JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Genetic Loci Associated with Circulating Levels of Very Long-Chain Saturated Fatty Acids.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Very long-chain saturated fatty acids (VLSFA) are saturated fatty acids with 20 or more carbons. In contrast to the more abundant saturated fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, there is growing evidence that circulating VLSFA may have beneficial biological properties. Whether genetic factors influence circulating levels of VLSFA is not known. We investigated the association of common genetic variation with plasma phospholipid/erythrocyte levels of three VLSFA by performing genome-wide association studies in seven population-based cohorts comprising 10,129 subjects of European ancestry. We observed associations of circulating VLSFA concentrations with common variants in two genes, SPTLC3 (serine palmitoyl-transferase, long-chain base subunit 3), a gene involved in the rate-limiting step of de novo sphingolipid synthesis, and CERS4 (ceramide synthase 4). The SPTLC3 variant at rs680379 was associated with higher 20:0 (arachidic acid, p = 5.81x10-13). The CERS4 variant at rs2100944 was associated with higher levels of 20:0 (p = 2.65x10-40) and in analyses that adjusted for 20:0, with lower levels of 22:0 (behenic acid, p = 4.22x10-26) and 24:0 (lignoceric acid, p = 3.20x10-21). These novel associations highlight the inter-relationship of circulating VLSFA and sphingolipid synthesis.
Related JoVE Video
The Role of cis Regulatory Evolution in Maize Domestication.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gene expression differences between divergent lineages caused by modification of cis regulatory elements are thought to be important in evolution. We assayed genome-wide cis and trans regulatory differences between maize and its wild progenitor, teosinte, using deep RNA sequencing in F1 hybrid and parent inbred lines for three tissue types (ear, leaf and stem). Pervasive regulatory variation was observed with approximately 70% of ?17,000 genes showing evidence of regulatory divergence between maize and teosinte. However, many fewer genes (1,079 genes) show consistent cis differences with all sampled maize and teosinte lines. For ?70% of these 1,079 genes, the cis differences are specific to a single tissue. The number of genes with cis regulatory differences is greatest for ear tissue, which underwent a drastic transformation in form during domestication. As expected from the domestication bottleneck, maize possesses less cis regulatory variation than teosinte with this deficit greatest for genes showing maize-teosinte cis regulatory divergence, suggesting selection on cis regulatory differences during domestication. Consistent with selection on cis regulatory elements, genes with cis effects correlated strongly with genes under positive selection during maize domestication and improvement, while genes with trans regulatory effects did not. We observed a directional bias such that genes with cis differences showed higher expression of the maize allele more often than the teosinte allele, suggesting domestication favored up-regulation of gene expression. Finally, this work documents the cis and trans regulatory changes between maize and teosinte in over 17,000 genes for three tissues.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical applications of the C-arm cone-beam CT-based 3D needle guidance system in performing percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy of pulmonary lesions.
Diagn Interv Radiol
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study explored the value of flat detector C-arm CT-guidance system in performing percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB) for lung lesions in clinical practice.
Related JoVE Video
A study on the mechanical characteristics of the EBM-printed Ti-6Al-4V LCP plates in vitro.
J Orthop Surg Res
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The electron beam melting (EBM) Ti-6Al-4V material technology has been developed over a short time period. It was introduced through a research to develop Ti-6Al-4V implants for patients, but EBM printed locking compression plates have not been used for clinical implants. The main purpose of this study is to find whether the EBM Ti-6Al-4V plate suit for clinical implants.
Related JoVE Video
Phosphatase and tension homolog overexpression in insulin resistant diabetic adipose tissue.
Chin. Med. Sci. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the expression of phosphatase and tension homolog (PTEN) in adipose tissue of KKAy diabetic mice, a mouse model of type 2 diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
Log (TG)/HDL-C ratio as a predictor of decreased islet beta cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes: 6-year cohort study.
J Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
to explore whether the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio [log (TG)/HDL-C] and peripheral blood leukocytes DNA telomere length could predict future islet beta cell function decreased in Chinese type 2 diabetes (T2D) during a 6-year cohort.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of moxibustion on vascular endothelial cell and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in rats with cutaneous wound].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the effect and action mechanism of moxibustion on healing of cutaneous wound in rats.
Related JoVE Video
Improved Hessian multiscale enhancement filter.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Traditional Hessian multiscale filter consider only the local geometric feature but not the global grayscale information. In medical image analysis, Hessian filter is usually used to enhance the blood vessels. However, it also produces some pseudo vascular structures or some isolate noise points, such as the nasal soft tissues that have the similar shape with the vessels in MRA data, which will increase the difficulty of cerebrovascular segmentation. To resolve this issue, an improved Hessian multiscale filter is proposed in this paper. An image grayscale factor is added to the vascular similarity function computed by Hessian matrix eigenvalue. This method is experimented on brain MRA data and lung CTA data. Experimental results show that this method can enhance vascular structures, and simultaneously reduce the appearance of the pseudo vascular structures and the isolated noise points.
Related JoVE Video
Dietary Linoleic Acid and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
-Prior studies on intake of linoleic acid (LA), the predominant n-6 fatty acid, and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk have generated inconsistent results. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to summarize the evidence regarding the relation of dietary LA intake and CHD risk.
Related JoVE Video
Porous organic ligands (POLs) for synthesizing highly efficient heterogeneous catalysts.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We reported a universal route for synthesizing porous organic ligands (POLs) via solvothermal polymerization. The POLs were obtained quantitatively, showing high surface area, large pore volume, hierarchical porosity, and superior stability. The POL bearing a triphenylphosphine supported rhodium catalyst (Rh/POL-PPh3) exhibits high activity and excellent recyclability in 1-octene hydroformylation.
Related JoVE Video
Macrophage-secreted IL-8 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma cells by activating the JAK2/STAT3/Snail pathway.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Macrophages are a major component of the leukocyte infiltrate of tumors and play a pivotal role in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the molecular mechanisms by which macrophages promote HCC invasion are poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between macrophages and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HCC. Double-staining immunohistochemistry was used to observe the association between macrophages and EMT markers in clinical HCC samples and it showed that EMT primarily occurred at the edge of the tumor nest, in which infiltrating macrophages were always observed. This indicated that CD68 which is a marker of macrophages, was correlated with EMT marker levels. In addition, after being cultured with macrophages for 24 h, the ability of HCC cells to migrate and invade increased, Snail and N-Cadherin expression was upregulated, and E-Cadherin was downregulated. An antibody array assay was applied to analyze the supernatant of these cultures and it demonstrated IL-8 increased significantly in the macrophage co-culture system. Finally, the role of macrophage-derived IL-8 in the invasion of HCC cells was assayed, and downstream signaling pathways were also investigated. We found that IL-8: i) may induce EMT and promote HCC cell migration and invasion and ii) is associated with the JAK2/STAT3/Snail signaling pathway. Taking together, these findings revealed that macrophages that have infiltrated tumors may induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition of HCC cells via the IL-8 activated JAK2/STAT3/Snail pathway. Thus, this may offer a potential target for developing new HCC therapies.
Related JoVE Video
In-situ One-step Hydrothermal Synthesis of a Lead Germanate-Graphene Composite as a Novel Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lead germanate-graphene nanosheets (PbGeO3-GNS) composites have been prepared by an efficient one-step, in-situ hydrothermal method and were used as anode materials for Li-ion batteries (LIBs). The PbGeO3 nanowires, around 100-200?nm in diameter, are highly encapsulated in a graphene matrix. The lithiation and de-lithiation reaction mechanisms of the PbGeO3 anode during the charge-discharge processes have been investigated by X-ray diffraction and electrochemical characterization. Compared with pure PbGeO3 anode, dramatic improvements in the electrochemical performance of the composite anodes have been obtained. In the voltage window of 0.01-1.50?V, the composite anode with 20?wt.% GNS delivers a discharge capacity of 607?mAh g(-1) at 100?mA g(-1) after 50 cycles. Even at a high current density of 1600?mA g(-1), a capacity of 406?mAh g(-1) can be achieved. Therefore, the PbGeO3-GNS composite can be considered as a potential anode material for lithium ion batteries.
Related JoVE Video
Interleukin-8 promotes cell migration through integrin ?v?6 upregulation in colorectal cancer.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC), which is notorious for high morbidity and mortality around the world, shows a predilection for metastasis to liver. Interleukin-8 (IL-8), a chemokine with a defining CXC amino acid motif, has been reported to promote CRC cell migration and is associated with poor prognosis of CRC. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of IL-8-mediated migration remains obscure. In this study, we first demonstrated the cross talk between IL-8 and integrin ?v?6. We analyzed 139 human CRC samples, and found that the immunohistochemical expression of ?v?6 was significantly correlated with expression of IL-8. Furthermore, IL-8 increased the migration through integrin ?v?6 in human CRC cells, and both CXCR1 and CXCR2 were primarily involved during the process. IL-8 upregulated ?v?6 expression in a dose-dependent manner through activation of ERK and Ets-1 signaling pathway. Taken together, our results indicated that IL-8 enhances the migration of CRC cells by increasing ?v?6 integrin expression through the ERK/Ets-1 pathway. Targeting integrin ?v?6 in IL-8 expressing tumors might be a potential therapeutic strategy for CRC patients.
Related JoVE Video
?6 integrin induces the expression of metalloproteinase-3 and metalloproteinase-9 in colon cancer cells via ERK-ETS1 pathway.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We previously reported that ?6 integrin played an important role in the progression of colon cancer. In this study, we demonstrated that ?6 integrin induced the expression of MMP-3/MMP-9 and the invasion of colon cancer cells. Moreover, that function was abolished by the inhibition of ERK/MAPK pathways or knockdown of ETS1, an important transcription factor of MMP genes. Here, we showed that ?6 induced phosphorylation of ETS1 via the ERK/MAPK pathways, through which the MMP-3/MMP-9 promoters were stimulated, thereby leading to the up-regulation of MMP-3/MMP-9, and subsequent the invasion of colon cancer cells.
Related JoVE Video
Secreted fibroblast-derived miR-34a induces tubular cell apoptosis in fibrotic kidney.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tubular epithelial cell apoptosis contributes to tubulointerstitial fibrosis but its regulation remains unclear. Here, in fibrotic kidney induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), we demonstrate that miR-34a is markedly upregulated in tubulointerstitial spaces and microvesicles isolated from obstructed kidney. However, miR-34a is not de novo synthesized by proximal tubular epithelial cells but by fibroblasts after incubation with TGF-?1. miR-34a is markedly upregulated in microvesicles isolated from the cell culture medium of TGF-?1-treated fibroblasts. These microvesicles act as a vector for delivery of upregulated miR-34a from fibroblasts to tubular cells. The fibroblast-derived miR-34a-containing microvesicles induce the apoptosis of tubular cells. The exogenous miR-34a regulates tubular apoptosis by modulating the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Moreover, injection of exogenous miR-34a-containing microvesicles enhances tubular cell apoptosis in mice. This study suggests that secreted fibroblast miR-34a transported by microvesicles induces tubular cell apoptosis in obstructed kidney. This study reveals a new mechanism whereby microvesicle-mediated communication of miRNA between fibroblasts and tubular cells is involved in regulating tubular cell apoptosis, which might provide new therapeutic targets for renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis.
Related JoVE Video
The alkaloid emetine sensitizes ovarian carcinoma cells to cisplatin through downregulation of bcl-xL.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cisplatin and its platinum derivatives are first-line chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of ovarian cancer. However, chemoresistance is the leading cause of therapeutic failure and is responsible for the poor overall survival rate. Here, we describe that emetine, a natural alkaloid used as an anti-amoebiasis drug, sensitized ovarian carcinoma cells to apoptosis induced by cisplatin. The single administration of cisplatin or emetine had a weak effect on cell death. However, co-treatment of cisplatin and emetine remarkably induced apoptosis and reduced the colony formation of ovarian carcinoma cells. Moreover, we showed that apoptosis induced by the combination of cisplatin and emetine was dependent on the activation of caspases -3, -7 and -8. As to the mechanism, downregulation of bcl-xL by emetine was shown to be responsible for enhancing the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin. These findings suggest that the combination of cisplatin and emetine might be a promising treatment for ovarian cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Nucleotide excision repair gene ERCC1 19007T>C polymorphism contributes to lung cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Association studies of ERCC1 19007T>C polymorphism and lung cancer have yielded inconsistent results, possibly because single studies often lack sufficient statistical power.
Related JoVE Video
[Comparison of interferon-gamma release assays and adenosine deaminase of pleural fluid for the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis].
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the diagnostic performance of interferon gamma releasing assays (T-SPOT. TB) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) in pleural tuberculosis, and therefore to evaluate the value of T-SPOT. TB in a high tuberculosis burden country.
Related JoVE Video
[Significance of BIOMED-2 standardized IG/TCR gene rearrangement detection in paraffin-embedded section in lymphoma diagnosis].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the feasibility of detecting lymphoma with the application of BIOMED-2 standardized immunoglobulin/T cell receptor (IG/TCR) gene rearrangement system in formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples, and to discuss the relationship between the longest amplification fragment of extracted DNA and positive detection rate of different IGH V-J primers.
Related JoVE Video
[Construction and characterization of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 ppk- deleted strain].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To construct enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157: H7 ppk gene deletion strains and study its biological characteristics.
Related JoVE Video
Plasma levels of fetuin-A and risk of coronary heart disease in US women: the Nurses' Health Study.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fetuin-A may be involved in the etiology of coronary heart disease (CHD) through opposing pathways (ie, promoting insulin resistance and inhibiting ectopic calcification). We aimed to explicitly examine whether systemic inflammation, a factor leading to elevated vascular calcification, may modify the association between fetuin-A and CHD risk.
Related JoVE Video
Cementless bilateral synchronous total hip arthroplasty in ankylosing spondylitis with hip ankylosis.
Int Orthop
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study was a retrospective analysis of early and mid-term clinical effects and perioperative management of cementless bilateral synchronous total hip arthroplasty (THA) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) with bilateral hip ankylosis.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Fried-food consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease: a prospective study in 2 cohorts of US women and men.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Through the processes of oxidation, polymerization, and hydrogenation, the cooking method of frying modifies both foods and their frying medium. However, it remains unknown whether the frequent consumption of fried foods is related to long-term cardiometabolic health.OBJECTIVE: We examined fried-food consumption and risk of developing incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) or coronary artery disease (CAD).DESIGN: Fried-food consumption was assessed by using a questionnaire in 70,842 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2010) and 40,789 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2010) who were free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate RRs and 95% CIs for T2D and CAD adjusted for demographic, diet, lifestyle, and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Results were pooled by using an inverse variance-weighted random-effects meta-analysis.RESULTS: We documented 10,323 incident T2D cases and 5778 incident CAD cases. Multivariate-adjusted RRs (95% CIs) for individuals who consumed fried foods <1, 1-3, 4-6, or ?7 times/wk were 1.00 (reference), 1.15 (0.97, 1.35), 1.39 (1.30, 1.49), and 1.55 (1.32, 1.83), respectively, for T2D and 1.00 (reference), 1.06 (0.98, 1.15), 1.23 (1.14, 1.33), and 1.21 (1.06, 1.39), respectively, for CAD. Associations were largely attenuated when we further controlled for biennially updated hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and body mass index.CONCLUSIONS: Frequent fried-food consumption was significantly associated with risk of incident T2D and moderately with incident CAD, and these associations were largely mediated by body weight and comorbid hypertension and hypercholesterolemia.
Related JoVE Video
Syntheses of coumarin-tacrine hybrids as dual-site acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and their activity against butylcholinesterase, A? aggregation, and ?-secretase.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Exploring small-molecule acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors to slow the breakdown of acetylcholine (Ach) represents the mainstream direction for Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy. As the first acetylcholinesterase inhibitor approved for the clinical treatment of AD, tacrine has been widely used as a pharmacophore to design hybrid compounds in order to combine its potent AChE inhibition with other multi-target profiles. In present study, a series of novel tacrine-coumarin hybrids were designed, synthesized and evaluated as potent dual-site AChE inhibitors. Moreover, compound 1g was identified as the most potent candidate with about 2-fold higher potency (Ki=16.7nM) against human AChE and about 2-fold lower potency (Ki=16.1nM) against BChE than tacrine (Ki=35.7nM for AChE, Ki=8.7nM for BChE), respectively. In addition, some of the tacrine-coumarin hybrids showed simultaneous inhibitory effects against both A? aggregation and ?-secretase. We therefore conclude that tacrine-coumarin hybrid is an interesting multifunctional lead for the AD drug discovery.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of TROY promotes OPC differentiation and increases therapeutic efficacy of OPC graft for spinal cord injury.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Endogenous or graft-derived oligodendrocytes promote myelination and aid in the recovery from central nervous system (CNS) injury. Regulatory mechanisms underlying neural myelination and remyelination in response to injury, including spinal cord injury (SCI), are unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that TROY serves as an important negative regulator of oligodendrocyte development and that TROY inhibition augments the repair potential of oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) graft for SCI. TROY expression was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in OPCs as well as in differentiated premature and mature oligodendrocytes of postnatal mice. Pharmacological inhibition or RNAi-induced knockdown of TROY promotes OPC differentiation, whereas overexpression of TROY dampens oligodendrocyte maturation. Further, treatment of cocultures of DRG neurons and OPCs with TROY inhibitors promotes myelination and myelin-sheath-like structures. Mechanically, protein kinase C (PKC) signaling is involved in the regulation of the inhibitory effects of TROY. Moreover, in situ transplantation of OPCs with TROY knockdown leads to notable remyelination and neurological recovery in rats with SCI. Our results indicate that TROY negatively modulates remyelination in the CNS, and thus may be a suitable target for improving the therapeutic efficacy of cell transplantation for CNS injury.
Related JoVE Video
Granular cell tumor of the esophagus: a clinicopathological study of 31 cases.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Granular cell tumors (GCTs) in esophagus are rare tumors lacking of systemic large group reports. In this study, we summarized the clinical characteristics, histological features and therapeutic approaches of 31 cases. GCTs generally located at middle and distal of the esophagus in middle aged and elderly patients with no incidence of gender differences. Histologically, tumor cells were mainly plump and polygonal with abundant, granular, amphophilic or eosinophilic cytoplasm. The growth pattern was solid or nested, usually with minimal infiltration and inflammatory infiltrates and lymphoid aggregation. All GCTs in the present study were benign according to Nasser criteria. Nestin, NSE, CD68 and S100 protein were moderate to strong positive. Moreover, a developmental morphology of a GCT was found, which included areas of relatively normal Schwann cells, transitional cells and typical cells of GCTs. All patients received endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Twenty-six patients were followed up and remained clinically well. In conclusion, GCTs of esophagus are neurogenic origin tumors with favourable prognosis. Definite diagnosis of GCTs relies upon pathological examination. The Nasser criteria for stratification are practical in guiding treatment strategy. ESD is a recommended therapeutic strategy, and the range of application is expanding.
Related JoVE Video
A method for the second-site screening of K-Ras in the presence of a covalently attached first-site ligand.
J. Biomol. NMR
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
K-Ras is a well-validated cancer target but is considered to be "undruggable" due to the lack of suitable binding pockets. We previously discovered small molecules that bind weakly to K-Ras but wanted to improve their binding affinities by identifying ligands that bind near our initial hits that we could link together. Here we describe an approach for identifying second site ligands that uses a cysteine residue to covalently attach a compound for tight binding to the first site pocket followed by a fragment screen for binding to a second site. This approach could be very useful for targeting Ras and other challenging drug targets.
Related JoVE Video
Solvent-Free Syntheses of Hierarchically Porous Aluminophosphate-Based Zeolites with AEL and AFI Structures.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Development of sustainable routes for synthesizing aluminophosphate-based zeolites are very important because of their wide applications. As a typical sustainable route, solvent-free synthesis of zeolites not only decreases polluted wastes but also increases product yields. Systematic solvent-free syntheses of hierarchically porous aluminophosphate-based zeolites with AEL and AFI structures is presented. XRD patterns and SEM images show that these samples have high crystallinity. N2 sorption isotherm tests show that these samples are hierarchically porous, and their surface areas are comparable with those of corresponding zeolites from hydrothermal route. Chosen as an example, catalytic oxidation of ethylbenzene with O2 shows that cobalt substituted APO-11 from the solvent-free route (S-CoAPO-11) is more active than conventional CoAPO-11 from hydrothermal route owing to the sample hierarchical porosity.
Related JoVE Video
Developmental dynamics of Kranz cell transcriptional specificity in maize leaf reveals early onset of C4-related processes.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The comparison of the cell-specific transcriptomes of bundle sheath (BS) and mesophyll (M) cells from successive developmental stages of maize (Zea mays) leaves reveals that the number of genes preferentially transcribed in one cell type or the other varies considerably from the sink-source transition to mature photosynthetic stages. The number of differentially expressed (DE) genes is maximal at a stage well before full maturity, including those that encode key functions for C4 photosynthesis. The developmental dynamics of BS/M differential expression can be used to identify candidates for other C4-related functions and to simplify the identification of specific pathways members from otherwise complex gene families. A significant portion of the candidates for C4-related transcription factors identified with this developmental DE strategy overlap with those identified in studies using alternative strategies, thus providing independent support for their potential importance.
Related JoVE Video
Overweight in early adulthood, adult weight change, and risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers in men: a cohort study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The relative importance of overweight after childhood and excess weight gain during adulthood remains unclear. In 39,909 male participants of the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study who were 40-75 years of age in 1986 and were followed until 2008, we documented 8,755 incident cases of obesity-related chronic diseases (type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and colorectal, renal, pancreatic, and esophageal cancers). We calculated composite and cause-specific hazard ratios using a model that included body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) at 21 years of age, weight change since age 21 years, smoking, alcohol consumption, and family histories of myocardial infarction, colon cancer, and diabetes. Compared with a BMI at 21 years of 18.5-22.9, the composite hazard ratio for a BMI of 23-24.9 was 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 1.29), that for a BMI of 25.0-27.4 was 1.57 (95% CI: 1.48, 1.67), that for a BMI of 27.5-29.9 was 2.40 (95% CI: 2.17, 2.65), and that for a BMI ?30.0 was 3.15 (95% CI: 2.76, 3.60). The composite hazard ratios for adult weight gain compared with a stable weight were 1.12 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.22) for a gain of 2.5-4.9 kg, 1.41 (95% CI: 1.31, 1.52) for a gain of 5-9.9 kg, 1.72 (95% CI: 1.59, 1.86) for a gain of 10-14.9 kg, and 2.45 (95% CI: 2.27, 2.63) for a gain ?15 kg. Adiposity in early adulthood and adult weight gain were both associated with marked increases in the risk of major chronic diseases in middle-aged and older men, and these associations were already apparent at modest levels of overweight and weight gain.
Related JoVE Video
The transcriptome landscape of early maize meiosis.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A major step in the higher plant life cycle is the decision to leave the mitotic cell cycle and begin the progression through the meiotic cell cycle that leads to the formation of gametes. The molecular mechanisms that regulate this transition and early meiosis remain largely unknown. To gain insight into gene expression features during the initiation of meiotic recombination, we profiled early prophase I meiocytes from maize (Zea mays) using capillary collection to isolate meiocytes, followed by RNA-seq.
Related JoVE Video
[HER2 protein testing in gastric cancer: a retrospective analysis of 1 471 cases during two different periods in a single medical center].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the potential factors in influencing the performance of immunohistochemical testing for HER2 protein in gastric cancers.
Related JoVE Video
Comparative analyses of C4 and C3 photosynthesis in developing leaves of maize and rice.
Nat. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
C4 and C3 photosynthesis differ in the efficiency with which they consume water and nitrogen. Engineering traits of the more efficient C4 photosynthesis into C3 crops could substantially increase crop yields in hot, arid conditions. To identify differences between C4 and C3 photosynthetic mechanisms, we profiled metabolites and gene expression in the developing leaves of Zea mays (maize), a C4 plant, and Oryza sativa (rice), a C3 plant, using a statistical method named the unified developmental model (UDM). Candidate cis-regulatory elements and transcription factors that might regulate photosynthesis were identified, together with differences between C4 and C3 nitrogen and carbon metabolism. The UDM algorithms could be applied to analyze and compare development in other species. These data sets together with community viewers to access and mine them provide a resource for photosynthetic research that will inform efforts to engineer improvements in carbon fixation in economically valuable grass crops.
Related JoVE Video
Changing trends in the proportions of small (? 2?cm) proximal and non-proximal gastric carcinomas treated at a high-volume tertiary medical center in China.
J Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Guided by the recently established histological criteria of the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ), we aimed to investigate and compare trends in the proportions of small (? 2 cm) proximal gastric carcinoma (PGC) vs non-PGC (NPGC) in Chinese patients over an 8-year period.
Related JoVE Video
4-Oxo-1,4-dihydro-quinoline-3-carboxamides as BACE-1 inhibitors: synthesis, biological evaluation and docking studies.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this work, we report a series of new 4-oxo-1,4-dihydro-quinoline-3-carboxamide derivatives as ?-secretase (BACE-1) inhibitors. Supported by docking study, a small library of derivatives were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated in vitro. The studies revealed that the most potent analog 14e (IC50 = 1.89 ?M) with low cellular cytotoxicity and high predicted blood brain barrier permeability, could serve as a good structure for further modification.
Related JoVE Video
Sophoricoside fails the embryo implantation by compromising the uterine endometrial receptivity at implantation "window" of pregnant mice.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sophoricoside (SOPH) is an isoflavone glycoside isolated from the fruits of Sophora japonica. Since its first isolation in 1961, there are rare findings about the effects of SOPH on reproductive system. In the present study, the pregnant mice administrated by different doses of SOPH were used to explore the effect of SOPH on embryo implantation, especially on the endometrial receptivity. The statistical results showed that the number of implanted embryos was gradually declining along the increasing dose of SOPH. When the administrated dose of SOPH was 600mg/kg per day, great changes were observed in the exposed uterine morphology and up-regulated progesterone receptor (PR) and down-regulated estrogen receptor ? (ER?), E-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and integrin ?3 were also found in SOPH-exposed uterine. These findings demonstrated that SOPH exposure reduced the number of implanted embryos in a dose-dependent manner and failed the embryo implantation through altering the morphology of uterine and compromising the endometrial receptivity.
Related JoVE Video
Association of urinary concentrations of bisphenol A and phthalate metabolites with risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective investigation in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII cohorts.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Prospective evidence regarding associations for exposures to bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is lacking.
Related JoVE Video
Glucuronidation of aurantio-obtusin: identification of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and species differences.
Xenobiotica
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
1. The aurantio-obtusin's glucuronide was detected when aurantio-obtusin was incubated with human liver microsomes (HLMs). Recombinant UGT isoforms screening experiment showed that UGT1A8 was the major isoform contributed to the glucuronidation. 2. The metabolic profiles for aurantio-obtusin in liver microsomes from different species were similar, however, the intrinsic clearance values (Vmax/Km) among the species were: Monkey?>?Human?>?Rat?>?Rabbit?>?Dog?>?Pig?>?Mouse?>?Guinea pig.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of trapidil in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rabbit.
Indian J Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the cardioprotective effects of trapidil on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI) in rabbits.
Related JoVE Video
Circulating IGF-axis protein levels and their relation with levels of plasma adipocytokines and macronutrient consumption in women.
Growth Horm. IGF Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Circulating free insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and its binding proteins, most notably, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2, have been prospectively associated with incident type 2 diabetes in women. However, little is known regarding the factors that may influence these IGF-axis protein levels. The aim is to study the relation of IGF-axis protein levels with adipcytokines, macronutrient consumption, and other factors related to diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
High basal level of autophagy in high-altitude residents attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.
J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hypoxia can induce autophagy, which plays an important role in cardioprotection. The present study tested the hypothesis that patients with congenital heart disease living at a high altitude could resist ischemia-reperfusion injury better than those at a low altitude, through elevated basal autophagy by chronic hypoxia.
Related JoVE Video
Managing distrust-induced risk with deposit in supply chain contract decisions.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper studies the trust issue in a two-echelon supply chain information sharing process. In a supply chain, the retailer reports the forecasted demand to the supplier. Traditionally, the supplier's trust in the retailer's reported information is based on the retailer's reputation. However, this paper considers that trust is random and is also affected by the reputation and the demand gap. The supplier and retailer have been shown to have different evaluations regarding the degree of trust. Furthermore, distrust is inherently linked to perceived risk. To mitigate perceived risk, a two-stage decision process with an unpayback deposit contract is proposed. At the first stage, the supplier and the retailer negotiate the deposit contract. At the second stage, a Stackelberg game is used to determine the retailer's reported demand and the supplier's production quantity. We show that the deposits from the retailer's and supplier's perspectives are different. When the retailer's reported demand is equal to the supplier's forecasted demand, the retailer's evaluation of the deposit is more than that of supplier's. When the retailer's reported demand is equal to the retailer's forecasted demand, the deposit from the retailer's perspective is at the lowest level.
Related JoVE Video
HOW DO SMOKERS RESPOND TO CIGARETTE TAXES? EVIDENCE FROM CHINA'S CIGARETTE INDUSTRY.
Health Econ
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper examines how Chinese smokers respond to tax-driven cigarette price increases by estimating a discrete choice model of demand for differentiated products, using annual nationwide brand-level cigarette sales data in China from 2005 to 2010. We allow for substitution between different cigarette brands and also incorporate key features of rational addiction theory into the model. Results show that the average own-price elasticity of demand for cigarettes at the brand level is -0.807, and the overall price elasticity of cigarettes at the market level is -0.488 in China. We find tax-induced substitution toward low-price cigarettes as well as high-tar cigarettes and that tax hikes encourage within-class substitution more than across-class substitution. These results have important policy implications for the potential effects of cigarette taxation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Related JoVE Video
The hepatotoxicity and testicular toxicity induced by arecoline in mice and protective effects of vitamins C and e.
Korean J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Arecoline is a major alkaloid of areca nuts which are widely chewed by southeast Asian and it manifests various toxic effects in different organs of human and animals. In this work, mature mice were treated by vitamins C plus E, arecoline, or both daily for four weeks. The results showed that arecoline significantly increased the levels of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and significantly decreased the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the liver tissues. Additionally, the body weight, testis weight, sperm counts, motility and normal sperms also were significantly decreased. The supplement of vitamins C and E can bring the activities of ALP and GPT to normal levels and partially restore the sperm counts compared to the arecoline-treated group but have no other positive effects. In conclusion, the vitamins C and E partially attenuated the arecoline-induced hepatotoxiciy but basically had on protective effects against the arecoline-induced testicular toxicity.
Related JoVE Video
Poor vitamin D status is prospectively associated with greater muscle mass loss in middle-aged and elderly Chinese individuals.
J Acad Nutr Diet
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Poor vitamin D status can increase age-related muscle mass loss. However, existing prospective evidence is limited and controversial.
Related JoVE Video
Alleviation of plasma homocysteine level by phytoestrogen ?-zearalanol might be related to the reduction of cystathionine ?-synthase nitration.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hyperhomocysteinemia is strongly associated with cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have shown that phytoestrogen ?-zearalanol can protect cardiovascular system from hyperhomocysteinemia and ameliorate the level of plasma total homocysteine; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be clarified. The aim of this research is to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms involved in ameliorating the level of plasma homocysteine by ?-zearalanol. By the successfully established diet-induced hyperhomocysteinemia rat models, we found that, after ?-zearalanol treatment, the activity of cystathionine ?-synthase, the key enzyme in homocysteine metabolism, was significantly elevated and level of nitrative stress in liver was significantly reduced. In correlation with this, results also showed a decreased nitration level of cystathionine ?-synthase in liver. Together data implied that alleviation of plasma homocysteine level by phytoestrogen ?-zearalanol might be related to the reduction of cystathionine ?-synthase nitration.
Related JoVE Video
Urinary isoflavone concentrations are inversely associated with cardiometabolic risk markers in pregnant U.S. women.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Some evidence suggests that phytoestrogens, such as soy-derived isoflavones, may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health and glycemic control. These data are mainly limited to postmenopausal women or individuals at elevated cardiometabolic risk. There is a lack of data for pregnant women who have elevated estrogen levels and physiologically altered glucose and lipid metabolism. We analyzed data from 299 pregnant women who participated in the NHANES 2001-2008 surveys. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to examine the association between urinary concentrations of isoflavonoids and cardiometabolic risk markers, adjusted for body mass index, pregnancy trimester, total energy intake, dietary intake of protein, fiber, and cholesterol, and demographic and lifestyle factors. Cardiometabolic risk markers were log-transformed, and geometric means were calculated by quartiles of urinary concentrations of isoflavonoids. Comparing women in the highest vs. lowest quartiles of urine total isoflavone concentrations, we observed significant, inverse associations with circulating concentrations of fasting glucose (79 vs. 88 mg/dL, P-trend = 0.0009), insulin (8.2 vs. 12.8 ?U/mL, P-trend = 0.03), and triglyceride (156 vs. 185 mg/dL, P-trend = 0.02), and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (1.6 vs. 2.8, P-trend = 0.01), but not for total, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The concentrations of individual isoflavonoids, daidzein, equol, and O-desmethylangolensin were inversely associated with some cardiometabolic risk markers, although no clear pattern emerged. These data suggest that there may be a relation between isoflavone intake and cardiometabolic risk markers in pregnant women.
Related JoVE Video
Human leukocyte antigen-DRB1*1501 and DQB1*0602 alleles are cervical cancer protective factors among Uighur and Han people in Xinjiang, China.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major risk factor for cervical cancer. However, only some high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV)-infected women progress to cervical cancer, host immunogenetic factors human leukocyte antigen (HLA) may account for viral antigens presenting individually or together in the progression to cervical cancer. This study examined the association between the development of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and the determinant factors including HLA-DRB1*1501 and DQB1*0602, HR-HPV infection among Chinese Uighur and Han populations. Blood samples, cervical swabs and biopsies were obtained from 287 patients with ICC (192 Uighurs and 95 Hans) and 312 healthy controls (218 Uighurs and 94 Hans). HPV DNA was detected by PCR and HLA-DRB1*1501 and DQB1*0602 alleles were performed using PCR-SSP method. HPV16 infection rates was significantly higher among Uighur and Han with ICC as compared to healthy controls (OR = 58.317; 95% CI: 39.663-85.744; OR = 33.778; 95% CI: 12.581-90.691; P < 0.05 for all). HLA-DRB1*1501 (OR = 0.305; 95% CI: 0.115-0.813; P < 0.05) and HLA-DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 haplotype frequencies (OR = 0.274; 95% CI: 0.086-0.874; P < 0.05) were significantly reduced in Han ICC. The HLA-DQB1*0602 frequency significantly decreased among Uighur women with ICC (OR = 0.482; 95% CI: 0.325-0.716; P < 0.05). Similar tendencies were observed for DQB1*0602 with HPV16-positive ICC (OR = 0.550; 95% CI: 0.362-0.837; P < 0.05). This study suggests that HLA-DRB1*1501 and DQB1*0602 alleles may influence the immune response to HPV16 infection and decrease the risk of ICC among Uighurs and Hans in Xinjiang, China.
Related JoVE Video
High expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 indicates poor prognosis in human hilar cholangiocarcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was found to be correlated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in a variety of carcinomas. However, few studies have investigated the role of MMP-9 in human hilar cholangiocarcinoma. In this study, a total of 58 patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma who underwent curative resection were included in this study. The expression of MMP-9 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using the streptavidin peroxidase complex method. The correlation of MMP-9 overexpression with clinicopathological features and survival time of patients was investigated. The results showed that MMP-9 overexpression was prominent in cancer cells and mainly localized in the cytoplasm. MMP-9 overexpression was observed in 46.5% tumors, which showed no correlation with clinicopathological parameters. Patients with high MMP-9 expression had a significantly poorer overall survival rate than those with negative or low MMP-9 expression (P = 0.038). Multivariate analysis confirmed that MMP-9 overexpression was an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.007). In conclusion, overexpression of MMP-9 is a valuable independent prognostic indicator in hilar cholangiocarcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
The effects of harvesting media on biological characteristics and repair potential of neural stem cells after traumatic brain injury.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Various solutions are utilized widely for the isolation, harvesting, sorting, testing and transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs), whereas the effects of harvesting media on the biological characteristics and repair potential of NSCs remain unclear. To examine some of these effects, NSCs were isolated from cortex of E14.5 mice and exposed to the conventional harvesting media [0.9% saline (Saline), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF)] or the proliferation culture medium (PCM) for different durations at 4°C. Treated NSCs were grafted by in situ injection into the lesion sites of traumatic brain injury (TBI) mice. In vitro, harvesting media-exposed NSCs displayed time-dependent reduction of viability and proliferation. S phase entry decreased in harvesting media-exposed cells, which was associated with upregulation of p53 protein and downregulation of cyclin E1 protein. Moreover, harvesting media exposure induced the necrosis and apoptosis of NSCs. The levels of Fas-L, cleaved caspase 3 and 8 were increased, which suggests that the death receptor signaling pathway is involved in the apoptosis of NSCs. In addition, exposure to Saline did not facilitate the neuronal differentiation of NSCs, suggesting that Saline exposure may be disadvantageous for neurogenesis. In vivo, NSC-mediated functional recovery in harvesting media-exposed NSC groups was notably attenuated in comparison with the PCM-exposed NSC group. In conclusion, harvesting media exposure modulates the biological characteristics and repair potential of NSCs after TBI. Our results suggest that insight of the effects of harvesting media exposure on NSCs is critical for developing strategies to assure the successful long-term engraftment of NSCs.
Related JoVE Video
Protein expression of eIF4E and integrin ?v?6 in colon cancer can predict clinical significance, reveal their correlation and imply possible mechanism of interaction.
Cell Biosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Both eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and integrin ?v?6 play an important role in the development and progression of cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of eIF4E and Integrin ?v?6, their clinical significance as well as the two proteins' correlation in colonic carcinoma tissues.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of the adipokine adiponectin and the hepatokine fetuin-A on the development of type 2 diabetes: prospective cohort- and cross-sectional phenotyping studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Among adipokines and hepatokines, adiponectin and fetuin-A were consistently found to predict the incidence of type 2 diabetes, both by regulating insulin sensitivity.
Related JoVE Video
TASSEL-GBS: a high capacity genotyping by sequencing analysis pipeline.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) is a next generation sequencing based method that takes advantage of reduced representation to enable high throughput genotyping of large numbers of individuals at a large number of SNP markers. The relatively straightforward, robust, and cost-effective GBS protocol is currently being applied in numerous species by a large number of researchers. Herein we describe a bioinformatics pipeline, TASSEL-GBS, designed for the efficient processing of raw GBS sequence data into SNP genotypes. The TASSEL-GBS pipeline successfully fulfills the following key design criteria: (1) Ability to run on the modest computing resources that are typically available to small breeding or ecological research programs, including desktop or laptop machines with only 8-16 GB of RAM, (2) Scalability from small to extremely large studies, where hundreds of thousands or even millions of SNPs can be scored in up to 100,000 individuals (e.g., for large breeding programs or genetic surveys), and (3) Applicability in an accelerated breeding context, requiring rapid turnover from tissue collection to genotypes. Although a reference genome is required, the pipeline can also be run with an unfinished "pseudo-reference" consisting of numerous contigs. We describe the TASSEL-GBS pipeline in detail and benchmark it based upon a large scale, species wide analysis in maize (Zea mays), where the average error rate was reduced to 0.0042 through application of population genetic-based SNP filters. Overall, the GBS assay and the TASSEL-GBS pipeline provide robust tools for studying genomic diversity.
Related JoVE Video
[A comparative study of the effects of needle free (INJEX30) versus insulin pen injection on insulin absorption in diabetic patients].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the effect of the needle free injection system (INJEX30) and insulin pen on insulin absorption and glycemic control in diabetic patients.
Related JoVE Video
Associations between red meat intake and biomarkers of inflammation and glucose metabolism in women.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Greater red meat intake is associated with an increased type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk. However, the relation of red meat intake to biomarkers of inflammation and glucose metabolism has not been investigated thoroughly.
Related JoVE Video
Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 protects rat pancreatic islets from cytokine-induced apoptosis through Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription pathway.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are inhibitors of cytokine signaling pathway involved in negative feedback loops. Although SOCS1 is an important intracellular suppressor of apoptosis in a variety of cell types, its role in cytokine-induced pancreatic ?-cell apoptosis remains unclear. The present study investigated potential effects of SOCS1 on the cytokine-induced pancreatic ?-cell apoptosis.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of cerebral arteriovenous malformation using dual vessel fusion technology.
J Neurointerv Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study explored the value of using a vessel fusion technique for visualizing and evaluating the vessel structure of patients diagnosed with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).
Related JoVE Video
Non-Peptide-based fluorogenic small-molecule probe for elastase.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) has been identified as a potential therapeutic target for the discovery of anti-inflammatory drugs for decades. However, little progress has been made on assays measuring the activity of HNE, especially on synthetic substrates which play essential role in determination of HNE activity. Herein, a small-molecule compound, 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoro-N-(2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-chromen-7-yl)-propanamide (compound 4), has been successfully designed as the first ever non-peptide-based fluorogenic substrate for HNE. A "turn-on" fluorometric assay based on 4 has been successfully developed for rapid determination of HNE activity and the inhibitory kinetic study. Most importantly, the probe 4 shows highly specific response for HNE among seven tested hydrolases or proteins and can be directly used to detect the elevated HNE activity in the serum of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients compared to that of healthy controls. This specific and cost-effective probe will facilitate future high-throughput discovery of HNE inhibitors and clinical diagnosis of elastase-related diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Circulating fetuin-a and risk of ischemic stroke in women.
Clin. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fetuin-A, a protein secreted primarily by the liver, has been associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance. In a recent study, higher circulating fetuin-A was associated with cardiovascular events, particularly ischemic stroke. However, these data have not been replicated.
Related JoVE Video
A novel synthesis of antiviral nucleoside phosphoramidate and thiophosphoramidate prodrugs via nucleoside H-phosphonamidates.
Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A novel and efficient method for the preparation of antiviral nucleoside 5-H-phosphonamidates has been developed. The oxidization of the H-phosphonamidate intermediates with iodine and sulfur afforded nucleoside 5-phosphoramidates and 5-thiophosphoramidates in high yields.
Related JoVE Video
Numerical simulation and hemodynamic analysis of the modified Blalock-Taussig shunt.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The modified Blalock-Taussig (mB-T) shunt is an effective palliative surgical method in the treatment of cyanotic congenital heart diseases. It increases the pulmonary blood flow through an implanted shunt between systemic and pulmonary arteries. The surgical technique improved over the years. However, it is still a challenge to control appropriate distribution of blood flow through this shunt after this kind of procedure till now. Here, we report on the method of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for the hemodynamic studies of a patient-specific case after the mB-T shunt. The analysis system that we validated previously in the studies of the Norwood procedure was applied to predict the hemodynamic characteristics in the mB-T hunt area. The real-time velocities derived from Echocardiography measurements and the blood pressure wave reflections from peripheral vessels were utilized as boundary conditions to physiologically capture the blood flow information in the simulation. The local pressure, blood flow distribution and wall shear stress were calculated. The results suggest pressure decreases greatly through the shunt and around 40% of blood flow is distributed from the systemic circulation to pulmonary arteries in one cardiac cycle. These indict computational hemodynamics may be applied in future studies of establishing quantitative standards to evaluate the outcomes of the mB-T shunt and to optimize the implantation of the mB-T shunt in virtual surgeries.
Related JoVE Video
Using of porous portion to simulate pulmonary resistance in the computational fluid dynamic models of Fontan connection.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, we performed computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations in a patient-specific three-dimensional extracardiac conduit Fontan connection. The pulmonary resistance was incorporated in the CFD model by connecting porous portions in the left and right pulmonary arteries. The pressure in the common atrium was set as boundary conditions at the outlets of the pulmonary arteries. The flow rate in the innominate veins and the inferior vena cava (IVC) was set as inflow boundary conditions. Furthermore, the inflow rate of IVC was increased to 2 and 3 times of that measured to perform another two simulations and the resistance provided by the porous portions was compared among these three conditions. We found out that the pulmonary resistance set as porous portion in the CFD models remains relatively steady despite the change of the inflow rate. We concluded that, in the CFD simulations for the Fontan connections, porous portion could be used to represent pulmonary resistance steadily. The pulmonary resistance and pressure in the common atrium could be acquired directly by clinical examination. The employment of porous portion together with pressure in the common atrium in the CFD model could facilitate and accurate the set of outlet boundary conditions especially for those actual pulmonary flow splits was unpredictable such as virtual operative designs related CFD simulations.
Related JoVE Video
Dairy consumption, type 2 diabetes, and changes in cardiometabolic traits: a prospective cohort study of middle-aged and older chinese in beijing and shanghai.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
OBJECTIVE To prospectively investigate associations of dairy consumption with risk of type 2 diabetes and changes of cardiometabolic traits. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In 2005, 2,091 middle-aged and older Chinese men and women were recruited and followed for 6 years. Baseline dairy consumption was assessed by a 74-item food frequency questionnaire. Erythrocyte fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with flame ion detector. Cardiometabolic traits were measured at both baseline and follow-up visits. RESULTS Only 1,202 (57.5%) participants reported any dairy consumption, with a median intake of 0.89 (interquartile range 0.19-1.03) serving/day. Compared with nonconsumers, the relative risks (RRs) of type 2 diabetes among those having 0.5-1 serving/day and >1 serving/day were 0.70 (95% CI 0.55-0.88) and 0.65 (0.49-0.85), respectively, after multivariate adjustment (Ptrend < 0.001), which were attenuated by further adjusting for changes in glucose during follow-up (Ptrend = 0.07). Total dairy consumption was associated with favorable changes in glucose, waist circumference, BMI, diastolic blood pressure (all Ptrend < 0.05), and systolic blood pressure (Ptrend = 0.05) after multivariate adjustment, including baseline values of dependent variables. Erythrocyte trans-18:1 isomers were significantly correlated with total dairy consumption (rs = 0.37, Ptrend < 0.001), and these dairy food biomarkers were associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. The RR of type 2 diabetes comparing extreme quartiles of trans-18:1 isomers was 0.82 (0.65-1.04, Ptrend = 0.02), which was attenuated after adjustment for dairy consumption (Ptrend = 0.15). CONCLUSIONS Dairy consumption was associated with a significantly lower risk of type 2 diabetes and favorable changes of cardiometabolic traits in Chinese.
Related JoVE Video
Adsorption and bio-sorption of nickel ions and reuse for 2-chlorophenol catalytic ozonation oxidation degradation from water.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This work explored the preparation of an effective and low-cost catalyst and investigated its catalytic capacity for 2-chlorophenol ozonation oxidation degradation in wastewater by using an ozone oxidation batch reactor. The catalyst was directly prepared by the reuse of fly ash and sawdust after saturated adsorption of nickel ions from wastewater, which was proposed as an efficient and economic approach. The obtained catalyst was characterized by TGA, BET, FTIR, XRD, and SEM, the results showed that fly ash as the basic framework has high specific surface area and the addition of sawdust as the porogen agent could improve the pore structure of the catalyst. The adsorption of nickel ions by fly ash and sawdust from aqueous solution was also investigated in this study. The results obtained from the experiments indicated that adsorption of nickel ions by fly ash and biomass sawdust could be well described by Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo second order kinetic model. The catalytic performance of catalyst was studied in terms of the effect of time, liquid-solid ratio and pH on 2-chlorophenol ozonation degradation. It was found that the catalyst could effectively improve the ozonation reaction rate at pH=7 with a 2:1 liquid-solid ratio. The kinetic study demonstrated that the reaction followed the first order model, and the rate constant increased 267% (0.03-0.1min(-1)) of 2-chlorophenol ozonation degradation with 5mmol/L concentration at pH=7.0 compared with ozonation alone.
Related JoVE Video
Fruit consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from three prospective longitudinal cohort studies.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine whether individual fruits are differentially associated with risk of type 2 diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
MiR-17 regulates the proliferation and differentiation of the neural precursor cells during mouse corticogenesis.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously expressed small, non-coding nucleotides that repress gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The developing brain contains a large, diverse group of miRNAs, which suggests they play crucial roles in neural development. In the present study, we analyzed the miRNA expression patterns in the mouse cortex at different developmental stages. We found that miR-17 family miRNAs were highly expressed in the cortex during the early developmental stages and that their expression levels gradually decreased as the cortex developed. Further investigation revealed that the change in miR-17-5p expression occurred in the ventricular zone/subventricular zone (VZ/SVZ) region. In addition to promoting cell proliferation, miR-17-5p also influences the differentiation fate of neural precursor cells (NPCs) exposed to bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2). Moreover, we demonstrate that these effects of miR-17-5p were mainly the result of regulating the BMP signaling pathway by repressing the expression of the BMP type II receptor (BMPR2). Taken together, these findings suggest that the miR-17 family members play a pivotal role in regulating the cell activity during the early development of the mouse cortex. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Related JoVE Video
A P(V)-N activation strategy for the synthesis of nucleoside polyphosphates.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A general and high-yielding synthesis of nucleoside 5-triphosphates (NTPs) and nucleoside 5-diphosphates (NDPs) from protected nucleoside 5-phosphoropiperidates promoted by 4,5-dicyanoimidazole (DCI) has been developed. (31)P NMR tracing experiments showed that the sequential deprotection and coupling reactions were exceptionally clean. The phosphoropiperidate exhibited superior reactivity to the conventional phosphoromorpholidate toward DCI-promoted NTP/NDP synthesis. The experimental results suggested that the mechanism of DCI activation could be distinctive for NTP and NDP synthesis, depending on the different nucleophilicity of pyrophosphate and phosphate.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.