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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling in development and human diseases.
Genes Dis
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are a group of signaling molecules that belongs to the Transforming Growth Factor-? (TGF-?) superfamily of proteins. Initially discovered for their ability to induce bone formation, BMPs are now known to play crucial roles in all organ systems. BMPs are important in embryogenesis and development, and also in maintenance of adult tissue homeostasis. Mouse knockout models of various components of the BMP signaling pathway result in embryonic lethality or marked defects, highlighting the essential functions of BMPs. In this review, we first outline the basic aspects of BMP signaling and then focus on genetically manipulated mouse knockout models that have helped elucidate the role of BMPs in development. A significant portion of this review is devoted to the prominent human pathologies associated with dysregulated BMP signaling.
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Brain Volume as an Integrated Marker for the Risk of Death in a Community-Based Sample: Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Total brain volume is an integrated measure of health and may be an independent indicator of mortality risk independent of any one clinical or subclinical disease state. We investigate the association of brain volume to total and cause-specific mortality in a large nondemented stroke-free community-based cohort.
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Green facile scalable synthesis of titania/carbon nanocomposites: new use of old dental resins.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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A green facile scalable method inspired by polymeric dental restorative composite is developed to synthesize TiO2/carbon nanocomposites for manipulation of the intercalation potential of TiO2 as lithium-ion battery anode. Poorly crystallized TiO2 nanoparticles with average sizes of 4-6 nm are homogeneously embedded in carbon matrix with the TiO2 mass content varied between 28 and 65%. Characteristic discharge/charge plateaus of TiO2 are significantly diminished and voltage continues to change along with proceeding discharge/charge process. The tap density, gravimetric and volumetric capacities, and cyclic and rate performance of the TiO2/C composites are effectively improved.
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Formal [4+2] annulation of enaminones and cyanomethyl sulfur ylide: one-pot access to polysubstituted pyridin-2(1H)-ones.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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A facile and efficient one-pot synthesis of polysubstituted pyridin-2(1H)-ones from readily available enaminones and the cyanomethyl sulfonium bromide salt in the presence of cesium carbonate is developed, and a mechanism involving sequential nucleophilic vinylic substitution (SNV), intramolecular nucleophilic cyclization and dealkylation reactions is proposed.
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Solution-Processed Organic Solar Cells Based on Dialkylthiol-Substituted Benzodithiophene Unit with Efficiency near 10%.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
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A small molecule named DR3TSBDT with dialkylthiol-substituted benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) as the central unit was designed and synthesized for solution-processed bulk-heterojunction solar cells. A notable power conversion efficiency of 9.95% (certified 9.938%) has been achieved under AM 1.5G irradiation (100 mW cm(-2)), with an average PCE of 9.60% based on 50 devices.
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Relationship between fine particulate air pollution and ischaemic heart disease morbidity and mortality.
Heart
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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To assess the relationship between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) morbidity and mortality.
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Thermoelectric materials: organic thermoelectric materials: emerging green energy materials converting heat to electricity directly and efficiently (adv. Mater. 40/2014).
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Organic conducting materials display great potential to be efficient thermoelectric materials according to the latest reports. On page 6829, W. Xu, D. B. Zhu and co-workers review thermoelectric and related properties of organic conducting materials, including polymers and small molecules, and highlight the most recent progress in materials, measurements, and devices. Prospects for future research are discussed in pursuit of green energy converted by organic thermoelectric materials.
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DNA methylation: the pivotal interaction between early-life nutrition and glucose metabolism in later life.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
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Traditionally, it has been widely acknowledged that genes together with adult lifestyle factors determine the risk of developing some metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, obesity and diabetes mellitus in later life. However, there is now substantial evidence that prenatal and early-postnatal nutrition play a critical role in determining susceptibility to these diseases in later life. Maternal nutrition has historically been a key determinant for offspring health, and gestation is the critical time window that can affect the growth and development of offspring. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis proposes that exposures during early life play a critical role in determining the risk of developing metabolic diseases in adulthood. Currently, there are substantial epidemiological studies and experimental animal models that have demonstrated that nutritional disturbances during the critical periods of early-life development can significantly have an impact on the predisposition to developing some metabolic diseases in later life. The hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms may link imbalanced early-life nutrition with altered disease risk has been widely accepted in recent years. Epigenetics can be defined as the study of heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve alterations in the DNA sequence. Epigenetic processes play a significant role in regulating tissue-specific gene expression, and hence alterations in these processes may induce long-term changes in gene function and metabolism that persist throughout the life course. The present review focuses on how nutrition in early life can alter the epigenome, produce different phenotypes and alter disease susceptibilities, especially for impaired glucose metabolism.
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Influence of Three Coccidiostats on the Pharmacokinetics of Florfenicol in Rabbits.
Exp. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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In-feed Medication has been used for a long time to prevent coccidiosis, a worldwide protozoal disease in rabbits. Florfenicol (FFC) has been widely used in veterinary clinics for bacterial diseases treatment. Therefore, the use of combinations of coccidiostats with FFC in rabbits is common. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of three coccidiostats, sulfaquinoxaline (SUL), robenidine (ROB), and toltrazuril (TOL), as feed additives on the pharmacokinetic profile of FFC in rabbits. The disposition kinetics of FFC in rabbits were investigated after a single intravenous injection (25 mg/kg) in rabbits fed anticoccidial-free diets or feeds containing SUL (250 ppm), ROB (66 ppm), or TOL (2 ppm), respectively, for 20 days. Plasma FFC concentrations were determined by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The pharmacokinetic parameters of FFC were analyzed using a non-compartmental analysis based on the statistical moment theory. The results demonstrated that ROB feeding resulted in an obvious decrease in plasma FFC level as compared with anticoccidial-free feeding. The terminal elimination half-life (t1/2z), area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), area under the first moment curve (AUMC), and mean residence time (MRT) significantly decreased, whereas the elimination rate constant (?z) and total body clearance (CLz) obviously increased in rabbits pretreated with ROB. However, we did not find that SUL or TOL feeding had any effect on the pharmacokinetic profile of FFC. Our findings suggested that more attention should be paid to the use of FFC in rabbits supplemented with ROB.
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Enhanced photoelectrochemical performance by synthesizing CdS decorated reduced TiO2 nanotube arrays.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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The efficient utilization of solar spectrum and photo-induced charge transport are critical aspects in improving the light conversion efficiency of solar cells and hydrogen generation. In this work, reduced TiO2 nanotube arrays with CdS decoration were fabricated through the simple cathodic polarization of annealed TiO2 nanotube arrays followed by the chemical deposition of CdS nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the successful fabrication of the target material. UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra showed a Burstein-Moss shift for reduced TiO2 NTs and a red shift of the absorption edge towards ca. 563 nm for CdS-decorated R-TiO2 NTs. Cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectra together demonstrate the decreased charge transport resistance for reduced TiO2 NTs. Under the excitation of monochromatic light at 420 nm, the proposed CdS-decorated reduced TiO2 NTs exhibit the maximum IPCE value of 30.12% in 1 M Na2SO3 electrolyte, which is almost twice higher than that achieved on CdS-decorated pristine TiO2 NTs. Therefore, the results here highlight the significance of charge transport in the light conversion process. The enhanced charge transport properties are ascribed to the increased number of electrons, which is brought about by the lattice oxygen vacancies (Ti(3+)) during the cathodic polarization.
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[Characterization of a recombinant goatpox virus expressing Orfv F1L gene].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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In order to establish the vaccine against the contagious ecthyma, we constructed and characterized recombinant goatpox virus expressing F1L protein of Orf virus.
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[HPLC determination of two phenylpropanoid amides in solani melongenae radix from different cultivation regions].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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A quantitative HPLC-DAD method was developed for simultaneous determination of N-trans-p-coumaroyloctopamine and N-trans-p-coumaroyltyramine in Solani Melongenae Radix from different cultivation regions in China The separation was performed on an Agilent Eclipse XDB C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) at 30 degrees C with a gradient elution of methanol and 0.1% formic acid in water as mobile phase. The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL x min(-1) and the detection wavelength was 300 nm. The calibration curves of N-trans-p-coumaroyloctopamine and N-trans-p-coumaroyltyramine were linear over the ranges of 2.84-68.16, 3.10-74.40 mg x L(-1), and the average recoveries (n = 9) were 99.30% and 102.8%, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of sixteen samples from different cultivation regions in China, which indicated that the method is simple, rapid, accurate, and reliable for quality evaluation of Solani Melongenae Radix.
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Anti-inflammatory Ursane- and Oleanane-Type Triterpenoids from Vitex negundo var. cannabifolia.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Six new polyoxygenated triterpenoids, cannabifolins A-F (1-6), and eight known triterpenoids, 7-14, were isolated from the leaves of Vitex negundo var. cannabifolia. The absolute configuration of cannabifolin A (1) was determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 represent a class of rare natural pentacyclic triterpenoids bearing cis-fused C/D rings and are the first examples of 12,19-epoxy ursane- and oleanane-type triterpenoids. Compounds 3, 7, 8, and 14 exhibited inhibition of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages with IC50 values in the range 24.9-40.5 ?M.
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Isomeric folate-conjugated polymeric micelles bind to folate receptors and display anticancer effects.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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The present study aimed to prepare and evaluate polymeric micelles conjugated with folic acid through ?- or ?-carboxyl groups for antitumor efficacy. The isomeric block copolymers, ?- and ?-folate-polyethyleneglycol- distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (?- and ?-Fol-PEG-DSPE), were produced by solid phase peptide synthesis. Three types of doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded polymeric micelles (MPEG-DSPE-DOX and ?- / ?-Fol-PEG-DSPE- DOX micelles) were prepared via the film formation method. Compared with MPEG-DSPE-DOX micelles, the ?- / ?-Fol-PEG-DSPE-DOX micelles presented a higher cellular uptake behavior in the live cell study. Cell viability percentages were 81.8%, 57.3%, 56.6% at 2 hours for MPEG-DSPE-DOX, ?- and ?-Fol-PEG-DSPE- DOX micelles, respectively (p<0.05). Using the KB xenograft tumor model, both ?- and ?-folate-conjugated micelles were found to have better antitumor effects with lower toxicity in comparison with MPEG-DSPE-DOX micelles. No difference in in vivo antitumor efficacy was found between ?-and ?-Fol-PEG-DSPE-DOX micelles. The folate-conjugated micelles might be a potentially useful strategy for tumor targeting of therapeutic agents, whether grafting with folic acid through ?- or ?-carboxyl groups.
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[A rapid method for the determination of hydrogen peroxide concentration].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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The present paper reported a spectrophotometry for the determination of hydrogen peroxide concentration. It is based on the reaction between ceric sulfate and hydrogen peroxide in an acidic medium, in which orange tetravalent cerium is converted to colorless trivalent cerium that causeds the change in absorbance. According to the quantitative relationship between ceric sulfate and hydrogen peroxide, the hydrogen peroxide concentration can be calculated. The selected conditions were as follows: detection wavelength of 480 nm, H2SO4 concentration of 0.5 mol x L(-1), and reaction time of 3.0 min. The results showed that the method has an excellent measurement precision (RSD = 0.31%) and accuracy (RSD < or = 0.91%) for the quantification of hydrogen peroxide. The present method is simple and rapid, with high detection sensitivity and low cost. It is suitable for use in rapid industrial analyses.
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A semiconductive superhard FeB? phase from first-principles calculations.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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An oP10-FeB4 phase [H. Gou, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2013, 111, 157002] was recently synthesized based on previous theoretical predictions. In this study, a high-pressure phase of FeB4 (tP10-FeB4) was proposed through first-principles calculations. The tP10-FeB4 structure, which contains two formula units per unit cell, belongs to tetragonal symmetry with the space group P42/nmc. The boron atoms in tP10-FeB4 are present as tetrahedron configurations. Enthalpies as a function of pressure indicate that this new phase is probable to achieve through a phase transition from the oP10-FeB4 phase above ?65.9 GPa. The softening of acoustic phonon at T points in the Brillouin zone may be the driving force behind the phase transition. Further analyses reveal that the tP10-FeB4 phase is a potential superhard semiconductor.
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The learning curve for minimally invasive Oxford phase 3 unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: cumulative summation test for learning curve (LC-CUSUM).
J Orthop Surg Res
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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BackgroundThe minimally invasive Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is a demanding procedure but has many advantages compared with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aim of this observational study was to investigate the learning curve of one experienced surgeon introducing minimally invasive Oxford phase 3 UKA into his routine clinical practice.MethodsThe first 50 consecutive cases of minimally invasive Oxford phase 3 UKA performed by one surgeon were evaluated to determine whether there was an association between outcomes and the cumulative number of cases performed, indicating the presence of learning curve. The cohort was divided into two groups: group A comprised the first 25 cases and group B cases 26¿50. Duration of surgery, blood loss, Hospital for Special Surgery score, range of motion, complications, and the radiographical position of the implant were compared between the groups. The cumulative summation test for learning curve (LC-CUSUM) was then used to further analyze the learning curve.ResultsThe mean age and follow-up were 64.4 years and 50.9 months, respectively. The duration of surgery and blood loss were significantly more favorable in group B. The length of incision gradually reduced from 9.7¿±¿1.3 to 8.5¿±¿1.1 cm. Failures were identified in nine patients (18%). Two revisions and two dislocations were encountered in group A; one revision was performed 4 years after surgery for a patient in group B because of a fracture. One case of lateral compartment osteoarthritis was identified in group A. Two patients in each group reported continuing unexplained pains. CUSUM analysis showed that failure rates diminished rapidly after 16 cases and reached an acceptable rate after 29 cases.ConclusionsMinimally invasive Oxford phase 3 UKA for anteromedial osteoarthritis is a demanding procedure, but satisfactory outcomes can be achieved after approximately 25 cases.
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Anti-oxidative stress effect of loading-dose rosuvastatin prior to percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute coronary syndrome: a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial.
Clin Drug Investig
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Administration of a loading dose of a statin (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor) prior to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) contributes to protection from myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury. This trial was designed to investigate the effect and mechanism of loading-dose rosuvastatin therapy before PCI in patients with acute coronary syndrome.
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Systematic transcriptome analysis of the zebrafish model of diamond-blackfan anemia induced by RPS24 deficiency.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a class of human diseases linked to defective ribosome biogenesis that results in clinical phenotypes. Genetic mutations in ribosome protein (RP) genes lead to DBA phenotypes, including hematopoietic defects and physical deformities. However, little is known about the global regulatory network as well as key miRNAs and gene pathways in the zebrafish model of DBA.
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Surface free energy activated high-throughput cell sorting.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Cell sorting is an important screening process in microbiology, biotechnology, and clinical research. Existing methods are mainly based on single-cell analysis as in flow cytometric and microfluidic cell sorters. Here we report a label-free bulk method for sorting cells by differentiating their characteristic surface free energies (SFEs). We demonstrated the feasibility of this method by sorting model binary cell mixtures of various bacterial species, including Pseudomonas putida KT2440, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, and Escherichia coli DH5?. This method can effectively separate 10(10) bacterial cells within 30 min. Individual bacterial species can be sorted with up to 96% efficiency, and the cell viability ratio can be as high as 99%. In addition to its capacity of sorting evenly mixed bacterial cells, we demonstrated the feasibility of this method in selecting and enriching cells of minor populations in the mixture (presenting at only 1% in quantity) to a purity as high as 99%. This SFE-activated method may be used as a stand-alone method for quickly sorting a large quantity of bacterial cells or as a prescreening tool for microbial discrimination. Given its advantages of label-free, high-throughput, low cost, and simplicity, this SFE-activated cell sorting method has potential in various applications of sorting cells and abiotic particles.
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[Prevalence and features of pathogenic bacteria in the department of hematology without bone marrow transplantation in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2010 to 2012].
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To investigate the incidence,pathogens, and clinical features of infection in consecutive cases from 2010 to 2012 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital.
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Phenotypic and functional characterization of cytokine-induced killer cells derived from preterm and term infant cord blood.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Cord blood has gradually become an important source for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in the human, particularly in pediatric patients. Adoptive cellular immunotherapy of patients with hematologic malignancies after umbilical cord blood transplant is crucial. Cytokine?induced killer (CIK) cells derived from cord blood are a new type of antitumor immune effector cells in tumor prevention and treatment and have increasingly attracted the attention of researchers. On the other hand, it has been suggested that preterm infant cord blood retains an early differentiation phenotype suitable for immunotherapy. Therefore, we determined the phenotypic and functional characterization of CIK cells derived from preterm infant cord blood (PCB-CIK) compared with CIK cells from term infant cord blood (TCB-CIK). Twenty cord blood samples were collected and classified into two groups based on gestational age. Cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) were isolated, cultured and induced to CIK cells in vitro. We used flow cytometry to detect cell surface markers, FlowJo software to analyze the proliferation profile and intracellular staining to test the secretion of cytokines. Finally, we evaluated the antitumor activity of CIK cells against K562 in vitro. Compared with TCB-CIK, PCB-CIK cells demonstrated faster proliferation and higher expression of activated cell surface markers. The secretion of IL-10 was lower in PCB-CIK cells while the expression of perforin and CD107a had no significant difference between the two cell groups. PCB-CIK cells exhibited a high proliferation rate while the cytotoxic activity had no difference between the PCB-CIK and TCB-CIK cells. Hence preterm infant cord blood may be a potential source for immunotherapy.
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Mercury removal from contaminated soil by thermal treatment with FeCl3 at reduced temperature.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Thermal treatment has been used to remediate mercury-contaminated soils; however, existing thermal technologies use high temperatures (e.g., 600-800°C) and require high energy costs. Moreover, the treated soil is unfavorable for agricultural reuse. To address these issues, the present study developed a method for the thermal treatment of mercury-contaminated soils at a reduced temperature (400°C) by adding FeCl3. A FeCl3/Hg molar ratio of 100:1 in the soil was adopted as the optimum dosage of FeCl3 required to achieve maximum reduction of mercury. The mercury concentration in soils was successfully reduced to 0.8mgkg(-)(1) when treated at 400°C for 60min and the treated soil retained most of its original soil properties. FeCl3 addition during thermal treatment not only accelerated the volatilization of mercury in the easily removed fraction but also reduced the volatilization temperature of mercury in the hardly removed fraction. The adsorbable organic halogens and PCDD/Fs formed during thermal treatment with FeCl3 would not affect the soil reuse in agriculture. The thermal decontamination method reduces energy costs and leads to agricultural soil reuse, thus providing a greener and more sustainable remediation method for treating mercury-contaminated soil in future engineering applications.
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Nonphospholipid fluid liposomes with switchable photocontrolled release.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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We created novel nonphospholipid photosensitive liposomes from a mixture of a monoacylated azobenzene amphiphile (AzoC10N(+)) and cholesterol sulfate (Schol). This system belongs to the family of sterol-enriched nonphospholipid liposomes that were shown to form stable large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) with enhanced impermeability. Fluid bilayers were successfully prepared from AzoC10N(+)/Schol (25/75 molar ratio) mixtures, and LUVs could be derived at room temperature using standard extrusion methods. The isomerization process of the bilayer-inserted AzoC10N(+) was characterized. Leakage from these liposomes could be induced by the photoconversion of AzoC10N(+) from its trans form to its cis form. This photocontrolled release from fluid liposomes contrasts with the case of phospholipid-based azo-containing liposomes, which are generally required to be in the gel phase to be photosensitive. It is proposed that the very high degree of conformational order of the monoalkylated amphiphile and the tight packing of the hydrophobic core of the AzoC10N(+)/Schol liposomes make them responsive to the presence of the bulky cis azo isomer. Interestingly, the liposome impermeability could be fully restored by the photoisomerization of the cis form back to the trans form, providing a sharp on-and-off control of payload release. In addition, these nonphospholipid liposomes display a very limited passive release. Therefore, it is shown that AzoC10N(+)/Schol LUVs can be used as nanocontainers, whose content can be released by light in a controlled and switchable manner.
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Identification of Lactobacillus from the saliva of adult patients with caries using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has been presented as a superior method for the detection of microorganisms in body fluid samples (e.g., blood, saliva, pus, etc.) However, the performance of MALDI-TOF MS in routine identification of caries-related Lactobacillus isolates from saliva of adult patients with caries has not been determined. In the present study, we introduced a new MALDI-TOF MS system for identification of lactobacilli. Saliva samples were collected from 120 subjects with caries. Bacteria were isolated and cultured, and each isolate was identified by both 16S rRNA sequencing and MALDI-TOF MS. The identification results obtained by MALDI-TOF MS were concordant at the genus level with those of conventional 16S rRNA-based sequencing for 88.6% of lactobacilli (62/70) and 95.5% of non-lactobacilli (21/22). Up to 96 results could be obtained in parallel on a single MALDI target, suggesting that this is a reliable high-throughput approach for routine identification of lactobacilli. However, additional reference strains are necessary to increase the sensitivity and specificity of species-level identification.
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Regioselective radical aminofluorination of styrenes.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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The copper-catalyzed radical aminofluorination of styrenes with N-fluorobenzenesulfonimide (NFSI) is realized with high regioselectivity, thus affording aminofluorination products with regioselectivities opposite that of the palladium-catalyzed and noncatalyzed processes. Preliminary mechanistic studies suggested the reaction went through a radical pathway and was supported by DFT calculations. In these reactions, NFSI is utilized as both a radical nitrogen source and radical fluorine source, thus rendering it an attractive reagent.
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Maternal high-fat diet modulates hepatic glucose, lipid homeostasis and gene expression in the PPAR pathway in the early life of offspring.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Maternal dietary modifications determine the susceptibility to metabolic diseases in adult life. However, whether maternal high-fat feeding can modulate glucose and lipid metabolism in the early life of offspring is less understood. Furthermore, we explored the underlying mechanisms that influence the phenotype. Using C57BL/6J mice, we examined the effects on the offspring at weaning from dams fed with a high-fat diet or normal chow diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Gene array experiments and quantitative real-time PCR were performed in the liver tissues of the offspring mice. The offspring of the dams fed the high-fat diet had a heavier body weight, impaired glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased serum cholesterol and hepatic steatosis at weaning. Bioinformatic analyses indicated that all differentially expressed genes of the offspring between the two groups were mapped to nine pathways. Genes in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway were verified by quantitative real-time PCR and these genes were significantly up-regulated in the high-fat diet offspring. A maternal high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation can modulate hepatic glucose, lipid homeostasis, and gene expression in the PPAR signaling in the early life of offspring, and our results suggested that potential mechanisms that influences this phenotype may be related partially to up-regulate some gene expression in the PPAR signalling pathway.
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Alkaloids from the tribe Bocconieae (papaveraceae): a chemical and biological review.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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The Bocconieae tribe, consisting of only the genera Macleaya and Bocconia, possesses significant economic and medicinal value and plays an important role in health management for people in developing countries. During the past decades, research on metabolites and relative pharmacology, including the isolation and identification of a variety of molecules, has shed light on the tribe. Among those molecules, isoquinoline alkaloids, and their antimicrobial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory activities are especially noteworthy. This paper presents a comprehensive compilation of current research progress, with emphasis on the alkaloids and their distribution, phytochemical and pharmacological investigation, toxicity and side effects, related chemotaxonomy and future use prospects, and hopefully provides a valuable reference as an effort to promote further exploration and application of this tribe.
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Puerarin protects hippocampal neurons against cell death in pilocarpine-induced seizures through antioxidant and anti-apoptotic mechanisms.
Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Puerarin extracted from Radix puerariae has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects. However, it is still not known whether puerarin protects hippocampal neurons against cell death in pilocarpine-induced seizures. In this study, we found that pretreatment with puerarin significantly attenuated the neuronal death in the hippocampus of rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. In addition, puerarin decreased the level of seizure-induced reactive oxygen species in mitochondria isolated from the rat hippocampi. Terminal deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling staining showed that puerarin exerted an anti-apoptotic effect on the neurons in the epileptic hippocampus. Western blot analysis showed that puerarin treatment significantly decreased the expression of Bax and increased the expression of Bcl-2. Moreover, puerarin treatment restored the altered mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release from the mitochondria in the epileptic hippocampi. Altogether, the findings of this study suggest that puerarin exerts a therapeutic effect on epilepsy-induced brain injury through antioxidant and anti-apoptotic mechanisms.
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Synthesis of carbon nanospheres using fallen willow leaves and adsorption of Rhodamine B and heavy metals by them.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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This paper focuses on the synthesis of carbon nanospheres (CNSs) using fallen willow leaves as a low-cost precursor. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image demonstrated that the structure of synthesized CNSs was spherical, with a diameter of 100 nm. The crystal structure and chemical information were characterized by Raman spectrum and energy-dispersive spectrum (EDS), respectively. BET results showed that the CNSs had a larger specific surface area of 294.32 m(2) g(-1), which makes it a potentially superior adsorbent. Rh-B and heavy metal ions such as Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Cr(6+) were used as targets to investigate the adsorption capacity of the CNSs. The effects of adsorption parameters such as adsorption equilibrium time, dose of CNSs, adsorption kinetics, and effect factors were also studied. These findings not only established a cost-effective method of synthesizing CNSs using fallen willow leaves but also broadened the potential application range of these CNSs.
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Managing patient complaints in China: a qualitative study in Shanghai.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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To examine the handling system for patient complaints and to identify existing barriers that are associated with effective management of patient complaints in China.
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Surface plasmon enhanced photochemical etching of p-type GaP: a direct demonstration of wavelength selectivity.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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We report here on significant enhancement of the photochemical etching of p-type gallium phosphide (GaP) by Au plasmonic nanostructures. The photochemical etching rate of defect (dislocation) states of Au-coated p-GaP samples is ten times higher than blank samples when irradiated with 532 nm laser. It is confirmed that the enhancement of photochemical etching is wavelength selective. Only 532 nm laser can efficiently increase the photochemical etching rate, while lasers of other wavelengths (375, 405, 445, and 473 nm) show limited or negative effects. This observation can be attributed to defect (dislocation) enhanced photochemical etching through localized surface plasmon resonance of Au nanostructures. This method may open a new pathway for controlled fabrication of novel optoelectronic devices.
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Nanoplasmonic biosensor: Coupling electrochemistry to localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy on nanocup arrays.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The nanoscale Lycurgus cup arrays were hybrid structures of nanocups and nanoparticles with ultrasensitivity to refractive index change. In this study, an electrochemical localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor was developed by coupling electrochemistry to LSPR spectroscopy measurement on the nanoscale cup arrays (nanoCA). Based on the combination of electrochemistry and LSPR measurement, the electrochemical LSPR on nanoCA was observed with significant resonance wavelength shifts in electrochemical modulation. The synchronous implementation of cyclic voltammetry and optical transmission spectrum can be used to obtain multiply sensing information and investigate the enhancement for LSPR from electrochemical scanning. The electrochemical enhanced LSPR was utilized as biosensor to detect biomolecules. The electrochemical LSPR biosensor with synchronous electrochemical and optical implement showed higher sensitivity than that of conventional optical LSPR measurement. Detecting with multi-transducer parameters and high sensitivity, the electrochemical LSPR provided a promising approach for chemical and biological detection.
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Effect of uric-acid-lowering therapy on progression of chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The efficacy and safety of uric-acid-lowering therapy (UALT) on slowing the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) accompanied by hyperuricemia were assessed. We searched Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMbase, CNKI, Wanfang and Vip databases up to November 15, 2012 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared the effect of UALT to control therapy in hyperuricemic patients secondary to CKD, and then performed quality evaluation and meta-analysis on the included studies. Seven RCTs involving 451 cases were included. UALT delayed the increase of serum creatinine (MD=-62.55 ?mol/L, 95% CI: -98.10 to -26.99) and blood urea nitrogen (MD= -6.15 mmol/L, 95% CI: -8.17 to -4.13) as well as the decrease of glomerular filtration rate [MD=5.65 mL/(min·1.73 m2), 95% CI: 1.88 to 9.41], decreased systolic blood pressure (SBP) (MD= -6.08 mmHg, 95% CI: -11.67 to -0.49), and reduced the risk of the renal disease progression (RR=0.30, 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.46). However, there was no statistically significant difference in 24-h urinary protein quantity and diastolic blood pressure (P>0.05). We identified that UALT could delay the progression of CKD with secondary hyperuricemia. And this also indirectly proved that hyperuricemia was a risk factor for the CKD progression.
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Exosome analysis: a promising biomarker system with special attention to saliva.
J. Membr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Today, exosome-related studies have become a focus in science and technology. Recently, three scientists won the Nobel Prize for determining the mechanisms of exosomal transport, making exosomes a promising biomarker system for disease diagnosis and treatment. This review provides a general introduction of exosomes and explores the recent progress on the function, application, isolation, and identification of exosomes as biomarkers in blood and other body fluids, especially in saliva. Detailed information of exosomal proteins and RNAs is discussed in the paper because of their ability to determine the function of exosomes. Due to their noninvasive assessment for quick and convenient diagnosis of diseases, salivary exosomes may well be promising biomarkers.
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[Effects of salidroside on proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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This study was aimed to investigate the effect of salidroside on proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and their secretion of stem cell factor (SCF). MSC were isolated and amplified in vitro via density gradient centrifugation and adherence screening method. MCS were identified by flow cytometry and osteogenic/adipogenic induction. The effects of salidroside on cell proliferation, cell cycle and the SCF secretion of MSC were detected by flow cytometry. The results showed that the salidroside could induce the proliferation of MSC, peaked at the concentration of 1.5 mg/ml and in a time-dependent manner (in 24 h, 48 h and 72 h). Salidroside at 1.5 mg/ml could more effectively increase the percentage of cells in S and G1/M phase. Co-cultured with salidroside at the concentration of 1.5 mg/ml for 48 h, the SCF and the expression levels of SCF mRNA in co-culture supernant were both significantly increased (P < 0.01). It is concluded that salidroside in a range of certain concentration can obviously promote the proliferation of MSC and increase the expression and secretion of SCF.
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Characterization of transcriptomes of cochlear inner and outer hair cells.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs) are the two types of sensory receptor cells that are critical for hearing in the mammalian cochlea. IHCs and OHCs have different morphology and function. The genetic mechanisms that define their morphological and functional specializations are essentially unknown. The transcriptome reflects the genes that are being actively expressed in a cell and holds the key to understanding the molecular mechanisms of the biological properties of the cell. Using DNA microarray, we examined the transcriptome of 2000 individually collected IHCs and OHCs from adult mouse cochleae. We show that 16,647 and 17,711 transcripts are expressed in IHCs and OHCs, respectively. Of those genes, ?73% are known genes, 22% are uncharacterized sequences, and 5.0% are noncoding RNAs in both populations. A total of 16,117 transcripts are expressed in both populations. Uniquely and differentially expressed genes account for <15% of all genes in either cell type. The top 10 differentially expressed genes include Slc17a8, Dnajc5b, Slc1a3, Atp2a3, Osbpl6, Slc7a14, Bcl2, Bin1, Prkd1, and Map4k4 in IHCs and Slc26a5, C1ql1, Strc, Dnm3, Plbd1, Lbh, Olfm1, Plce1, Tectb, and Ankrd22 in OHCs. We analyzed commonly and differentially expressed genes with the focus on genes related to hair cell specializations in the apical, basolateral, and synaptic membranes. Eighty-three percent of the known deafness-related genes are expressed in hair cells. We also analyzed genes involved in cell-cycle regulation. Our dataset holds an extraordinary trove of information about the molecular mechanisms underlying hair cell morphology, function, pathology, and cell-cycle control.
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Association between BRCA1 rs799917 polymorphism and breast cancer risk: A meta-analysis of 19,878 subjects.
Biomed. Pharmacother.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Studies investigating the association between the BRCA1 rs799917 polymorphism and breast cancer risk have reported controversial results. In order to derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis. A total of 8 articles comprising 19,878 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by Stata 11 software. Heterogeneity tests were conducted by Q test with I(2) value, and publication bias assessment was performed by Begg's funnel plot and Egger's test. The pooled results did not show any sufficient evidence approving the association between the BRCA1 rs799917 polymorphism and breast cancer risk in total population (T vs C: OR=1.01, 95% CI=0.97-1.06; TT vs CC: OR=1.03, 95% CI=0.93-1.13; CT vs CC: OR=1.04, 95% CI=0.92-1.16; TT+CT vs CC: OR=1.04, 95% CI=0.94-1.15; TT vs CT+CC: OR=1.03, 95% CI=0.94-1.12). In the further subgroup analyses, no significant associations were found in any comparison models according to ethnicity and source of controls. No publication bias was observed in this meta-analysis. In summary, based on the overall results, this meta-analysis strongly suggests that the BRCA1 rs799917 polymorphism is not associated with breast cancer risk.
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Association between cytosolic serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT1) gene polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis.
Biomed. Pharmacother.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT1) is the key enzyme in the folate metabolic pathway to provide one-carbon unit that plays an important role in biosynthesis. Abnormal biosynthesis involved in DNA synthesis and methylation can lead to activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. And the abnormal biosynthesis is closely related to a variety of common tumors' occurrence and development. A SNP in SHMT1 C1420T may effect the procession of biosynthesis and finally influence cancer occurrence.
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Transcription factor OCT4 promotes cell cycle progression by regulating CCND1 expression in esophageal carcinoma.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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The CCND1 gene is overexpressed in esophageal cancer and accelerates cell cycle progression. However, the mechanism whereby the upstream genes or factors directly regulate CCND1 expression remains unknown. By analyzing the 5'-UTR region of the CCND1 gene, we found that this region contains an octamer motif (ATTTTGCAT), which suggests that the expression of CCND1 might be directly associated with octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4). In this study, the wild-type and the octamer motif-mutanted CCND1 promoters were cloned, and their corresponding luciferase reporter vectors were then constructed to study the molecular mechanism by which OCT4 regulates the expression of CCND1 and influences the biological behaviors of esophageal cancer cells. The results indicated that suppressing the expression of CCND1 and OCT4 in esophageal cancer cells reduced cell proliferative and invasive abilities, induced cell cycle G1-phase arrest, and slowed the growth of xenografts in nude mice. Suppression of OCT4 expression significantly decreased the wild-type CCND1 promoter activity and down-regulated the expression of CCND1, but did not affect the activity of the mutant promoter. Whereas, suppression of CCND1 did not affect OCT4 expression, suggesting that OCT4 regulates CCND1 expression by activating the CCND1 promoter and subsequently promoting cell cycle progression. The results revealed and confirmed that OCT4 is the upstream factor that directly binds to the CCND1 promoter to regulate CCND1 expression, then to promote cell cycle progression and accelerate the proliferation and invasion of esophageal cancer cells. This finding may significantly contribute to elucidating the regulatory mechanism involved in the cell cycle progression of esophageal cancer cells and may aid in screening potential gene targets for the biological therapy of esophageal cancer.
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Functional characteristics of reversibly immortalized hepatic progenitor cells derived from mouse embryonic liver.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Liver is a vital organ and retains its regeneration capability throughout adulthood, which requires contributions from different cell populations, including liver precursors and intrahepatic stem cells. To overcome the mortality of hepatic progenitors (iHPs) in vitro, we aim to establish reversibly immortalized hepatic progenitor cells from mouse embryonic liver.
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Lignin dissolution in dialkylimidazolium-based ionic liquid-water mixtures.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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Lignin dissolution in dialkylimidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL)-water mixtures (40wt%-100wt% IL content) at 60°C was investigated. The IL content and type are found to considerably affect lignin solubility. For the IL-water mixtures except 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C4C1im]BF4), the maximum lignin solubility can be achieved at 70wt% IL content. Lignin solubility in IL-water mixtures with different cations follows the order 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C4C1im](+))>1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C6C1im](+))>1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C2C1im](+))>1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C8C1im](+))>1-butyl-3-ethylimidazolium ([C4C2im](+))>1-butyl-3-propylimidazolium ([C4C3im](+)). For IL mixtures with different anions, lignin solubility decreases in the following order: methanesulfonate (MeSO3(-))>acetate (MeCO2(-))>bromide (Br(-))>dibutylphosphate (DBP(-)). Evaluation using the theory of Hansen solubility parameter (HSP) is consistent with the experimental results, suggesting that HSP can aid in finding the appropriate range of IL content for IL-water mixtures. However, HSP cannot be used to evaluate the effect of IL type on lignin solubility.
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Identification of colonic fibroblast secretomes reveals secretory factors regulating colon cancer cell proliferation.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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Stromal microenvironment influences tumor cell proliferation and migration. Fibroblasts represent the most abundant stromal constituents. Here, we established two pairs of normal fibroblast (NF) and cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) cultures from colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues and the normal counterparts. The NFs and CAFs were stained positive for typical fibroblast markers and inhibited colon cancer (CC) cell proliferation in in vitro cocultures and in xenograft mouse models. The fibroblast conditioned media were analyzed using LC-MS and 227 proteins were identified at a false discovery rate of 1.3%, including 131 putative secretory and 20 plasma membrane proteins. These proteins were enriched for functional categories of extracellular matrix, adhesion, cell motion, inflammatory response, redox homeostasis and peptidase inhibitor. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, transgelin, follistatin-related protein 1 (FSTL1) and decorin was abundant in the fibroblast secretome as confirmed by Western blot. Silencing of FSTL1 and transgelin in colonic fibroblast cell line CCD-18Co induced an accelerated proliferation of CC cells in cocultures. Exogenous FSTL1 attenuates CC cell proliferation in a negative fashion. FSTL1 was upregulated in CC patient plasma and cancerous tissues but had no implication in prognosis. Our results provided novel insights into the molecular signatures and modulatory role of CC associated fibroblasts.
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Enhanced degradation of biphenyl from PCB-contaminated sediments: the impact of extracellular organic matter from Micrococcus luteus.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Recent advances in the bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated environments have focused on the development of approaches to stimulate the activities of indigenous bacterial communities. In this study, extracellular organic matter (EOM) from Micrococcus luteus was used to enhance the biphenyl-degrading capability of potentially functional microorganisms. The obtained results suggest that EOM significantly enhanced the biphenyl (BP)-degradation capability. Under a concentration of 3,500 mg/L BP, BP-degradation efficiency reached 60.8 % at a dosage of 10 % EOM (v/v), whereas the degradation efficiencies of control group (with inactivated EOM addition) and blank group (with lactate minimal medium) were only 21.5 and 6.2 %, respectively. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles demonstrated that EOM played a key role in shifts in the composition and diversity of bacterial community. The Illumina high-throughput sequencing analysis indicated that the genera of Rhodococcus and Pseudomonas closely related to BP/PCB-degradation were greatly abundant after EOM addition. Together with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-DGGE analysis, the link between the enhanced BP-degrading capability and the stimulation and resuscitation function of EOM in uncultured bacteria belonging to phylum Actinobacteria was tentatively established. These results suggest that EOM from M. luteus as an additive holds great potential for the efficient and cost-effective bioremediation of PCB-contaminated environment.
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The epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in China, 2004-2012: from intensified control to elimination.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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In China, the national malaria elimination programme has been operating since 2010. This study aimed to explore the epidemiological changes in patterns of malaria in China from intensified control to elimination stages.
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Laparoscopic versus Open Partial Nephrectomy for Multilocular Cystic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Direct Comparison Based on Single-Center Experience.
Urol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Objectives: To compare the treatment of laparoscopic (LPN) versus open partial nephrectomy (OPN) in patients with multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma (MCRCC). Methods: Thirty-seven patients diagnosed with MCRCC were reviewed retrospectively between January 2007 and January 2013 at our institution. They were divided into two groups: group 1 (LPN) consisted of 19 patients (51.4%) and group 2 (OPN) of 18 patients (48.6%). RENAL and the Preoperative Aspects and Dimensions Used for an Anatomical classification were applied to predict perioperative complications, which were graded based on the Clavien-Dindo classification. Results: The two groups were comparable with regard to all of the patients' baseline characteristics. In group 1, the mean operative time was 142.1 min, including the mean warm ischemia time (WIT) of 32.6 min; the mean estimated blood loss (EBL) was 96.1 ml, the mean retroperitoneal drainage lasted 3.6 days, and the mean postoperative hospital stay was 5.3 days. In group 2, the figures were 126.6 and 23.5 min, 223.3 ml, and 4.6 and 8.7 days, respectively. The differences in WIT, EBL, drainage days and hospitalization were statistically significant between both groups (p < 0.05). No recurrence or new lesions occurred in these patients during a mean follow-up of 37.8 months. Conclusions: Our single-center experience suggests that although it remains technically complex, demanding and challenging for MCRCC, LPN can still induce favorable perioperative results and survival rates in MCRCC are comparable with OPN. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Interferon regulatory factor 8 functions as a tumor suppressor in renal cell carcinoma and its promoter methylation is associated with patient poor prognosis.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8), as a central element of IFN-?-signaling, plays a critical role in tumor suppression. However, its expression and underlying molecular mechanism remain elusive in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Here, we examined IRF8 expression and methylation in RCC cell lines and primary tumors, and further assessed its tumor suppressive functions. We found that IRF8 was widely expressed in human normal tissues including kidney, but frequently downregulated by promoter methylation in RCC cell lines. IRF8 methylation was detected in 25% of primary tumors, but not in adjacent non-malignant renal tissues, and associated with higher tumor nuclear grade of RCC. Ectopic expression of IRF8 inhibited colony formation and migration abilities of RCC cells, through inducing cell cycle G2/M arrest and apoptosis. IFN-? could induce IRF8 expression in RCC cells, together with increased cleaved-PARP. We further found that IRF8 inhibited expression of oncogenes YAP1 and Survivin, as well as upregulated expression of tumor suppressor genes CASP1, p21 and PTEN. Collectively, our data demonstrate that IRF8 as a functional tumor suppressor is frequently methylated in RCC, and IRF8-mediated interferon signaling is involved in RCC pathogenesis.
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[Application of ICP-mS and AFS to detecting heavy metals in phosphorus fertilizers].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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In order to investigate heavy metals in phosphorus fertilizers in China, 159 samples of phosphorus fertilizers including imported fertilizers and domestic fertilizers were collected from fertilizer markets, and the contents of heavy metals were determined by ICP-MS and AFS after microwave digestion. The results showed that the phosphorous fertilizers contained certain amount of heavy metals, and there was great variability in the contents of heavy metals. The mean contents of Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, As and Hg were 0. 77, 35.6, 102.7, 24. 1, 16.6, 15.4, 19.4 and 0. 08 mg kg-1 fertilizer, respectively; based on the calculation of P2O5, the mean contents of above heavy metals were 4. 48, 258. 4, 767. 4, 190. 0, 151.3, 134. 5, 155. 8 and 8. 79 mg kg-1 P2 O5, respectively. The contents of heavy metals Cd, Cr, Pb, As and Hg in the tested samples accord with the ecological index of arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium and mercury for fertilizers (GB/T 23349-2009), with the exception of Cd in one imported sample of diammonium phosphate and As in one sample of mono-ammonium phosphate. Analyzing the contents of heavy metals in imported fertilizers, the Cd contents in imported fertilizers was ranged from 0. 02 to 27. 2 mg kg-1 fertilizer, the mean and median Cd contents in imported fertilizers were 3. 20 and 0. 41 mg kg-1 fertilizer, respectively. And the Cu, Cr and Hg contents in the imported fertilizers were higher than that of domestic fertilizers, the mean contents of Cu, Cr and Hg in imported fertilizers were 39. 4, 26. 6 and 0. 47 mg kg-1 fertilizer, respectively.
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A computational study on the photoelectric properties of various Bi2O 3 polymorphs as visible-light driven photocatalysts.
J Mol Model
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2014
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This paper presents first-principle studies on the photoelectric properties of various Bi2O3 polymorphs. The intrinsic reason of different photocatalytic activities was revealed by electronic structures and optical features. Results showed that for ?, ?, and ?-Bi2O3, the top of valence bands were mainly constructed by Bi6s and O2p orbitals, and the bottom of conduction bands were dominantly composed by Bi6p orbital. However, two intermediate bands were found at the Fermi level for ?-Bi2O3, which leads to a two-step transition from the top of valence band to the bottom of conduction band and facilitates electron transition under irradiation. Absent forbidden gap was found in ?-Bi2O3, resulting in a semimetallic character due to its intrinsic oxygen vacancy and high ionic conductivity. Moreover, the optical properties of ?, ?, and ?-Bi2O3 were investigated by absorption spectrum, dielectric constant function, and energy loss spectroscopy. We concluded that the photocatalytic activities followed in the order of ?-Bi2O3?>??-Bi2O3?>??-Bi2O3, in accord with the experimental report. Calculation results illustrated the experimental observations and provided a useful guidance in exploring promising visible-light semiconductor photocatalysts.
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Atorvastatin treatment improves the effects of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on acute myocardial infarction: The role of the RhoA/ROCK/ERK pathway.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Statins protect mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) against the harsh microenvironment and improve the efficacy of MSC transplantation after acute myocardial infarction (AMI); however, the mechanism remains uncertain. Furthermore, the transdifferentiation potential of MSCs in the post-infarct heart remains highly controversial. The RhoA/Rho-associated coiled-coil-forming kinase (ROCK) pathway participates in many aspects of the damaged heart after AMI and related to the "pleiotropic" effects of statins. This study aimed to explore whether atorvastatin (ATV) facilitates the survival and therapeutic efficacy of MSCs via the inhibition of RhoA/ROCK pathway and subsequently its downstream molecular extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2), and to investigate the transdifferentiation potential of MSCs in vivo.
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Association of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase gene polymorphisms and unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortions in Han Chinese couples.
Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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To investigate the association of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) gene polymorphisms with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortions (URSA) in a well-defined group of Han Chinese couples.
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Instance transfer learning with multisource dynamic TrAdaBoost.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Since the transfer learning can employ knowledge in relative domains to help the learning tasks in current target domain, compared with the traditional learning it shows the advantages of reducing the learning cost and improving the learning efficiency. Focused on the situation that sample data from the transfer source domain and the target domain have similar distribution, an instance transfer learning method based on multisource dynamic TrAdaBoost is proposed in this paper. In this method, knowledge from multiple source domains is used well to avoid negative transfer; furthermore, the information that is conducive to target task learning is obtained to train candidate classifiers. The theoretical analysis suggests that the proposed algorithm improves the capability that weight entropy drifts from source to target instances by means of adding the dynamic factor, and the classification effectiveness is better than single source transfer. Finally, experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has higher classification accuracy.
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A biological hierarchical model based underwater moving object detection.
Comput Math Methods Med
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Underwater moving object detection is the key for many underwater computer vision tasks, such as object recognizing, locating, and tracking. Considering the super ability in visual sensing of the underwater habitats, the visual mechanism of aquatic animals is generally regarded as the cue for establishing bionic models which are more adaptive to the underwater environments. However, the low accuracy rate and the absence of the prior knowledge learning limit their adaptation in underwater applications. Aiming to solve the problems originated from the inhomogeneous lumination and the unstable background, the mechanism of the visual information sensing and processing pattern from the eye of frogs are imitated to produce a hierarchical background model for detecting underwater objects. Firstly, the image is segmented into several subblocks. The intensity information is extracted for establishing background model which could roughly identify the object and the background regions. The texture feature of each pixel in the rough object region is further analyzed to generate the object contour precisely. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method gives a better performance. Compared to the traditional Gaussian background model, the completeness of the object detection is 97.92% with only 0.94% of the background region that is included in the detection results.
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Synthesis and evaluation of benzimidazole carbamates bearing indole moieties for antiproliferative and antitubulin activities.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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A series of novel benzimidazole carbamates bearing indole moieties with sulphur or selenium atoms connecting the aromatic rings were synthesised and evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against three human cancer cell lines (SGC-7901, A-549 and HT-1080) using an MTT assay. Compounds 10a, 10b, 7a, 7b and 7f showed significant activities against these cell lines. The most potent compound in this series, 10a, was selected to investigate its antitumour mechanism. In addition, molecular docking studies suggested that compound 10a interacts very closely with the nocodazole docking pose through hydrogen bonds at the colchicine binding site of tubulin.
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Effects of cytokine-induced killer cell treatment in colorectal cancer patients: a retrospective study.
Biomed. Pharmacother.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are ex vivo generated heterogeneous NK-like T-lymphocytes, which have anti-tumor effects in vitro and in vivo. This present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of autologous CIK cell immunotherapy on the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and immune cells were assessed. We found that the percentages of CD8(+), CD3(+) CD56(+), CD3(-) CD56(+) cell subsets were significantly increased from 19.7±6.3%, 13.8±7.9%, 1.0±1.2% to 35.8±11.6% (P<0.001), 20.9±12.5 (P<0.001), 14.4±9.5% (P<0.001), respectively in the CIK group after 14 days of incubation. The median PFS and median OS in the CIK group were 25.8 months and 41.3 months respectively, while 12.0 months and 30.8 months in the control group. The PFS and OS curves of the CIK group and control group indicated that there were also statistically differences between two groups in PFS (log-rank, P=0.01) and OS (log-rank, P=0.037). Our results indicate that CIK cell immunotherapy in combination with chemotherapy can reduce the recurrence rate and promote the survival time of patients with colorectal cancer.
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Alpha-lipoic acid improves high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis by modulating the transcription factors SREBP-1, FoxO1 and Nrf2 via the SIRT1/LKB1/AMPK pathway.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Understanding the mechanism by which alpha-lipoic acid supplementation has a protective effect upon nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in vivo and in vitro may lead to targets for preventing hepatic steatosis. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet, high-fat diet or high-fat diet supplemented with alpha-lipoic acid for 24weeks. HepG2 cells were incubated with normal medium, palmitate or alpha-lipoic acid. The lipid-lowering effects were measured. The protein expression and distribution were analyzed by Western blot, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence, respectively. We found that alpha-lipoic acid enhanced sirtuin 1 deacetylase activity through liver kinase B1 and stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase. By activating the sirtuin 1/liver kinase B1/AMP-activated protein kinase pathway, the translocation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 into the nucleus and forkhead box O1 into the cytoplasm was prevented. Alpha-lipoic acid increased adipose triacylglycerol lipase expression and decreased fatty acid synthase abundance. In in vivo and in vitro studies, alpha-lipoic acid also increased nuclear NF-E2-related factor 2 levels and downstream target amounts via the sirtuin 1 pathway. Alpha-lipoic acid eventually reduced intrahepatic and serum triglyceride content. The protective effects of alpha-lipoic acid on hepatic steatosis appear to be associated with the transcription factors sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, forkhead box O1 and NF-E2-related factor 2.
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Dihydrochalcones and homoisoflavanes from the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis (Chinese dragon's blood).
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Two new dihydrochalcones, 4-hydroxy-2,4'-dimethoxydihydrochalcone (1) and 3,4'-dihydroxy-2,4,6-trimethoxydihydrochalcone (2), and a new homoisoflavane, 7,3'-dihydroxy-8,4'-dimethoxyhomoisoflavane (3), along with 12 known compounds (4-15), were isolated from the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis (Chinese dragon's blood). Their structures were assigned by a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Diversity of cleavage pathways were proposed for dihydrochalcones and homoisoflavanes based on the mass spectroscopic behaviors of those identified compounds using hybrid ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry. All the compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages, and compound 9 exhibited mild inhibition of NO production in this assay with IC50 value of 50.3?M.
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Fluorescence-based ion-sensing with colloidal particles.
Curr Opin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Particle-based fluorescence sensors for the quantification of specific ions can be made by coupling ion-sensitive fluorophores to carrier particles, or by using intrinsically fluorescent particles whose fluorescence properties depend on the concentration of the ions. Despite the advantages of such particle-based sensors for the quantitative detection of ions, such as the possibility to tune the surface chemistry and thus entry portal of the sensor particles to cells, they have also some associated problems. Problems involve for example crosstalk of the ion-sensitive fluorescence read-out with pH, or spectral overlap of the emission spectra of different fluorescent particles in multiplexing formats. Here the benefits of using particle-based fluorescence sensors, their limitations and strategies to overcome these limitations will be described and exemplified with selected examples.
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The Evidence for the Contribution of the Autism Susceptibility Candidate 2 (AUTS2) Gene in Heroin Dependence Susceptibility.
J. Mol. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) rs6943555 in autism susceptibility candidate 2 (AUTS2) has been reported to be significantly associated with alcohol consumption in Europeans. In this study, we identified the SNP in AUTS2 contributing to the genetic susceptibility to heroin dependence. The potential association between heroin dependence and 21 SNPs (rs2270162, rs2851510, rs513150, rs595681, rs210606, rs10237984, rs13228123, rs10235781, rs6969375, rs6943555, rs10251416, rs17141963, rs12669427, rs723340, rs2293507, rs2293508, rs6960426, rs9886351, rs2293501, rs10277450, rs1918425) of AUTS2 was examined in a Chinese Han population using the MassARRAY system. The participants included 426 patients with heroin dependence and 416 healthy controls. Single SNP association, haplotype association, and clinical phenotype association were analyzed. Single SNP association revealed that AA homozygotes of rs6943555 were significantly over-represented in the patients with heroin dependence compared with the control subjects (P?=?0.0019). The patients with heroin dependence had a significantly higher frequency of the A allele (P?=?0.0003, odd ratio (OR)?=?1.429, 95 % confidence interval (CI)?=?1.175-1.738). Strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed in five blocks (D'?>?0.9). In block 2, significantly more A-A haplotypes (P?=?0.006 after Bonferroni corrections) and significantly fewer T-A haplotypes (P?=?0.040) were found in the patients with heroin dependence. The genotype and clinical phenotype correlation study of the rs6943555 carriers showed that the amount of heroin self-injection was lower in the patients with the AA genotype relative to AT + TT genotypes (P?
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Correlation of high-molecular-weight adiponectin and leptin concentrations with anthropometric parameters and insulin sensitivity in newborns.
Int J Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Objective. High-molecular-weight adiponectin (HMW-adiponectin) and leptin are two important adipokines. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the two adipokines and anthropometric measurements of neonates at birth. Furthermore, we would like to explore whether HMW-adiponectin and leptin correlate with insulin sensitivity in neonates. Methods. Venous cord blood samples were obtained from 266 full-term healthy neonates consecutively born at Peking Union Medical College Hospital. HMW-adiponectin, leptin, blood glucose, and insulin concentrations were measured. Results. HMW-adiponectin and leptin were significantly higher in females compared with males (P = 0.031 and P = 0.000, resp.). Univariate correlation analysis showed that leptin concentrations in cord blood were positively associated with gestational age, birth weight, body length, ponderal index, placenta weight, insulin, and insulin sensitivity (all P < 0.001). However, there was no correlation between cord blood HMW-adiponectin levels and foetal anthropometric measurements or foetal insulin sensitivity indicators (all P > 0.05). Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that leptin (B = -0.126, P = 0.045) in cord blood was independently associated with insulin sensitivity. Conclusions. Leptin concentrations, but not HMW-adiponectin, were positively associated with foetal anthropometric measurements. Leptin concentrations are significantly associated with foetal insulin sensitivity, and there were no significant correlations between HMW-adiponectin levels and foetal insulin sensitivity.
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Characteristics of surface O3 over Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Surface O3 was monitored continuously during Aug. 12, 2010 to Jul. 21, 2011 at a high elevation site (3200m above sea level) in Qinghai Lake area (36°58'37?N, 99°53'56?E) in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. Daily average O3 ranged from 21.8ppbv to 65.3ppbv with an annual average of 41.0ppbv. Seasonal average of O3 followed a decreasing order of summer>autumn>spring>winter. Diurnal variations of O3 showed low concentrations during daytime and high concentrations during late night and early morning. An intensive campaign was also conducted during Aug. 13-31, 2010 to investigate correlations between meteorological or chemical conditions and O3. It was found that O3 was poorly correlated with solar radiation due to the insufficient NOx in the ambient air, thus limiting O3 formation under strong solar radiation. In contrast, high O3 levels always coincided with strong winds, suggesting that stratospheric O3 and long range transport might be the main sources of O3 in this rural area. Back-trajectory analysis supported this hypothesis and further indicated the transport of air masses from northwest, northeast and southeast directions.
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Whole-brain 320-detector row dynamic volume CT perfusion detected crossed cerebellar diaschisis after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.
Neuroradiology
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of 320-detector row CT used to detect crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) in patients with unilateral supratentorial spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH).
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Associations between thyroid autoantibody status and abnormal pregnancy outcomes in euthyroid women.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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We investigated whether thyroid autoantibody status influences pregnancy outcomes in euthyroid women, by comparing abnormal pregnancy outcome rates between those who tested positive for thyroid autoantibodies (Ab(+)) and those who tested autoantibody-negative (Ab(-)). Euthyroid pregnant women (n = 7,641) underwent tests for serum thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb). The subjects were divided into 4 groups according to thyroid antibody status: TPOAb(-)/TgAb(-) (92.9 %); TPOAb(+)/TgAb(-) (3.2 %); TPOAb(-)/TgAb(+) (2.0 %); and TPOAb(+)/TgAb(+) (1.9 %). The incidence rates of the following abnormal pregnancy outcomes were compared among the 4 groups and analyzed by Fisher's exact test: gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, placenta previa, placental abruption, premature rupture of fetal membrane (PROM), intrauterine growth restriction, fetal distress, fetal anomalies, stillbirth, preterm birth, and low birth weight. Among the 4 groups, there were no significant differences in age, gestational age, or in the incidence rates of abnormal pregnancy outcomes, except for PROM and low birth weight. The highest incidence rates for PROM and low birth weight were in the TPOAb(-)/TgAb(+) and TPOAb(+)/TgAb(+) subjects, respectively. TgAb positivity and TPOAb positivity were associated with PROM and low birth weight, respectively. Underlying factors that govern the association between thyroid autoantibodies and PROM and low birth weight require further investigation.
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High-throughput generation of an activation-tagged mutant library for functional genomic analyses in tobacco.
Planta
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is an ideal model system for molecular biological and genetic studies. In this study, activation tagging was used to generate approximately 100,000 transgenic tobacco plants. Southern blot analysis indicated that there were 1.6 T-DNA inserts per line on average in our transformed population. The phenotypes observed include abnormalities in leaf and flower morphology, plant height, flowering time, branching, and fertility. Among 6,000 plants in the T0 generation, 57 displayed obvious phenotypes. Among 4,105 lines in the T1 generation, 311 displayed abnormal phenotypes. Fusion primer and nested integrated PCR was used to identify 963 independent genomic loci of T-DNA insertion sites in 1,257 T1 lines. The distribution of T-DNA insertions was non-uniform and correlated well with the predicted gene density along each chromosome. The insertions were biased toward genic regions and noncoding regions within 5 kb of a gene. Fifteen plants that showed the same phenotype as their parent with a dominant pattern in the T2 generation were chosen randomly to detect the expression levels of genes adjacent to the T-DNA integration sites by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Fifteen candidate genes were identified. Activation was observed in 7 out of the 15 adjacent genes, including one that was located 13.1 kb away from the enhancer sequence. The activation-tagged population described in this paper will be a highly valuable resource for tobacco functional genomics research using both forward and reverse genetic approaches.
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Mechanism of dialkyl phthalates removal from aqueous solution using ?-cyclodextrin and starch based polyurethane polymer adsorbents.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
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Phthalate esters have been known as potent endocrine disruptors and carcinogens; and their removal from water have been of considerable concern recently. In the present study, ?-cyclodextrin polyurethane polymer (GPP), ?-cyclodextrin/starch polyurethane copolymer (GSP), and starch polyurethane polymer (SPP) have been synthesized and characterized. Their adsorption efficiencies for the removal of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP) from aqueous solutions were investigated. The characterization results showed the success of the synthesis. The isotherms were L-type, and both the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm gave good fittings to the adsorption data. Adsorption mechanisms suggested that these adsorbents spontaneously adsorb phthalate molecules driven mainly by enthalpy change, and the adsorption process was attributed to multiple adsorbent-adsorbate interactions such as hydrogen bonding, ?-? stacking, and pore filling. The results showed that starch and ?-cyclodextrin polyurethane polymer adsorbents have excellent potential as adsorbent materials for the removal of phthalates from the contaminated water.
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Effects of Chinese Medicine Shen-Fu Injection () on the expression of inflammatory cytokines and complements during post-resuscitation immune dysfunction in a porcine model.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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To investigate the action of Shen-Fu Injection (, SFI) in regulating the expression of the serum complements and inflammatory cytokines synthesized and released in response to the stress of global ischemia accompanying cardiac arrest (CA) and resuscitation.
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MicroRNA-93 suppress colorectal cancer development via Wnt/?-catenin pathway downregulating.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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MicroRNA-93 (miR-93) is involved in several carcinoma progressions. It has been reported that miR-93 acts as a promoter or suppressor in different tumors. However, till now, the role of miR-93 in colon cancer is unclear. Herein, we have found that expression of miR-93 was lower in human colon cancer tissue and colorectal carcinoma cell lines compared with normal colon mucosa. Forced expression of miR-93 in colon cancer cells inhibits colon cancer invasion, migration, and proliferation. Furthermore, miR-93 may downregulate the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, which was confirmed by measuring the expression level of the ?-catenin, axin, c-Myc, and cyclin-D1 in this pathway. Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 7 (Smad7), as an essential molecular protein for nuclear accumulation of ?-catenin in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, is predicted as a putative target gene of miR-93 by the silico method and demonstrated that it may be suppressed by targeting its 3'UTR. These findings showed that miR-93 suppresses colorectal cancer development via downregulating Wnt/?-catenin, at least in part, by targeting Smad7. This study revealed that miR-93 is an important negative regulator in colon cancer and suggested that miR-93 may serve as a novel therapeutic agent that offers benefits for colon cancer treatment.
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Rapid screening and identification of target constituents using full scan-parent ions list-dynamic exclusion acquisition coupled to diagnostic product ions analysis on a hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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A highly sensitive and effective strategy for rapid screening and identification of target constituents has been developed using full scan-parent ions list-dynamic exclusion (FS-PIL-DE) acquisition coupled to diagnostic product ions (DPIs) analysis on a hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The FS-PIL-DE was adopted as a survey scan to trigger the MS/MS acquisition of all the predictable constituents contained in traditional Chinese medicines. Additionally, DPIs analysis can provide a criterion to judge the target constituents detected into certain chemical families. Results from analyzing polymethoxylated flavonoids (PMFs) in the leaves of Citrus reticulata Blanco demonstrated that FS-PIL-DE was capable of targeting a greater number of constituents than FS, FS-PIL and FS-DE, thereby increasing the coverage of constituent screening. As a result, 135 PMFs including 81 polymethoxyflavones, 54 polymethoxyflavanones or polymethoxychalcones were identified preliminarily. And this was the first time to systematically report the presence of PMFs in the leaves of Citrus reticulata Blanco, especially for polymethoxylated flavanones and chalcones, most of which were new compounds. The results indicated that the developed FS-PIL-DE coupled to DPIs analysis methodology could be employed as a rapid, effective technique to screen and identify target constituents from TCMs extracts and other organic matter mixtures whose compounds contained can also be classified into families based on the common carbon skeletons.
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Diagnostic and prognostic value of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 for sepsis in the ED: an observational study.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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IntroductionThe aim of this study was to evaluate the early diagnostic, risk stratification and prognostic value of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), compared with procalcitonin (PCT) and the Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis (MEDS) score in septic patients in the emergency department (ED).MethodsIn total, 480 consecutive adult patients were enrolled in this study. They fulfilled the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria and were admitted to the ED of Beijing Chaoyang Hospital from February 2013 to August 2013. A total of 40 healthy controls comprised the control group. The patients were classified into four groups: SIRS, sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock. Serum NGAL, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and PCT were measured, and MEDS score was calculated at enrollment. The prognostic values of NGAL, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were compared with PCT and MEDS score. A 28-day follow-up was performed for all patients.ResultsThe median levels of serum NGAL and TIMP-1 increased with sepsis severity. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) curves of NGAL or TIMP-1 were greater than those of PCT and MEDS score in diagnosing and predicting 28-day mortality, and the AUC of a combination of NGAL and MEDS score or TIMP-1 and MEDS score was more significant. Serum NGAL, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels were significantly higher in non-survivors than survivors at 28 days¿ follow-up. In addition, the level of NGAL was much higher in septic patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) than those without AKI. NGAL, TIMP-1, MMP-9 and MEDS score were found to be independent predictors of 28-day mortality in septic patients. The levels of serum NGAL and TIMP-1 were positively correlated with PCT and MEDS score in every septic group.ConclusionsNGAL and TIMP-1 are valuable for the risk stratification, early diagnosis and prognostication of sepsis in the ED. NGAL is also a valuable biomarker for prognosis of septic patients with AKI in the ED.
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