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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Thermally tunable electric mie resonance of dielectric cut-wire type metamaterial.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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In this manuscript, we present on a thermally tunable electric Mie resonance of dielectric cut-wire type metamaterial. Dielectric cut-wire exhibits Lorentz-type frequency dependent negative effective permittivity followed by zero value around its fundamental Mie resonance, resulting from dipole-oscillation of displacement currents. Furthermore, the operation frequency of electric resonance frequency can be varied by wire length and temperature variation. As environmental temperature changes by 40 °C, electric Mie resonance can be reversibly tuned by 1000 MHz, due to the thermal dependent permittivity character of ceramic.
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Upregulation of HIF-1? by Hypoxia Protect Neuroblastoma Cells from Apoptosis by Promoting Survivin Expression.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Apoptosis is one of main types of neural cell death and is reversible and is a major target of therapeutic interventions. However, detailed apoptotic cascades still need to be recognized. In present study, we determined the promotion of HIF-1? and survivin in brain samples of a mouse model of hypoxic-ischemia and in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells post hypoxia treatment. Then gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies were adopted to manipulate the HIF-1? in SH-SY5Y cells, and hypoxia-induced survivin upregulation and cell apoptosis were determined. Results demonstrated that the HIF-1? and survivin were significantly promoted in a mouse model of hypoxic-ischemia or in SH-SY5Y cells post hypoxia in vitro. Manually upregulated HIF-1? could promote the hypoxia-induced survivin upregulation and improve the hypoxia-induced SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis. On the other hand, the HIF-1? knockdown by RNAi reduced the hypoxia-induced survivin upregulation and cell apoptosis. Therefore, the present study confirmed the protective role of HIF-1? and survivin in the hypoxia-induced SH- SY5Y cell apoptosis, and the survivin upregulation by hypoxia is HIF-1?-dependent. Promotion of HIF-1? and survivin might be a valuable stragegy for therapeutic intervention for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.
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Chest modeling and personalized surgical planning for pectus excavatum.
Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Pectus excavatum is among the most common major congenital anomalies of the chest wall whose correction can be performed via minimally invasive Nuss technique that places a pectus bar to elevate the sternum anteriorly. However, the size and bending of the pectus bar are manually modeled intraoperatively by trial-and-error. The procedure requires intense pain management in the months following surgery. In response, we are developing a novel distraction device for incremental and personalized PE correction with minimal risk and pain, akin to orthodontic treatment using dental braces. To design the device, we propose in this study a personalized surgical planning framework for PE correction from clinical noncontrast CT. First, we segment the ribs and sternum via kernel graph cuts. Then costal cartilages, which have very low contrast in noncontrast CT, are modeled as 3D anatomical curves using the cosine series representation and estimated using a statistical shape model. The size and shape of the correction device are estimated through model fitting. Finally, the corrected/post-surgical chest is simulated in relation to the estimated shape of correction device. The root mean square mesh distance between the estimated cartilages and ground truth on 30 noncontrast CT scans was 1.28 +/- 0.81 mm. Our method found that the average deformation of the sterna and cartilages with the simulation of PE correction was 49.71 +/- 10.11 mm.
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[Application of frontal sinus optical probe in endoscopic frontal sinus surgery].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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To discuss the application of frontal sinus optical probe in endoscopic frontal sinus surgery.
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[Feasibility study of QAMS for quantitative analysis of multiple structural types of ingredients in Zhizi Jinhua pill].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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To study the technical feasibility of QAMS to determine different structural types of ingredients in Zhizi Jinhua pill, a Chinese patent medicine.
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Dermatopharmacokinetic bioequivalence study of two types of topical patches containing loxoprofen sodium.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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This study evaluated the bioequivalence of two types of topical loxoprofen patches, LX-A and LX-P, in healthy Chinese volunteers through a dermatopharmacokinetic approach.
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Therapeutic effects and adverse drug reactions are affected by icotinib exposure and CYP2C19 and EGFR genotypes in Chinese non-small cell lung cancer patients.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate how CYP2C19 affects icotinib and metabolite' exposure, and to determine whether the exposure and EGFR genotype influences survival time, tumor metastasis and adverse drug reactions.
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Magnetically tunable Mie resonance-based dielectric metamaterials.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2014
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Electromagnetic materials with tunable permeability and permittivity are highly desirable for wireless communication and radar technology. However, the tunability of electromagnetic parameters is an immense challenge for conventional materials and metamaterials. Here, we demonstrate a magnetically tunable Mie resonance-based dielectric metamaterials. The magnetically tunable property is derived from the coupling of the Mie resonance of dielectric cube and ferromagnetic precession of ferrite cuboid. Both the simulated and experimental results indicate that the effective permeability and permittivity of the metamaterial can be tuned by modifying the applied magnetic field. This mechanism offers a promising means of constructing microwave devices with large tunable ranges and considerable potential for tailoring via a metamaterial route.
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Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Tolerability of Single Ascending Doses of RCT-18 in Chinese Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Clin Pharmacokinet
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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RCT-18 is a novel recombinant fusion protein that targets and neutralizes B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL). This first in-human study investigated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, and pharmacodynamics of RCT-18 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
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Molecular regulation of ovarian cancer cell invasion.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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The molecular mechanism underlying ovarian cancer invasiveness and metastasis remains unclear. Since significant downregulation in microRNA 200 (miRNA200) family (miR200a, miR200b, and miR200c) has been reported in the invasive ovarian cancer cells, here, we used two human ovarian cancer cell lines, OVCAR3 and SKOV3, to study the molecular basis of miR200, matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) activation, and cancer invasiveness. We found that overexpression of either miR200 family member in OVCAR3 or SKOV3 cells significantly inhibited production and secretion of MMP3 and cancer invasiveness. Moreover, forced MMP3 expression abolished miR200-induced inhibition of ovarian cancer cell invasiveness, suggesting that miR200 family inhibited ovarian cell invasiveness via downregulating MMP3. Furthermore, ZEB1, a major target of miR200, was inhibited by miR200 overexpression. Forced ZEB1 expression abolished miR200-induced inhibition of ovarian cancer cell invasiveness, suggesting that ZEB1 is a direct target of miR200 for inhibiting ovarian cell invasiveness. Finally, phosphorylated SMAD3 (pSMAD3), a major partner of ZEB1, was efficiently inhibited by miR200, which could be restored by forced expression of ZEB1, but not by forced expression of MMP3, suggesting that ZEB1/pSMAD3 is signaling cascade upstream of MMP3 in this model. Taken together, our data suggest that miR200 family inhibited ovarian cancer cell invasiveness and metastasis by downregulating MMP3, possibly through ZEB1/pSMAD3.
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[Effect of p53-regulated apoptosis-inducing protein 1 transfection on the biological characteristics of PC-3M human prostate cancer cells].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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To investigate the effect of p53-regulated apoptosis-inducing protein 1 (p53AIP1) gene on the proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, invasion and migration of PC-3M human prostate cancer cells in vitro.
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Exposure to bisphenol A at physiological concentrations observed in Chinese children promotes primordial follicle growth through the PI3K/Akt pathway in an ovarian culture system.
Toxicol In Vitro
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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The worldwide increase in the use of bisphenol A (BPA) has resulted in increased human exposure, which could affect human reproductive function. Few studies have investigated the effect of BPA exposure on the primordial follicle pool. In this study, we employed a neonatal ovarian culture system comprising organ obtained from female C57BL/6 pups on postnatal day 4 to assess the effect of BPA on the primordial follicle pool. Ovaries were cultured with BPA (0.1 ?M, physiological concentration found in children's blood, and 1 ?M, 10 ?M) or vehicle for 10 days. Our study revealed that the primary follicle number increased during the early time points (?5 days), and we observed a reduction in the primordial follicle pool at a later time point (day 10). This reduction at day 10 was due to increased follicle activation and reduced follicle atresia, as determined by immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 and active caspase-3. Then we examined the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, which is known to be important for early follicle growth. BPA exposure induced the upregulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, which was reversed by concomitant treatment with PI3K inhibitor. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for BPA-induced primordial follicle activation that involves the PI3K/Akt pathway.
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MethylPurify: tumor purity deconvolution and differential methylation detection from single tumor DNA methylomes.
Genome Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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We propose a statistical algorithm MethylPurify that uses regions with bisulfite reads showing discordant methylation levels to infer tumor purity from tumor samples alone. MethylPurify can identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) from individual tumor methylome samples, without genomic variation information or prior knowledge from other datasets. In simulations with mixed bisulfite reads from cancer and normal cell lines, MethylPurify correctly inferred tumor purity and identified over 96% of the DMRs. From patient data, MethylPurify gave satisfactory DMR calls from tumor methylome samples alone, and revealed potential missed DMRs by tumor to normal comparison due to tumor heterogeneity.
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Photochemical transformation of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in surface coastal waters: effects of chloride and ferric ions.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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The effects of several aquatic environmental factors on the photochemical transformation of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) have been investigated. Ferric ion (Fe(III)) has been found to promote the phototransformation of BDE-47, and this process is further enhanced with the added chloride ion (Cl(-)), while it is suppressed with increasing pH. Electron spin resonance results show that the formation of hydroxyl radical, and the added Cl(-) could influence the generation of hydroxyl radical in Fe(III) solution. Hence, Cl(-) enhances the phototransformation of BDE-47 most probably because of the reaction with Fe(III) species under irradiation, yielding hydroxyl and chloride radicals. These radicals can not only decompose PBDEs, but also lead to their photodebromination and photochlorination. These results indicate that the aquatic environmental factors and Cl(-) in particular played an important role in the photochemical transformation process of PBDEs, providing insight into the likely fate of PBDEs in the marine environment.
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Effect of alkalinity on nitrite accumulation in treatment of coal chemical industry wastewater using moving bed biofilm reactor.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Nitrogen removal via nitrite (the nitrite pathway) is more suitable for carbon-limited industrial wastewater. Partial nitrification to nitrite is the primary step to achieve nitrogen removal via nitrite. The effect of alkalinity on nitrite accumulation in a continuous process was investigated by progressively increasing the alkalinity dosage ratio (amount of alkalinity to ammonia ratio, mol/mol). There is a close relationship among alkalinity, pH and the state of matter present in aqueous solution. When alkalinity was insufficient (compared to the theoretical alkalinity amount), ammonia removal efficiency increased first and then decreased at each alkalinity dosage ratio, with an abrupt removal efficiency peak. Generally, ammonia removal efficiency rose with increasing alkalinity dosage ratio. Ammonia removal efficiency reached to 88% from 23% when alkalinity addition was sufficient. Nitrite accumulation could be achieved by inhibiting nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) by free ammonia (FA) in the early period and free nitrous acid in the later period of nitrification when alkalinity was not adequate. Only FA worked to inhibit the activity of NOB when alkalinity addition was sufficient.
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Improved beta-carotene and lycopene production by Blakeslea trispora with ultrasonic treatment in submerged fermentation.
Z. Naturforsch., C, J. Biosci.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to investigate the effect of ultrasonic treatment on beta-carotene production by Blakeslea trispora. The optimized strategy involved exposing three-day-old mycelial cultures to ultrasonic treatment at a fixed frequency of 20 kHz, power of 491 W, treatment time of 3 min, working time of 3 s, and rest time of 5.8 s, repeated four times at a 24-h interval. Mycelium growth was not significantly promoted under ultrasonic stimulation; however, the glucose metabolism increased by about 10%, the average size of the aggregates significantly decreased, and the uptake rate of imidazole into cells was increased about 2.5-fold. After a 6-d culture, the technique produced 173 mg/L of beta-carotene and 82 mg/L of lycopene, which represented an increase of nearly 40.7% and 52.7%, respectively, over the yields obtained in cultures without ultrasonic treatment.
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[Levels of serum lipids in rural populations with diabetes and pre-diabetes in Chengdu].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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To investigate the serum lipid levels in rural residents with diabetes and pre-diabetes conditions in Chengdu.
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SiLEA14, a novel atypical LEA protein, confers abiotic stress resistance in foxtail millet.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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BackgroundLate embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are involved in protecting higher plants from damage caused by environmental stresses. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is an important cereal crop for food and feed in semi-arid areas. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying tolerance to these conditions are not well defined.ResultsHere, we characterized a novel atypical LEA gene named SiLEA14 from foxtail millet. It contains two exons separated by one intron. SiLEA14 was expressed in roots, stems, leaves, inflorescences and seeds at different levels under normal growth conditions. In addition, SiLEA14 was dramatically induced by osmotic stress, NaCl and exogenous abscisic acid. The SiLEA14 protein was localized in the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Overexpression of SiLEA14 improved Escherichia coli growth performance compared with the control under salt stress. To further assess the function of SiLEA14 in plants, transgenic Arabidopsis and foxtail millet plants that overexpressed SiLEA14 were obtained. The transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings showed higher tolerance to salt and osmotic stress than the wild type (WT). Similarly, the transgenic foxtail millet showed improved growth under salt and drought stresses compared with the WT. Taken together, our results indicated that SiLEA14 is a novel atypical LEA protein and plays important roles in resistance to abiotic stresses in plants.ConclusionWe characterized a novel atypical LEA gene SiLEA14 from foxtail millet, which plays important roles in plant abiotic stress resistance. Modification of SiLEA14 expression may improve abiotic stress resistance in agricultural crops.
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Spatial and temporal activity of the foxtail millet (Setaria italica) seed-specific promoter pF128.
Planta
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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pF128 drives GUS specifically expressed in transgenic seeds of foxtail millet and Zea mays with higher activity than the constitutive CaMV35S promoter and the maize seed-specific 19Z promoter. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), a member of the Poaceae family, is an important food and fodder crop in arid regions. Foxtail millet is an excellent C4 crop model owing to its small genome (~490 Mb), self-pollination and availability of a complete genome sequence. F128 was isolated from a cDNA library of foxtail millet immature seeds. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that F128 mRNA was specifically expressed in immature and mature seeds. The highest F128 mRNA level was observed 5 days after pollination and gradually decreased as the seed matured. Sequence analysis suggested that the protein encoded by F128 is likely a protease inhibitor/seed storage protein/lipid-transfer protein. The 1,053 bp 5' flanking sequence of F128 (pF128) was isolated and fused to the GUS reporter gene. The corresponding vector was then transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana, foxtail millet and Zea mays. GUS analysis revealed that pF128 drove GUS expression efficiently and specifically in the seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis, foxtail millet and Zea mays. GUS activity was also detected in Arabidopsis cotyledons. Activity of pF128 was higher than that observed for the constitutive CaMV35S promoter and the maize seed-specific 19 Zein (19Z) promoter. These results indicate that pF128 is a seed-specific promoter. Its application is expected to be of considerable value in plant genetic engineering.
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Role of the texture features of images in the diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules in different sizes.
Chin. J. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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To explore the role of the texture features of images in the diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) in different sizes.
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Supramolecular Lego assembly towards three-dimensional multi-responsive hydrogels.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Inspired by the assembly of Lego toys, hydrogel building blocks with heterogeneous responsiveness are assembled utilizing macroscopic supramolecular recognition as the adhesion force. The Lego hydrogel provides 3D transformation upon pH variation. After disassembly of the building blocks by changing the oxidation state, they can be re-assembled into a completely new shape.
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Rare earth fluoride nano-/microstructures: hydrothermal synthesis, luminescent properties and applications.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Rare earth fluoride materials have attracted wide interest and come to the forefront in nanophotonics due to their distinct electrical, optical and magnetic properties as well as their potential applications in diverse fields such as optical telecommunication, lasers, biochemical probes, infrared quantum counters, and medical diagnostics. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the flourishing field of rare earth fluorides materials in the past decade. We summarize the recent research progress on the preparation, morphology, luminescent properties and application of rare earth fluoride-based luminescent materials by hydrothermal systems. Various rare earth fluoride materials are obtained by fine-tuning of experimental conditions, such as capping agents, fluoride source, acidity, temperature and reaction time. The controlled morphology, luminescent properties and application of the rare earth fluorides are briefly discussed with typical examples.
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Enhanced 4T1 breast carcinoma anticancer activity by co-delivery of doxorubicin and curcumin with core-shell drug-carrier based on heparin modified poly(L-lactide) grafted polyethylenimine cationic nanoparticles.
J Biomed Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Use of single chemotherapy agents has shown some limitations in anti-tumor treatment, such as development of drug resistance, severe adverse reactions and limited regime for therapeutic use. Combination of two or more therapeutic drugs is a feasible strategy to overcome these limitations. This paper reports study of co-delivery by core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) with hydrophobic PLLA core loaded with curcumin (Cur) and hydrophilic heparin shell adsorbing Doxorubicin (DOX). Characterizations of Cur-PEA NPs, Cur-PEA/heparin NPs and DOX adsorbing into Cur-PEA/heparin NPs (DOX-Cur NPs) were also investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Malvern Zetasizer. Studies on cellular uptake of DOX-Cur NPs demonstrated that both drugs were effectively taken up by 4T1 tumor cells. Furthermore, DOX-Cur NPs suppressed 4T1 tumor cells growth more efficiently than either DOX or Cur alone at the same concentrations, as measured by flow cytometry (FCM). We found out that intravenous injection of DOX-Cur NPs efficiently inhibited growth of subcutaneous 4T1 breast carcinoma in vivo (p < 0.01) and prolonged survival of the treated 4T1 breast carcinoma mice. Moreover, the pathological damage to the cardiac tissue in mice treated with DOX-Cur NPs was significantly less severe than that of mice treated with free DOX. This study suggested that DOX-Cur NPs may have promising applications in breast carcinoma therapy.
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Association of T174M polymorphism of angiotensinogen gene with essential hypertension: A meta-analysis.
Genet. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2014
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The association between T174M polymorphism of angiotensinogen gene and essential hypertension risk remains controversial. We herein performed a meta-analysis to achieve a reliable estimation of their relationship. All the studies published up to May 2013 on the association between T174M polymorphism and essential hypertension risk were identified by searching the electronic repositories PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE, Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Ultimately, nine eligible studies, including 2188 essential hypertension cases and 2459 controls, were enrolled in this meta-analysis. No significant associations were found under the overall ORs for M-allele comparison (M vs. T, pooled OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.62-1.37), MM vs. TT (pooled OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.29-2.51), TM vs. TT n (pooled OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.63-1.32), recessive model (MM vs. TT+TM, pooled OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.35-2.30), dominant model (MM+TM vs. TT, pooled OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.60-1.38) between T174M polymorphism and risk for essential hypertension. This meta-analysis suggested that the T174M polymorphism of the angiotensinogen gene might not be associated with the susceptibility of essential hypertension in Asian or European populations.
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Size of solitary pulmonary nodule was the risk factor of malignancy.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of the sizes of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) in predicting their potential malignancies.
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Coronavirus membrane-associated papain-like proteases induce autophagy through interacting with Beclin1 to negatively regulate antiviral innate immunity.
Protein Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Autophagy plays important roles in modulating viral replication and antiviral immune response. Coronavirus infection is associated with the autophagic process, however, little is known about the mechanisms of autophagy induction and its contribution to coronavirus regulation of host innate responses. Here, we show that the membrane-associated papain-like protease PLP2 (PLP2-TM) of coronaviruses acts as a novel autophagy-inducing protein. Intriguingly, PLP2-TM induces incomplete autophagy process by increasing the accumulation of autophagosomes but blocking the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes. Furthermore, PLP2-TM interacts with the key autophagy regulators, LC3 and Beclin1, and promotes Beclin1 interaction with STING, the key regulator for antiviral IFN signaling. Finally, knockdown of Beclin1 partially reverses PLP2-TM's inhibitory effect on innate immunity which resulting in decreased coronavirus replication. These results suggested that coronavirus papain-like protease induces incomplete autophagy by interacting with Beclin1, which in turn modulates coronavirus replication and antiviral innate immunity.
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Antimicrobial activities and membrane-active mechanism of CPF-C1 against multidrug-resistant bacteria, a novel antimicrobial peptide derived from skin secretions of the tetraploid frog Xenopus clivii.
J. Pept. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Hospital-acquired infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria pose significant challenges for treatment, which necessitate the development of new antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides are considered potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics. The skin of Anurans (frogs and toads) amphibians is an extraordinarily rich source of antimicrobial peptides. CPF-C1 is a typical cationic antimicrobial peptide that was originally isolated from the tetraploid frog Xenopus clivii. Our results showed that CPF-C1 has potent antimicrobial activity against both sensitive and multidrug-resistant bacteria. It disrupted the outer and inner membranes of bacterial cells. CPF-C1 induced both propidium iodide uptake into the bacterial cell and the leakage of calcein from large liposome vesicles, which suggests a mode of action that involves membrane disturbance. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy verified the morphologic changes of CPF-C1-treated bacterial cells and large liposome vesicles. The membrane-dependent mode of action signifies that the CPF-C1 peptide functions freely and without regard to conventional resistant mechanisms. Additionally, it is difficult for bacteria to develop resistance against CPF-C1 under this action mode. Other studies indicated that CPF-C1 had low cytotoxicity against mammalian cell. In conclusion, considering the increase in multidrug-resistant bacterial infections, CPF-C1 may offer a new strategy that can be considered a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of diseases caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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miR-221/222 promotes S-phase entry and cellular migration in control of basal-like breast cancer.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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The miR-221/222 cluster has been demonstrated to function as oncomiR in human cancers. miR-221/222 promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and confers tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer. However, the effects and mechanisms by which miR-221/222 regulates breast cancer aggressiveness remain unclear. Here we detected a much higher expression of miR-221/222 in highly invasive basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) cells than that in non-invasive luminal cells. A microRNA dataset from breast cancer patients indicated an elevated expression of miR-221/222 in BLBC subtype. S-phase entry of the cell cycle was associated with the induction of miR-221/222 expression. miRNA inhibitors specially targeting miR-221 or miR-222 both significantly suppressed cellular migration, invasion and G1/S transition of the cell cycle in BLBC cell types. Proteomic analysis demonstrated the down-regulation of two tumor suppressor genes, suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibit 1B (CDKN1B), by miR-221/222. This is the first report to reveal miR-221/222 regulation of G1/S transition of the cell cycle. These findings demonstrate that miR-221/222 contribute to the aggressiveness in control of BLBC.
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Maize ZmRACK1 is involved in the plant response to fungal phytopathogens.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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The receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) belongs to a protein subfamily containing a tryptophan-aspartic acid-domain (WD) repeat structure. Compelling evidence indicates that RACK1 can interact with many signal molecules and affect different signal transduction pathways. In this study, we cloned a maize RACK1 gene (ZmRACK1) by RT-PCR. The amino acid sequence of ZmRACK1 had seven WD repeats in which there were typical GH (glycine-histidine) and WD dipeptides. Comparison with OsRACK1 from rice revealed 89% identity at the amino acid level. Expression pattern analysis by RT-PCR showed that ZmRACK1 was expressed in all analyzed tissues of maize and that its transcription in leaves was induced by abscisic acid and jasmonate at a high concentration. Overexpression of ZmRACK1 in maize led to a reduction in symptoms caused by Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) on maize leaves. The expression levels of the pathogenesis-related protein genes, PR-1 and PR-5, increased 2.5-3 times in transgenic maize, and reactive oxygen species production was more active than in the wild-type. Yeast two-hybrid assays showed that ZmRACK1 could interact with RAC1, RAR1 and SGT1. This study and previous work leads us to believe that ZmRACK1 may form a complex with regulators of plant disease resistance to coordinate maize reactions to pathogens.
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Digital facial dysmorphology for genetic screening: Hierarchical constrained local model using ICA.
Med Image Anal
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Down syndrome, the most common single cause of human birth defects, produces alterations in physical growth and mental retardation. If missed before birth, the early detection of Down syndrome is crucial for the management of patients and disease. However, the diagnostic accuracy for pediatricians prior to cytogenetic results is moderate and the access to specialists is limited in many social and low-economic areas. In this study, we propose a simple, non-invasive and automated framework for Down syndrome detection based on disease-specific facial patterns. Geometric and local texture features are extracted based on automatically detected anatomical landmarks to describe facial morphology and structure. To accurately locate the anatomical facial landmarks, a hierarchical constrained local model using independent component analysis (ICA) is proposed. We also introduce a data-driven ordering method for selecting dominant independent components in ICA. The hierarchical structure of the model increases the accuracy of landmark detection by fitting separate models to different groups. Then the most representative features are selected and we also demonstrate that they match clinical observations. Finally, a variety of classifiers are evaluated to discriminate between Down syndrome and healthy populations. The best performance achieved 0.967 accuracy and 0.956 F1 score using combined features and linear discriminant analysis. The method was also validated on a dataset with mixed genetic syndromes and high performance (0.970 accuracy and 0.930 F1 score) was also obtained. The promising results indicate that our method could assist in Down syndrome screening effectively in a simple, non-invasive way, and extensible to detection of other genetic syndromes.
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Copy number variations among silkworms.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Copy number variations (CNVs), which are important source for genetic and phenotypic variation, have been shown to be associated with disease as well as important QTLs, especially in domesticated animals. However, little is known about the CNVs in silkworm.
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miR-17/20 sensitization of breast cancer cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis requires Akt1.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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The serine threonine kinase Akt1 has been implicated in the control of cellular metabolism, survival and growth. Herein, disruption of the ubiquitously expressed member of the Akt family of genes, Akt1, in the mouse, demonstrates a requirement for Akt1 in miRNA-mediated cellular apoptosis. The miR-17/20 cluster is known to inhibit breast cancer cellular proliferation through G1/S cell cycle arrest via binding to the cyclin D1 3'UTR. Here we show that miR-17/20 overexpression sensitizes cells to apoptosis induced by either Doxorubicin or UV irradiation in MCF-7 cells via Akt1. miR-17/20 mediates apoptosis via increased p53 expression which promotes Akt degradation. Akt1?/? mammary epithelial cells which express Akt2 and Akt3 demonstrated increased apoptosis to DNA damaging agents. Akt1 deficiency abolished the miR-17/20-mediated apoptosis. These results demonstrated a novel pathway through which miR17/20 regulate p53 and Akt controlling breast cancer cell apoptosis.
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Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation and biological process.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW) was investigated employing heterogeneous catalytic ozonation integrated with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process. The results indicated that catalytic ozonation with the prepared catalyst (i.e. MnOx/SBAC, sewage sludge was converted into sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded manganese oxides) significantly enhanced performance of pollutants removal by generated hydroxyl radicals. The effluent of catalytic ozonation process was more biodegradable and less toxic than that in ozonation alone. Meanwhile, ANMBBR-BAF showed efficient capacity of pollutants removal in treatment of the effluent of catalytic ozonation at a shorter reaction time, allowing the discharge limits to be met. Therefore, the integrated process with efficient, economical and sustainable advantages was suitable for advanced treatment of real biologically pretreated CGW.
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GRK5 dysfunction accelerates tau hyperphosphorylation in APP (swe) mice through impaired cholinergic activity.
Neuroreport
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Recent studies have suggested that G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) deficiency plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of early Alzheimer's disease. Mild soluble ?-amyloid accumulation can result in reduced membrane (functional) and elevated cytosolic levels of GRK5. Dysfunction of GRK5 impairs the desensitization of presynaptic muscarinic 2 (M2) autoreceptors, which results in presynaptic M2 hyperactivity and inhibits acetylcholine (ACh) release. GRK dysfunction also promotes a deleterious cycle that further increases ?-amyloid accumulation and exaggerates tau hyperphosphorylation in the hippocampus. However, the pathogenic effect of GRK5 dysfunction through targeting tau hyperphosphorylation remains unclear. Here we examined not only the reduced membrane (functional) and elevated cytosolic levels of GRK5 but also the increased levels of hyperphosphorylated tau in the hippocampi of aged APP(swe) mice (11 months of age). Moreover, western blotting analyses revealed the changes in the location of activity of both protein kinase C (PKC) and glycogen synthase kinase3? (GSK3?) in the hippocampus of aged APP(swe) mice in which GRK5 translocation occurred. Moreover, treatment with methoctramine, a selective M2 antagonist, partially corrected the difference between wild-type control mice and GRK5-dysfunctional APP (swe) mice in hippocampal ACh release, PKC and GSK3? activities, as well as tau hyperphosphorylation. In contrast, the GSK3? inhibitor lithium chloride significantly reduced tau hyperphosphorylation in GRK5-defective APP (swe) mice, but failed to enhance PKC activity and ACh release in the hippocampi of GRK5-defective APP (swe) mice. Taken together, these findings indicate that GRK5 dysfunction accelerated tau hyperphosphorylation in APP(swe) mice by activating GSK3? through impaired cholinergic activity.
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SPARC deficiency affects bone marrow stromal function, resulting in impaired B lymphopoiesis.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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It has been demonstrated that B cells were decreased in the BM of SPARC-null mice, accompanied by a lack of immune response to LPS. However, the effect of SPARC deficiency on B lymphopoiesis remains unclear. Herein, we investigated the role of SPARC in the regulation of B lymphopoiesis, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms. In present study, we found that the size of B-lineage progenitors (pro-B and pre-B plus immature B cells) and primitive hematopoietic cells (LSK and LTC cells) were reduced, whereas multipotent progenitors (CFU-S12) were increased in BM of SPARC-null mice. When SPARC-null BM cells were transplanted into lethally irradiated WT mice, the B cell population in recipients was restored to a level equivalent to that generated by WT BM cells, suggesting that the changes of the BM microenvironment in SPARC-null mice affect B lymphopoiesis. Furthermore, we found that SPARC-null BMSCs did not support the differentiation of WT BM cells into the B cell population in vitro, and conditioned medium derived from SPARC-null BMSCs inhibited B cell differentiation. However, the addition of rmSPARC to the coculture system did not restore the impaired B lymphopoiesis. In summary, our findings suggest that SPARC plays a crucial role in the regulation of early B lymphopoiesis.
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PEG-PCL based micelle hydrogels as oral docetaxel delivery systems for breast cancer therapy.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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In this study, a composite drug delivery system was developed and evaluated for oral delivery of docetaxel: docetaxel-loaded micelles in pH-responsive hydrogel (DTX-micelle-hydrogel). Docetaxel was successfully loaded in micelles with small particle size of 20 nm and high drug loading of 7.76%, which contributed to the drug absorption in the intestinal tract. The experiments of cytotoxicity on 4T1 cells demonstrated the effective antitumor activity of DTX micelles. Meanwhile, a pH-responsive hydrogel was synthesized and optimized for incorporating the docetaxel micelles. The pH-responsiveness and reversibility of the hydrogel were investigated under the pH conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, the DTX-micelle-hydrogel system showed much quicker diffusion of micelles in simulated intestinal fluid than in simulated gastric fluid, which was mainly caused by the change of pH value. The docetaxel released from the micelle-hydrogel system quite slowly, so it had little influence on the absorption of DTX micelles in small intestine. More important, the pharmacokinetic study revealed that the DTX-micelle-hydrogel significantly improved the oral bioavailability of docetaxel (75.6%) about 10 times compared to DTX micelles, and this increase in bioavailability was probably due to the small intestine targeting release of the pH-responsive hydrogel. Consequently, the oral DTX-micelle-hydrogel system was effective in inhibiting tumor growth in subcutaneous 4T1 breast cancer model, and decreased systemic toxicity compared with intravenous treatment. The apoptosis cells in the immunofluorescent studies and the proliferation-positive cells in the immunohistochemical studies were also consistent with the results. Therefore, the DTX-micelle-hydrogel system might be a promising candidate oral drug for breast cancer therapy.
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MiRNA-125a-5p: a regulator and predictor of gefitinib's effect on nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Cancer Cell Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common malignancy in China and Southeast Asia. Radiotherapy is the major treatment modality for patients with NPC, but does not always achieve fully satisfactory outcomes. Studies have shown that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is highly expressed in NPC, and EGFR-targeted treatment is expected to be a new strategy for NPC. Recently, clinical trials have shown that NPC patients have different responses to gefitinib. Thus, the identification of indicators that can regulate and predict the sensitivity of NPC to gefitinib is very valuable. MiRNAs (MicroRNAs) are closely related to cancer development. We studied miRNAs in NPC cell lines to identify those that can regulate and predict the effectiveness of gefitinib on NPC.
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Heterogeneous catalytic ozonation of biologically pretreated Lurgi coal gasification wastewater using sewage sludge based activated carbon supported manganese and ferric oxides as catalysts.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Sewage sludge of biological wastewater treatment plant was converted into sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) with ZnCl? as activation agent, which supported manganese and ferric oxides as catalysts (including SBAC) to improve the performance of ozonation of real biologically pretreated Lurgi coal gasification wastewater. The results indicated catalytic ozonation with the prepared catalysts significantly enhanced performance of pollutants removal and the treated wastewater was more biodegradable and less toxic than that in ozonation alone. On the basis of positive effect of higher pH and significant inhibition of radical scavengers in catalytic ozonation, it was deduced that the enhancement of catalytic activity was responsible for generating hydroxyl radicals and the possible reaction pathway was proposed. Moreover, the prepared catalysts showed superior stability and most of toxic and refractory compounds were eliminated at successive catalytic ozonation runs. Thus, the process with economical, efficient and sustainable advantages was beneficial to engineering application.
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Three-dimensional hydrogel scaffolds facilitate in vitro self-renewal of human skin-derived precursors.
Acta Biomater
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) are multipotent cells with dermal stem cell properties. These easily available cells possess the capacity to reconstitute the skin in vivo, as well as a broader differentiation potential in vitro, which endows them with great prospects in regenerative medicine. However, the present authors' group and others previously found that adult human SKPs (hSKPs) expanded deficiently in vitro, which largely counteracted their research and practical values. Taking the physiological micro-environment of hSKPs into consideration, the authors sought to establish a hydrogel scaffold-based three-dimensional (3-D) culture system for hSKPs in the present study. After comparing their morphology, growth characteristics, signature gene expression and differentiation potential in different hydrogels, the present authors found that a chemically defined hyaluronic acid and denatured collagen-based hydrogel system that mimicked the natural niche of hSKPs in the dermis could alleviate hSKP senescence, support hSKP proliferation as spheres, while largely retaining their properties and potential. This study suggested that recapitulating the in vivo stem cell niche by providing them with 3-D extracellular matrix environments could help them achieve better self-renewal in vitro. In addition, the animal-origin-free and biocompatible 3-D hydrogel system will certainly benefit fundamental research and clinical applications of hSKPs in the near future.
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Association of variants in 21q22 with ankylosing spondylitis in the Chinese Guangxi Zhuang population.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Genome-wide association study has reported a number of genes as being associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in Caucasian European populations and Chinese Han population. The aim of the study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the 21q22 region are associated with AS in the Chinese Guangxi Zhuang population. A case-control study was performed in unrelated patients with AS (n = 315) and age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched controls (n = 630) from Guangxi Zhuang ethnic group. All patients met the modified New York criteria for AS. TaqMan genotyping assay was used to genotype cases and controls for 17 tag SNPs covering 21q22. After multiple-testing correction, significant association with AS was not observed in all SNP, but one block haplotype was significantly associated with AS. The pairwise analysis of the rs8126528/rs2150414/rs6517532 alleles found that the G-A-A haplotype (OR 2.92, 95 % CI 1.48-3.55; p = 0.0002, permuted p = 0.0332) significantly increased the risk of AS in comparison with the G-A-G, A-A-A and G-G-A carriers. In conclusion, the study results define a novel risk haplotypes in 21q22 that was associated with AS in the Chinese Guangxi Zhuang population. The findings was consistent with previous genetic and functional studies that point at variants of the BRWD1 and/or PSMG1 loci as interesting genetic factors contributing to AS.
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1H-Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomic analysis of brain in mice with nicotine treatment.
BMC Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Nicotine is rapidly absorbed from cigarette smoke and therefore induces a number of chronic illnesses with the widespread use of tobacco products. Studies have shown a few cerebral metabolites modified by nicotine; however, endogenous metabolic profiling in brain has not been well explored.
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Anti-tumor effects of penfluridol through dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Psychiatric patients appear to be at lower risk of cancer. Some antipsychotic drugs might have inhibitory effects on tumor growth, including penfluridol, a strong agent. To test this, we conducted a study to determine whether penfluridol exerts cytotoxic effects on tumor cells and, if so, to explore its anti-tumor mechanisms.
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Serum SALL4 is a novel prognosis biomarker with tumor recurrence and poor survival of patients in hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4), is reexpressed in tissues of a subgroup of HCC associated with poor prognosis. Reports of SALL4 serological levels linked to HCC patients are meager and unclear in the prognosis of this malignancy.
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Negative and near zero refraction metamaterials based on permanent magnetic ferrites.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Ferrite metamaterials based on the negative permeability of ferromagnetic resonance in ferrites are of great interest. However, such metamaterials face a limitation that the ferromagnetic resonance can only take place while an external magnetic field applied. Here, we demonstrate a metamaterial based on permanent magnetic ferrite which exhibits not only negative refraction but also near zero refraction without applied magnetic field. The wedge-shaped and slab-shaped structures of permanent magnetic ferrite-based metamaterials were prepared and the refraction properties were measured in a near-field scanning system. The negative and near zero refractive behaviors are confirmed by the measured spatial electric field maps. This work offers new opportunities for the development of ferrite-based metamaterials.
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Colorimetric and ultra-sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer determination of H2O2 and glucose by multi-functional Au nanoclusters.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Ultra-sensitive colorimetric determination of H2O2 is accomplished based on the intrinsic peroxidase-like activity of Au nanoclusters (AuNCs) stabilized by glutathione (GSH). The color change of 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) catalyzed by AuNCs offers an indirect method to measure glucose. This sensing platform makes use of a dual optical signal change, including the color change in an aqueous solution under visible light illumination and an ultra-sensitive fluorescent assay arising from efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the AuNCs and oxidized TMB. The detection limits of H2O2 and glucose are 4.9 × 10(-13) M and 1.0 × 10(-11) M, respectively. In addition, enhanced fluorescence is observed from the AuNCs due to the use of ethanol which produces clear changes in the quantum yield and lifetime of the AuNCs. The quantum yield of AuNCs is enhanced from ?12.5% as an isolated fluorophore to 38.9% in an AuNCs-ethanol complex. The enhanced fluorescence lowers the detection limits of H2O2 and glucose by 2 orders of magnitude compared to those attained from the original AuNCs.
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Seed-specific expression of a lysine-rich protein gene, GhLRP, from cotton significantly increases the lysine content in maize seeds.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Maize seed storage proteins are a major source of human and livestock consumption. However, these proteins have poor nutritional value, because they are deficient in lysine and tryptophan. Much research has been done to elevate the lysine content by reducing zein content or regulating the activities of key enzymes in lysine metabolism. Using the naturally lysine-rich protein genes, sb401 and SBgLR, from potato, we previously increased the lysine and protein contents of maize seeds. Here, we examined another natural lysine-rich protein gene, GhLRP, from cotton, which increased the lysine content of transgenic maize seeds at levels varying from 16.2% to 65.0% relative to the wild-type. The total protein content was not distinctly different, except in the six transgenic lines. The lipid and starch levels did not differ substantially in Gossypium hirsutum L. lysine-rich protein (GhLRP) transgenic kernels when compared to wild-type. The agronomic characteristics of all the transgenic maize were also normal. GhLRP is a high-lysine protein candidate gene for increasing the lysine content of maize. This study provided a valuable model system for improving maize lysine content.
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Investigation on the synthesis of 25-hydroxycholesterol.
Steroids
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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A very efficient and environmentally benign method has been developed for the synthesis of 25-hydroxycholesterol. The reaction was performed in THF-water (4:1, v/v) using NBS as the brominating agent, followed by the easy reduction of C-Br with lithium aluminum hydride in THF, to yield the final product corresponding to a Markovnikov's rule. Excellent yields and regioselectivity have been obtained.
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The prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations of triple-negative breast cancer patients in Xinjiang multiple ethnic region of China.
Eur. J. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The screening of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is now an established component of risk evaluation and management of familial breast cancer, early-onset breast cancer and bilateral breast cancer patients. There is still some controversy about whether this screening should be done in triple-negative breast cancers. Therefore, we evaluated the BRCA mutation prevalence in patients with triple-negative breast cancer in a multi-ethnic region of China.
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Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater using a novel anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR)-biological aerated filter (BAF) system.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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A novel system integrating anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) with short-cut biological nitrogen removal (SBNR) process was investigated as advanced treatment of real biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results showed the system had efficient capacity of degradation of pollutants especially nitrogen removal. The best performance was obtained at hydraulic residence times of 12h and nitrite recycling ratios of 200%. The removal efficiencies of COD, total organic carbon, NH4(+)-N, total phenols and total nitrogen (TN) were 74.6%, 70.0%, 85.0%, 92.7% and 72.3%, the corresponding effluent concentrations were 35.1, 18.0, 4.8, 2.2 and 13.6mg/L, respectively. Compared with traditional A(2)/O process, the system had high performance of NH4(+)-N and TN removal, especially under the high toxic loading. Moreover, ANMBBR played a key role in eliminating toxicity and degrading refractory compounds, which was beneficial to improve biodegradability of raw wastewater for SBNR process.
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Chinese-English bilinguals processing temporal-spatial metaphor.
Cogn Process
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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The conceptual projection of time onto the domain of space constitutes one of the most challenging issues in the cognitive embodied theories. In Chinese, spatial order (e.g.,/da shu qian/, in front of a tree) shares the same terms with temporal sequence (", /san yue qian/, before March). In comparison, English natives use different sets of prepositions to describe spatial and temporal relationship, i.e., "before" to express temporal sequencing and "in front of" to express spatial order. The linguistic variations regarding the specific lexical encodings indicate that some flexibility might be available in how space-time parallelisms are formulated across different languages. In the present study, ERP (Event-related potentials) data were collected when Chinese-English bilinguals processed temporal ordering and spatial sequencing in both their first language (L1) Chinese (Experiment 1) and the second language (L2) English (Experiment 2). It was found that, despite the different lexical encodings, early sensorimotor simulation plays a role in temporal sequencing processing in both L1 Chinese and L2 English. The findings well support the embodied theory that conceptual knowledge is grounded in sensory-motor systems (Gallese and Lakoff, Cogn Neuropsychol 22:455-479, 2005). Additionally, in both languages, neural representations during comprehending temporal sequencing and spatial ordering are different. The time-spatial relationship is asymmetric, in that space schema could be imported into temporal sequence processing but not vice versa. These findings support the weak view of the Metaphoric Mapping Theory.
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MicroRNA-mediated cancer metastasis regulation via heterotypic signals in the microenvironment.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are thought to regulate tumor progression and metastasis via direct interaction with target genes within cells. Emerging evidence has demonstrated the secretion of miRNAs into environment via cancer cell exosomes, called "exosomal shuttle small RNA". Microenvironmental miRNAs are important mediators of cell-to-cell communication, and they play important roles in regulating cancer metastasis. RNA analysis indicates enrichment of the miRNA population in cell-culturing medium. miRNA-conditioned medium is able to mediate the function of miRNAs in regulating cancer cell migration and invasion. Here we combine our recent work with literature discussing multiple mechanisms through which exosomal miRNAs regulate cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. We summarize a heterotypic signaling pathway by which miRNA regulates the cellular secretion and tumor microenvironment in control of breast cancer cell migration and invasion. In conclusion, exosomal miRNAs are able to regulate cancer metastasis via heterotypic signals in the microenvironment.
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Discovery of a Novel Class of Imidazo[1,2-a]Pyridines with Potent PDGFR Activity and Oral Bioavailability.
ACS Med Chem Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The in silico construction of a PDGFR? kinase homology model and ensuing medicinal chemistry guided by molecular modeling, led to the identification of potent, small molecule inhibitors of PDGFR. Subsequent exploration of structure-activity relationships (SAR) led to the incorporation of a constrained secondary amine to enhance selectivity. Further refinements led to the integration of a fluorine substituted piperidine, which resulted in significant reduction of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) mediated efflux and improved bioavailability. Compound 28 displayed oral exposure in rodents and had a pronounced effect in a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) assay.
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A general framework for wireless capsule endoscopy study synopsis.
Comput Med Imaging Graph
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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We present a general framework for analysis of wireless capsule endoscopy (CE) studies. The current available workstations provide a time-consuming and labor-intense work-flow for clinicians which requires the inspection of the full-length video. The development of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) CE workstation will have a great potential to reduce the diagnostic time and improve the accuracy of assessment. We propose a general framework based on hidden Markov models (HMMs) for study synopsis that forms the computational engine of our CAD workstation. Color, edge and texture features are first extracted and analyzed by a Support Vector Machine classifier, and then encoded as the observations for the HMM, uniquely combining the temporal information during the assessment. Experiments were performed on 13 full-length CE studies, instead of selected images previously reported. The results (e.g. 0.933 accuracy with 0.933 recall for detection of polyps) show that our framework achieved promising performance for multiple classification. We also report the patient-level CAD assessment of complete CE studies for multiple abnormalities, and the patient-level validation demonstrates the effectiveness and robustness of our methods.
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Responses of soil microbial communities to experimental warming in alpine grasslands on the qinghai-tibet plateau.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Global surface temperature is predicted to increase by at least 1.5°C by the end of this century. However, the response of soil microbial communities to global warming is still poorly understood, especially in high-elevation grasslands. We therefore conducted an experiment on three types of alpine grasslands on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to study the effect of experimental warming on abundance and composition of soil microbial communities at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depths. Plots were passively warmed for 3 years using open-top chambers and compared to adjacent control plots at ambient temperature. Soil microbial communities were assessed using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. We found that 3 years of experimental warming consistently and significantly increased microbial biomass at the 0-10 cm soil depth of alpine swamp meadow (ASM) and alpine steppe (AS) grasslands, and at both the 0-10 and 10-20 cm soil depths of alpine meadow (AM) grasslands, due primarily to the changes in soil temperature, moisture, and plant coverage. Soil microbial community composition was also significantly affected by warming at the 0-10 cm soil depth of ASM and AM and at the 10-20 cm soil depth of AM. Warming significantly decreased the ratio of fungi to bacteria and thus induced a community shift towards bacteria at the 0-10 cm soil depth of ASM and AM. While the ratio of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to saprotrophic fungi (AMF/SF) was significantly decreased by warming at the 0-10 cm soil depth of ASM, it was increased at the 0-10 cm soil depth of AM. These results indicate that warming had a strong influence on soil microbial communities in the studied high-elevation grasslands and that the effect was dependent on grassland type.
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Long noncoding RNA-EBIC promotes tumor cell invasion by binding to EZH2 and repressing E-cadherin in cervical cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In recent years, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated to play key roles in tumorgenesis. However, the contributions of lncRNAs to cervical cancer (CC) remain largely unknown. In this study, differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs in cervical cancer and paired peritumoral tissues were detected by transcriptome microarray analysis. We found 708 probe sets of lncRNAs increased and 836 probe sets decreased in CC tissues, while 1288 mRNA differential probe sets increased and 901 mRNA probe sets decreased. The results were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Then, we found a specific differentially expressed lncRNA can physically bind to enhancer of zeste homolog2 (EZH2) by using RNA immunoprecipitation. We termed it as EZH2-binding lncRNA in cervical cancer [lncRNA-EBIC]. Wound healing assays and Matrigel invasion assays were used to determine the function of this lncRNA by silencing it. We observed that the migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells in vitro were inhibited upon suppression of lncRNA-EBIC by siRNA. We also found that the association between lncRNA-EBIC and EZH2 was required for the repression of E-cadherin, which was a key molecular in the metastasis of cervical cancer. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that lncRNA-EBIC was an oncogenic lncRNA, which could promote tumor cell invasion in CC by binding to EZH2 and inhibiting E-cadherin expression.
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Cancer wars: natural products strike back.
Front Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Natural products have historically been a mainstay source of anticancer drugs, but in the 90's they fell out of favor in pharmaceutical companies with the emergence of targeted therapies, which rely on antibodies or small synthetic molecules identified by high throughput screening. Although targeted therapies greatly improved the treatment of a few cancers, the benefit has remained disappointing for many solid tumors, which revitalized the interest in natural products. With the approval of rapamycin in 2007, 12 novel natural product derivatives have been brought to market. The present review describes the discovery and development of these new anticancer drugs and highlights the peculiarities of natural product and new trends in this exciting field of drug discovery.
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A novel oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 2 has potent anti-tumor activity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Oncolytic viruses are promising treatments for many kinds of solid tumors. In this study, we constructed a novel oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 2: oHSV2. We investigated the cytopathic effects of oHSV2 in vitro and tested its antitumor efficacy in a 4T1 breast cancer model. We compared its effect on the cell cycle and its immunologic impact with the traditional chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin. In vitro data showed that oHSV2 infected most of the human and murine tumor cell lines and was highly oncolytic. oHSV2 infected and killed 4T1 tumor cells independent of their cell cycle phase, whereas doxorubicin mainly blocked cells that were in S and G2/M phase. In vivo study showed that both oHSV2 and doxorubicin had an antitumor effect, though the former was less toxic. oHSV2 treatment alone not only slowed down the growth of tumors without causing weight loss but also induced an elevation of NK cells and mild decrease of Tregs in spleen. In addition, combination therapy of doxorubicin followed by oHSV2 increased survival with weight loss than oHSV2 alone. The data showed that the oncolytic activity of oHSV2 was similar to oHSV1 in cell lines examined and in vivo. Therefore, we concluded that our virus is a safe and effective therapeutic agent for 4T1 breast cancer and that the sequential use of doxorubicin followed by oHSV2 could improve antitumor activity without enhancing doxorubicin's toxicity.
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Mechanisms of metabonomic for a gateway drug: nicotine priming enhances behavioral response to cocaine with modification in energy metabolism and neurotransmitter level.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Nicotine, one of the most commonly used drugs, has become a major concern because tobacco serves as a gateway drug and is linked to illicit drug abuse, such as cocaine and marijuana. However, previous studies mainly focused on certain genes or neurotransmitters which have already been known to participate in drug addiction, lacking endogenous metabolic profiling in a global view. To further explore the mechanism by which nicotine modifies the response to cocaine, we developed two conditioned place preference (CPP) models in mice. In threshold dose model, mice were pretreated with nicotine, followed by cocaine treatment at the dose of 2 mg/kg, a threshold dose of cocaine to induce CPP in mice. In high-dose model, mice were only treated with 20 mg/kg cocaine, which induced a significant CPP. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance based on metabonomics was used to investigate metabolic profiles of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and striatum. We found that nicotine pretreatment dramatically increased CPP induced by 2 mg/kg cocaine, which was similar to 20 mg/kg cocaine-induced CPP. Interestingly, metabolic profiles showed considerable overlap between these two models. These overlapped metabolites mainly included neurotransmitters as well as the molecules participating in energy homeostasis and cellular metabolism. Our results show that the reinforcing effect of nicotine on behavioral response to cocaine may attribute to the modification of some specific metabolites in NAc and striatum, thus creating a favorable metabolic environment for enhancing conditioned rewarding effect of cocaine. Our findings provide an insight into the effect of cigarette smoking on cocaine dependence and the underlying mechanism.
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[ATP-tumor chemosensitivity assay directed chemotherapy in patients with cervical cancer.]
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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Objective: To select suitable chemotherapy for cervical cancer patients by ATP-tumor chemosensitivity assay. Methods: Seventy-two hospitalized patients with cervical cancer between July 2007 and October 2009 were enrolled. The patients were randomly divided into a trial group (n=35) and a control group(n=37). ATP-TCA was used to detect the sensitivity of 35 samples of cervical cancer in the trial group to 6 combined chemotherapy regimens. The chemotherapy regimen in the trial group was confirmed by the results of susceptibility testing and that in the control group was confirmed by clinical experience. One-year recurrence rate and 3- year survival rate of two groups were compared after 3 year follow-up. Results: ATP-TCA was measured in 32 of the 35 patients in the trial group. The sensitive patients for paclitaxel + carboplatin, paclitaxel + oxaliplatin, bleomycin + ifosfamide + cisplatin, bleomycin + vincristine + cisplatin, fluorouracil + cisplatin, and gemcitabine + cisplatin were 20, 18, 17, 18, 17, and 21, respectively. There was no significant difference in the 1-year recurrence between the two groups (P>0.05), while the 3-year survivors in the trial group were more than those in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: ATP-TCA method is good for patients with cervical cancer because it is sensitive, effective, and individualized.
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[Clinicopathological and survival features of primary hepatic lymphoma: an analysis of 35 cases].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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To evaluate the clinicopathological features and prognosis of primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL).
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Fabrication of CuInS2-sensitized solar cells via an improved SILAR process and its interface electron recombination.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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Tetragonal CuInS2 (CIS) has been successfully deposited onto mesoporous TiO2 films by in-sequence growth of InxS and CuyS via a successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) process and postdeposition annealing in sulfur ambiance. X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements showed that the obtained tetragonal CIS consisted of a chalcopyrite phase and Cu-Au ordering, which related with the antisite defect states. For a fixed Cu-S deposition cycle, an interface layer of ?-In2S3 formed at the TiO2/CIS interface with suitable excess deposition of In-S. In the meantime, the content of the Cu-Au ordering phase decreased to a reasonable level. These facts resulted in the retardance of electron recombination in the cells, which is proposed to be dominated by electron transfer from the conduction band of TiO2 to the unoccupied defect states in CIS via exponentially distributed surface states. As a result, a relatively high efficiency of ~0.92% (V(oc) = 0.35 V, J(sc) = 8.49 mA cm(-2), and FF = 0.31) has been obtained. Last, but not least, with an overloading of the sensitizers, a decrease in the interface area between the sensitized TiO2 and electrolytes resulted in deceleration of hole extraction from CIS to the electrolytes, leading to a decrease in the fill factor of the solar cells. It is indicated that the unoccupied states in CIS with energy levels below EF0 of the TiO2 films play an important role in the interface electron recombination at low potentials and has a great influence on the fill factor of the solar cells.
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Automated down syndrome detection using facial photographs.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Down syndrome, the most common single cause of human birth defects, produces alterations in physical growth and mental retardation; its early detection is crucial. Children with Down syndrome generally have distinctive facial characteristics, which brings an opportunity for the computer-aided diagnosis of Down syndrome using photographs of patients. In this study, we propose a novel strategy based on machine learning techniques to detect Down syndrome automatically. A modified constrained local model is used to locate facial landmarks. Then geometric features and texture features based on local binary patterns are extracted around each landmark. Finally, Down syndrome is detected using a variety of classifiers. The best performance achieved 94.6% accuracy, 93.3% precision and 95.5% recall by using support vector machine with radial basis function kernel. The results indicate that our method could assist in Down syndrome screening effectively in a simple, non-invasive way.
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Polarization and incidence insensitive dielectric electromagnetically induced transparency metamaterial.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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In this manuscript, we demonstrate numerically classical analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) with a windmill type metamaterial consisting of two dumbbell dielectric resonator. With proper external excitation, dielectric resonators serve as EIT bright and dark elements via electric and magnetic Mie resonances, respectively. Rigorous numerical analyses reveal that dielectric metamaterial exhibits sharp transparency peak characterized by large group index due to the destructive interference between EIT bright and dark resonators. Furthermore, such EIT transmission behavior keeps stable property with respect to polarization and incidence angles.
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[The clinical characteristics and prognostic analysis of 147 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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To investigate the relationship between the clinical features, pathogenesis, immunophenotype, different classification models and prognosis in Chinese patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).
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[Construction and identification of a recombinant replication-defective adenovirus vector encoding p53AIP1 and its expression in human HeLa cells].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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To construct a recombinant replication-defective adenovirus vector carrying p53AIP1 (p53-regulated apoptosis-inducing protein 1) gene and observe its expression in human HeLa cells.
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BSeQC: quality control of bisulfite sequencing experiments.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
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Bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq) has emerged as the gold standard to study genome-wide DNA methylation at single-nucleotide resolution. Quality control (QC) is a critical step in the analysis pipeline to ensure that BS-seq data are of high quality and suitable for subsequent analysis. Although several QC tools are available for next-generation sequencing data, most of them were not designed to handle QC issues specific to BS-seq protocols. Therefore, there is a strong need for a dedicated QC tool to evaluate and remove potential technical biases in BS-seq experiments.
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Controlling Structural Symmetry of a Hybrid Nanostructure and its Effect on Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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The existence of lattice strain between two different materials can be used to control the fine structural configuration in a hybrid colloidal nanostructure. Enabled by such, we have demonstrated the relative position change of Au and CdX in Au-CdX from a symmetric to an asymmetric configuration, which can further lead to fine tuning of plasmon-exciton coupling and different hydrogen photocatalytic performance. Our results provide new insight into plasmon enhanced photocatalytic mechanisms and provides potential catalysts of photo-reduction reactions.
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[Effect of different forms of inorganic nitrogen on the photodegradation of antipyrine in water].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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The photodegradation performance and mechanisms of antipyrine (ANT, a member of anti-inflammatory analgesics) under simulated irradiation using a 300 W Xenon lamp were explored in this study. And the variation of the photodegradation of ANT in the presence of different forms of nitrogen and different pE values in the aqueous environment were also investigated. The results demonstrated that ANT photodegradation proceeds via pseudo first-order kinetics in all cases. Photodegradation of ANT in water occurs through direct photodegradation and self-sensitization via reactions with hydroxyl radical (*OH) and singlet oxygen (1O2). Presence of different forms of inorganic nitrogen (NH4+, NO2- and NO3-) showed rather different effects. At low pE value (< 5), NH4+ was the main form of inorganic nitrogen, and little effect was observed on ANT photodegradation. With the increase of pE value from 4.82 to 6.85, nitrogen form changed from NH4+ to NO2- accordingly, and the inhibiting effect increased gradually due to their competitive absorption for the irradiation and NO2- acting as a scavenger of *OH. At pE 6.85, NO2- was the main form of inorganic nitrogen, which showed a maximum inhibiting rate of 35.31%. When the pE value continued to increase from 6.85 to 8.15, the nitrogen form changed from NO2- to NO3-, and the suppression effect on ANT photodegradation decreased.
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Ultrasensitive determination of copper in complex biological media based on modulation of plasmonic properties of gold nanorods.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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Accurate determination of copper in complex biological media such as cells is quite difficult, and an analytical strategy based on copper-modulated formation of core-shell gold nanorods is described. Selective and label-free sensing can be achieved by measuring the change in the localized surface plasmon resonance absorption. The technique can determine trace amounts of copper in human serum, urine, and red blood cells without or with minimal sample pretreatment. The Cu detection limits are 20.67 ?M in human serum, 0.193 ?M in human urine, and 3.09 × 10(-16) g in a single cell. The advantages of the technique are the high selectivity, simple or no sample pretreatment, and label free. Boasting a practical detection limit down to 2 fM, only 10(3) red blood cells are needed to conduct the analysis and the technique may be extended to the detection of trace amounts of copper in a single cell.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.