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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Combined use of alkane-degrading and plant growth-promoting bacteria enhanced phytoremediation of diesel contaminated soil.
Int J Phytoremediation
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Inoculation of plants with pollutant-degrading and plant growth-promoting microorganisms is a simple strategy to enhance phytoremediation activity. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inoculation of different bacterial strains, possessing alkane-degradation and 1-amino-cyclopropane-1 -carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity, on plant growth and phytoremediation activity. Carpet grass (Axonopus affinis) was planted in soil spiked with diesel (1% w/w) for 90 days and inoculated with different bacterial strains, Pseudomonas sp. ITRH25, Pantoea sp. BTRH79 and Burkholderia sp. PsJN, individually and in combination. Generally, bacterial application increased total numbers of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere ofcarpet grass, plant biomass production, hydrocarbon degradation and reduced genotoxicity. Bacterial strains possessing different beneficial traits affect plant growth and phytoremediation activity in different ways. Maximum bacterial population, plant biomass production and hydrocarbon degradation were achieved when carpet grass was inoculated with a consortium of three strains. Enhanced plant biomass production and hydrocarbon degradation were associated with increased numbers of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere of carpet grass. The present study revealed that the combined use of different bacterial strains, exhibiting different beneficial traits, is a highly effective strategy to improve plant growth and phytoremediation activity.
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In vitro toxicological assessment of iron oxide, aluminium oxide and copper nanoparticles in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types.
Drug Chem Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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ABSTRACT Metallic nanoparticles (NPs) have a variety of applications in different industries including pharmaceutical industry where these NPs are used mainly for image analysis and drug delivery. The increasing interest in nanotechnology is largely associated with undefined risks to the human health and to the environment. Therefore, in the present study cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of iron oxide, aluminium oxide and copper nanoparticles were evaluated using most commonly used assays i.e. Ames assay, in vitro cytotoxicity assay, micronucleus assay and comet assay. Cytotoxicity to bacterial cells was assessed in terms of colony forming units by using Escherichia coli (gram negative) and Bacillus subtilis (gram positive). Ames assay was carried out using two bacterial strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. Genotoxicity of these NPs was evaluated following exposure to monkey kidney cell line, CHS-20. No cytotoxic and genotoxic effects were observed for iron oxide, and aluminium oxide NPs. Copper NPs were found mutagenic in TA98 and in TA100 and also found cytotoxic in dose dependent manner. Copper NPs induced significant (p?
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Regional changes in the sequence of cotton leaf curl multan betasatellite.
Viruses
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) in Pakistan and northwestern India is caused by monopartite begomoviruses in association with an essential, disease-specific satellite, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB). Following a recent upsurge in CLCuD problems in Sindh province (southern Pakistan), sequences of clones of CLCuMB were obtained from Sindh and Punjab province (central Pakistan), where CLCuD has been a problem since the mid-1980s. The sequences were compared to all sequences of CLCuMB available in the databases. Analysis of the sequences shows extensive sequence variation in CLCuMB, most likely resulting from recombination. The range of sequence variants differ between Sindh, the Punjab and northwestern India. The possible significance of the findings with respect to movement of the CLCuD between the three regions is discussed. Additionally, the lack of sequence variation within the only coding sequence of CLCuMB suggests that the betasatellite is not involved in resistance breaking which became a problem after 2001 in the Punjab and subsequently also in northwestern India.
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Enhanced degradation of textile effluent in constructed wetland system using Typha domingensis and textile effluent-degrading endophytic bacteria.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Textile effluent is one of the main contributors of water pollution and it adversely affects fauna and flora. Constructed wetland is a promising approach to remediate the industrial effluent. The detoxification of industrial effluent in a constructed wetland system may be enhanced by applying beneficial bacteria that are able to degrade contaminants present in industrial effluent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of inoculation of textile effluent-degrading endophytic bacteria on the detoxification of textile effluent in a vertical flow constructed wetland reactor. A wetland plant, Typha domingensis, was vegetated in reactor and inoculated with two endophytic bacterial strains, Microbacterium arborescens TYSI04 and Bacillus pumilus PIRI30. These strains possessed textile effluent-degrading and plant growth-promoting activities. Results indicated that bacterial inoculation improved plant growth, textile effluent degradation and mutagenicity reduction and were correlated with the population of textile effluent-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of T. domingensis. Bacterial inoculation enhanced textile effluent-degrading bacterial population in rhizosphere, root and shoot of T. domingensis. Significant reductions in COD (79%), BOD (77%) TDS (59%) and TSS (27%) were observed by the combined use of plants and bacteria within 72 h. The resultant effluent meets the wastewater discharge standards of Pakistan and can be discharged into the environment without any risks. This study revealed that the combined use of plant and endophytic bacteria is one of the approaches to enhance textile effluent degradation in a constructed wetland system.
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Endophytic bacteria: Prospects and applications for the phytoremediation of organic pollutants.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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Recently, there has been an increased effort to enhance the efficacy of phytoremediation of contaminated environments by exploiting plant-microbe interactions. The combined use of plants and endophytic bacteria is an emerging approach for the clean-up of soil and water polluted with organic compounds. In plant-endophyte partnerships, plants provide the habitat as well as nutrients to their associated endophytic bacteria. In response, endophytic bacteria with appropriate degradation pathways and metabolic activities enhance degradation of organic pollutants, and diminish phytotoxicity and evapotranspiration of organic pollutants. Moreover, endophytic bacteria possessing plant growth-promoting activities enhance the plant's adaptation and growth in soil and water contaminated with organic pollutants. Overall, the application of endophytic bacteria gives new insights into novel protocols to improve phytoremediation efficiency. However, successful application of plant-endophyte partnerships for the clean-up of an environment contaminated with organic compounds depends on the abundance and activity of the degrading endophyte in different plant compartments. Although many endophytic bacteria have the potential to degrade organic pollutants and improve plant growth, their contribution to enhance phytoremediation efficiency is still underestimated. A better knowledge of plant-endophyte interactions could be utilized to increase the remediation of polluted soil environments and to protect the foodstuff by decreasing agrochemical residues in food crops.
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Genotoxicity of chlorpyrifos in freshwater fish Labeo rohita using Alkaline Single-cell Gel Electrophoresis (Comet) assay.
Drug Chem Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Chlorpyrifos is a widely used insecticide of organophosphate group, which causes severe toxicological effects in non target aquatic organisms especially in fish. In the present study the genotoxic effects of sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos were observed in the erythrocytes and gill cells of Labeo rohita (commonly known as rohu) using the Alkaline Single-Cell Gel Electrophoresis (Comet) assay. Effects of chlorpyrifos on the behavior of the fish were also investigated. The 96?h LC50 value of chlorpyrifos, estimated by Trimmed Spearman-Karber (TSK) in static bioassay, was found to be 442.8?µg/L. On the basis of LC50 value, the fish were exposed to three sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos (SL-I ?221.4?µg/L, SL- II ?110.7?µg/L and SL-III ?73.8?µg/L) for 96?h. Blood and gill samples were collected at every 24?h and were subjected to the Comet assay. The observed DNA damage was concentration dependent and time dependent and those levels of DNA damage in between the tested concentrations and times were significantly different (p?
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Nutrients Can Enhance the Abundance and Expression of Alkane Hydroxylase CYP153 Gene in the Rhizosphere of Ryegrass Planted in Hydrocarbon-Polluted Soil.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Plant-bacteria partnership is a promising strategy for the remediation of soil and water polluted with hydrocarbons. However, the limitation of major nutrients (N, P and K) in soil affects the survival and metabolic activity of plant associated bacteria. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of nutrients on survival and metabolic activity of an alkane degrading rhizo-bacterium. Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) was grown in diesel-contaminated soil and inoculated with an alkane degrading bacterium, Pantoea sp. strain BTRH79, in greenhouse experiments. Two levels of nutrients were applied and plant growth, hydrocarbon removal, and gene abundance and expression were determined after 100 days of sowing of ryegrass. Results obtained from these experiments showed that the bacterial inoculation improved plant growth and hydrocarbon degradation and these were further enhanced by nutrients application. Maximum plant biomass production and hydrocarbon mineralization was observed by the combined use of inoculum and higher level of nutrients. The presence of nutrients in soil enhanced the colonization and metabolic activity of the inoculated bacterium in the rhizosphere. The abundance and expression of CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass was found to be directly associated with the level of applied nutrients. Enhanced hydrocarbon degradation was associated with the population of the inoculum bacterium, the abundance and expression of CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass. It is thus concluded that the combination between vegetation, inoculation with pollutant-degrading bacteria and nutrients amendment was an efficient approach to reduce hydrocarbon contamination.
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Mutant frequency in comparison to oxidative DNA damage induced by ochratoxin A in L5178Y tk(+/-) (3.7.2C) mouse lymphoma cells.
Drug Chem Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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Abstract Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a naturally occurring mycotoxin that contaminates animal feed and human food. OTA is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, immunosuppressive and a potent renal carcinogen in rodents. In the present study, we evaluated the genotoxicity of OTA in L5178Y tk(+/-) (3.7.2C) mouse lymphoma cells using the microwell version of the mouse lymphoma gene mutation assay (MLA) and the comet assay modified to detect oxidative DNA damage. Cells were treated for 4 hours with 0, 5, 10, 25, 50 or 100?µM of OTA in the presence and absence of exogenous metabolic activation (S9). Benzo[a]pyrene (1?µg/mL) and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (0.1?µg/mL) were used as positive control with and without S9, respectively. OTA treatment produced dose-dependent increases in cytotoxicity and tk mutant frequency, with significant increases in mutant frequency detected at concentrations ?25 µM with and without S9. Similarly treated cells were used for the comet assay conducted with and without formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase for the determination of oxidative DNA damage. OTA exposure resulted in a significant increase in both direct and oxidative DNA damage, with induction of oxidative damage being greater. The results indicate that OTA is mutagenic in mouse lymphoma assay; and that OTA-generated oxidative DNA damage is, at least partially, responsible for its mutagenicity in the assay.
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Inoculum pretreatment affects bacterial survival, activity and catabolic gene expression during phytoremediation of diesel contaminated soil.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Plant-bacteria partnership is a promising approach for remediating soil contaminated with organic pollutants. The colonization and metabolic activity of an inoculated microorganism depend not only on environmental conditions but also on the physiological condition of the applied microorganisms. This study assessed the influence of different inoculum pretreatments on survival, gene abundance and catabolic gene expression of an applied strain (Pantoea sp. strain BTRH79) in the rhizosphere of ryegrass vegetated in diesel contaminated soil. Maximum bacterium survival, gene abundance and expression were observed in the soil inoculated with bacterial cells that had been pregrown on complex medium, and hydrocarbon degradation and genotoxicity reduction were also high in this soil. These findings propose that use of complex media for growing plant inocula may enhance bacterial survival and colonization and subsequently the efficiency of pollutant degradation.
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Antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes and phenolics of different solvent extracts from leaves, flowers and bark of Gold Mohar [Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf].
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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This paper describes the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and phenolic components of different solvent (absolute methanol, absolute ethanol, absolute acetone, 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, 80% acetone and deionized water) extracts of leaves, flowers and bark of Gold Mohar [Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf.]. The extract yields from leaves, flowers and bark ranged from 10.19 to 36.24, 12.97 to 48.47 and 4.22 to 8.48 g/100 g dry weight (DW), respectively. Overall, 80% methanol extract produced from the leaves exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) higher antioxidant activity, with high phenolic contents (3.63 g GAE/100 g DW), total flavonoid contents (1.19 g CE/100 g DW), inhibition of peroxidation (85.54%), DPPH scavenging capacity (IC(50) value 8.89 ?g/mL) and reducing power (1.87). Similarly, this 80% methanol leaves extract also showed superior antimicrobial activity. HPLC analysis of the 80% methanol extracts for individual phenolics revealed the presence of gallic, protocatechuic and salicylic acid in leaves; gallic, protocatechuic, salicylic, trans-cinnamic and chlorogenic acid in flowers, and gallic acid in bark as the main (amount > 1.50 mg/100 g DW) phenolic acids. Besides, small amounts ( < 1.50 mg/100 g DW) of some other phenolic acids such as sorbic, sinapic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric, ferulic, caffeic, 3-hydroxybenzoic, 4-hydroxycinnamic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were also detected. The extracts of the tested parts of Gold Mohar, especially, the leaves, might be valuable for functional food and therapeutic applications.
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Comparative analysis of micronuclei and DNA damage induced by Ochratoxin A in two mammalian cell lines.
Mutat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
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The fungal toxin, Ochratoxin A (OTA), is a common contaminant in human food and animal feed. The present study evaluated micronucleus (MN) induction by OTA in comparison with its ability to induce cytotoxicity and DNA damage in two mammalian cell lines, CHO-K1-BH(4) Chinese hamster ovary cells and TK6 human lymphoblastoid cells. Micronuclei were evaluated by flow cytometry, cytotoxicity was estimated by relative population doubling (RPD), while direct DNA damage and oxidative DNA damage were measured with the Comet assay, performed without and with digestion by formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (fpg). For the MN and cytotoxicity measurements, the cell lines were treated for 24h (CHO cells) or 27h (TK6 cells) with 5-25?M OTA in the absence of exogenous metabolic activation. The OTA treatments resulted in concentration-responsive increases in cytotoxicity, with higher concentrations of the agent being more cytotoxic in CHO cells than TK6 cells. 15?M OTA produced positive responses for MN induction and hypodiploid events (a measure of aneugenicity) in both cell lines; this concentration of OTA also produced cytotoxicity near to the recommended limit for the assay (45±5% RPD). A time course assay with TK6 cells indicated that at least 4h of OTA treatment were required to produce a positive MN response. For the Comet assay DNA damage assessments, the cell lines were treated with 5-50?M OTA for 4h. Direct DNA damage was detected in TK6 cells, but not CHO cells, while concentration-related increases in fpg-sensitive sites were detected for both cell lines. The consistent association of oxidative DNA damage with OTA exposure suggests its involvement in producing OTA-induced clastogenicity and aneugenicity; however, based on its detection in TK6 cells direct DNA damage could be involved in any human risk posed by OTA exposure.
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Does nitrous oxide affect bispectral index and state entropy when added to a propofol versus sevoflurane anesthetic?
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2010
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In earlier studies, nitrous oxide (N2O) did not affect bispectral index (BIS) or state entropy (SE) when administered as the sole anesthetic agent. We investigated the effect of adding N2O to sevoflurane or propofol anesthesia on BIS and SE.
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Emotional and biological stress measures in Katrina survivors relocated to Oklahoma.
Am J Disaster Med
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2010
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The authors assessed relocated Hurricane Katrina survivors emotional and biological stress measures 20 months postdisaster to understand effects of both hurricane exposure and forced relocation on emotional and physical health.
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RT-PCR evaluation for identification and sequence analysis of foot-and-mouth disease serotype O from 2006 to 2007 in Punjab, Pakistan.
Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2009
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FMD clinically positive 250 tissue samples (mouth and hoof epithelium and vesicle swabs, tongue tissue) and 175 secretion samples (milk, saliva, serum, plasma) were evaluated by RT-PCR for the diagnosis of FMD with different pair of universal and serotype-specific primers from 2006 to 2007 in Punjab, Pakistan. Universal primer pair P1/P2 from VP1 gene detected FMD in 182 out of 250 (72.8%) tissues and 92 out of 175 (52.6%) secretion samples, while universal primer 1F/1R from 5UTR region detected FMD in 218 out of 250 (87.2%) tissues and 142 out of 175 (81.1%) secretion samples. 1F/1R proved better than the P1/P2 primer pair for primary diagnosis of FMD, direct from the clinical positive samples. Direct sequencing of the universal primer pair P1/P2 revealed that O serotype of FMD was circulating in this region. O serotype of FMD was detected with O-1C(ARS4)/PNK 61, AU(O)/AU(rev), AU(O)/PNK61 primer pairs, these primer pairs also compared with each other. AU(O)/AU(rev) and AU(O)/PNK61 detected O serotype of FMD in 88.9% tissue and swab (mouth and hoof vesicle swabs) samples and 71.9% different secretion (milk, saliva, serum, plasma) samples, while O-1C(ARS4)/PNK 61 detected 48.1% tissue and swab (mouth and hoof vesicle swabs) samples and 37.5% different secretion (milk, saliva, serum, plasma) samples. AU(O)/AU(rev), AU(O)/PNK61 primer pairs detected 40.8% more tissue and swab samples, while these pairs detected 34.4% more secretion samples. Cloning of PCR product of AU(O)/AU(rev) VP1 gene and sequencing for phylogenetic studies revealed that O serotype of FMD circulating in Punjab, Pakistan was genetically very diverse from the O serotype in Middle East and Europe. The dendrogram showed that Pakistan O serotype was very much similar genetically to its neighbor countries (Sri Lanka, India, Iran, Iraq, and China) and PanAsia 1 lineage which caused 2001-outbreak in UK and 1994-outbreak in Saudi Arabia, etc.
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Frequency and clinical outcome in conduction defects in acute myocardial infarction.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2009
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Conduction defects complicating acute myocardial infarction (MI) are frequent and associated with increased mortality and complications. Common conduction defects after acute MI are atrioventricular nodal blocks (1st, 2nd and 3rd degree) and intraventricular conduction defects (right or left bundle branch blocks and hemiblocks). In myocardial infarction occlusion of coronary arteries at different levels affects the conduction system of heart leading to various types of blocks. Conduction defects usually reflect extensive damage to the myocardium.
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Evaluation of the acute toxicity of profenofos and its effects on the behavioral pattern of fingerling common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758).
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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Profenofos, an organophosphate insecticide is acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that has the potential to contaminate the ground water. The 96 h LC(50) value of profenofos was determined in 3-month-old fingerling common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with a body weight 1.04 +/- 0.25 g and a body length 4.25 +/- 0.75 cm at 26 +/- 1 degrees C temperature. Trimmed Spearman-Karber (TSK) software was used for the statistical analysis, which calculated the LC(50) value as 62.4 microg/L for three replicates of the assay. The behavioral responses of fish exposed to profenofos included loss of balance, moving in spiral fashion with sudden jerky movements, lying on their sides and rapid flapping of the operculum with the mouth open.
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DNA damage in Pakistani agricultural workers exposed to mixture of pesticides.
Environ. Mol. Mutagen.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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A cross-sectional study was designed to determine whether occupational exposure to a complex mixture of pesticides results in a significant increase of DNA damage in farmers chronically exposed to pesticides in open fields. Leukocytes from 47 agriculture workers exposed to pesticides and 50 controls were evaluated with comet assay. Workers recruitment was based on their exposure to pesticides during the spraying season on cotton crop. Serum from these individuals was also analyzed for pesticides presence using high performance liquid chromatography. Statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) in DNA damage of exposed individuals (mean +/- S.D 14.80 +/- 3.04 microm) was observed when compared with control group (6.54 +/- 1.73 microm) as studied on the basis of comet tail length. Smokers had significantly higher mean comet tail length than nonsmokers and ex-smokers in both workers (20.26 +/- 3.53 vs. 14.19 +/- 4.25, P < 0.001) and controls (7.86 +/- 1.09 vs. 5.80 +/- 1.59, P < 0.001), whereas age had a minimal effect on DNA damage (P < 0.05). The length of pesticide exposure is positively associated with DNA damage in exposed individuals (P < 0.001). Our study shows that chronic exposure to pesticides produces DNA damage in pesticide sprayers and suggests that this type of monitoring is recommended in preventive policies for pesticide sprayers.
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Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos and its hydrolysis product 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol by Bacillus pumilus strain C2A1.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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A bacterial strain C2A1 isolated from soil was found highly effective in degrading chlorpyrifos and its first hydrolysis metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP). On the basis of morphology, physiological characteristics, biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, strain C2A1 was identified as Bacillus pumilus. Role of strain C2A1 in the degradation of chlorpyrifos was examined under different culture conditions like pH, inoculum density, presence of added carbon/nutrient sources and pesticide concentration. Chlorpyrifos was utilized by strain C2A1 as the sole source of carbon and energy as well as it was co-metabolized in the presence of glucose, yeast extract and nutrient broth. Maximum pesticide degradation was observed at high pH (8.5) and high inoculum density when chlorpyrifos was used as the sole source and energy. In the presence of other nutrients, chlorpyrifos degradation was enhanced probably due to high growth on easily metabolizable compounds which in turn increased degradation. The strain C2A1 showed 90% degradation of TCP (300 mg L(-1)) within 8 days of incubation.
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Synovial sarcoma of the heart.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
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A young male presented with dyspnoea and was found to have a diastolic murmur at the left lower sternal edge. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiograms found a large mass attached to the tricuspid valve, which was projecting into the right atrium and the right ventricle. The mass was causing significant obstruction of the right ventricular inflow. Emergency surgery had to be performed because the patient developed severe vomiting (of unknown cause) leading to haemodynamic compromise. This condition was not responding to fluid resuscitation as there was obstruction to right ventricular inflow. Intraoperatively the mass was removed and the tricuspid valve was repaired. The histological and immunohistochemical examination of the excised tissue confirmed the rare diagnosis of synovial sarcoma of the heart.Postsurgical imaging showed no metastases. The patient received postoperative radio therapy and chemotherapy. The tumour recurred after 6 months and the patient succumbed to his illness and expired.
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Plant-bacteria partnerships for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils.
Chemosphere
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Plant-bacteria partnerships have been extensively studied and applied to improve crop yield. In addition to their application in agriculture, a promising field to exploit plant-bacteria partnerships is the remediation of soil and water polluted with hydrocarbons. Application of effective plant-bacteria partnerships for the remediation of hydrocarbons depend mainly on the presence and metabolic activities of plant associated rhizo- and endophytic bacteria possessing specific genes required for the degradation of hydrocarbon pollutants. Plants and their associated bacteria interact with each other whereby plant supplies the bacteria with a special carbon source that stimulates the bacteria to degrade organic contaminants in the soil. In return, plant associated-bacteria can support their host plant to overcome contaminated-induced stress responses, and improve plant growth and development. In addition, plants further get benefits from their associated-bacteria possessing hydrocarbon-degradation potential, leading to enhanced hydrocarbon mineralization and lowering of both phytotoxicity and evapotranspiration of volatile hydrocarbons. A better understanding of plant-bacteria partnerships could be exploited to enhance the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in conjunction with sustainable production of non-food crops for biomass and biofuel production.
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Anesthesia for children with mitochondrial disorders: a national survey and review.
J Anesth
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Mitochondrial diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders. Patients with such diseases often need general anesthesia for diagnostic procedures and surgery; guidelines are lacking for the anesthetic care of these patients.
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Enhanced remediation of chlorpyrifos from soil using ryegrass (Lollium multiflorum) and chlorpyrifos-degrading bacterium Bacillus pumilus C2A1.
J. Hazard. Mater.
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The combined use of plants and associated microorganisms has great potential for remediating soil contaminated with organic compounds such as pesticides. The objective of this study was to determine whether the bacterial inoculation influences plant growth promotion and chlorpyrifos (CP) degradation and accumulation in different parts of the plant. Ryegrass was grown in soil spiked with CP and inoculated with a pesticide degrading bacterial strain Bacillus pumilus C2A1. Inoculation generally had a beneficial effect on CP degradation and plant biomass production, highest CP degradation (97%) was observed after 45 days of inoculation. Furthermore, inoculated strain efficiently colonized in the rhizosphere of inoculated plant and enhanced CP and its primary metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) degradation. There was significantly less CP accumulation in roots and shoots of inoculated plants as compared to uninoculated plants. The results show the effectiveness of inoculated exogenous bacteria to boost the remediation of CP contaminated sites and decrease levels of toxic pesticide residues in crop plants.
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Genotoxicity of TiO(2) anatase nanoparticles in B6C3F1 male mice evaluated using Pig-a and flow cytometric micronucleus assays.
Mutat. Res.
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In vivo micronucleus and Pig-a (phosphatidylinositol glycan, class A gene) mutation assays were conducted to evaluate the genotoxicity of 10 nm titanium dioxide anatase nanoparticles (TiO(2)-NPs) in mice. Groups of five 6-7-week-old male B6C3F1 mice were treated intravenously for three consecutive days with 0.5, 5.0, and 50 mg/kg TiO(2)-NPs for the two assays; mouse blood was sampled one day before the treatment and on Day 4, and Weeks 1, 2, 4, and 6 after the beginning of the treatment; Pig-a mutant frequencies were determined at Day -1 and Weeks 1, 2, 4 and 6, while percent micronucleated-reticulocyte (%MN-RET) frequencies were measured on Day 4 only. Additional animals were treated intravenously with three daily doses of 50 mg.kg TiO(2)-NPs for the measurement of titanium levels in bone marrow after 4, 24, and 48 h of the last treatment. The measurement indicated that the accumulation of the nanoparticles reached the peak in the tissue 4 h after the administration and the levels were maintained for a few days. No increase in either Pig-a mutant frequency of the frequency of %MN-RETs was detected, although the %RETs was reduced in the treated animals on Day 4 in a dose-dependent manner indicating cytotoxicity of TiO(2)-NPs in the bone marrow. These results suggest that although TiO(2)-NPs can reach the mouse bone marrow and are capable of inducing cytotoxicity, the nanoparticles are not genotoxic when assessed with in vivo micronucleus and Pig-a gene mutation tests.
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Signal persistence of bispectral index and state entropy during surgical procedure under sedation.
ScientificWorldJournal
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Bispectral index (BIS) and state entropy (SE) are prone to artifacts, especially due to electrocautery (EC). We compared the incidence of artifacts in BIS and SE during surgery under local anesthesia and sedation.
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Emotional stress and heart rate variability measures associated with cardiovascular risk in relocated Katrina survivors.
Psychosom Med
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To explore the effects of hurricane exposure and forced relocation on the mind and body, we compared psychiatric diagnoses and symptoms with heart rate variability (HRV) for 34 relocated Katrina survivors and 34 demographically matched controls.
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Toxic effects of chromium on tannery workers at Sialkot (Pakistan).
Toxicol Ind Health
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Chromium is widely used in the leather industry, and tannery workers are under constant threat of adverse health effects due to its excessive exposure. Our objective was to find out the toxic effects of chromium on tannery workers at Sialkot, Pakistan. A total of 240 males consisting of 120 workers from tanneries at Sialkot and equal number of controls were included. Blood complete counts, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, malondialdehyde and routine biochemical tests were carried out by routine procedures. Chromium levels in blood (BCr) and urine were analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer Perkin Elmer analyst-200. Results revealed that all the workers were male with average age of 33 years and 15 (13%) had skin rashes, 14 (12%) had chronic bronchitis, 10 (8%) had gastritis and 4 (3%) conjunctivitis. The tannery workers had significantly raised median (interquartile range) of BCr 569 (377-726) nmol/L as compared to 318 (245-397) nmol/L in the control (p < 0.001). Sixty-five (54%) workers had BCr levels above the upper limit set by Agency for Toxic Substance and Drug Registry. The urinary chromium excretion was significantly high in workers 131 (46-312) nmol/L as compared to 13 (3-26) nmol/L in controls (p < 0.01). The workers had hematological, hepatic and renal function impairment because of oxidative stress on body systems. It is concluded that about half of the workers had excessive exposure to chromium in the tanneries at Sialkot. They had significantly raised chromium levels in their biological fluids and adverse health effects due to enhanced oxidative stress and inflammatory changes.
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