceptional: 1) it can couple a variety of Gs-, Gi/o-, and Gq-linked receptors to phospholipase C activation; 2) relatively to other G proteins, it is poorly affected by beta-arrestin-dependent desensitization, the general mechanism that regulates GPCR function and 3) at the protein level, its expression is only detected in highly specific cell types (hematopoietic and epithelial cells). G15 alpha-subunit displays unique structural and biochemical properties, and is phylogenetically the most recent and divergent component of the Galphaq/11 subfamily. All these aspects shed a mysterious light on G15 biological role, which remains substantially elusive. Thus, far, G15 signaling has been analyzed in the context of hematopoiesis. Here, we highlight observations supporting the view that G15 functions may extend further beyond the immune system. In addition, we describe puzzling aspects of G15 signaling that offer a novel perspective in the understanding of its physiological role.
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Landau-type order parameter equation for shear banding in granular Couette flow.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2009
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We show that a Landau-type "order-parameter" equation describes the onset of shear-band formation in granular plane Couette flow wherein the flow undergoes an ordering transition into alternate layers of dense and dilute regions of low and high shear rates, respectively, parallel to the flow direction. Even though the linear theory predicts the stability of the homogeneous shear solution in dilute flows, our analytical bifurcation theory suggests that there is a subcritical finite-amplitude instability that is likely to lead to shear-band formation in dilute flows, which is in agreement with previous numerical simulations.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.