Avian influenza A (H7N9) is a severe disease with high mortality. Hypercytokinemia is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis. This study was to investigate the efficiency of plasma exchange (PE)?+?continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) on the removal of inflammatory mediators and their benefits in the management of fluid overload and metabolic disturbance. In total, 40 H7N9-infected patients were admitted to our hospital. Sixteen critically ill H7N9-infected patients received combination of PE and CVVH. Data from these 16 patients were collected and analyzed. The effects of PE?+?CVVH on plasma cytokine/chemokine levels and clinical outcomes were examined. H7N9-infected patients had increased plasma levels compared to healthy controls. After 3?h of PE?+?CVVH treatment, the cytokine/chemokine levels descended remarkably to lower levels and were maintained thereafter. PE?+?CVVH also benefited the management of fluid, cardiovascular dysfunction and metabolic disturbance. Of the 16 critically ill patients who received PE?+?CVVH, 10 patients survived. PE?+?CVVH decreased the plasma cytokine/chemokine levels significantly. PE?+?CVVH were also beneficial to the management of severe avian influenza A (H7N9).
The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is involved in pathways that regulate drug addiction, and eCB-mediated synaptic plasticity has been linked with addictive behaviors. Here, we investigated molecular mechanisms underlying changes in eCB-dependent synaptic plasticity in nucleus accumbens core (NAcc) following short-term withdrawal from repeated morphine treatment.
This work aims to utilise wastes from the potato starch industry to produce single-cell protein (SCP) with high lysine content as animal feed. In this work, S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine hydrochloride-resistant Bacillus pumilus E1 was used to produce SCP with high lysine content while Aspergillus niger was used to degrade cellulose biomass and Candida utilis was used to improve the smell and palatability of the feed. An orthogonal design was used to optimise the process of fermentation for maximal lysine content. The optimum fermentation conditions were as follows: temperature of 40 °C, substrate concentration of 3%, and natural pH of about 7.0. For unsterilized potato starch wastes, the microbial communities in the fermentation process were determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Results showed that the dominant population was Bacillus sp.. The protein quality as well as the amino acid profile of the final product was found to be significantly higher compared to the untreated waste product at day 0. Additionally, acute toxicity test showed that the SCP product was non-toxic, indicating that it can be used for commercial processing.
Viral infection converts the normal constitution of a cell to optimise viral entry, replication, and virion production. These conversions contain alterations or disruptions of the tight and adherens junctions between cells as part of their pathogenesis, and reorganise cellular microfilaments that initiate, sustain and spread the viral infections and so on. Using porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and a model of normal intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2), we researched the interaction between tight and adherens junctions and microfilaments of IPEC-J2 cells with these viruses. In our work, the results showed that IPEC-J2 cells were susceptible to TGEV and PEDV infection. And TGEV could impair the barrier integrity of IPEC-J2 cells at early stages of infection through down-regulating some proteins of tight and adherens junctions, while PEDV cloud cause a slight of damage in the integrity of epithelial barrier. In addition, they also could affect the microfilaments remodelling of IPEC-J2 cells, and the drug-interfered microfilaments could inhibit viral replication and release. Furthermore, PEDV+TGEV co-infection was more aggravating to damage of tight junctions and remodelling of microfilaments than their single infection. Finally, the PEDV and TGEV infection affected the MAPK pathway, and inhibition of MAPK pathway regulated the changes of tight junctions and microfilaments of cells. These studies provide a new insight from the perspective of the epithelial barrier and microfilaments into the pathogenesis of PEDV and TGEV.
Lung cancer as a malignance has been killing numerous patients around the world annually, and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are the two major types, the later accounting for nearly 80 % of lung cancer. There are multiple causes for lung cancer, and more researches have been carried out to prevent, anticipate, and diagnose the cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules capable of regulating expression of over 50 % of protein-coding genes. The RNA molecules are stable in tissues and blood, so it can tend to be a biomarker in anti-lung cancer. Here, this is a review on the roles of miRNAs for possible ways to prevent lung cancer in clinical trials.
Sepsis, a clinical syndrome occurring in patients following infection or injury, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. CD86 (B7-2) is a costimulatory molecule on antigen-presenting cells and plays critical roles in immune responses. In the current study, we investigated the association of two CD86 polymorphisms, rs1129055G/A and rs17281995G/C, with susceptibility to pneumonia-induced sepsis and examined the effects of these two polymorphisms on gene expression in monocytes. CD86 rs1129055G/A and rs17281995G/C were identified in 192 pneumonia-induced septic patients and 201 healthy controls. Data showed that frequencies of the rs1129055GA and AA genotypes were significantly lower in patients than in controls (odds ratio [OR]?=?0.57, 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.35-0.93, p?=?0.023, and OR?=?0.40, 95 % CI, 0.23-0.71, p?=?0.002). Interestingly, the other polymorphism, rs17281995G/C, revealed significantly increased numbers in pneumonia-induced sepsis compared to controls (OR?=?1.85, 95 % CI, 1.07-3.20, p?=?0.025). Further analyses about CD86 gene expression revealed that both messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of CD86 were downregulated in monocytes from controls carrying rs17281995GC genotype than those carrying wild-type rs17281995GG genotype (p?=?0.022 and p?=?0013). These results suggest that polymorphisms in CD86 gene have diverse effects on the pathogenesis of pneumonia-induced sepsis, in which rs17281995G/C may increase the risk of the disease by interfering gene expression of CD86 in monocytes.
A number of clinical and experimental studies have investigated the effect of atorvastatin on atrial fibrillation (AF), but the results are equivocal. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate whether atorvastatin can reduce the risk of AF in different populations.
Autophagy is significant in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Ulinastatin has been demonstrated to protect cardiomyocytes against IR through inducing anti-inflammatory effects. However, whether ulinastatin has an anti?autophagic effect is yet to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of ulinastatin on the regulation of autophagy during IR injury. Cardiomyocytes of neonatal rats were randomly divided into control, hypoxia-reoxygenation (HR) and ulinastatin groups. In order to investigate whether mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is involved in mediating the protective effect of ulinastatin, cells were treated with the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin 30 min prior to ulinastatin treatment. To demonstrate the anti-autophagic effect of ulinastatin in vivo, a rat IR model was established. Ulinastatin (1x104 U/kg body weight) was administered 30 min prior to the induction of IR via peritoneal injection. Light chain 3 (LC3), phosphorylated (p)?mTOR, p?protein kinase B (Akt) and p?P70S6 kinase (p?P70S6K) protein expression were assessed using western blot analysis. In addition, cell vitality, myocardial infarct size and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were measured. LC3?? protein expression was found to be downregulated, while p?Akt, p?mTOR and p?P70S6K protein expression were observed to be upregulated by ulinastatin. In addition, cell vitality was found to increase and LDH was observed to decrease in the ulinastatin group compared with the HR group in vitro. Furthermore, rapamycin was found to attenuate the myocardial protective effect that is induced by ulinastatin. In vivo, ulinastatin was found to downregulate LC3?? protein expression, and reduce myocardium infarct size and LDH serum levels. These findings indicate that ulinastatin exhibits a myocardial protective effect against IR injury by regulating autophagy through mTOR activation.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play important roles in carcinogenesis. However, their underlying mechanisms of action in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests that epigenetic silencing of miRNAs through tumor suppression by CpG island hypermethylation may be a common hallmark of human tumors. Here, we demonstrated that miR-941 was significantly down-regulated in HCC tissues and cell lines and was generally hypermethylated in HCC. The overexpression of miR-941 suppressed in vitro cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and inhibited the metastasis of HCC cells in vivo. Furthermore, the histone demethylase KDM6B (lysine (K)-specific demethylase 6B) was identified as a direct target of miR-941 and was negatively regulated by miR-941. The ectopic expression of KDM6B abrogated the phenotypic changes induced by miR-941 in HCC cells. We demonstrated that miR-941 and KDM6B regulated the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process and affected cell migratory/invasive properties.
Lactate and succinate were produced by Corynebacterium acetoacidophilum from glucose under oxygen deprivation conditions. To construct knockout mutant, lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldh) of C. acetoacidophilum was deleted by double-crossover chromosome replacement with sacB gene. Comparing with the wild strain ATCC13870, ldhA-deficent mutant produced no lactate with glucose consumption rate decreased by 29.3%, while succinate and acetate concentrations were increased by 45.6% and 182%, respectively. Moreover, the NADH/NAD+ rate was less than 1 (about 0.7), and the activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and acetate kinase of the ldhA-deficent mutant were enhanced by 84% and 12 times, respectively. Our studies show that succinicate and acetate production pathways are strengthened by blocking lactate synthesis. It also suggests that improving NADH supply and eliminating acetate generation are alternative strategies to get high succinate-producer.
Liver failure is one of the most deadly, prevalent, and costly diseases worldwide. Non-bioartificial liver support systems (NBALs) have been shown to be effective in improving the clinical symptoms and laboratory parameters of patients with liver failure. The main aim of this large case series analysis was to investigate the status of NBALs and their effectiveness in improving survival in liver-failure patients.
Sir2 is a central regulator of yeast aging and its deficiency increases daughter cell inheritance of stress- and aging-induced misfolded proteins deposited in aggregates and inclusion bodies. Here, by quantifying traits predicted to affect aggregate inheritance in a passive manner, we found that a passive diffusion model cannot explain Sir2-dependent failures in mother-biased segregation of either the small aggregates formed by the misfolded Huntingtin, Htt103Q, disease protein or heat-induced Hsp104-associated aggregates. Instead, we found that the genetic interaction network of SIR2 comprises specific essential genes required for mother-biased segregation including those encoding components of the actin cytoskeleton, the actin-associated myosin V motor protein Myo2, and the actin organization protein calmodulin, Cmd1. Co-staining with Hsp104-GFP demonstrated that misfolded Htt103Q is sequestered into small aggregates, akin to stress foci formed upon heat stress, that fail to coalesce into inclusion bodies. Importantly, these Htt103Q foci, as well as the ATPase-defective Hsp104Y662A-associated structures previously shown to be stable stress foci, co-localized with Cmd1 and Myo2-enriched structures and super-resolution 3-D microscopy demonstrated that they are associated with actin cables. Moreover, we found that Hsp42 is required for formation of heat-induced Hsp104Y662A foci but not Htt103Q foci suggesting that the routes employed for foci formation are not identical. In addition to genes involved in actin-dependent processes, SIR2-interactors required for asymmetrical inheritance of Htt103Q and heat-induced aggregates encode essential sec genes involved in ER-to-Golgi trafficking/ER homeostasis.
We employ first-principles methods to study the mechanism controlling the electrical conduction in BiFeO3 (BFO). We find that under oxygen-rich conditions, Bi vacancies (V(Bi)) have lower defect formation energy than O vacancies (V(O)) (-0.43 eV vs. 3.35 eV), suggesting that V(Bi) are the acceptor defects and control the conductivity of BFO, making it a p-type semiconductor. In order to obtain further insight into the conduction mechanism, we calculate the effect of donor (Sn(4+)) and acceptor (Pb(2+)) impurities in BFO. Results indicate that Sn impurities prefer to substitute Fe sites to form shallow donor defects, which compensate the acceptor levels derived from V(Bi). Meanwhile, Pb atoms favour the substitution of Bi sites to form acceptor defects, reducing the overall concentration of holes (h(+)). Theoretical findings were later surveyed by current-voltage characteristics of Sn- or Pb-doped BFO nanofibers. This study is of general interest in carrier transport in charge compensation semiconductors, and of particular relevance within the context of defect-mediated conductivity in BFO.
In this work, a new assembled glucose sensor based on the Ag nanoparticle (AgNP)-enhanced fluorescence of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) was developed. The mercaptoglycerol-modified AgNPs and aminophenylboronic acid-functionalized CdSe QDs are assembled into AgNP-CdSe QD complexes through the formation of a boronate ester bond. As compared to that of bare CdSe QDs, up to a 9-fold fluorescence enhancement and a clear blue shift of the emission peak for AgNP-CdSe QD complexes were observed, which is attributed to the surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs. In addition, the as-formed complexes are gradually disassembled in the presence of glucose molecules because they can replace the AgNPs by competitive binding with boronic acid groups, resulting in the weakening of fluorescence enhancement. The decrease in fluorescence intensity presents a linear relationship with glucose concentration in the range from 2 to 52 mM with a detection limit of 1.86 mM. Such a metal-enhanced QDs fluorescence system may have promising applications in chemical and biological sensors.
The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) is expressed in podocytes in human glomeruli. Group IB secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2 IB), which is one of the ligands of the PLA2R, is more highly expressed in chronic renal failure patients than in controls. However, the roles of the PLA2R and sPLA2 IB in the pathogenesis of glomerular diseases are unknown. In the present study, we found that more podocyte apoptosis occurs in the kidneys of patients with higher PLA2R and serum sPLA2 IB levels. In vitro, we demonstrated that human podocyte cells expressed the PLA2R in the cell membrane. After binding with the PLA2R, sPLA2 IB induced podocyte apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. sPLA2 IB-induced podocyte PLA2R upregulation was not only associated with increased ERK1/2 and cPLA2? phosphorylation but also displayed enhanced apoptosis. In contrast, PLA2R-silenced human podocytes displayed attenuated apoptosis. sPLA2 IB enhanced podocyte arachidonic acid (AA) content in a dose-dependent manner. These data indicate that sPLA2 IB has the potential to induce human podocyte apoptosis via binding to the PLA2R. The sPLA2 IB-PLA2R interaction stimulated podocyte apoptosis through activating ERK1/2 and cPLA2? and through increasing the podocyte AA content.
Nanoparticles (NPs) show great promise in the treatment of a wide range of diseases, which provides advantages and offers a new prospect for tumor detection, prevention and treatment. In order to eradicate the cancer cell, the NPs need to flow to different regions of tumors via blood vessels, and then penetrate through the interstitial space to reach the target cells. However, the environment and physiological characteristics in tumor tissues are different from that in normal ones, mainly in the irregular blood vessels, the lack of lymphatic network, low pH, hypoxia, immune function and so on. Meanwhile, the differences also exist among different tumor tissues. To achieve the optimal therapeutic effect, the NPs should be carefully designed by considering the therapeutic application, the target site and the route of administration. This review shows a variety of barriers in the tumor tissues, and provides a toolbox of designing the NPs for tumor treatment. In particular, the particle size, shape and surface chemistry, and the NPs in preclinical and clinical stage use have been discussed.
In order to investigate whether hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC) attenuates cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)-induced cerebral damage. Male adult Beagle dogs were randomly divided into sham, control, and HBOC groups. After establishment of CPB model, hearts were arrested for 2 h and reperfused for 2 h. HBOC improved intracerebral O2 tensions and reduced the releases of biomarkers for cerebral damage, including neuron-specific enolase and S100? in both cerebrospinal fluid and serum. Moreover, HBOC attenuated the releases of tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1? after CPB. Therefore, our findings suggest that HBOC could reduce cerebral damage after CPB, which was probably associated with improvement of tissue O2 preload.
BackgroundPorcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD) is caused by a small pathogenic DNA virus, Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), and is responsible for severe economic losses. PCV2-associated enteritis appears to be a distinct clinical manifestation of PCV2. Most studies of swine enteritis have been performed in animal infection models, but none have been conducted in vitro using cell lines of porcine intestinal origin. An in vitro system would be particularly useful for investigating microfilaments, which are likely to be involved in every stage of the viral lifecycle.MethodsWe confirmed that PCV2 infects the intestinal porcine epithelial cell line IPEC-J2 by means of indirect immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy, flow cytometry and qRT-PCR. PCV2 influence on microfilaments in IPEC-J2 cells was detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. We used Cytochalasin D or Cucurbitacin E to reorganize microfilaments, and observed changes in PCV2 invasion, replication and release in IPEC-J2 cells by qRT-PCR.ResultsPCV2 infection changes the ultrastructure of IPEC-J2 cells. PCV2 copy number in IPEC-J2 cells shows a rising trend as infection proceeds. Microfilaments are polymerized at 1 h p.i., but densely packed actin stress fibres are disrupted and total F-actin increases at 24, 48 and 72 h p.i. After Cytochalasin D treatment, invasion of PCV2 is suppressed, while invasion is facilitated by Cucurbitacin E. The microfilament drugs have opposite effects on viral release.ConclusionPCV2 infects and proliferates in IPEC-J2 cells, demonstrating that IPEC-J2 cells can serve as a cell intestinal infection model for PCV2 pathogenesis. Furthermore, PCV2 rearranges IPEC-J2 microfilaments and increases the quantity of F-actin. Actin polymerization may facilitate the invasion of PCV2 in IPEC-J2 cells and the dissolution of cortical actin may promote PCV2 egress.
Although cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 is important for neurological function, its neuroprotective properties remain unclear. We speculated that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against oxidative injury. In this study, retinal pigment epithelial cells were treated with peroxynitrite to induce oxidative stress. Peroxynitrite triggered apoptosis in these cells, and increased the expression of Fas-associated death domain, Bax, caspa-se-8 and Bcl-2. These changes were suppressed by treatment with cholecystokinin octapeptide-8. These results suggest that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against apoptosis induced by peroxynitrite.
Flixweed (Descurainiasophia L.) is a troublesome weed in winter wheat fields in China. Two flixweed accessions, HB08 and HB16 with a Pro-197-Leu and Pro-197-Ser AHAS-mutation respectively, have evolved very high levels resistance to sulfonylurea (SU) herbicide, tribenuron-methyl. Cross resistance of HB08 and HB16 to AHAS herbicides of SU, imidazolinone (IMI), triazolopyrimidine (TP) and pyrimidinyl-thiobenozoate (PTB) families was investigated by dose-response experiments. In addition, the effects of AHAS herbicides on the activity of AHAS extracted from HB08 and HB16 plants were evaluated. HB16 exhibited cross resistance to SU herbicides halosulfuron-methyl and triasulfuron, TP herbicides flumetsulam and penoxsulam, but displayed more sensitivity to IMI herbicide imazethapyr. By contrast, HB08 only showed cross resistance to SU herbicides halosulfuron-methyl and triasulfuron. The in vitro sensitivity of AHAS to AHAS herbicides is consistent with the results of dose-response experiments and the estimated Pearson's r values for HB08 and HB16 are 0.996 and 0.912 respectively. These indicated that altered AHAS sensitivity was responsible mainly for cross resistance patterns observed in the two resistant biotypes.
Exposure of piglets less than 2 weeks of age to virulent transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) gives rise to mortality as high as 100%, and adult pigs recovering from its infection often become TGEV carriers. These facts suggest an evasion of the immune system by virulent TGEV. In this study, we showed that a virulent TGEV SHXB strain could infect porcine immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DCs), and down-regulate cell surface markers (SLA-II-DR, CD1a and CD80/86). Moreover, SHXB-infected immature Mo-DCs showed low expression of IL-12 and IFN-?, and also lost the ability to stimulate T cell proliferation. Finally, SHXB inhibited the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in these cells. Instead, UV-inactivated SHXB (UV-SHXB) had the opposite effects in immature Mo-DCs. In conclusion, the virulent SHXB could severely impair immature Mo-DCs, which might be involved in the pathogenesis of virulent TGEV in vivo.
Progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantial nigra pars compacta (SNc) is an important pathological feature in Parkinson's disease (PD). Loss of transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D), a key neuronal survival factor, has been shown to underlie the loss of DA neurons in SNc and the pathogenic process of PD. It is known that PD-associated neurotoxins reduce the level of MEF2D protein to trigger neuronal death. Although neurotoxins clearly destabilize MEF2D by post-translational mechanisms, it is not known whether regulation of MEF2D mRNA contributes to neurotoxin-induced decrease in MEF2D protein. In this work, we showed that MPP(+), the toxic metabolite of MPTP, caused a significant decrease in the half-life and total level of MEF2D mRNA in a DA neuronal cell line, SN4741 cells. Quantitative PCR analysis of the SNc DA neurons captured by immune-laser capture microdissection showed that exposure to MPTP led to a marked reduction in the level of MEF2D mRNA in SNc DA neurons compared to controls. Down-regulation of MEF2D mRNA alone reduced the viability of SN4741 cells and sensitized the cells to MPP(+)-induced toxicity. These results suggest that destabilization and reduction in MEF2D mRNA is in part responsible for neurotoxin-induced decrease in MEF2D protein and neuronal viability. Myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D) plays an important role in neuronal survival. How MEF2D mRNA is deregulated under toxic stress is unclear. We found that PD-associated neurotoxins destabilize MEF2D mRNA and reduce its level in vitro and in vivo. Reduction in MEF2D mRNA is sufficient to sensitize model cells to neurotoxin-induced toxicity, suggesting that destabilization of MEF2D mRNA is part of the mechanism by which neurotoxins trigger deregulation of neuronal survival.
Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a potential anti-tumor agent but poor water solubility hinders its application and complicates direct parenteral administration. Nanoparticle encapsulation is an efficient way to enhance the solubility of some hydrophobic drugs. In this study, methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-polycaprolactone (MPEG-PCL) nanoparticles were successfully prepared for fisetin delivery in vitro and in vivo. Narrow distribution fisetin-loaded MPEG-PCL NPs (aproximately100 nm) were obtained via emulsification (O/W) and displayed a sustained release behavior in vitro. Moreover, hemolysis and cell cytotoxicity testing showed that MPEG-PCL is biocompatible and safe for intravenous injection. Most importantly, NPs encapsulation enhanced the anti-cancer activity of fisetin as shown in a subcutaneous LL/2 tumor model, and reduced the hepatotoxicity of fisetin. Therefore, our data demonstrate that fisetin-loaded MPEG-PCL NPs have potential application in cancer chemotherapy.
Liver eosinophilia has been associated with incidences of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) for more than 50 years, although its role in this disease has remained largely unknown. In this regard, it was recently shown that eosinophils played a pathogenic role in a mouse model of halothane-induced liver injury (HILI). However, the signaling events that drove hepatic expression of eosinophil-associated chemokines, eotaxins, eosinophil infiltration, and subsequent HILI were unclear. We now provide evidence implicating hepatic epithelial-derived cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and type 2 immunity, in particular, interleukin-4 (IL-4) production, in mediating hepatic eosinophilia and injury during HILI. TSLP was constitutively expressed by mouse hepatocytes and increased during HILI. Moreover, the severity of HILI was reduced in mice deficient in either the TSLP receptor (TSLPR) or IL-4 and was accompanied by decreases in serum levels of eotaxins and hepatic eosinophilia. Similarly, concanavalin A-induced liver injury, where type 2 cytokines and eosinophils play a significant role in its pathogenesis, was also reduced in TSLPR-deficient mice. Studies in vitro revealed that mouse and human hepatocytes produce TSLP and eotaxins in response to treatment with combinations of IL-4 and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1? and tumor necrosis factor alpha.
A major challenge for the evaluation of cytokine-induced down regulation of CYP gene expression in primary cultured hepatocytes is the spontaneous decrease in expression of the genes with culture duration. Based on our recent discovery that hepatocytes cultured for 7 days in a novel medium, Li's Differentiation Maintenance Medium (LDMM), would retain gene expression for markers of differentiation and most CYP isoforms at levels similar to those of the first day of culture, we examined the effects of the prototypical pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in the "LDMM-stabilized (LS)" human hepatocyte model. The LS-human hepatocyte cultures were found to be responsive to IL-6 induction of the inflammatory gene marker, C-reactive protein (CRP), suggesting the expression of IL-6 receptors and the subsequent signaling pathways. Results from two independent laboratories with human hepatocytes from three donors demonstrated dose-dependent down regulation of the gene expression of several CYPs, i.e. 1A2, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4. The results suggest that the LS-human hepatocytes may represent a physiologically relevant experimental model for mechanistic investigation of the down-regulatory effects of inflammatory cytokines.
We have developed a novel drug delivery system with the swelling core for differential release of multiple drugs by emulsion electrospinning, in which the aqueous phase is composed of polyvinyl alcohol and the oil phase consists of poly(?-caprolactone). The microscopy images indicate that the W/O nanofibers with swelling core structure are successfully prepared and the model drugs, Rhodamine B and bovine serum albumin, were encapsulated in the fibers. In vitro drug release study demonstrated that this core-sheath structure could significantly alleviate the initial drug burst release and provided a differential diffusion pathway to release. It could be found that the postponement of the maximum accumulated release of bovine serum albumin was found due to the presence of sodium citrate and different types of polyvinyl alcohol. This study would provide a basis for optimization of encapsulation conditions to control the release of multiple agents and ultimately be applied in cancer chemotherapy.
Chronic infection with hepatotropic viruses is the main cause of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis worldwide. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) are pathogen-recognition receptors that are expressed on innate immune cells. They recognize viral RNA, which induces their activation, with a subsequent increase in type I interferon transcription. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection inhibits the expression of TLR3 and TLR7; however, the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression. Their aberrant expression is commonly correlated with disease status, as is the case with HCV infection. Here, we found that miR-758 levels were increased in patients with HCV infection and were correlated with TLR3 and TLR7 expression levels in the patients with HCV infection, and bioinformatics analysis predicted that TLR3 and TLR7 are targets of miR-758. Therefore, we postulate that HCV may increase the level of miR-758, which inhibits the expression of TLR3 and TLR7, resulting in a loss of antiviral effect. In order to test our hypothesis, we constructed an HCV core protein expression plasmid and used it to transfect liver cells. The results showed that HCV infection increased miR-758 levels and decreased TLR3/TLR7 expression. Furthermore, using RT-PCR and luciferase reporter analysis, we found that miR-758 targets TLR3 and TLR7, with a subsequent decrease in IFN? and IFN? production. In conclusion, our results highlight the upregulation of miR-758 expression by HCV as a novel mechanism contributing to downregulation of TLR3 and TLR7 in patients with HCV infection.
Vibrio anguillarum is the major cause of haemorrhagic septicaemia, vibriosis, which is a severe disease affecting marine fish. In this work, it was found that the mortality of gnotobiotic sea bass larvae challenged with V. anguillarum was dependent on the number of dead fish in the vials at the moment of challenge. Based on this finding, the effect of dead hosts (homogenised sea bass larvae or brine shrimp) on the virulence of V. anguillarum towards sea bass larvae was further investigated. Addition of homogenised hosts led to significantly increased larval mortality of challenged larvae, and this was observed for 3 different V. anguillarum strains, i.e. 43, NB 10 and HI 610. In contrast, the addition of similar levels of tryptone had no effect on mortality. In line with this, the motility of all 3 V. anguillarum strains was significantly increased by the addition of homogenised hosts but not by tryptone. These results suggest that dead hosts increase infectivity of V. anguillarum, not merely by offering nutrients to the bacteria, but also by increasing virulence-associated activities such as motility.
Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene polymorphisms are believed to contribute to tumor susceptibility. However, the association between genetic variants (A/T) in the APC gene D1822V polymorphism and colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility remains unknown. To determine this association, a case-control study was performed. The genotype of the APC gene D1822V variants was analyzed by DNA sequencing in blood samples collected from 196 patients with CRC and 279 healthy subjects. There were no significant associations between the case and control groups in the distribution of AT [odds ratio (OR), 0.604; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.355-1.029) and TT genotypes (OR, 0.438; 95% CI, 0.045-4.247) relative to the AA genotype. The ratio of the T allele was significantly lower (P=0.047) in the case group compared with the control group (OR, 0.611; 95% CI, 0.374-0.997), indicating that the T allele conferred a protective effect in CRC. The frequency of the AT genotype among the subjects diagnosed at >45 years of age was lower than those diagnosed at a younger age (P<0.05). The present study demonstrates that the T allele of the D1822V polymorphism may exert a protective effect against CRC, however, these findings require further validation in a larger sample size.
Kv1.5 potassium channel is an efficacious and safe therapeutic target for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common arrhythmia that threatens human. Herein, by modifying the hit compound 7k from an in-house database, 48 derivatives were synthesized for the assay of their Kv1.5 inhibitory effects by whole cell patch clamp technique. Six compounds which showed better potency than the positive compound dronedarone were selected for the next evaluation of their drug-like properties. Compound 8 exhibited balanced solubility and permeability. It also showed acceptable pharmacodynamics profile with very low acute toxicity. Taking all these data into account, compound 8 can serve as a promising lead for the development of novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of AF.
Bursopentine (BP5), a novel pentapeptide isolated from chicken bursa of fabricius, has been proved to have immunomodulatory effects on B and T lymphocytes, anti-oxidative stress on macrophages, and antiproliferation on tumor cells. However, the effects of BP5 on the immune function exhibited by dendritic cells (DCs), which are regarded as a major target for immunomodulators, remain unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of BP5 on the activation and maturation of murine bone marrow-derived DCs. Our results showed that BP5 significantly suppressed the secretion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory (TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-12p70) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines by DCs, and this impact was not due to its cytotoxicity. Besides, BP5 reversed the morphological changes and attenuated the expression of phenotypic markers (MHC II, CD40, CD80 and CD86 molecules) in LPS-induced DCs. Furthermore, BP5 restored the decreased FITC-dextran uptake in LPS-treated DCs, arrested the LPS-induced migration of DCs and abrogated the promoting ability of LPS-induced DCs for allogeneic T cell proliferation. These findings show a new immunopharmacological capability of BP5 and provide a novel approach in the prevention and therapy of chronic inflammation and autoimmunity via abolishing the immune function of DCs.
Human hepatic organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs), including OATP1B1, 1B3, and 2B1, are expressed at the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes and mediate the uptake of a variety of compounds from blood into hepatocytes. The liver-specific OATPs are increasingly recognized as playing important roles in the pharmacokinetic (PK) of many drugs and thus, involved in the clinically significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs). However, the evaluation of the specific roles of individual OATPs in hepatocytes is challenging because of the lack of selective inhibitors and probe substrates for each OATP member. In the present study, the uptake activity of OATP1B3 was examined in human hepatocytes cultured up to 14 days using an in vitro uptake assay. The results showed that OATP-mediated uptake of rosuvastatin, a substrate for OATPs declined substantially in cultured human hepatocytes. In contrast, the uptake of OATP1B3-selective substrate telmisartan was not measureable at earlier culture periods, but became detectable on Day 7 and showed culture duration-dependent changes from Day 7 to 14. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses illustrated that the OATP functional change was not correlated with messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression alteration in hepatocytes cultured for 3 hours or 7 days. The OATP1B3-mediated telmisartan uptake was also culture medium- and donor-dependent, and only observed in 3 of 5 lots of hepatocytes cultured in 2 of 3 media tested. These results show that using human hepatocytes cultured in certain conditions may provide an excellent addition to transfected cell lines as a way to distinguish OATP1B3 from other hepatic OATP family members, such as OATP1B1, to provide more understanding of OATP-mediated clinical DDI.
Virulent transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) results in an acute, severe pathology and high mortality in piglets, while attenuated TGEV only causes moderate clinical reactions. Dendritic cells (DCs), through uptake and presentation of antigens to T cells, initiate distinct immune responses to different infections. In this study, an attenuated TGEV (STC3) and a virulent TGEV (SHXB) were used to determine whether porcine DCs play an important role in pathogenetic differences between these two TGEVs. Our results showed that immature and mature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DCs) were susceptible to infection with SHXB and STC3. However, only SHXB inhibited Mo-DCs to activate T-cell proliferation by down-regulating the expression of cell-surface markers and the secretion of cytokines in vitro. In addition, after 48 h of SHXB infection, there was the impairment in the ability of porcine intestinal DCs to sample the antigen, to migrate from the villi to the lamina propria and to activate T-cell proliferation in vivo. In contrast, these abilities of intestinal DCs were enhanced in STC3-infected piglets. In conclusion, our results show that SHXB significantly impaired the functions of Mo-DCs and intestinal DCs in vitro and in vivo, while STC3 had the opposite effect. These differences may underlie the pathogenesis of virulent and attenuated TGEV in piglets, and could help us to develop a better strategy to prevent virulent TGEV infection.
The circadian clock is a critical regulator of biological functions controlling behavioral, physiological and biochemical processes. Because the liver is the primary regulator of metabolites within the mammalian body and the disruption of circadian rhythms in liver is associated with severe illness, circadian regulators would play a strong role in maintaining liver function. However, the regulatory structure that governs circadian dynamics within the liver at a transcriptional level remains unknown. To explore this aspect, we analyzed hepatic transcriptional dynamics in Sprague-Dawley rats over a period of 24 hours to assess the genome-wide responses.
Low positive cell screening efficiency severely hinders the development of transgenic animals. The major rate-limiting step of positive cell screening is DNA entering the nucleus, particularly for large DNA molecules. To enhance the transport of large DNA molecules into the nucleus, particularly for the production of transgenic animals, nuclear localization sequence (NLS) peptides and the peptide derivative succinimidyl-[4-(psoralen-8-yloxy)]-butyrate (SPB)-NLS were synthesized to mediate transfection in vitro. To investigate the function of NLS and SPB-NLS in vitro, the expression levels of growth hormone (GH) mRNA and green fluorescent protein (GFP) protein were analyzed following transfection mediated by NLS and SPB-NLS. The results demonstrated that the expression of GH mRNA was significantly higher in the NLS (increased by 69%) and SPB-NLS (330%) groups than that in the liposome/pGN group. Similarly, GFP expression was found to be higher in the SPB-NLS group than that in the liposome group, while the expression in the NLS group was lower than that in the liposome group. Further analysis demonstrated that SPB-NLS enhanced the expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 in hard-to-transfect goat mammary epithelia cells. The results of the microscopy analysis revealed that transfected DNA entered the nucleus via the nuclear pores, facilitated by NLS. Analysis of the cell cycle demonstrated that the cytotoxic effects of NLS and SPB-NLS were low. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrate that SPB-NLS acts as a transfection-enhancing agent and may be used both to enhance nuclear delivery and for the development of genetically modified animals.
To develop a new computer-aided detection scheme to compute a global kinetic image feature from the dynamic contrast enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and test the feasibility of using the computerized results for assisting classification between the DCE-MRI examinations associated with malignant and benign tumors.
CpG oligonucleotide (CpG-ODN) can exert an immunostimulatory effect on different types of immune cells such as dendritic cells (DC). The immunostimulatory activity of CpG-ODN is closely related to its nucleotide sequence and structural characteristics. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the stimulatory effects of different CpG-ODN on the maturation of chicken bone marrow-derived DC (BM-DC) in vitro. First, 4 CpG-ODN were designed. Then chicken bone marrow cells were extracted from tibia and femur and cultured in the RPMI 1640 medium with recombinant chicken granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IL-4. After culture for 6 d, the cells were stimulated by different CpG-ODN or lipopolysaccharide for 24 h. Finally, the effects of different CpG-ODN on the maturation of chicken BM-DC were investigated by morphologic, phenotypic, and functional assays. The results showed that the cultured cells could display the typical DC morphology, and the CpG-ODN could efficiently stimulate the BM-DC to show the mature morphologic characteristics and upregulate the expression of cluster of differentiation (CD) 40 and CD86 molecules. In addition, after stimulation by CpG-ODN, the BM-DC could significantly induce T-cell proliferative response (P < 0.01). Among all the sequences, the stimulatory effect of CpG-ODN F3 with an addition of poly-guanosine strings at the 3' end was the best on the chicken BM-DC. In conclusion, this is the first report to demonstrate that different CpG-ODN have distinct stimulatory effects on the maturation of chicken BM-DC and CpG-ODN F3 with the best stimulatory effect can be a potent stimulant for the maturation of chicken BM-DC.
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has recently gained particular interest as a beneficial antioxidant. This study investigated the protective effects of NAC against ochratoxin A (OTA)-induced DNA damage and S-phase arrest in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293). OTA exposure results in nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity as well as immunotoxicity; and, in the present study, the toxicity of OTA toward HEK-293 cells was explored by analyzing the involvement of the oxidative pathway. It was found that OTA treatment led to oxidative damage; meanwhile, OTA treatment induced significant DNA damage and S-phase arrest by down-regulating cyclin A2, cyclin E1, and CDK2 expression. However, NAC pretreatment alleviated OTA-induced ROS overproduction, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), and the decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. NAC pretreatment was also discovered to attenuate OTA-induced DNA damage using the comet assay and by determining the expression of ?-H2AX. In addition, NAC pretreatment partly ameliorated OTA-induced S-phase arrest by preventing the down-regulation of cyclin A2, cyclin E1 and CDK2 expression in HEK-293 cells. All of these results demonstrated that oxidative damage was involved in OTA-induced DNA damage and cell cycle arrest in HEK-293 cells. Therefore, NAC has the potential to reverse the DNA damage and S-phase arrest induced by OTA.
Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) are vulnerable to excitotoxicity in Parkinson's disease (PD). Neurotoxic stimuli may alter the firing patterns of DA neurons. However, whether firing pattern change underlies neurotoxic stress-induced death of DA neurons remains unknown. In this study, we established long-term cultures of SNc organotypic slices and used this model to evaluate the neurotoxic effects on firing mode and DA neuronal viability following chronic treatment with neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Using whole-cell patch clamp to explore the intrinsic membrane properties and firing mode, we showed that chronic exposure to 6-OHDA raised the resting membrane potential of SNc DA neurons and altered their firing pattern, causing it to switch from a regular rhythmic pacemaking firing to an irregular bursting. This firing pattern change correlated with increased death of SNc DA neurons. The 6-OHDA-induced firing pattern change correlated with an increase in the activity of the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (SK channel) and with an increase in both the level and activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Activation of the SK channel by its agonist 1-EBIO attenuated 6-OHDA-induced firing irregularity and death, while the SK channel antagonist apamin exacerbated the toxic effects of 6-OHDA. Thus, SK channel current is a substantial element in sustaining the SNc DA neuronal rhythmic pacemaking and homeostasis and perturbing SK channel activity underlies 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity.
Transgenic animals have been used previously to study gene function, produce important proteins, and generate models for the study of human diseases. As the number of transgenic species increases, reliable detection and molecular characterization of integration sites and copy number are crucial for confirming transgene expression and genetic stability, as well as for safety evaluation and to meet commercial demands. In this study, we generated four transgenic goats by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). After birth, the cloned goat contained transferred insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) gene was initially confirmed using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)?based method. The four cloned goats were identified as IGF-1 transgenic goats by southern blotting. The number of copies of the IGF-1 gene in each of the transgenic goats was determined. Additionally, four integration sites of the transgene in the transgenic goats with a modified thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR method were identified. The four different integration sites were located on chromosomes 2, 11, 16 and 18. The present study identified the copy number and integration sites using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and TAIL-PCR, enabling the bio-safety evaluation of the transgenic goats.
Voltage gated calcium channels (VGCC) are sensitive to oxidative stress, and their activation or inactivation can impact cell death. Although these channels have been extensively studied in expression systems, their role in the brain, particularly in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), remain controversial. In this study, we assessed 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced transformation of firing pattern and functional changes of calcium channels in SNc dopaminergic neurons. Application of 6-OHDA (0.5-2mM) evoked a dose-dependent, desensitizing inward current and intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) rise. In voltage clamp, ?-conotoxin-sensitive Ca(2+) current modulation mediated by 6-OHDA reflected an altered sensitivity. Furthermore, we found that 6-OHDA modulated Ca(2+) currents through PKA pathway. These results provided evidence for the potential role of VGCCs and PKA involved in oxidative stress in degeneration of SNc neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD).
The nasal mucosa is involved in immune defense, as it is the first barrier for pathogens entering the body through the respiratory tract. The nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), which is found in the mucosa of the nasal cavity, is considered to be the main mucosal immune inductive site in the upper respiratory tract. NALT has been found in humans and many mammals, which contributes to local and systemic immune responses after intranasal vaccination. However, there are very few data on NALT in avian species, especially waterfowl. For this study, histological sections of the nasal cavities of Cherry Valley ducks were used to examine the anatomical location and histological characteristics of NALT. The results showed that several lymphoid aggregates are present in the ventral wall of the nasal cavity near the choanal cleft, whereas several more lymphoid aggregates were located on both sides of the nasal septum. In addition, randomly distributed intraepithelial lymphocytes and isolated lymphoid follicles were observed in the regio respiratoria of the nasal cavity. There were also a few lymphoid aggregates located in the lamina propria of the regio vestibularis, which was covered with a stratified squamous epithelium. This study focused on the anatomic and histological characteristics of the nasal cavity of the duck and performed a systemic overview of NALT. This will be beneficial for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and the development of effective nasal vaccines for waterfowls.
Quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication with small signal molecules, controls the virulence of many pathogens. In contrast to other vibrios, neither the VanI/VanR acylhomoserine lactone quorum sensing system, nor the three-channel quorum sensing system affects virulence of the economically important aquatic pathogen Vibrio anguillarum. Indole is another molecule that recently gained attention as a putative signal molecule. The data presented in this study indicate that indole signaling and the alternative sigma factor RpoS have a significant impact on the virulence of V. anguillarum. Deletion of rpoS resulted in increased expression of the indole biosynthesis gene tnaA and in increased production of indole. Both rpoS deletion and the addition of exogenous indole (50-100 µM) resulted in decreased biofilm formation, exopolysaccharide production (a phenotype that is required for pathogenicity) and expression of the exopolysaccharide synthesis gene wbfD. Further, indole inhibitors increased the virulence of the rpoS deletion mutant, suggesting that indole acts downstream of RpoS. Finally, in addition to the phenotypes found to be affected by indole, the rpoS deletion mutant also showed increased motility and decreased sensitivity to oxidative stress.
Salidroside is one of the major phenolic glycosides in Rhodiola, which has been reported to possess various biological activities. In the present study the in vivo deglycosylation metabolism of salidroside was investigated and its aglycone p-tyrosol but not the original salidroside was identified as the main form in rat tissues following the administration of salidroside. After the i.v. administration of salidroside at a dose of 50 mg/kg in rats, salidroside was quantified only in the liver, kidney and heart tissues. The highest level of p-tyrosol was detected in the heart, followed by the spleen, kidney, liver and lungs, in order. Salidroside was detected only in the liver, in contrast, p-tyrosol was detectable in most tissues except the brain, and the kidney tissues contained a significant amount of p-tyrosol compared to the other tissues after the i.g. administration of 100 mg/kg salidroside. The excretion behaviour revealed that the administrated salidroside mainly eliminated in the form of salidroside but not its aglycone metabolite p-tyrosol through urine. After i.v. and i.g. administration in rats, 64.00% and 23.80% of the total dose was excreted through urine in the form of salidroside, respectively. In addition, 0.19% and 2.25% of the dose was excreted in the form of p-tyrosol through urine after i.v. and i.g. administration, respectively. The faecal salidroside and p-tyrosol concentrations were 0.3% and 1.48% of the total dose after i.v. administration, respectively. After the i.g. administration of salidroside, trace salidroside and p-tyrosol were quantified in faeces within 72 h. In addition, the biliary excretion levels of salidroside after i.v. and i.g. administration were 2.86% and 0.02% of the dose, respectively. The obtained results show that salidroside was extensively metabolised to its aglycone p-tyrosol and distributed to various organs and the original salidroside was cleared rapidly through urine following the administration of salidroside.
Photothermal therapy (PTT) is proved to be an efficient manner for superficial tumor therapy in preclinical studying. The tumor suppression of chemotherapy can be enhanced by combining with PTT. In this study, we reported a mesoporous magnetic gold "nanoclusters" (MMGNCs) structure as theranostic carrier for chemo-photothermal co-therapy. MMGNCs were successfully prepared and they exhibited efficient photo-thermal effect for PTT. The mesoporous structure provided MMGNCs with high drug loading capacity. By in vitro cytotoxicity testing, we revealed that the combination of PTT and chemotherapy could cause more damage than chemotherapy or PTT did alone. By topically targeting mediated by the extra-magnetic field (MF), MMGNCs can be targeted to the tumor site efficiently. In vivo chemo-photothermal co-therapy of 4T1 breast cancer, under the combinational treatments of chemo-photothermal co-therapy and extra-MF targeting, the tumor growth has been efficiently inhibited, and the pulmonary and mediastinal metastasis have also been prevented. The survival of the cancer bearing mice was prolonged. The bio-imaging applications of this system and the mechanism of the metastasis prevention are ongoing.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent progressive neurodegenerative disease. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of PD, apoptotic cell death and oxidative stress are the most prevalent mechanisms. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is a biological component that has been extracted from Ligusticum wallichii Franchat (ChuanXiong), which exhibits anti-apoptotic and antioxidant roles. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of TMP against dopaminergic neuron injury in a rat model of Parkinson's disease induced by MPTP and to elucidate probable molecular mechanisms. The results showed that TMP could notably prevent MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurons damage, reflected by improvement of motor deficits, enhancement of TH expression and the content of dopamine and its metabolite, DOPAC. We observed MPTP-induced activation of mitochondrial apoptotic death pathway, evidenced by up-regulation of Bax, down-regulation of Bcl-2, release of cytochrome c and cleavage of caspase 3, which was significantly inhibited by TMP. Moreover, TMP could prevent MPTP-increased TBARS level and MPTP-decreased GSH level, indicating the antioxidant role of TMP in PD model. And the antioxidant role of TMP attributes to the prevention of MPTP-induced reduction of Nrf2 and GCLc expression. In conclusion, in MPTP-induced PD model, TMP prevents the down-regulation of Nrf2 and GCLc, maintaining redox balance and inhibiting apoptosis, leading to the attenuation of dopaminergic neuron damage. The effectiveness of TMP in treating PD potentially leads to interesting therapeutic perspectives.
To analyse the infection of high-risk human papiliomavirus (HR-HPV) in cervical lesion wome, and evaluate the significance of high-risk human pappilomavirus detection by hybrid capture II (HV-II) in screening and diagnosing cervical lesion, especially high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).
This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that homework schedule has adverse impacts on Chinese childrens sleep-wake habits and sleep duration. A random sample of 19,299 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a large, cross-sectional survey. A parent-administered questionnaire was completed to quantify childrens homework schedule and sleep behaviors. Generally, it was demonstrated that more homework schedule was significantly associated with later bedtime, later wake time, and shorter sleep duration. Among all sleep variables, bedtime and sleep duration during weekdays appeared to be most affected by homework schedule, especially homework schedule during weekdays.
Oligodeoxynucleotide containing unmethylated CpG motifs (CpG-ODN) has been proved to be a potent and safe vaccine adjuvant. However, the application of CpG-ODN in poultry vaccines was limited because of its high cost to benefit ratio. The objective of this study was to identify the CpG-ODN with efficient adjuvant activity and low cost in chickens. Four sequences of CpG-ODN were designed based on CpG-ODN 2006, which was used as a template and positive sequence in our study. In the current study, in vitro observations revealed that the designed CpG-ODN had efficient immunostimulatory effects on chicken splenic lymphocytes. The in vivo results showed that the mRNA expressions of IL-6, IL-12, interferon-?, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 21 in upper respiratory tract tissues increased significantly in the early period after intranasal immunization with inactivated avian H5N1 influenza virus (IAIV) and CpG-ODN (P < 0.01). In addition, the avian influenza virus (AIV)-specific secretory IgA antibody level in the lavage fluid of upper respiratory tract increased significantly after intranasal immunization with IAIV and CpG-ODN, so did AIV-specific IgG in serum (P < 0.01). Among all the designed CpG-ODN, CpG-ODN F3 with an addition of poly-guanosine strings at the 3-end not only had the best enhancement on local mucosal immune response but also showed an effective induction of systemic immune response. Most importantly, the virus challenge study showed that prior administration of IAIV with CpG-ODN F3 could protect chickens effectively against live AIV H5N1 challenge. Additionally, among all the CpG-ODN in our study, the cost of the designed CpG-ODN F3 was the lowest because of the partially phosphorothioate backbone. Therefore, we speculated that CpG-ODN F3 with efficient adjuvant activity and a big cost advantage over CpG-ODN F1 (CpG-ODN 2006) might serve as an efficient and affordable nasal adjuvant for inactivated AIV vaccine in chicken.
Serine proteases are highly conserved among fungi and considered to play a key role in different aspects of fungal biology. These proteases are involved in fungal growth and have been related to biocontrol processes. To assess the functional role of serine proteases from Trichoderma harzianum T88, an effective biocontrol agent, on inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi, a gene (SL41) encoding a serine protease was isolated by 5 and 3 RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). Northern blot analysis indicated that SL41 was induced in response to cell walls of different fungi. This protease gene was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under the control of the galactose-inducible GAL1 promoter. After induction, the enzyme activity was culminated (16.2 units ml(-1)) at 60 h of cultivation. The optimal enzyme reaction temperature was 40°C and optimal pH was 10.5. Northern blot analysis indicated that the amount of the transcripts increased with the culture time in agreement with the measured enzyme activity. Antifungal activity of serine protease against five phytopathogens was investigated in vitro. It can inhibit the mycelial growth of phytopathogenic fungi and exerted broad spectrum antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi. This is the first time that the different regulation of serine protease in T. harzianum response to five phytopathogenic fungi was shown, the protease was functionally expressed in a heterologous host, and its antagonistic activity was evaluated in vitro.
To evaluate the effects of co-administration of inactivated avian influenza H5N1 virus (IAIV) and different Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands in chickens, 10-d-old chickens were immunized intranasally with IAIV and TLR ligand [Bacillus subtilis spores, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN), respectively]. The results showed that both anti-avian influenza virus (AIV) specific secretory IgA level in respiratory tract and anti-AIV specific IgG level in serum significantly increased, as well as the expressions of IL-12, interferon-?, IL-6, and TLR in the nasal cavity and trachea after intranasal immunization with IAIV and TLR ligand. Among the used TLR ligands, B. subtilis spores as the adjuvant for nasal IAIV had the strongest effect on the expression of IL-6 and IL-12 (P < 0.01), whereas the CpG-ODN could present an advantageous effect on the induction of anti-AIV specific IgG and neutralization antibodies (P < 0.01). The chickens that were previously co-administrated with IAIV and B. subtilis spores could survive at an improved rate upon challenge by live AIV H5N1 virus. Our study suggested that B. subtilis spores, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, or CpG-ODN all could effectively enhance the local and systemic immune responses to IAIV in chickens. Considering of the effects and cost of these TLR ligands, we prospected that B. subtilis spores might serve as a more affordable and efficacious mucosal adjuvant for nasal IAIV in chickens.
The relationship between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and hypertension, dyslipidemia of Pumi nationality was studied,which provides a scientific basis of prevention and cure of hypertension and dyslipidemia.
A selective and sensitive method utilizing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for simultaneous determination of cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol, and methyl cinnamate in rat plasma. Cinnamaldehyde and cinnamyl alcohol can inter-convert to one another in rats, thus simultaneous quantifying both analytes provided a reliable and accurate method of assessment. Three qualifying ions (131 m/z, 105 m/z and 92 m/z) were chosen for simultaneous quantification of cinnamaldehyde and its metabolites. In this study, the calibration curves demonstrated a good linearity and reproducibility over the range of 20-2000ng/ml (r(2)?0.999) for all analytes. Furthermore, the sensitivity of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed sufficient lower limit of quantitation and detection of 20ng/ml and 5ng/ml, respectively, in the pharmacokinetic analysis. The intra- and inter-day precision variations were less than 10.4% and 12.2%, respectively, whilst accuracy values ranged from -8.6% to 14.8%. All analytes were stable in plasma and in processed samples at room temperature for 24h with no significant degradation after three freeze/thaw cycles. A small amount of the administered cinnamaldehyde had long half-life of 6.7±1.5h. In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for the pharmacokinetic studies of rats after intravenous and oral administration of cinnamaldehyde.
Two M(II) tetranuclear complexes bridged only by azido, Mn4(N3)(7.3)Cl(0.7)L4 (1) and Co4(N3)8L4 (2) in which the four M(II) ions are precisely coplanar bridged only by six azido anions, were obtained by using 4,5-diazafluoren-9-one (L) as a corner ligand. Magnetic studies indicate that ferromagnetic coupling was conducted by the azido anions between M(II) ions. At low temperature, 1 exhibits a large magnetocaloric effect and 2 shows field-induced multiple magnetic relaxations.
?-Adrenergic receptors are important targets for drug discovery. We have developed a new ?1 -adrenergic receptor cell membrane chromatography (?1 AR-CMC) with offline ultra-performance LC (UPLC) and MS method for screening active ingredients from traditional Chinese medicines. In this study, Chinese hamster ovary-S cells with high ?1 AR expression levels were established and used to prepare a cell membrane stationary phase in a ?1 AR-CMC model. The retention fractions were separated and identified by the UPLC-MS system. The screening results found that isoimperatorin from Rhizoma et Radix Notopterygii was the targeted component that could act on ?1 AR in similar manner of metoprolol as a control drug. In addition, the biological effects of active component were also investigated in order to search for a new type of ?1 AR antagonist. It will be a useful method for drug discovery as a leading compound resource.
Long interspersed nucleotide element (LINE)-1 ORF-1p is encoded by the human pro-oncogene LINE-1. It is involved in the development and progression of several human carcinomas, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and lung and breast cancers. The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/ETS-1 signaling pathway is involved in regulation of cancer cell proliferation, metastasis and invasion. The biological function of the interaction between LINE-1 ORF-1p and the HGF/ETS-1 signaling pathway in regulation of human breast cancer proliferation remains largely unknown. Here, we showed that LINE-1 ORF-1p enhanced ETS-1 transcriptional activity and increased expression of downstream genes of ETS-1. Interaction between ETS-1 and LINE-1 ORF-1p was identified by immunoprecipitation assays. LINE-1 ORF-1p modulated ETS-1 activity through cytoplasm/nucleus translocation and recruitment to the ETS-1 binding element in the MMP1 gene promoter. We also showed that LINE-1 ORF-1p promoted proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. By investigating a novel role of the LINE-1 ORF-1p in the HGF/ETS-1 signaling pathway and MDA-MB-231 cells, we demonstrated that LINE-1 ORF-1p may be a novel ETS-1 coactivator and molecular target for therapy of human triple negative breast cancer.
STAT is the backward position of cytokine and growth factor receptors in the nucleus, STAT dimers could bind to DNA and induce transcription of specific target genes. Several lines of evidence support the important roles of STAT, especially STAT5, in carcinogenesis. The overexpression of STAT 5 is related to the differentiation and apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the role of STAT5 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma remains unclear.
We report a review of recent research efforts on incorporating nanomaterials-including metal/metal oxide nanoparticles, carbon-based nanomaterials, and polymeric nanomaterials-into/onto membranes to improve membrane antifouling properties in biomedical or potentially medical-related applications. In general, nanomaterials can be incorporated into/onto a membrane by blending them into membrane fabricating materials or by attaching them to membrane surfaces via physical or chemical approaches. Overall, the fascinating, multifaceted properties (eg, high hydrophilicity, superparamagnetic properties, antibacterial properties, amenable functionality, strong hydration capability) of nanomaterials provide numerous novel strategies and unprecedented opportunities to fully mitigate membrane fouling. However, there are still challenges in achieving a broader adoption of nanomaterials in the membrane processes used for biomedical applications. Most of these challenges arise from the concerns over their long-term antifouling performance, hemocompatibility, and toxicity toward humans. Therefore, rigorous investigation is still needed before the adoption of some of these nanomaterials in biomedical applications, especially for those nanomaterials proposed to be used in the human body or in contact with living tissue/body fluids for a long period of time. Nevertheless, it is reasonable to predict that the service lifetime of membrane-based biomedical devices and implants will be prolonged significantly with the adoption of appropriate fouling control strategies.
The increase in life expectancy and the persistence of expectancy gaps between different social groups in the 20th century are well-described in Western developed countries, but less well documented in the newly industrialised countries of Asia. Singapore, a multiethnic island-state, has undergone a demographic and epidemiologic transition concomitant with economic development. We evaluate secular trends and differences in life expectancy by ethnicity and gender in Singapore, from independence to the present.
Genetic characterization of the Arabidopsis lesion simulating disease 1 (lsd1) mutant, a lesion mimic mutant (LMM), has revealed the essential role of AtLSD1 in the negative regulation of cell death and disease resistance. The three zinc-finger motifs found in AtLSD1 revealed a novel plant-specific gene family, whose members are significantly related to programmed cell death (PCD). In this study, we characterized a functional homologue to AtLSD1, TaLSD1, in the wheat-stripe rust fungus pathosystem. The expression of TaLSD1 was differentially induced during incompatible and compatible interactions between wheat and Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) and was up-regulated by oxidative stress generated by methyl viologen (MV). TaLSD1 was found to be predominately localized in the nucleus of onion epidermal cell. Transient overexpression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana demonstrated that TaLSD1 partially inhibited programmed cell death triggered by a mouse Bax protein, whereas expression of TaLSD1 alone had no influence on the phenotype of tobacco. Knocking down the expression of TaLSD1 through virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) increased wheat resistance against Pst accompanied by an enhanced hypersensitive response (HR), an increase in PR1 gene expression and a reduction in Pst hyphal growth. Our results suggest that TaLSD1 functions negatively in regulating the plant hypersensitive cell death and is involved in disease resistance of wheat against the stripe rust pathogen.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the common arrhythmias that threaten human health. Kv1.5 potassium channel is reported as an efficacious and safe target for the treatment of AF. In this paper, we designed and synthesized three series of compounds through modifying the lead compound RH01617 that was screened out by the pharmacophore model we reported earlier. All of the compounds were evaluated by the whole-patch lamp technology and most of them possessed potent inhibitory activities against Kv1.5. Compounds IIIi and IIIl were evaluated for the target selectivity as well as the pharmacodynamic effects in an isolated rat model. Due to the promising pharmacological behavior, compound IIIl deserves further pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic evaluations.
Minimally processed water bamboo shoot (WBS) lignifies and deteriorates rapidly at room temperature, which limits greatly its marketability. This study was to investigate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the sensory quality index, lignin formation, production of radical oxygen species (ROS) and activities of scavenging enzymes, membrane integrity and energy status of minimally processed WBS when packaged with or without the sealed low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bags, and then stored at 20°C for 9 days or 2°C for 60 days.
Core-shell molecular imprinting of nanomaterials overcomes difficulties with template transfer and achieves higher binding capacities for macromolecular imprinting, which are more important to the imprinting of natural low-abundance proteins from cell extracts. In the present study, a novel strategy of preparing core-shell nanostructured molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was developed that combined the core-shell approach with assistant recognition polymer chains (ARPCs). Vinyl-modified silica nanoparticles were used as support and ARPCs were used as additional functional monomers. Immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was chosen as the model protein. The cloned template protein BiP was selectively assembled with ARPCs from their library, which contained numerous limited-length polymer chains with randomly distributed recognition and immobilization sites. The resulting complex was copolymerized onto the surface of vinyl-modified silica nanoparticles under low concentrations of the monomers. After template removal, core-shell-structured nanoparticles with a thin imprinted polymer layer were produced. The particles demonstrated considerably high adsorption capacity, fast adsorption kinetics and selective binding affinities toward the template BiP. Furthermore, the synthesized MIP nanoparticles successfully isolated cloned protein BiP from protein mixtures and highly enriched BiP from an ER extract containing thousands of kinds of proteins. The enrichment reached 115-fold and the binding capacity was 5.4?gg(-1), which were higher than those achieved by using traditional MIP microspheres. The advantageous properties of MIP nanoparticles hold promise for further practical applications in biology, such as protein analysis and purification.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.