In this study, we designed a novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), oligomeric methyl silsesquioxane (O-MSSQ)-TiO2 composite sol, which was made using a sol-gel reaction. This polymer has structural rigidity and high surface area of O-MSSQ, as well as high bio-compatibility and relatively good conductivity of the TiO2. Next, a sensitive and selective imprinted electrochemical sensor was successfully constructed for the direct detection of procainamide hydrochloride by molecularly imprinting a film onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. Adding TiO2 resulted in a noticeable enhancement in the sensitivity of the MIP sensor. The performance of the O-MSSQ-TiO2 film was discussed, and the optimal conditions for detection were determined. The oxidative peak current increased linearly with the concentration of procainamide hydrochloride in the range of 4.00×10(-9)-4.97×10(-5)M using differential pulse voltammetry, and the detection limit was 1.30×10(-9)M with S/N=3. Furthermore, the sensor was applied to determine the procainamide hydrochloride content in a human blood serum sample. The recoveries of the sensors varied from 96.77% to 101.35%, indicating that the prepared sensor might be promising for the determination of procainamide hydrochloride in clinical tests. Moreover, the imprinted electrochemical sensor was used to selectively detect procainamide hydrochloride. The analytical application was conducted successfully and yielded accurate and precise results.
Raspberry-like polymer/silica nanocomposite microspheres were prepared by emulsifier-free copolymerization of styrene (St) with butyl acrylate (BA) in the presence of 20 nm silica nanoparticles in water/acetone media. A cationic monomer, 2-(methacryloyl)ethyltrimethylammonium chloride (MTC), was used as comonomer and nanosilica particles were adsorbed onto the growing latex core via the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged silica particles and positively charged polymer particles. The average particle sizes and the final silica contents of the nanocomposite microspheres ranged from 200 to 500 nm and 20 to 40 wt%, respectively, depending on the reaction conditions. The solid content of the obtained dispersions could be adjusted between 10 and 25 wt%. The influence of some synthetic parameters, for instance, the ratio of acetone/water, initial silica amount, the mass ratio of the St/BA, MTC, and the APS concentration on the polymerization stability, the average particle size, silica content, and morphology of the composite microspheres, were studied here in detail. It was found that the addition of acetone to the continuous phase resulted in smaller particle sizes and for the lower dielectric medium electrostatic repulsion becomes larger; hence coagulative nucleation is reduced compared to that in aqueous media.
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