JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Single-channel Mach-Zehnder interferometric biochemical sensor based on two-lateral-mode spiral waveguide.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We propose and demonstrate a single-channel Mach-Zehnder interferometric (MZI) biochemical sensor consisting of two single-mode waveguides connected by a two-lateral-mode spiral sensing waveguide through two discontinuous junctions. The use of a two-lateral-mode waveguide offers the advantage of simple fabrication using single-step lithography and etching process. Meanwhile, the two-mode waveguide folded in a spiral layout can achieve high sensitivity of a long sensing waveguide while providing a compact sensing area compatible with commercial spotting machine and requiring small volume of sample. The sensor is demonstrated in silicon waveguides and the effect of the discontinuity offset distance on the interference visibility is studied. The bulk and surface sensitivity of a fabricated sensor with a 4582-?m-long two-mode spiral waveguide folded within a 185 ?m diameter spot are characterized to be 461.6 ?/RIU (refractive index unit) and 1.135 ?/ng mm-2, respectively. The biosensing capability of the sensor is verified by the measurement of biotin-streptavidin interaction of different concentrations.
Related JoVE Video
Thermal characterization of electrical tracing-assisted dual-microring optical sensors.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this paper, we study the temperature sensitivity of an electrical tracing-assisted dual-microring optical sensor, which consists of a sensing ring to detect the refractive index change on its surface and a tracing ring to trace the resonance wavelength shift of the sensing ring by the thermo-optic effect with a heating electrode on it. The wavelength shift measurement is therefore changed to electrical power variation measurement. Thanks to the real-time compensation effect of the tracing ring, the temperature dependence of the sensor is found to be intrinsically low. The resonance wavelength temperature sensitivity difference between the two rings is measured to be as low as 10.1 pm/°C, showing that the temperature dependence of the sensor in terms of wavelength per degree is reduced by ~6 times compared to that of a single ring sensor. The temperature sensitivity of the sensor in terms of electrical power per degree is measured to be -0.077 mW/°C. By using tracing ring with enhanced tuning efficiency, this value can be further decreased to -0.0057 W/°C. The experimental results agree well with the expectation. This type of sensors with low temperature dependence has great potential to be deployed in various practical point-of-care diagnostic applications.
Related JoVE Video
Akt/eNOS Signaling Pathway Mediates Inhibition of Endothelial Progenitor Cells by Palmitate-induced Ceramide.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Palmitate (PA) impairs endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). However, the molecular mechanism underlying the suppressive function of PA remains largely unknown. Ceramide, a free fatty acid (FFAs) metabolite, mediates multiple cellular signals. We hypothesized that ceramide acts as an intermediate molecule to mediate inhibition of EPSc by PA. We first demonstrated that PA could inhibit attachment, migration and tube formation of EPCs through suppression of Akt/eNOS signal pathway. In addition, we observed PA could induce ceramide accumulation in EPCs. To test whether the accumulation of ceramide causes EPCs dysfunction, ceramide synthesis inhibitors, myriocin and fumonisin B1 (FB1) were used. We found both inhibitors could effectively abolish PA-mediated EPCs inhibition. Furthermore, a ceramide deacylation inhibitor, N-oleoylethanolamine (NOE), could augment the inhibitory effect of PA on EPCs, indicating it is the ceramide, not its metabolites, that mediates suppression of EPCs by PA. We previously showed that Akt/eNOS phosphorylation was reduced after PA treatment, which in turn hampered normal bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) leading to impaired functions of EPCs. In order to test the role for ceramide in this process, a clinically used NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), was used. We found SNP could rescue the suppressive effects of ceramide on EPCs, suggesting ceramide-mediated EPCs inhibition might be through reduction of NO production. Taken together, our findings indicated that ceramide induced reduction of NO might be the molecular mechanism for PA-mediated EPCs inhibition, thus, targeting either ceramide or NO production might be an effective means for improvement of EPCs functions in diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Case report: postradiation chondrosarcoma with a short latency period of 6 months.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We describe a case of postradiation chondrosarcoma after basal cell carcinoma treatment. At the time he presented, the patient was a 35-year-old man who had received radiotherapy at a dose of 70 Gy for 8 weeks. Six months after radiation treatment, a rapidly growing mass at the upper right alveolar ridge of the gums, where radiation had been given, was diagnosed as chondrosarcoma. Generally, chondrosarcoma occurs after a latency period of several years following radiation. However, there are a few relevant reports indicating that maxillofacial chondrosarcoma can develop after radiotherapy for basal cell carcinoma, with a short latency of 6 months. We hypothesize that the dosage and treatment time of radiation may have played a role in the opening/closing of the Hh-signaling pathway in the case of this patient.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical significance of reduced SFRP1 expression in acute myeloid leukemia.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Deregulation of secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1) has been found in many types of cancer. However, the pattern of SFRP1 expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is still unclear. This study determined SFRP1 expression in patients with AML. SFRP1 expression was decreased markedly in patients with AML compared to controls (p < 0.001). White blood cell (WBC) counts increased as SFRP1 expression decreased in AML (p = 0.016). Patients with low SFRP1 expression showed a different distribution of French-American-British (FAB) subtypes M1/M2/M3 from those with high SFRP1 expression (p = 0.031). NPM1 mutation was mainly observed in patients with low SFRP1 expression (p = 0.011). There was a weak trend that patients with AML with low SFRP1 expression had shorter overall survival (OS) than those with high SFRP1 expression (p = 0.103). Our results indicate that reduced SFRP1 expression is found more frequently in the less well-differentiated subgroups of AML and is associated with NPM1 mutation in AML.
Related JoVE Video
Prediction of disease-related genes based on weighted tissue-specific networks by using DNA methylation.
BMC Med Genomics
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Predicting disease-related genes is one of the most important tasks in bioinformatics and systems biology. With the advances in high-throughput techniques, a large number of protein-protein interactions are available, which make it possible to identify disease-related genes at the network level. However, network-based identification of disease-related genes is still a challenge as the considerable false-positives are still existed in the current available protein interaction networks (PIN).
Related JoVE Video
Neural Stem Cell Conditioned Medium Protects Neurons and Promotes Propriospinal Neurons Relay Neural Circuit Reconnection after Spinal Cord Injury.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human fetal neural stem cells (hNSCs) are used to treat a variety of neurological disorders involving spinal cord injury (SCI). Although their mechanism of action has been attributed to cell substitution, we examined the possibility that neural stem cells may have neuroprotective activities. The present paper studied the action of hNSCs on protecting neurons and promoting corticospinal tract (CST) axon regeneration after SCI. hNSCs were isolated from the cortical tissue of spontaneously aborted human fetuses. The cells were removed from the NSC culture medium to acquire NSCM, thus excluding the effect of cell substitution. Continuous administration of the NSCM after the SCI resulted in extensive growth of the CST in the cervical region and more than tripled the formation of synaptic contacts between CST collaterals and propriospinal interneurons that project from the cervical level of the spinal cord to the lumbar level. NSCM reduced the number of caspase-3-positive apoptotic profiles at 7 days and protected against loss of the neurons 6 weeks after injury. NSCM promoted locomotor recovery with a 5-point improvement on the BBB scale in adult rats. Thus, hNSCs help to set up a contour neural circuit via secretory factors, which may be the mechanism for their action in SCI rats. This manuscript is published as part of the International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR) special issue of Cell Transplantation.
Related JoVE Video
Antiproliferative Prenylated Xanthones and Benzophenones from the Roots of Cudrania tricuspidata in HSC-T6 Cells.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Four new prenylated xanthones, cudracuspixanthones A-D (1-4), two new prenylated benzophenones, cudracuspiphenones A (5) and B (6), and 11 known xanthones (7-17) were isolated from the roots of Cudrania tricuspidata. The absolute configurations of compounds 2-4 were deduced by the comparison of the calculated optical rotation values with the measured data. Compounds 1, 5, and 6 showed moderate antiproliferative activity on HSC-T6 cells with IC50 values of 9.7, 3.3, and 7.1 ?M, respectively. Compounds 2-4, 10, and 14-16 had weaker activity. Flow cytometric analysis suggested that compounds 1 and 5 inhibited HSC-T6 cell proliferation in part by inducing apoptosis.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of Natural Compound Carnosol as a Novel TRPA1 Receptor Agonist.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channel is one of the well-known targets for pain therapy. Herbal medicine is a rich source for new drugs and potentially useful therapeutic agents. To discover novel natural TRPA1 agonists, compounds isolated from Chinese herbs were screened using a cell-based calcium mobilization assay. Out of the 158 natural compounds derived from traditional Chinese herbal medicines, carnosol was identified as a novel agonist of TRPA1 with an EC50 value of 12.46 µM. And the agonistic effect of carnosol on TRPA1 could be blocked by A-967079, a selective TRPA1 antagonist. Furthermore, the specificity of carnosol was verified as it showed no significant effects on two other typical targets of TRP family member: TRPM8 and TRPV3. Carnosol exhibited anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties; the activation of TRPA1 might be responsible for the modulation of inflammatory nociceptive transmission. Collectively, our findings indicate that carnosol is a new anti-nociceptive agent targeting TRPA1 that can be used to explore further biological role in pain therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Controlled growth and gas sorption properties of IRMOF-3 nano/microcrystals.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
IRMOF-3 nano/microcrystals with controllable morphologies and sizes were successfully obtained by a simple solvothermal method. The shape evolution of IRMOF-3 crystals from cube to truncated cube, cuboctahedron, truncated octahedron and finally to octahedron was achieved by adjusting the amount of surfactant. The surfaces of the IRMOF-3 nano/microstructures are affected by the reaction temperature, and the nano/microparticles show shape-dependent sorption properties.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of Potent ?-Secretase Modulator in Human Neurons Derived From Multiple Presenilin 1-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Mutant Carriers.
JAMA Neurol
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although considerable effort has been expended developing drug candidates for Alzheimer disease, none have yet succeeded owing to the lack of efficacy or to safety concerns. One potential shortcoming of current approaches to Alzheimer disease drug discovery and development is that they rely primarily on transformed cell lines and animal models that substantially overexpress wild-type or mutant proteins. It is possible that drug development failures thus far are caused in part by the limits of these approaches, which do not accurately reveal how drug candidates will behave in naive human neuronal cells.
Related JoVE Video
[Manufacture tolerance analysis of solid Mach-Zehnder interferometer in large aperture static imaging spectrometer (LASIS)].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The principle and instrumental structure of large aperture static imaging spectrometer (LASIS) were briefly described in the present paper, the principle of the Mach-Zehnder imaging spectrometer was introduced, and the Mach-Zehnder interferometers' working way in the imaging spectrometer was illustrated. The structure of solid Mach-Zehnder interferometer was analyzed, and discussion was made based on the requirements of field of view (FOV) in image space and single sided interferogram with a small portion around zero path difference (ZPD). The additional optical path difference (OPD) created by manufacturing and matching tolerance of two asymmetrical pentagonal prisms will lead to the displacement of shearing and OPD nonlinearity. It was showed that the additional OPD from non-common optical path structure of solid Mach-Zehnder spectrometer implies more requirements on the manufacture of this element, compared with Sagnac interferometer, for the matching tolerance of two asymmetrical pentagonal prisms to br lower than 0.02 mm. The recovery spectrum error caused by the OPD nonlinearity is lower than 0.2% and can be ignored.
Related JoVE Video
Nucleic Acid Chemistry in the Organic Phase: From Functionalized Oligonucleotides to DNA Side Chain Polymers.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
DNA-incorporating hydrophobic moieties can be synthesized by either solid-phase or solution-phase coupling. On a solid support the DNA is protected, and hydrophobic units are usually attached employing phosphoramidite chemistry involving a DNA synthesizer. On the other hand, solution coupling in aqueous medium results in low yields due to the solvent incompatibility of DNA and hydrophobic compounds. Hence, the development of a general coupling method for producing amphiphilic DNA conjugates with high yield in solution remains a major challenge. Here, we report an organic-phase coupling strategy for nucleic acid modification and polymerization by introducing a hydrophobic DNA-surfactant complex as a reactive scaffold. A remarkable range of amphiphile-DNA structures (DNA-pyrene, DNA-triphenylphosphine, DNA-hydrocarbon, and DNA block copolymers) and a series of new brush-type DNA side-chain homopolymers with high DNA grafting density are produced efficiently. We believe that this method is an important breakthrough in developing a generalized approach to synthesizing functional DNA molecules for self-assembly and related technological applications.
Related JoVE Video
[Microsurgical removal and prognostic analysis of petroclival meningiomas].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To identify factors that predictive of quality of life after microsurgical removal of petroclival meningiomas.
Related JoVE Video
RNA interference in the progress of gastric cancer.
Pak J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gastric cancer is one of common malignant tumors. The development of molecular biology and genetics prompts people to regulate tumor cell regulation from the gene level, and seeks method to the new tumor therapy. RNA interference (which is also called RNAi) is a technology of double stranded RNAexogenous or dsRNA into cells, therefore this thereby inhibits the expression function of corresponding target gene. This paper summarizes the development process and the mechanism of RNAi technology, outlines the progress of experimental gastric cancer of the current RNAi technology, which shows that this technology can directly or indirectly inhibit tumor, and reduce the drug resistance of tumor cells. With the gradual improvement of RNAi technology, it will become a new direction for gene therapy of gastric cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Study on effect of the expression of siRNA in gastric cancer bearing nude mice transplanted tumor NEDD9 gene.
Pak J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The clinical study found that NEDD9 showed high expression on the invasion in gastric cancer tissues and metastasis of the tumor. Based on promoting the fundamental role (Sisen et al., 2013) to the expression level, the author further study NEDD9 siRNA, which could significantly reduce NEDD9 protein and mRNA in gastric cancer BGC823 cells, inhibition of cell proliferation, induce cell apoptosis, and decrease the invasiveness of gastric cancer cells, suggesting that NEDD9 plays an important role in the gastric cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion force. Through constructing a model transplanted gastric cancer in nude mice, the author observes the effect of NEDD9 siRNA on the growth of gastric cancer x-engrafts, and application of NEDD9 immunohistochemical SP method. The author also uses Western blot method to detect the gastric carcinoma in nude mice transplanted tumor tissues expression; applies situ hybridization, RT-PCR technology to detect the gastric cancer engraft tissues in NEDD9 mRNA. In order to further explore the relationship between NEDD9 and the development of gastric cancer, he provides a theoretical basis for the NEDD9 targeted therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing a ?-1,3-glucanase from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) show reduced callose deposition and increased tolerance to aluminium toxicity.
Plant Cell Environ.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Seventy one cultivars of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) were screened for aluminium (Al) tolerance by measuring relative root growth (RRG). Two contrasting cultivars, ROMA (Al-tolerant) and POTCHETSTRM (Al-sensitive), were selected to study shorter-term responses to Al stress. POTCHETSTRM had higher callose synthase activity, lower ?-1,3-glucanase activity and more callose deposition in the root apices during Al treatment compared with ROMA. We monitored the expression of twelve genes involved in callose synthesis and degradation and found that one of these, SbGlu1 (Sb03g045630.1), which encodes a ?-1,3-glucanase enzyme, best explained the contrasting deposition of callose in ROMA and POTCHETSTRM during Al treatment. Full length cDNAs of SbGlu1 was prepared from ROMA and POTCHETSTRM and expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana using the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter. Independent transgenic lines displayed significantly greater Al tolerance than wild-type plants and vector-only controls. This phenotype was associated with greater total ?-1,3-glucanase activity, less Al accumulation and reduced callose deposition in the roots. These results suggest that callose production is not just an early indicator of Al stress in plants but likely to be part of the toxicity pathway that leads to the inhibition of root growth.
Related JoVE Video
[Photocatalytic degradation kinetics of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in TiO2 dispersion and its mechanism].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is of prime importance since it is recognized as a persistent organic pollutant and is widespread in the environment. Heterogeneous photocatalytic decomposition of PFOA by TiO2 (P25) was investigated under 254 nm UV light. Experimental conditions including initial pH, TiO2 content and PFOA concentration, were varied to demonstrate their effects on the decomposition of PFOA. It was observed that the photocatalytic degradation kinetics of PFOA could be fitted to the quasi-first-order equation. The pH played a determinant role in the decomposition of PFOA and the presence of O2 increased the degradation rate. Optimal conditions for a complete removal were obtained using 1.5 g x L(-1) TiO2 at pH 3 in air atmosphere, with a rate constant of 0.420 6 h(-1). The contribution experiments of various reactive species produced during the photocatalysis were also investigated with the addition of different scavengers and it was found that photogenerated holes (h+) was the major reactive species which was responsible for 66.1% of the degradation rate, and the *OH was involved in PFOA degradation as well. In addition, the photocatalytic experiment with the addition of NaF indicated that the adsorption of PFOA was of primary importance for the photocatalytic decomposition. Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) with shorter carbon chain length as intermediates and products were identified with UPLC-QTOF/MS, and a possible mechanism for PFOA decomposition was proposed.
Related JoVE Video
Triterpenoid saponins from the rhizomes of Anemone flaccida and their inhibitory activities on LPS-induced NO production in macrophage RAW264.7 cells.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A new ursane-type triterpenoid saponin, flaccidoside IV (1), and three new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, flaccidosides V-VII (2-4), along with 17 known saponins (5-21), were isolated from the rhizomes of Anemone flaccida. The structures of the new triterpenoid saponins were determined based on spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. All the isolated saponins were tested for their inhibitory activities on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 macrophages, and several bisdesmosidic oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins (2, 7, and 10) showed significant inhibitory activities, which indicated they had potential anti-inflammatory activities under their noncytotoxic concentrations in vitro.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of the microRNA pool and the factors affecting its regulatory potential.
Integr Biol (Camb)
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The regulation of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) is complex due to a number of variables involved. The potential for one miRNA to target many genes, the presence of multiple miRNA response elements (MREs) in one mRNA molecule and the interplay between RNAs that share common MREs each add a layer of complexity to the process; making it difficult to determine how regulation of gene expression by miRNAs works within the context of the system as a whole. In this study, we used luciferase report vectors inserted with different 3'UTR fragments as probes to detect the repressive effect of the miRNA pool on gene expression and uncovered some essential characteristics of gene regulation mediated by the miRNA pool, such as the nonlinear correlative relationship between the regulatory potential of a miRNA pool and the number of potential MREs, the buffering effect and the saturating effect of the miRNA pool, and the restrictive effect caused by the density of MREs. Through expressing gradient concentration of 3'UTR fragments, we indirectly detected the regulatory potential of the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) pool and analysed its effect on the regulatory potential of the miRNA pool. Our results provide some new insights into miRNA pool mediated gene regulation.
Related JoVE Video
Surface polarization enhanced Seebeck effects in vertical multi-layer metal-polymer-metal thin-film devices.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We explore a new mechanism to develop Seebeck effects by using temperature-dependent surface polarization based on vertical multi-layer Al-P3HT:PCBM-Al thin-film devices. Here, the temperature-dependent surface polarization functions as an additional driving force, as compared with the traditional driving force from the entropy difference, to diffuse the charge carriers under a temperature gradient towards the development of Seebeck effects. The temperature-dependent surface polarization is essentially generated by both the thermally dependent polarization through the charge-phonon coupling mechanism and the thermally modulated interface dipoles by Fermi electrons. It is noted that the entropy difference often causes an inverse relationship between the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity in thermoelectric developments. However, this temperature-dependent surface polarization provides a mechanism allowing a co-operative relationship between the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity. We demonstrate simultaneously the enhanced Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity by using the dielectric interface through the temperature-dependent surface polarization to diffuse charge carriers in the Al-MoO3-P3HT:PCBM-Al thin-film device.
Related JoVE Video
PTK7 regulates Id1 expression in CD44-high glioma cells.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
CD44 is a molecular marker associated with molecular subtype and treatment resistance in glioma. More effective therapies will result from approaches aimed at targeting the CD44-high gliomas.
Related JoVE Video
[Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in detection of breast cancer].
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Later diagnosis of the disease is the leading cause of poor prognosis. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a novel approach to provide information about the molecular components and metabolic conditions of human tissue; therefore it can detect the early changes caused by cancer cells prior to histological manifestation. FTIR-based diagnosis is rapid, simple and label free, which meets the requirements of an automated and patient-friendly technique. The current article gives an overview of the experimental techniques, data analysis methods and spectral signatures of breast cancer in FTIR-based diagnosis, summarizes the present challenges by focusing on the history of FTIR spectroscopy in breast cancer since 1990s, and highlights some investigations that give a perspective of FTIR-based diagnosis.
Related JoVE Video
[Study on optimizing the reimbursement scheme under the New Rural Cooperative Medical System, based on Monte Carlo simulation].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the application of Monte Carlo simulation in optimizing and adjusting the reimbursement scheme with regard to the New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NCMS) to scientific steering practice. Optimization of the reimbursement scheme in rural areas of China was also studied.
Related JoVE Video
Preparation and initial application of monoclonal antibodies that recognize Eimeria tenella microneme proteins 1 and 2.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microneme proteins (MICs) of Eimeria species are critical for motility of the parasite, identification and binding of host cell-surface proteins, invasion of host cells, and intracellular survival. The microneme protein 1 (EtMIC1) and 2 (EtMIC2) from Eimeria tenella have a putative function in parasite adhesion to the host cell to initiate an invasion process. Previous studies indicated that the EtMIC1 and EtMIC2 proteins form a complex that play roles during attachment to and penetration of the host cell. Numerous studies demonstrated that both the EtMIC1 and EtMIC2 are important microneme proteins which are abundantly expressed in sporozoites and schizogony stages. But the expression of EtMIC1 and EtMIC2 in the gametogony stage is unknown. To investigate the precise roles of EtMIC1 and EtMIC2 in host-parasite interactions and expressions in the gametogony stage of E. tenella, we generated five mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) which recognize the EtMIC1 and EtMIC2 proteins and investigated expressions of EtMIC1 and EtMIC2 proteins in later endogenous developmental stages, particularly focused on the gametogony phase using the specific anti-EtMIC1 and anti-EtMIC2 MAbs produced in this work. Our results showed that both EtMIC1 and EtMIC2 proteins are expressed in all developmental stages including the gametogony stage. To our knowledge, this is the first report that the EtMIC1 and EtMIC2 proteins are expressed in the gametogony stage of E. tenella.
Related JoVE Video
The association of red blood cell distribution width with anemia and inflammation in patients with Takayasu arteritis.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) has been shown to be related to both anemia and inflammation in various diseases. However, the role of RDW in patients with Takayasu arteritis (TA) is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the association of RDW with anemia, inflammation, and disease activity in TA.
Related JoVE Video
?-Catenin Links Hepatic Metabolic Zonation with Lipid Metabolism and Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
?-catenin regulates the establishment of hepatic metabolic zonation. To elucidate the functional significance of liver metabolic zonation in the chronically overfed state in vivo, we fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to hepatocyte-specific ?-catenin transgenic (TG) and knockout (KO) mice. Chow-fed TG and KO mice had normal liver histologic findings and body weight. However, HFD-fed TG mice developed prominent perivenous steatosis with periportal sparing. In contrast, HFD-fed KO mice had increased lobular inflammation and hepatocyte apoptosis. HFD-fed TG mice rapidly developed diet-induced obesity and systemic insulin resistance, but KO mice were resistant to diet-induced obesity. However, ?-catenin did not directly affect hepatic insulin signaling, suggesting that the metabolic effects of ?-catenin occurred via a parallel pathway. Hepatic expression of key glycolytic and lipogenic genes was higher in HFD-fed TG and lower in KO mice compared with wild-type mice. KO mice also exhibited defective hepatic fatty acid oxidation and fasting ketogenesis. Hepatic levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1?, an oxygen-sensitive transcriptional regulator of glycolysis and a known ?-catenin binding partner, were higher in HFD-fed TG and lower in KO mice. KO mice had attenuated perivenous hypoxia, suggesting disruption of the normal sinusoidal oxygen gradient, a major determinant of liver carbohydrate and liver metabolism. Canonical Wnt signaling in hepatocytes is essential for the development of diet-induced fatty liver and obesity.
Related JoVE Video
Incidence of retinopathy of prematurity in southwestern China and analysis of risk factors.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to screen for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in southwestern China and understand the prevalence and risk factors of ROP, which may provide evidence useful in the prevention and treatment of ROP.
Related JoVE Video
Infrageneric phylogeny and temporal divergence of Sorghum (Andropogoneae, Poaceae) based on low-copy nuclear and plastid sequences.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The infrageneric phylogeny and temporal divergence of Sorghum were explored in the present study. Sequence data of two low-copy nuclear (LCN) genes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase 4 (Pepc4) and granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI), from 79 accessions of Sorghum plus Cleistachne sorghoides together with those from outgroups were used for maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) analyses. Bayesian dating based on three plastid DNA markers (ndhA intron, rpl32-trnL, and rps16 intron) was used to estimate the ages of major diversification events in Sorghum. The monophyly of Sorghum plus Cleistachne sorghoides (with the latter nested within Sorghum) was strongly supported by the Pepc4 data using BI analysis, and the monophyly of Sorghum was strongly supported by GBSSI data using both ML and BI analyses. Sorghum was divided into three clades in the Pepc4, GBSSI, and plastid phylograms: the subg. Sorghum lineage; the subg. Parasorghum and Stiposorghum lineage; and the subg. Chaetosorghum and Heterosorghum lineage. Two LCN homoeologous loci of Cleistachne sorghoides were first discovered in the same accession. Sorghum arundinaceum, S. bicolor, S. x drummondii, S. propinquum, and S. virgatum were closely related to S. x almum in the Pepc4, GBSSI, and plastid phylograms, suggesting that they may be potential genome donors to S. almum. Multiple LCN and plastid allelic variants have been identified in S. halepense of subg. Sorghum. The crown ages of Sorghum plus Cleistachne sorghoides and subg. Sorghum are estimated to be 12.7 million years ago (Mya) and 8.6 Mya, respectively. Molecular results support the recognition of three distinct subgenera in Sorghum: subg. Chaetosorghum with two sections, each with a single species, subg. Parasorghum with 17 species, and subg. Sorghum with nine species and we also provide a new nomenclatural combination, Sorghum sorghoides.
Related JoVE Video
Sparstolonin B attenuates hypoxia-induced apoptosis, necrosis and inflammation in cultured rat left ventricular tissue slices.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ischemia/reperfusion results in tissue damage, a rapid increase in cytokines and chemokines and inflammatory cell infiltration. Herein we investigated the ability of a selective TLR2/4 antagonist, Sparstolonin B (SsnB), to protect rat cultured left ventricular tissue (LV) slices from hypoxic injury by inhibiting the myocardial inflammatory response independent of inflammatory cell infiltration.
Related JoVE Video
Association between CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The previous published data on the association between CYP1A2*F (rs762551), CYP1B1 Leu432Val (rs1056836), Asn453Ser (rs180040), and Arg48Gly (rs10012) polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk remained controversial.
Related JoVE Video
Elevated levels of plasma D-dimer predict a worse outcome in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hemostatic alterations occur during the development of cancer. Plasma D-dimer is a hypercoagulability and fibrinolytic system marker that is increased in patients with various solid tumours. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hemostatic status of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients by assessing plasma D-dimer levels to investigate its value as a prognostic marker.
Related JoVE Video
BDNF-ERK-CREB signalling mediates the role of miR-132 in the regulation of the effects of oleanolic acid in male mice.
J Psychiatry Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although previous study has demonstrated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in the antidepressant-like effect of oleanolic acid, there is little information regarding the details of the molecular mechanism involved in this effect.
Related JoVE Video
Epigenetic changes of TIMP-3, GSTP-1 and 14-3-3 sigma genes as indication of status of chronic inflammation and cancer.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to compare the epigenetic changes via hypermethylation status of TIMP-3, GSTP-1 and 14-3-3? genes, between healthy subjects and patients with reversible chronic inflammatory disease, and between healthy subjects and patients with irreversible malignant disease, to highlight the genetic changes that occur in the progression from an inflammatory condition to irreversible genetic changes commonly observed in cancer patients.
Related JoVE Video
On the lower predictive bound approach for noninferiority clinical trials with binary data.
J Biopharm Stat
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Clinical trials are mostly designed to provide data that allow direct inference of the underlying hypotheses. This, however, is not the case for noninferiority trials where placebo controls are absent due to ethical considerations, resulting in the need for indirect inference about the underlying hypotheses of the treatment effect of a new drug against a putative placebo control. In particular, the European Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) guideline for noninferiority trials requires indirect confidence bounds for the "putative" effect of the new drug. To meet this requirement, we develop a new approach by which the lower predictive bound of a given confidence level is used to determine the noninferiority margin. For this approach, we provide methods for calculating the sample size and for making indirect statistical inference (i.e., p-values, confidence intervals, and point estimates) on the putative effect of the new test drug. For an actual trial example, we assess designs by the lower predictive bound approach as well as other approaches for determining noninferiority margins.
Related JoVE Video
Function of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in Takayasu arteritis disease monitoring.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Increased levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Inflammation may also affect levels of NT-proBNP. We investigated the relationship of NT-proBNP with inflammation, disease activity, disease severity, and progression of Takayasu arteritis (TA).
Related JoVE Video
Changes in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase expression results in altered behavior of HBV-associated liver cancer cells.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is regarded as a major global health care issue, and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is considered to be involved in pathogenesis of HCC. To increase knowledge of HCC pathogenesis, as well as discover potential novel molecules for anti-cancer therapy, mass spectrometry and isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTARQ) were employed. The differences between nine HBV-related HCC and adjacent non-HCC tissue specimens were studied. In total, 222 proteins were analyzed for differential expression in the two types of samples. Among these proteins, several were further confirmed by immunohistochemical, immunoblotting, and real-time RT-PCR analysis. RNA interference induced downregulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and decreased HBV replication by fivefold by the IFN pathway. Decreased G6PD expression resulted in decreased hepatoma cell migration and invasion in cell culture. In summary, the investigation provides new information on pathogenesis of HBV infection and suggests G6PD as a novel anti-HCC target. G6PD suppression may contribute to treatment strategies for inhibiting tumor progression.
Related JoVE Video
G-patch domain containing 2, a gene highly expressed in testes, inhibits nuclear factor-?B and cell proliferation.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
G-patch domain containing 2 (GPATC2), a human gene that is highly expressed in the testes, was implicated as a novel cancer/testis antigen. The present study investigated GPATC2 expression in a number of human cell lines and rat tissues, and its potential biological function in 293T cells. Semi?quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that GPATC2 was widely expressed in 15 human cell lines (representing different lineages) and in 11 different rat tissues, and that the GPATC2 mRNA relative expression level was significantly higher in the testis than it was in other tissues. 293T cells were transiently transfected with GPATC2-p enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)?N1 or GPATC2-pEGFP-C3 and the nuclei were stained with 4',6'?diamidino?2?phenylindole. The results showed that GPATC2 is predominantly expressed in the nucleus of 293T cells. Overexpression of GPATC2 may inhibit transcription of the NF-?B reporter gene. The role of GPATC2 in proliferation was analyzed with cell counting kit-8, colony-forming efficiency and flow cytometry assays. The results indicated that over?expression of GPATC2 in 293T cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation by decreasing the number of cells in S phase. By contrast, GPATC2 knockdown by RNA interference exhibited the opposite effect, suggesting that GPATC2 may be involved in inhibiting G1-S phase transition in 293T cells. In conclusion, these results provide novel insight into the breadth of expression of GPATC2 and its role in cell proliferation.
Related JoVE Video
In situ detrimental impacts of Prorocentrum donghaiense blooms on zooplankton in the East China Sea.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Large-scale algal blooms of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense have occurred frequently in the East China Sea (ECS) in recent decades. However, its impacts on the zooplankton in situ are still under not well understood. During a spring P. donghaiense bloom (April-May 2013) along the northern coast of Fujian Province (120°-121°30?E, 26°30?-28°N), we found that the bloom decreased the abundance of copepods and had no significant effect on chaetognaths and small jellyfish. However, the abundance of small jellyfish increased over the course of the study. The zooplankton community changed from being copepod and small jellyfish- to small jellyfish-dominated during the bloom. In the bloom areas, the copepod Calanus sinicus showed higher mortality and lower egg production rates (EPR) than those in the non-bloom areas. The results suggested that P. donghaiense blooms had detrimental effects on the structure of zooplankton community and the recruitments of C. sinicus.
Related JoVE Video
MicroRNA-21 Promotes Cell Growth and Migration by Targeting Programmed Cell Death 4 Gene in Kazakh's Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Dis. Markers
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Esophageal cancer (EC) is the eighth most common cancer worldwide and the sixth most common cause of cancer death. There are two main types of EC-squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and adenocarcinoma (EAC). Although some advances in the exploration of its possible etiological mechanism were made recently including behaviors and environmental risk factors as well as gene alterations, the molecular mechanism underlying ESCC carcinogenesis and progression remains poorly understood. It has been reported that miR-21 was upregulated in most malignant cancers, the proposed mechanism of which was through suppressing expression of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4). In present study, it is firstly reported that miR-21 was upregulated in Kazakh's ESCC and that miR-21 played a negative role in regulating PDCD4 using in situ hybridization (ISH) and luciferase reporter approach. Morever, in model of ESCC xenografted nude mice, miR-21 maybe used as an effective target in the treatment. The present results demonstrated that miR-21 may be a potential therapeutic target in management of ESCC.
Related JoVE Video
The lysosomal v-ATPase-Ragulator complex is a common activator for AMPK and mTORC1, acting as a switch between catabolism and anabolism.
Cell Metab.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
AMPK and mTOR play principal roles in governing metabolic programs; however, mechanisms underlying the coordination of the two inversely regulated kinases remain unclear. In this study we found, most surprisingly, that the late endosomal/lysosomal protein complex v-ATPase-Ragulator, essential for activation of mTORC1, is also required for AMPK activation. We also uncovered that AMPK is a residential protein of late endosome/lysosome. Under glucose starvation, the v-ATPase-Ragulator complex is accessible to AXIN/LKB1 for AMPK activation. Concurrently, the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity of Ragulator toward RAG is inhibited by AXIN, causing dissociation from endosome and inactivation of mTORC1. We have thus revealed that the v-ATPase-Ragulator complex is also an initiating sensor for energy stress and meanwhile serves as an endosomal docking site for LKB1-mediated AMPK activation by forming the v-ATPase-Ragulator-AXIN/LKB1-AMPK complex, thereby providing a switch between catabolism and anabolism. Our current study also emphasizes a general role of late endosome/lysosome in controlling metabolic programs.
Related JoVE Video
Annexin A3 as a Potential Target for Immunotherapy of Liver Cancer Stem-Like Cells.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cancer stem-like cells/cancer initiating cells (CSCs/CICs) are considered to represent a small population of cancer cells that is resistant to conventional cancer treatments and responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. The aim of the present study was to establish CSC/CIC-targeting immunotherapy. In this study, we found that Annexin A3 (ANXA3) was preferentially expressed in CSCs/CICs derived from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells compared to non-CSCs/CICs. In HCC samples, high levels of ANXA3 correlated with expansion of CD133(+) tumor cells representing CSCs/CICs in HCC; the combination of high levels of ANXA3 and CD133 was associated with progression of HCC. Overexpression of ANXA3 increased the proportion of CD133(+) cells, enhancing their tumorigenicity. On the contrary, knockdown of ANXA3 decreased CD133(+) cells and inhibited tumorigenicity. The mechanistic study revealed that ANXA3-mediated maintenance of HCC CSCs/CICs activity was likely involved with the HIF1A/Notch pathway. Using ANXA3 as a target, ANXA3-transfected dendritic cells (DCs) could induce more functionally active T cells and these effector T cells could superiorly kill CD133(+) HCC CSCs/CICs in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our findings suggest that ANXA3 plays a role in HCC CSC/CIC maintenance, and that ANXA3 may represent a potential CSC/CIC-specific therapeutic target for improving the treatment of HCC. Stem Cells 2014.
Related JoVE Video
7-Chlorokynurenic acid (7-CTKA) produces rapid antidepressant-like effects: through regulating hippocampal microRNA expressions involved in TrkB-ERK/Akt signaling pathways in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
7-Chlorokynurenic acid (7-CTKA), a NMDA receptor antagonist, has been reported as a potential rapid antidepressant with poor understanding about the molecular mechanism of its therapeutic action. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as critical regulators of central nervous system plasticity and may play an important role in depression.
Related JoVE Video
Controlled Synthesis of Porous Coordination-Polymer Microcrystals with Definite Morphologies and Sizes under Mild Conditions.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Herein, we report a facile and convenient method for the synthesis of the porous coordination polymer MOF-14 [Cu3 (BTB)2 ] (H3 BTB=4,4',4''-benzene-1,3,5-triyl-tribenzoic acid) as microcrystals with definite shapes and crystal facets controlled by the reaction medium at room temperature. The amount of sodium acetate added to the reaction system plays a crucial role in the shape evolution of MOF-14 from rhombic dodecahedrons to truncated rhombic dodecahedrons and cubes with truncated edges and then to cubes. The addition of a base could accelerate the formation rate of crystal growth and increase the supersaturation of crystal growth, thus resulting in the formation of MOF-14 cube crystals with high-energy crystal facets. The morphological evolution was also observed for HKUST-1 [Cu3 (BTC)2 ] (H3 BTC=1,3,5-benzenetricarbocylic acid) from octahedrons to cubes, thus verifying the probable mechanism of the morphological transformation. The gas-adsorption properties of MOF-14 with different shapes were studied and reveal that the porous coordination-polymer microcrystals display excellent and morphology-dependent sorption properties.
Related JoVE Video
Combination of pulse wave velocity with clinical factors as a promising tool to predict major adverse cardiac events after percutaneous coronary intervention.
J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The relationship between aortic stiffness and coronary artery disease has been proven. Logistic Clinical SYNTAX score (LogCSS), which combined the anatomical evaluation of coronary artery disease and three clinical factors (age, left ventricular ejection fraction, and creatinine clearance), showed improved predictive value for cardiovascular events in patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The combination of pulse wave velocity (PWV) and clinical factors may show equivalent predictive value.
Related JoVE Video
Familial nasopharyngeal carcinomas possess distinguished clinical characteristics in southern China.
Chin. J. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare clinical characteristics between familial nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs) and sporadic NPCs in Guangdong province, China, a high-risk area.
Related JoVE Video
Global transcriptional profiling of a cold-tolerant rice variety under moderate cold stress reveals different cold stress response mechanisms.
Physiol Plant
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gene expression profiling under severe cold stress (4°C) has been conducted in plants including rice. However, rice seedlings are frequently exposed to milder cold stresses under natural environments. To understand the responses of rice to milder cold stress, a moderately low temperature (8°C) was used for cold treatment prior to genome-wide profiling of gene expression in a cold-tolerant japonica variety, Lijiangxintuanheigu (LTH). A total of 5557 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found at four time points during moderate cold stress. Both the DEGs and differentially expressed transcription factor genes were clustered into two groups based on their expression, suggesting a two-phase response to cold stress and a determinative role of transcription factors in the regulation of stress response. The induction of OsDREB2A under cold stress is reported for the first time in this study. Among the anti-oxidant enzyme genes, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were upregulated, suggesting that the glutathione system may serve as the main reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger in LTH. Changes in expression of genes in signal transduction pathways for auxin, abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) imply their involvement in cold stress responses. The induction of ABA response genes and detection of enriched cis-elements in DEGs suggest that ABA signaling pathway plays a dominant role in the cold stress response. Our results suggest that rice responses to cold stress vary with the specific temperature imposed and the rice genotype.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of metabolites of sweroside in rat urine using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy.
J Mass Spectrom
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sweroside, a major active iridoid in Swertia pseudochinensis Hara, is recognized as an effective agent in the treatment of liver injury. Based on previous reports, the relatively short half-life (64?min) and poor bioavailability (approximately 0.31%) in rats suggested that not only sweroside itself but also its metabolites could be responsible for the observed hepato-protective effect. However, few studies have been carried out on the metabolism of sweroside. Therefore, the present study aimed at identifying the metabolites of sweroside in rat urine after a single oral dose (100?mg/kg). With ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS), the metabolic profile revealed 11 metabolites in rat urine, including phase I, phase II and aglycone-related products. The chemical structures of metabolites were proposed based on accurate mass measurements of protonated or deprotonated molecules and their fragmentation patterns. Our findings showed that the aglycone of sweroside (M05) and its glucuronide conjugate (M06) were principal circulating metabolites in rats. While several other metabolic transformations, occurring via reduction, N-heterocyclization and N-acetylation after deglycosylation, were also observed. Two metabolites (M05 and M06) were isolated from the rat urine for structural elucidation and identifcation of reaction sites. Both M05 and M06 were characterized by (1) H, (13) C and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS analysis has provided an important analytical platform to gather metabolic profile of sweroside. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Related JoVE Video
Antihypertensive medication adherence and mortality according to ethnicity: a cohort study.
Can J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Few studies have evaluated adherence to antihypertensive medication in Chinese and South Asian populations and little is known about the long-term outcome. Our objectives were to compare adherence to antihypertensive medications and assess the association of adherence and long-term mortality in Chinese, South Asian, and white patients with newly diagnosed hypertension.
Related JoVE Video
Pichia pastoris expressed EtMic2 protein as a potential vaccine against chicken coccidiosis.
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chicken coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species leads to tremendous economic losses to the avian industry worldwide. Identification of parasite life cycle specific antigens is a critical step in recombinant protein vaccine development against Eimeria infections. In the present study, we amplified and cloned the microneme-2 (EtMIC2) gene from Eimeria tenella wild type strain SD-01, and expressed the EtMic2 protein using Pichia pastoris and Escherichia coli expression systems, respectively. The EtMic2 proteins expressed by P. pastoris and E. coli were used as vaccines to immunize chickens and their protective efficacies were compared and evaluated. The results indicated that both P. pastoris and E. coli expressed EtMic2 proteins exhibited good immunogenicity in stimulating host immune responses and the Pichia expressed EtMic2 provided better protection than the E. coli expressed EtMic2 did by significantly increasing growth rate, inducing high specific antibody response, reducing the oocyst output and cecal lesions. Particularly, the Pichia expressed EtMic2 protein exhibited much better ability in inducing cell mediated immune response than the E. coli expressed EtMic2.
Related JoVE Video
miR?210 regulates esophageal cancer cell proliferation by inducing G2/M phase cell cycle arrest through targeting PLK1.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
micro (mi)RNAs are short regulatory RNAs that negatively modulate protein expression at the post?transcriptional level, and are being considered as novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer. In the present study, an elevated expression level of circulating miR?210 was observed in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, and the induction of miR?210 under hypoxic conditions in ESCC was confirmed. Cell counting kit?8 assay and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay indicated that miR?210 markedly inhibited the proliferation of ESCC cells. In addition, the effect of miR?210 on the cell cycle was examined. Transfection of miR?210 resulted in a significant increase in the proportion of cells in G2/M phase. Polo?like kinase 1 (PLK1) was investigated as a candidate target of miR?210, which is a critical regulator of cell cycle transmission at multiple levels. It was demonstrated that miR?210 reduced the levels of PLK1 protein by binding the 3' untranslated region of its mRNA. The results of the present study demonstrated that miR?210 inhibited the proliferation of ESCC cells by inducing G2/M phase cell cycle arrest, and these effects of miR?210 were mediated by the targeting of PLK1.
Related JoVE Video
Genotypes and Transmitted Drug Resistance among Treatment-Naive HIV-1-Infected Patients in a Northwestern Province, China: Trends from 2003 to 2013.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) reduces the efficacy of initial antiretroviral treatment and has become a public health concern. Little information is available regarding the genetic diversity of HIV-1 and the prevalence of TDR among treatment-naïve patients in a northwestern province of China since the implementation of national free antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Related JoVE Video
Non-genetic direct reprogramming and biomimetic platforms in a preliminary study for adipose-derived stem cells into corneal endothelia-like cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cell fate and function can be regulated and reprogrammed by intrinsic genetic program, extrinsic factors and niche microenvironment. Direct reprogramming has shown many advantages in the field of cellular reprogramming. Here we tried the possibility to generate corneal endothelia (CE) -like cells from human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) by the non-genetic direct reprogramming of recombinant cell-penetrating proteins Oct4/Klf4/Sox2 (PTD-OKS) and small molecules (purmorphamine, RG108 and other reprogramming chemical reagents), as well as biomimetic platforms of simulate microgravity (SMG) bioreactor. Co-cultured with corneal cells and decellularized corneal ECM, Reprogrammed ADSCs revealed spherical growth and positively expressing Nanog for RT-PCR analysis and CD34 for immunofluorescence staining after 7 days-treatment of both purmorphamine and PTD-OKS (P-OKS) and in SMG culture. ADSCs changed to CEC polygonal morphology from spindle shape after the sequential non-genetic direct reprogramming and biomimetic platforms. At the same time, induced cells converted to weakly express CD31, AQP-1 and ZO-1. These findings demonstrated that the treatments were able to promote the stem-cell reprogramming for human ADSCs. Our study also indicates for the first time that SMG rotary cell culture system can be used as a non-genetic means to promote direct reprogramming. Our methods of reprogramming provide an alternative strategy for engineering patient-specific multipotent cells for cellular plasticity research and future autologous CEC replacement therapy that avoids complications associated with the use of human pluripotent stem cells.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of miR-33a-5P on ABCA1/G1-Mediated Cholesterol Efflux under Inflammatory Stress in THP-1 Macrophages.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present study is to investigate whether inflammatory cytokines inhibit ABCA1/ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux by regulating miR-33a-5P in THP-1 macrophages. We used interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the presence or absence of native low density lipoprotein (LDL) to stimulate THP-1 macrophages. THP-1 macrophages were infected by either control lentivirus vectors or lentivirus encoding miR-33a-5P or antisense miR-33a-5P. The effects of inflammatory cytokines, miR-33a-5P and antisense miR-33a-5P on intracellular lipids accumulation and intracellular cholesterol contents were assessed by oil red O staining and quantitative intracellular cholesterol assay. ApoA-I-mediated cholesterol efflux was examined using the fluorescent sterol (BODIPY-cholesterol). The gene and protein expressions of the molecules involved in cholesterol trafficking were examined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Inflammatory cytokines or miR-33a-5P increased intracellular lipid accumulation and decreased apoA-I-mediated cholesterol efflux via decreasing the expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in the absence or presence of LDL in THP-1 macrophages. However, antisense miR-33a-5P reversed the effects of inflammatory cytokines on intracellular lipid accumulation, cholesterol efflux, and the expression of miR-33a-5P, ABCA1 and ABCG1 in the absence or presence of LDL in THP-1 macrophages. This study indicated that inflammatory cytokines inhibited ABCA1/ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux by up-regulating miR-33a-5P in THP-1 macrophages.
Related JoVE Video
miR-135b contributes to the radioresistance by targeting GSK3? in human glioblastoma multiforme cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Radioresistance remains a major challenge in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Recent data strongly suggests the important role of miRNAs in cancer progression and therapeutic response. Here, we have established a radioresistant human GBM cell line U87R derived from parental U87 and found miR-135b expression was upregulated in U87R cells. miR-135b knockdown reversed radioresistance of U87R cells, and miR-135b overexpression enhanced radioresistance of U87 cells. Mechanically, bioinformatics analysis combined with experimental analysis demonstrated GSK3? (Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta) was a novel direct target of miR-135b. Moreover, GSK3? protein expression was downregulated in U87R cells and restored expression of GSK3? increased radiosensitivity of U87R cells. In addition, clinical data indicated that the expression of miR-135b or GSK3? was significantly association with IR resistance of GBM samples. Our findings suggest miR-135b is involved in the radioresistance of human GBM cells and miR-135b-GSK3? axis may be a novel candidate for developing rational therapeutic strategies for human GBM treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Lipidomic analysis of Arabidopsis seed genetically engineered to contain DHA.
Front Plant Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metabolic engineering of omega-3 long-chain (?C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (?3 LC-PUFA) in oilseeds has been one of the key targets in recent years. By expressing a transgenic pathway for enhancing the synthesis of the ?3 LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from endogenous ?-linolenic acid (ALA), we obtained the production of fish oil-like proportions of DHA in Arabidopsis seed oil. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to characterize the triacylglycerol (TAG), diacylglycerol (DAG) and phospholipid (PL) lipid classes in the transgenic and wild type Arabidopsis seeds at both developing and mature stages. The analysis identified the appearance of several abundant DHA-containing phosphatidylcholine (PC), DAG and TAG molecular species in mature seeds. The relative abundances of PL, DAG, and TAG species showed a preferred combination of LC-PUFA with ALA in the transgenic seeds, where LC-PUFA were esterified in positions usually occupied by 20:1?9. Trace amounts of di-DHA PC and tri-DHA TAG were identified and confirmed by high resolution MS/MS. Studying the lipidome in transgenic seeds provided insights into where DHA accumulated and combined with other fatty acids of neutral and phospholipids from the developing and mature seeds.
Related JoVE Video
Decreased SFRP2 expression is associated with intermediate and poor karyotypes in de novo acute myeloid leukemia.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dysregulation of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2) has been found in various cancers. However, it is little known about the pattern of SFRP2 expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This study was aimed to analyze the expression status of SFRP2 gene in AML patients and explore its clinical significance using real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR). The level of SFRP2 expression significantly decreased in AML compared to controls (P<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis revealed that an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.871 (P<0.001) or 0.902 (P<0.001) in discriminating all patients or cytogenetically normal (CN) patients from controls, respectively. Low level of SFRP2 expression was found more frequently in cytogenetically intermediate and poor groups (72% and 62%, respectively) than in favorable group (42%) (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the rate of complete remission (CR) and overall survival between the groups with low SFRP2 and high expression (P>0.05). SFRP2 expression significantly increased after CR compared to initial diagnosis (P<0.05). These findings suggest that decreased SFRP2 expression is associated with intermediate/poor karyotypes in AML patients and detection of SFRP2 expression may be helpful to the diagnosis and disease monitoring in CN-AML.
Related JoVE Video
Distinct patterns of ALDH1A1 expression predict metastasis and poor outcome of colorectal carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) has been proposed as a candidate biomarker for colorectal carcinoma (CRC). However, the heterogeneity of its expression makes it difficult to predict the outcome of CRC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of this molecule in CRC.
Related JoVE Video
Suppression of tumor growth by Pleurotus ferulae ethanol extract through induction of cell apoptosis, and inhibition of cell proliferation and migration.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Edible medicinal mushrooms have been used in traditional medicine as regimes for cancer patients. Recently anti-cancer bioactive components from some mushrooms have been isolated and their anti-cancer effects have been tested. Pleurotus ferulae, a typical edible medicinal mushroom in Xinjiang China, has also been used to treat cancer patients in folk medicine. However, little studies have been reported on the anti-cancer components of Pleurotus ferulae. This study aims to extract bioactive components from Pleurotus ferulae and to investigate the anti-cancer effects of the extracts. We used ethanol to extract anti-cancer bioactive components enriched with terpenoids from Pleurotus ferulae. We tested the anti-tumour effects of ethanol extracts on the melanoma cell line B16F10, the human gastric cancer cell line BGC 823 and the immortalized human gastric epithelial mucosa cell line GES-1 in vitro and a murine melanoma model in vivo. Cell toxicity and cell proliferation were measured by MTT assays. Cell cycle progression, apoptosis, caspase 3 activity, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), migration and gene expression were studied in vitro. PFEC suppressed tumor cell growth, inhibited cell proliferation, arrested cells at G0/G1 phases and was not toxic to non-cancer cells. PFEC also induced cell apoptosis and necrosis, increased caspase 3 activity, reduced the MMP, prevented cell invasion and changed the expression of genes associated with apoptosis and the cell cycle. PFEC delayed tumor formation and reduced tumor growth in vivo. In conclusion, ethanol extracted components from Pleurotus ferulae exert anti-cancer effects through direct suppression of tumor cell growth and invasion, demonstrating its therapeutic potential in cancer treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Dynamics of the microbiota in response to host infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Longitudinal studies of the microbiota are important for discovering changes in microbial communities that affect the host. The complexity of these ecosystems requires rigorous integrated experimental and computational methods to identify temporal signatures that promote physiologic or pathophysiologic responses in vivo. Employing a murine model of infectious colitis with the pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, we generated a 2-month time-series of 16S rDNA gene profiles, and quantitatively cultured commensals, from multiple intestinal sites in infected and uninfected mice. We developed a computational framework to discover time-varying signatures for individual taxa, and to automatically group signatures to identify microbial sub-communities within the larger gut ecosystem that demonstrate common behaviors. Application of this model to the 16S rDNA dataset revealed dynamic alterations in the microbiota at multiple levels of resolution, from effects on systems-level metrics to changes across anatomic sites for individual taxa and species. These analyses revealed unique, time-dependent microbial signatures associated with host responses at different stages of colitis. Signatures included a Mucispirillum OTU associated with early disruption of the colonic surface mucus layer, prior to the onset of symptomatic colitis, and members of the Clostridiales and Lactobacillales that increased with successful resolution of inflammation, after clearance of the pathogen. Quantitative culture data validated findings for predominant species, further refining and strengthening model predictions. These findings provide new insights into the complex behaviors found within host ecosystems, and define several time-dependent microbial signatures that may be leveraged in studies of other infectious or inflammatory conditions.
Related JoVE Video
[RIFLE and AKIN criteria for mortality and risk factors of acute kidney injury in hospitalized patients.]
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objective: To evaluate the mortality and risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) in hospitalized patients by the risk, injury, failure, loss, end stage kidney disease (RIFLE) and acute kidney injury network (AKIN). Methods: We constructed a retrospective study of all AKI patients in the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University between February 2006 and January 2011. The diagnosis and classification of AKI were reconfirmed and categorized by RIFLE and AKIN criteria. To compare the clinical characteristics, mortality and associated risk factors in AKI patients by the RIFLE and AKIN stage, univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed. Results: The patients were diagnosed as AKI by AKIN (n=1027) or by RIFLE criteria (n=1020). There was no significant difference in the hospital mortality, hospital length stay (days), or the proportion of complete recovery in each stage of AKI patients by RIFLE and AKIN (P>0.05). In the univariate analysis, age, pre-renal causes, proportion of hospital acquired AKI, mechanical ventilation, hypotension, the number of failed organs, acute tubular necrosis-index severity score (ATN-ISS), and the peak of serum potassium ion concentration were significantly higher in the non-survivors than in the survivors (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that age older than 65, hospital acquired AKI, hypotension, number of failed organs, ATN-ISS scores, and the peak of serum potassium ion concentration were independent risk factors for hospital mortality. Conclusion: Both RIFLE and AKIN criteria have similar scientific value in assessing hospital mortality. AKI stage is associated with the recent prognosis of AKI patients.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibitory effects of stilbene derivatives from Parthenocissus tricuspidata on adipocyte differentiation and pancreatic lipase.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Obesity, which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation, occurs by fat absorption by lipase and sequential fat accumulation in adipocytes through adipocyte differentiation. Thus, inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity and adipocyte differentiation would be crucial for the prevention and treatment of obesity. Investigation of anti-obesity compounds from Parthenocissus tricuspidata stems resulted in the isolation of nineteen compounds including five acetophenones, five flavonoids and nine stilbene derivatives. Among them, the stilbene derivatives showed the most potent anti-obesity effects. Stilbene monomers showed strong inhibitory activity on both adipocyte differentiation and pancreatic lipase, followed by stilbene dimer and trimer. Flavonoids showed mild inhibition on adipocyte differentiation, whereas acetophenones showed little effect in our assay system. Taken together, P. tricuspidata might be a new candidate for the development of obesity treatment.
Related JoVE Video
WNT5A-mediated ?-catenin-independent signalling is a novel regulator of cancer cell metabolism.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
WNT5A has been identified as an important ligand in the malignant progression of a number of tumours. Although WNT5A signalling is often altered in cancer, the ligands role as either a tumour suppressor or oncogene varies between tumour types and is a contemporary issue for investigators of ?-catenin-independent WNT signalling in oncology. Here, we report that one of the initial effects of active WNT5A signalling in malignant melanoma cells is an alteration in cellular energy metabolism and specifically an increase in aerobic glycolysis. This was found to be at least in part due to an increase in active Akt signalling and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. The clinical relevance of these findings was strengthened by a strong correlation (P < 0.001) between the expression of WNT5A and LDH isoform V in a cohort of melanocytic neoplasms. We also found effects of WNT5A on energy metabolism in breast cancer cells, but rather than promoting aerobic glycolysis as it does in melanoma, WNT5A signalling increased oxidative phosphorylation rates in breast cancer cells. These findings support a new role for WNT5A in the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells that is a context- dependent event.
Related JoVE Video
A pilot study: Application of hemoglobin and cortisol levels, and a memory test to evaluate the quality of life of breast cancer patients on chemotherapy.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background:Short-term memory (STM) decline in breast cancer patients resulting from chemotherapy was evaluated by means of blood biomarkers, a questionnaire, and a computerized STM test. Methods:This study was conducted from January 2013 to June 2013, recruiting 90 subjects: 30 breast cancer patients beginning the 3rd of 4th cycles of docetaxel and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy, 30 recovered patients (who completed 4 cycles of docetaxel for a minimum of 6 months), and 30 healthy subjects (disease-free females). The levels of hemoglobin, red and white blood cells, and cortisol in serum, and a computerized STM test were analyzed to estimate the effects of chemotherapy on STM. A questionnaire was given to all subjects to assess quality of life. Results:Statistically significant differences were observed for the blood parameters (hemoglobin, red and white blood cells, and cortisol levels) between healthy and on-treatment subjects (respectively 13.47±0.96 g/dL vs 5.37±0.38 g/dL, 4.58±0.41 1012/L vs 2.07±0.13 1012/L, and 6.15±1.03 109/L vs 0.86±0.41 109/L). Scores of the STM test were significantly lower for patients compared to healthy subjects. As indicated by the results of the questionnaire, breast cancer patients had a higher tendency to forget than healthy controls (X2=3.15; p<0.0001) and recovered subjects (X2=3.15; p<0.0001). Conclusion:We found depleted levels of hemoglobin, red and white blood cells as a result of chemotherapy, and elevated levels of stress correlated with poor performances in the computerized STM test. A higher cortisol level might be an important precursor of STM deterioration. Monitoring cortisol would be beneficial for evaluating the quality of life of breast cancer patients on chemotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
[Clinical thinking about treating acute ischemic stroke by targeting the neurovascular unit of Chinese medicine].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neurovascular unit (NVU) concept proposed for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) provides a new target, i.e., we should target as an integrity including neurons, glia, and microcirculation, thus supplementing limitations of previous treatment targeting neurons or blood vessels alone. Meanwhile, many clinical trials have failed after NVU protection against AIS drug research has developed at home and abroad. Chinese medicine has multi-component, multi-target, and overall regulation advantages, and is in line with clinical requirement for overall treatment targeting multiple targets of NVU. Currently clinical studies of Chinese medicine treatment of AIS targeting NVU are few. Standardized and systematic clinical efficacy evaluation is lack. Clinical studies for improving AIS-NVU injured blood markers by Chinese medicine are rarer. We hope to pave the way for performing clinical studies on Chinese medicine treatment of AIS targeting NVU.
Related JoVE Video
Chaperone heat shock protein 70 in nucleus accumbens core: a novel biological target of behavioural sensitization to morphine in rats.
Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Drug addiction is a major public health issue, yet the underlying adaptation of neural networks by drugs of abuse is not fully understood. We have previously linked chaperone heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) to drug-induced adaptations. Focusing on the NAc core and shell, the present study aims to provide further findings for our understanding of the relation between behavioural sensitization to morphine and Hsp70 at transcriptional and functional levels in rats. Firstly, we delineated the characteristics of behavioural sensitization induced by a single morphine exposure (1-10 mg/kg, s.c.). Secondly, Hsp70 protein expression in the NAc core was time- and dose-relatedly induced during the development of behavioural sensitization to a single morphine exposure in rats, and Pearson analysis indicated a positive correlation between behavioural sensitization and Hsp70 expression in NAc core. Thirdly, at the transcriptional level, intra-NAc core injection of the specific heat shock factor-I (HSF-I) inhibitor N-Formyl-3,4-methylenedioxy-benzylidine-?-butyrolactam (KNK437) suppressed Hsp70 expression and the development of behavioural sensitization, while the HSF-I specific inducer geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) promoted both of them. Interestingly, intra-NAc shell injection of KNK437 or GGA did not affect the development of behavioural sensitization. Finally, both the functional inhibition of Hsp70 ATPase activity by methylene blue (MB), and the antagonism of Hsp70 substrate binding site (SBD) activity by pifithrin-? (PES) impaired the development of behavioural sensitization when they were microinjected into the NAc core. Taken together, the critical involvement of chaperone Hsp70 in behavioural sensitization to morphine identifies a biological target for long-lasting adaptations with relevance to addiction.
Related JoVE Video
[Investigation on role of p38? mitogen-activated protein kinases in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line Eca109].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the role of p38?mitogen-activated potein kinases (MAPK) in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line Eca109.
Related JoVE Video
Prognostic impact of cigarette smoking on the survival of patients with established nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cigarette smoking is associated with the etiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma; however, the influence of smoking on survival in patients with established nasopharyngeal carcinoma remains unknown.
Related JoVE Video
Locoregional radiotherapy in patients with distant metastases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma at diagnosis.
Chin J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Systemic chemotherapy is the basic palliative treatment for metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC); however, it is not known whether locoregional radiotherapy targeting the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes affects the survival of patients with metastatic NPC. Therefore, we aimed to retrospectively evaluate the benefits of locoregional radiotherapy. A total of 408 patients with metastatic NPC were included in this study. The mortality risks of the patients undergoing supportive treatment and those undergoing chemotherapy were compared with that of patients undergoing locoregional radiotherapy delivered alone or in combination with chemotherapy. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. The contributions of independent factors were assessed after adjustment for covariates with significant prognostic associations (P < 0.05). Both locoregional radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy were identified as significant independent prognostic factors of overall survival (OS). The mortality risk was similar in the group undergoing locoregional radiotherapy alone and the group undergoing systemic chemotherapy alone [multi-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 0.9, P = 0.529]; this risk was 60% lower than that of the group undergoing supportive treatment (HR = 0.4, P = 0.004) and 130% higher than that of the group undergoing both systemic chemotherapy and locoregional radiotherapy (HR = 2.3, P < 0.001). In conclusion, locoregional radiotherapy, particularly when combined with systemic chemotherapy, is associated with improved survival of patients with metastatic NPC.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.