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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Preeclampsia Does Not Alter Vascular Growth and Expression of CD31 and Vascular Endothelial Cadherin in Human Placentas.
J. Histochem. Cytochem.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2014
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Preeclampsia is characterized by maternal endothelial dysfunction (e.g., increased maternal vascular permeability caused by the disassembly of endothelial junction proteins). However, it is unclear if preeclampsia is associated with impaired vascular growth and expression of endothelial junction proteins in human placentas. Herein, we examined vascular growth in placentas from women with normal term (NT) and preeclamptic (PE) pregnancies using two endothelial junction proteins as endothelial markers: CD31 and vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-Cad). We also compared protein and mRNA expression of CD31 and VE-Cad between NT and PE placentas, and determined the alternatively spliced expression of CD31 using PCR. We found that CD31 and VE-Cad were immunolocalized predominantly in villous endothelial cells. However, capillary number density (total capillary number per unit villous area) and capillary area density (total capillary lumen area per unit villous area) as well as CD31 and VE-Cad protein and mRNA levels were similar between NT and PE placentas. PCR in combination with sequence analysis revealed a single, full-length CD31, suggesting that there are no alternatively spliced isoform of CD31 expressed in placentas. These data indicate that preeclampsia does not significantly affect vascular growth or the expression of endothelial junction proteins in human placentas.
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[Establishment of mouse mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing CXCR4 gene and evaluation of their functions].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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This study was purposed to establish the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) stably overexpressing mouse CXC chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) gene and to explore their function. The recombinant lentiviral vector LV-CXCR4-IRES-EGFP with packaging plasmid pSPAX2 and envelope plasmid pMD.2G were co-transfected into 293FT packaging cell line using lipofectamine 2000 to produce the recombinant lentiviral vectors. The recombinant viruses were harvested and concentrated by using ultracentrifugation. Mouse bone marrow MSC were infected with the viral supernatants. Variable methods were used to optimize the transduction condition. EGFP expression was visualized using fluorescence microscope and efficiency of infection was determined by flow cytometry (FCM). Proliferation and apoptosis were detected by proliferation curve and FCM, respectively. Migration capacity was assessed by a chemotaxis assay using transwell. Expression of EGFP were detected by fluorescence microscopy in MSCs after infection. The results showed that through optimization of infection condition, the recombination lentiviral vectors had higher infection efficacy; after infection for 72 h, the higher expression of EGFP could be observed under fluorescence microscope; the expression of CXCR4 protein on MSC surface in CXCR4-MSC group significantly increased compared with those in the control group. Meanwhile, over-expression of CXCR4 had no effect on their capacity of proliferation and did not induce apoptosis. Moreover, CXCR4 enhanced the migration of cells in the transwell induced by SDF-1 gradient compared with the EGFP control group. It is concluded that the lentiviral vector can not only infect mouse MSCs efficiently, but also can make CXCR4 express stably in MSC.
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[Effect of BRD4 Inhibitor GSK525762A on Proliferation and Apoptosis of KU812 Leukemic Cells and Its Mechanism].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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This study was purposed to investigate the effect of bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) inhibitor GSK525762A on the proliferation and apoptosis of chronic myeloid leukemia blast crisis KU812 cells and its mechanism. KU812 cells were treated with different concentrations of GSK525762A (100, 250, 500, 1 000, 2 500 and 5000 nmol/L) and the inhibitory effects of drug on KU812 cell proliferation after 48 and 72 hours were detected by using CCK-8 assay. KU812 cells were treated with 3 different concentrations of GSK525762A (1.0, 2.5 and 5 µmol/L) and the cell apoptosis after 72 hours were assayed by using flow cytometry. KU812 cells were treated with DMSO and 2.5 µmol/L GSK525762A, and the mRNA levels of C-MYC, BCL-2, CDK6, BCL-xL, BAK and BAX were determined by using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The results showed that GSK525762A could significantly inhibit the proliferation of KU812 cells and the inhibitory effect on KU812 cell proliferation was dependent on the dose-course and time-course of GSK525762A treatment. GSK525762A treatment could induce apoptosis of KU812 cells in a dose-dependent manner. After GSK525762A treatment, the mRNA levels of proliferation-promoting genes ( C-MYC and CDK6) and pro-survival genes ( BCL-2 and BCL-xL) decreased, while the transcription level of pro-apoptosis genes BAK and BAX increased, as compared to that of the control group. It is concluded that GSK525762A can inhibit the proliferation of KU812 cells and induce cell apoptosis possibly through depressing the transcription of C-MYC, BCL-2, CDK6 and BCL-xL gene, and down-regulating BAK and BAX transcription.
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Postsynaptic insertion of AMPA receptor onto cortical pyramidal neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex after peripheral nerve injury.
Mol Brain
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Long-term potentiation (LTP) is the key cellular mechanism for physiological learning and pathological chronic pain. Postsynaptic accumulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) GluA1 plays an important role for injury-related cortical LTP. However, there is no direct evidence for postsynaptic GluA1 insertion or accumulation after peripheral injury. Here we report nerve injury increased the postsynaptic expression of AMPAR GluA1 in pyramidal neurons in the layer V of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), including the corticospinal projecting neurons. Electrophysiological recordings show that potentiation of postsynaptic responses was reversed by Ca2+ permeable AMPAR antagonist NASPM. Finally, behavioral studies show that microinjection of NASPM into the ACC inhibited behavioral sensitization caused by nerve injury. Our findings provide direct evidence that peripheral nerve injury induces postsynaptic GluA1 accumulation in cingulate cortical neurons, and inhibits postsynaptic GluA1 accumulation which may serve as a novel target for treating neuropathic pain.
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Profiling of thiol-containing compounds by stable isotope labeling double precursor ion scan mass spectrometry.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Here we developed a novel strategy of isotope labeling in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography-double precursor ion scan mass spectrometry (IL-LC-DPIS-MS) analysis for nontargeted profiling of thiol-containing compounds. In this strategy, we synthesized a pair of isotope labeling reagents (?-bromoacetonylquinolinium bromide, BQB; ?-bromoacetonylquinolinium-d7 bromide, BQB-d7) that contain a reactive group, an isotopically labeled moiety, and an ionizable group to selectively label thiol-containing compounds. The BQB and BQB-d7 labeled compounds can generate two characteristic product ions m/z 218 and 225, which contain an isotope tag and therefore were used for double precursor ion scans in mass spectrometry analysis. The peak pairs with characteristic mass differences can be readily extracted from the two precursor ion scan (PIS) spectra and assigned as potential thiol-containing candidates, which facilitates the identification of analytes. BQB and BQB-d7 labeled thiol-containing compounds can be clearly distinguished by generating two individual ion chromatograms. Thus, thiol-containing compounds from two samples labeled with different isotope reagents are ionized at the same time but recorded separately by mass spectrometry, offering good identification and accurate quantification by eliminating the MS response fluctuation and mutual interference from the two labeled samples. Using the IL-LC-DPIS-MS strategy, we profiled the thiol-containing compounds in beer and human urine, and 21 and 103 thiol candidates were discovered in beer and human urine, respectively. In addition, 9 and 17 thiol candidates in beer and human urine were successfully identified by further comparison with thiol standards or tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Taken together, the IL-LC-DPIS-MS method is demonstrated to be a promising strategy in the profiling of compounds with identical groups in metabolomics study.
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Cross-inhibition of NMBR and GRPR signaling maintains normal histaminergic itch transmission.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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We previously showed that gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in the spinal cord is important for mediating nonhistaminergic itch. Neuromedin B receptor (NMBR), the second member of the mammalian bombesin receptor family, is expressed in a largely nonoverlapping pattern with GRPR in the superficial spinal cord, and its role in itch transmission remains unclear. Here, we report that Nmbr knock-out (KO) mice exhibited normal scratching behavior in response to intradermal injection of pruritogens. However, mice lacking both Nmbr and Grpr (DKO mice) showed significant deficits in histaminergic itch. In contrast, the chloroquine (CQ)-evoked scratching behavior of DKO mice is not further reduced compared with Grpr KO mice. These results suggest that NMBR and GRPR could compensate for the loss of each other to maintain normal histamine-evoked itch, whereas GRPR is exclusively required for CQ-evoked scratching behavior. Interestingly, GRPR activity is enhanced in Nmbr KO mice despite the lack of upregulation of Grpr expression; so is NMBR in Grpr KO mice. We found that NMB acts exclusively through NMBR for itch transmission, whereas GRP can signal through both receptors, albeit to NMBR to a much lesser extent. Although NMBR and NMBR(+) neurons are dispensable for histaminergic itch, GRPR(+) neurons are likely to act downstream of NMBR(+) neurons to integrate NMB-NMBR-encoded histaminergic itch information in normal physiological conditions. Together, we define the respective function of NMBR and GRPR in itch transmission, and reveal an unexpected relationship not only between the two receptors but also between the two populations of interneurons in itch signaling.
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Two new guaiane sesquiterpenoids from Daphne holosericea (Diels) Hamaya.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Two new sesquiterpenoids with guaiane skeletons-holosericin A (1) and holosericin B (2)-were isolated from the medicinal plant Daphne holosericea (Diels) Hamawa (Thymelaeceae). Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D-NMR spectroscopy, as well as HR-ESI-MS data. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for inhibitory activities against acetylcholinesterase and compound 2 showed a moderate activity with 31% inhibition.
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Terpenoids and their anti-feedant activity from Cipadessa cinerascens.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Eight tetranortriterpenoids (1-8) and two sesquiterpenoids (9 and 10) including two new compounds, cineracipadesin G (1) and 1?-hydroperoxy-6?-hydroxy-eudesm-4(15)-ene (9), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of branches of Cipadessa cinerascens. The structures of two new compounds were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR and MS spectroscopic analyses. The anti-feedant activity of two tetranortriterpenoids (1 and 7) was tested and obvious anti-feedant effects were detected.
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The MDM2 SNP309T>G polymorphism increases bladder cancer risk among Caucasians: a meta-analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Published studies have evaluated associations between the MDM2 SNP309T>G polymorphism and bladder cancer susceptibility. However, these generated inconsistent results. The aim of the present investigation was to quantify the strength of association between MDM2 SNP309T>G polymorphism and bladder cancer risk by conducting a meta-analysis. We searched PubMed and Embase for related studies that had been published in English before April 1, 2014 and associations were assessed by summarizing the odds ratios (ORs) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Five case-control studies with a total of 972 cases and 1,012 controls were finally identified to be eligible for the meta-analysis. Overall, the results indicated that there was no significant association between the MDM2 SNP309T>G polymorphism and bladder cancer risk (for the allele model G vs. T: OR=1.08, 95% CI 0.85-1.36, p=0.54; for the co-dominant model GG vs. TT: OR=1.20, 95% CI 0.74-1.93, p=0.46; for the dominant model GG+GT vs. TT: OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.80-1.20, p=0.83; for the recessive model GG vs. GT+TT: OR=1.20, 95% CI 0.83-1.74, p=0.33). However, on subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significant associations were found in Caucasians in three models (for the allele model G vs. T: OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.10-1.81, p=0.006; for the co-dominant model GG vs. TT: OR=2.16, 95% CI 1.28-3.63, p=0.004; for the recessive model GG vs. GT+TT: OR=2.06, 95% CI 1.31-3.22, p=0.002). In summary, the present meta-analysis provides evidence that the genotype for the MDM2 SNP309T>G polymorphism may be associated with genetic susceptibility to bladder cancer among Caucasians.
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Silica-decorated polypropylene microfiltration membranes with a mussel-inspired intermediate layer for oil-in-water emulsion separation.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Silica-decorated polypropylene microfiltration membranes were fabricated via a facile biomimetic silicification process on the polydopamine/polyethylenimine-modified surfaces. The membranes exhibit superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity derived from the inherent hydrophilicity and the well-defined micronanocomposite structures of the silica-decorated surfaces. They can be applied in varieties of oil-in-water emulsions separation with high permeate flux (above 1200 L/m(2)h under 0.04 MPa) and oil rejection (above 99%). The membranes also have relatively high oil breakthrough pressure reaching 0.16 MPa due to the microporous structure, showing great potential for practical applications. Furthermore, such mussel-inspired intermediate layer provides us a convenient and powerful tool to fabricate organic-inorganic hybrid membranes for advanced applications.
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The Roles of Neurotensin and its Analogues in Pain.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Neurotensin (NT) is an endogenous 13 amino acid neuropeptide with profound opioid-independent analgesic effects. This role of NT is thought to be mediated by both neurotensin receptor subtype 1 (NTS1) and neurotensin receptor subtype 2 (NTS2). NT and its receptors are widely distributed in the pain circuits in central nervous system. Thus NT might modulate pain in many structures of pain pathway, such as spinal cord, rostroventral medulla (RVM) and periaqueductal gray (PAG). Actually either intrathecal application of NT or direct injection of NT into RVM or PAG or intracerebroventricular injection of NT showed analgesic effects. NT exerted its antinociceptive effects in both acute pain and chronic pain models. The analgesic effects of NT were originally found in acute pain experiments. In the case of pathological pain, for example, formalin injection induced inflammatory pain and sciatic nerve constriction induced neuropathic pain, NT also shows antinociceptive effects. The effects exist in somatic pain as well as visceral pain induced by noxious colorectal distension (CRD) or writhing test. It should be noted that NT plays an important role in stress-induced antinociception (SIAN), especially in higher intensity stress experiments. However as a neuropeptide, NT is susceptible to degradation by peptidases and cannot cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Great efforts have been made to find NT analogues that are more biologically stable and could inhibit pain by systematic administration. The present review focuses on the analgesic role and the underlying mechanisms of NT and its analogues in pain, especially in chronic pain models.
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[Chemical constituents from Ganoderma philippii].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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The chemical investigation on Ganoderma philippii led to the isolation of sixteen compounds by silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. On the basis of spectroscopic data analyses, their structures were elucidated as 2, 5-dihydroxyacetophenone (1), methyl gentisate (2), (S) -dimethyl malate (3), muurola-4, 10 (14) -dien-11beta-ol (4), dihydroepicubenol (5), 5-hydroxymethylfuran carboxaldehyde (6), ergosta-7, 22E-dien-3beta-ol (7), ergosta-7, 22E-dien-3-one (8), ergosta-7, 22E-diene-2beta, 3alpha, 9alpha-triol (9), 6/beta-methoxyergo-sta-7, 22E-dien-3beta, 5alpha-diol (10), ergosta-4, 6, 8(14), 22E-tetraen-3-one (11), ergosta4, 6, 8-(14), 22E-etetraen-3beta-ol (12), 5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-ergosta-6, 22E-dien-3beta-ol (13), 7alpha-methoxy-5alpha, 6alpha-epoxyergosta-8-(14), 22E-dien-3beta-ol (14), ergosta-8, 22E-diene-3beta, 5alpha, 6beta, 7alpha-tetraol (15), and ergosta-5, 23-dien-3beta-ol, acetate (16). All the compounds were obtained from this fungus for the first time, and compounds 4 and 5 were isolated from the Ganoderma genus for the first time.
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Effects of NB001 and gabapentin on irritable bowel syndrome-induced behavioral anxiety and spontaneous pain.
Mol Brain
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by recurrent abdominal discomfort, spontaneous pain, colorectal hypersensitivity and bowel dysfunction. Patients with IBS also suffer from emotional anxiety and depression. However, few animal studies have investigated IBS-induced spontaneous pain and behavioral anxiety. In this study, we assessed spontaneous pain and anxiety behaviors in an adult mouse model of IBS induced by zymosan administration. By using Fos protein as a marker, we found that sensory and emotion related brain regions were activated at day 7 after the treatment with zymosan; these regions include the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, insular cortex and amygdala. Behaviorally, zymosan administration triggered spontaneous pain (decreased spontaneous activities in the open field test) and increased anxiety-like behaviors in three different tests (the open field, elevated plus maze and light/dark box tests). Intraperitoneal injection of NB001, an adenylyl cyclase 1 (AC1) inhibitor, reduced spontaneous pain but had no significant effect on behavioral anxiety. In contrast, gabapentin reduced both spontaneous pain and behavioral anxiety. These results indicate that NB001 and gabapentin may inhibit spontaneous pain and anxiety-like behaviors through different mechanisms.
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Isotope labelling--paired homologous double neutral loss scan-mass spectrometry for profiling of metabolites with a carboxyl group.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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We developed a novel method for non-targeted screening of metabolites by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with paired homologous double neutral loss scan mode after in vitro isotope labelling (IL-HPLC-PHDNL-MS). As a proof of concept, we investigated the carboxylic acid metabolite profiling in plant samples by the IL-HPLC-PHDNL-MS method. To this end, N,N-dimethylaminobutylamine (DMBA) and d(4)-N,N-dimethylaminobutylamine (d(4)-DMBA) were synthesized and utilized to label carboxylic acids. Our results show the MS response of carboxylic acids was enhanced by 20- to 40-fold after labelling. As for the IL-HPLC-PHDNL-MS analysis, DMBA and d(4)-DMBA labelled samples were mixed equally before MS analysis. Because the isotope labelled moieties (dimethylamino moiety, Me2N) of DMBA and d(4)-DMBA are easily ruptured and lost as neutral fragments (NL 45 and NL 49) under collision induced dissociation (CID), two neutral loss scans can be carried out simultaneously to record the signals of DMBA and d(4)-DMBA labelled samples, respectively. In this respect, the metabolites from two samples labelled with different isotope reagents are ionized at the same time but recorded separately by mass spectrometry, which can eliminate the MS response fluctuation and mutual interference. Using this method, six potential biomarkers involved in wounded tomato leaves were identified, and their structures were further elucidated by product ion scan and high resolution mass spectrometry analysis. Taken together, the IL-HPLC-PHDNL-MS method demonstrated good performance on the identification as well as relative quantification of metabolites with a carboxyl group in biological samples.
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Postsynaptic potentiation of corticospinal projecting neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex after nerve injury.
Mol Pain
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Long-term potentiation (LTP) is the key cellular mechanism for physiological learning and pathological chronic pain. In the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), postsynaptic recruitment or modification of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) GluA1 contribute to the expression of LTP. Here we report that pyramidal cells in the deep layers of the ACC send direct descending projecting terminals to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (lamina I-III). After peripheral nerve injury, these projection cells are activated, and postsynaptic excitatory responses of these descending projecting neurons were significantly enhanced. Newly recruited AMPARs contribute to the potentiated synaptic transmission of cingulate neurons. PKA-dependent phosphorylation of GluA1 is important, since enhanced synaptic transmission was abolished in GluA1 phosphorylation site serine-845 mutant mice. Our findings provide strong evidence that peripheral nerve injury induce long-term enhancement of cortical-spinal projecting cells in the ACC. Direct top-down projection system provides rapid and profound modulation of spinal sensory transmission, including painful information. Inhibiting cortical top-down descending facilitation may serve as a novel target for treating neuropathic pain.
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Detection of Upper Airway Status and Respiratory Events by a Current Generation Positive Airway Pressure Device.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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To compare a positive airway pressure (PAP) device's detection of respiratory events and airway status during device-detected apneas with events scored on simultaneous polysomnography (PSG).
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Identification and characterization of a novel splice-site mutation in the Wilson disease gene.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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This study aimed to identify aberrant transcripts of the new splice-site mutation c.3244-2A>C in the Wilson disease (WD) gene (ATPase, Cu++ transporting, beta polypeptide, ATP7B) and discuss its genotype and clinical phenotype. DNA and RNA were extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes, amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nested reverse transcription PCR (RT-nested PCR) to characterize the aberrant transcripts. RT-nested PCR product sequencing comparison showed that c.3244-2A>C splice-site mutation caused aberrant transcripts and formatted a new splice acceptor. Patient carrying the splice-site mutation c.3244-2A>C presented early onset age, severe clinical manifestations, and poor prognosis. WD patients with the splice-site mutation show severe clinical manifestations, indicating that aberrant transcripts have important implications for WD phenotype.
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Neural tissue engineering scaffold with sustained RAPA release relieves neuropathic pain in rats.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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To investigate the effect of locally slow-released rapamycin (RAPA) from bionic peripheral nerve stent to reduce the incidence of neuropathic pain or mitigate the degree of pain after nerve injury.
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Distribution and risk assessment of quinolone antibiotics in the soils from organic vegetable farms of a subtropical city, Southern China.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Organic fertilizer or manure containing antibiotics has been widely used in organic farms, but the distribution and potential impacts of antibiotics to the local environment are not well understood. In this study, four quinolone antibiotics in soil samples (n=69) from five organic vegetable farms in a subtropical city, Southern China, were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Our results indicated that quinolone compounds were ubiquitous in soil samples (detection frequency>97% for all compounds), and their concentrations ranged from not detectable to 42.0 ?g/kg. Among the targets, enrofloxacin (ENR) was the dominant compound, followed by ciprofloxacin (CIP) and norfloxacin (NOR). The average total concentrations of four compounds in the soils were affected by vegetable types and species cultivated, decreasing in the order of fruit>rhizome>leaf vegetables. Moreover, the average concentrations of quinolone compounds (except ENR) in open-field soils were higher than those in greenhouse soils. The concentrations of quinolone antibiotics in this study were lower than the ecotoxic effect trigger value (100 ?g/kg) proposed by the Veterinary Medicine International Coordination commission. Risk assessment based on the calculated risk quotients indicated that NOR, CIP, and ENR posed mainly medium to low risks to bacteria.
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Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 in the medial prefrontal cortex contributes to stress-induced hyperalgesia.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Stressful stimuli can exacerbate persistent pain disorder. However, the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Here, to reveal the underlying mechanism for stressful stimuli-induced hyperalgesia in chronic pain, we investigated the effect of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) activation on pain hypersensitivity using single-prolonged stress (SPS) model, complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) model and SPS?+?CFA model. The experimental results revealed significantly reduced paw withdrawal threshold in the SPS, CFA, and SPS?+?CFA group compared with the control group. However, the increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was observed in the SPS- or SPS?+?CFA-exposed group but not the CFA group compared with control group. There was also a significant increase in mPFC ERK1/2 phosphorylation and mechanical allodynia after SPS?+?CFA treatment compared to SPS or CFA treatment alone. Furthermore, inhibiting ERK1/2 phosphorylation by microinjection of U0126, a MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitor, into the mPFC attenuated SPS?+?CFA- and SPS- but not CFA-induced mechanical allodynia, anxiety-like behavior, and cognitive impairments. These results suggest that the activation of ERK1/2 in the mPFC may contribute to the process of stress-induced cognitive and emotional disorders, leading to an increase in pain sensitivity.
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HOXB7 predicts poor clinical outcome in patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell cancer.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) accounts for most esophageal cancer in Asia, and is the sixth common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Previous studies indicated HOXB7 is overexpressed in ESCC tissues, but data on prognostic value are limited.
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Factors affecting blood pressure profile in pre and postmenopausal women with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome.
Sleep Breath
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is an independent risk factor for development of hypertension. Epidemiological surveys have found that risk of cardiovascular diseases increased in postmenopausal women. However, it is not well known about the profiles of hypertension of women with OSAHS in their different reproductive stages. This study aimed to investigate the difference of blood pressure profile between pre and postmenopausal women with OSAHS.
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Elevated levels of T-cell immune response cDNA 7 in patients with immune thrombocytopenia.
Hematology
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Objectives This study aimed to investigate the expression levels of T-cell immune response cDNA 7 (TIRC7) in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients before and after high-dose dexamethasone (HD-DXM) treatment. Methods Forty-four patients with ITP were enrolled and received dexamethasone (40 mg/day) for 4 consecutive days. Patients who had platelet counts more than 50 × 10(9)/l or less were defined as responders or non-responders, respectively. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to measure RNA level and plasma level of TIRC7, respectively. Results TIRC7 levels (RNA and plasma level) were significantly higher in ITP than that in control (P < 0.0001). However, after treatment, TIRC7 levels were significantly decreased in responders (P < 0.0001) but not in non-responders (P > 0.05). Discussions TIRC7 might be associated with the pathogenesis of ITP, and TIRC7 levels could be used as an indicator to evaluate patients' response to HD-DXM treatment.
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A role for the rap GTPase YlRsr1 in cellular morphogenesis and the involvement of YlRsr1 and the ras GTPase YlRas2 in bud site selection in the dimorphic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.
Eukaryotic Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Yarrowia lipolytica is a dimorphic yeast species that can grow in the ovoid yeast form or in the elongated pseudohyphal or hyphal form depending on the growth conditions. Here, we show that the Rap GTPase Rsr1 of Y. lipolytica (YlRsr1) plays an important role in cellular morphogenesis in this microorganism. Cells deleted for YlRSR1 exhibited impaired polarized growth during yeast-form growth. Pseudohyphal and hyphal development were also abnormal. YlRsr1 is also important for cell growth, since the deletion of YlRSR1 in cells lacking the Ras GTPase YlRas2 caused lethality. Y. lipolytica cells bud in a bipolar pattern in which the cells produce the new buds at the two poles. YlRsr1 plays a prominent role in this bud site selection process. YlRsr1's function in bud site selection absolutely requires the cycling of YlRsr1 between the GTP- and GDP-bound states but its function in cellular morphogenesis does not, suggesting that the two processes are differentially regulated. Interestingly, the Ras GTPase YlRas2 is also involved in the control of bud site selection, as Ylras2? cells were severely impaired in bipolar bud site selection. The GTP/GDP cycling and the plasma membrane localization of YlRas2 are important for YlRas2's function in bud site selection. However, they are not essential for this process, suggesting that the mechanism by which YlRas2 acts is different from that of YlRsr1. Our results suggest that YlRsr1 is regulated by the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) YlBud2 and partially by YlCdc25, the potential guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for YlRas2.
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Chemical constituents from the stems of Excoecaria acertiflia.
Chem. Biodivers.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Six new compounds, including two diterpenoids excocarinols F and G (1 and 2, resp.), two carotane (daucane) sesquiterpenoids excoecafolinols A and B (3 and 4, resp.), one lignanoid compound, excoecanol A (5), and one simple phenol, excoecanol B (6), together with 17 known compounds, were isolated from the BuOH extract of Excoecaria acerifolia Didr. stems. Their structures were elucidated through the analysis of the spectroscopic data. The AChE-inhibitory activities of 17 compounds were evaluated and revealed that four of them possessed moderate inhibitory activities against AChE.
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The D14 and R138 ion pair is involved in dimeric arginine kinase activity, structural stability and folding.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Arginine kinase (AK) is a key enzyme in cellular energy metabolism of invertebrates. There are two conserved amino acid residues D14 and R138 in dimeric AK which form inter-subunit hydrogen bond. In Stichopus japonicus AK, mutations in these residues caused pronounced loss of activity, conformational changes and distinct substrate synergism alteration. Mutations (R138G, R138A and D14G) abolished D14 and R138 interaction disrupted the structure or conformation of S. japonicus AK. These R138G, R138A and D14G mutations changed their native assembles of dimeric AK and caused them in a partially unfolded state. The partially unfolded state of these mutant AKs made them prone to aggregate under environmental stress. The D14E/R138K and R138K mutant AKs showed similar characteristics to those of WT AK for forming the interaction which could replacement roles of D14 and R138 interaction. These results suggested that D14 and R138 interaction is involved in AK's activity, substrate synergism and structural stability.
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Detection of Ophiocordyceps sinensis in the roots of plants in alpine meadows by nested-touchdown polymerase chain reaction.
Fungal Biol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Ophiocordyceps sinensis, one of the most important income sources of rural Tibetan families, is an entomopathogenic fungus that parasitizes the ghost moth Thitarodes larvae, which live in alpine meadows on the Tibetan Plateau and in the Himalayas. The annual yield of O. sinensis has gradually declined in recent years. However, there is no effective method to sustain or increase the yield of O. sinensis artificially because the life cycle of the O. sinensis anamorph remains unclear. Here we detected O. sinensis in alpine plant roots by nested-touchdown polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Forty-two alpine plant species were screened. The roots from 23 alpine plant species (54.76%) tested positive including 13 families and 18 genera. The detection results indicate that O. sinensis is present in the plant roots during the anamorph life cycle, to deal with harsh conditions in alpine habitats and have an increased opportunity to infect the larvae. The finding provides new information regarding the biology and ecology of O. sinensis that may be used to sustain this valuable resource.
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Local infiltration analgesia for postoperative pain after hip arthroplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
J Pain
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Postoperative pain after hip arthroplasty (HA) is very common and severe. Currently, use of routine analgesic methods is often accompanied by adverse events (AEs). Local infiltration analgesia (LIA) for controlling pain has been a therapeutic option in many surgical procedures. However, its analgesic efficacy in HA and its safety remain unclear. Data from 9 randomized controlled trials, involving 760 participants, comparing the effect of LIA with that of placebo infiltration or no infiltration on patients undergoing HA were retrieved from an electronic database, and the pain scores, analgesic consumption, and AEs were analyzed. Effects were summarized using weighted mean differences, standardized mean differences, or odds ratio with fixed or random effect models. There was strong evidence of an association between LIA and reduced pain scores at 4 hours at rest (P < .00001) and with motion (P < .00001), 6 hours with motion (P = .02), and 24 hours at rest (P = .01), and decreased analgesic consumption during 0 to 24 hours (P = .001) after HA. These analgesic efficacies for LIA were not accompanied by any increased risk for AEs. However, the current meta-analysis did not reveal any associations between LIA and the reduced pain scores or analgesic consumption at other time points. The results suggest that LIA can be used for controlling pain after HA because of its efficacy in reducing pain scores and thus can reduce analgesic consumption on the first day without increased risk of AEs.
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Anti-HIV-1 tigliane diterpenoids from Excoecaria acertiflia Didr.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Three tigliane-type diterpenoids named excoecafolins A-C and two daphnane-type diterpenoids named excoecafolins D and E, together with 13 known compounds, were isolated from the EtOAc extract of Excoecaria acerifolia Didr. Their structures were elucidated through the analysis of the spectroscopic data. The anti-HIV-1 activity evaluation of five of these compounds showed that four possessed moderate anti-HIV-1 activities with EC50 0.258, 0.036, 0.046, and 0.978 ?M, SI >1,836.9, 431.1, 298.7, and >503.7, respectively. Additionally, the chemotaxonomic issue of the affinity correlation between Thymelaeceae and Euphorbiaceae is discussed based on the isolates.
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Pharmacological rescue of cortical synaptic and network potentiation in a mouse model for fragile X syndrome.
Neuropsychopharmacology
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Fragile X syndrome, caused by the mutation of the Fmr1 gene, is characterized by deficits of attention and learning ability. In the hippocampus of Fmr1 knockout mice (KO), long-term depression is enhanced whereas long-term potentiation (LTP) including late-phase LTP (L-LTP) is reduced or unaffected. Here we examined L-LTP in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in Fmr1 KO mice by using a 64-electrode array recording system. In wild-type mice, theta-burst stimulation induced L-LTP that does not occur in all active electrodes/channels within the cingulate circuit and is typically detected in ?75% of active channels. Furthermore, L-LTP recruited new responses from previous inactive channels. Both L-LTP and the recruitment of inactive responses were blocked in the ACC slices of Fmr1 KO mice. Bath application of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) antagonist or glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) inhibitors rescued the L-LTP and network recruitment. Our results demonstrate that loss of FMRP will greatly impair L-LTP and recruitment of cortical network in the ACC that can be rescued by pharmacological inhibition of mGluR5 or GSK3. This study is the first report of the network properties of L-LTP in the ACC, and provides basic mechanisms for future treatment of cortex-related cognitive defects in fragile X patients.
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Connections between EM2- and SP-containing terminals and GABAergic neurons in the mouse spinal dorsal horn.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Endomorphin-2 (EM2) demonstrates a potent antinociceptive effect in pain modulation. To investigate the potential interactions of EM2- and substance P (SP)-containing primary afferents and ?-amino butyric acid (GABA)-containing interneurons in lamina II in nociceptive transmission, connections between EM2- and SP-containing terminals and GABAergic neurons in the spinal dorsal horn were studied. Double-immunofluorescent labeling showed that approximately 62.3 % of EM2-immunoreactive neurons exhibited SP-immunostaining, and 76.9 % of SP-immunoreactive neurons demonstrated EM2-immunoreactivities in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Dense double-labeled EM2- and SP-immunoreactivities were mainly observed in lamina II of the lumbar dorsal horn. Furthermore, triple-immunofluorescent labeling results revealed that EM2 and SP double-labeled terminals overlapped with GABAergic neurons. Immuno-electron microscopy confirmed that the EM2- or SP-immunoreactive terminals formed synapses with GABA-immunoreactive dendrites in lamina II of the lumbar dorsal horn. During noxious information transmission induced by formalin plantar injection, GABAergic neurons expressing FOS in their nuclei were contacted with EM2- or SP-immunoreactive terminals. These results suggest that the interactions between EM2- and SP-containing terminals and GABAergic interneurons in the lamina II influence pain transmission and modulation in the spinal dorsal horn.
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The effect of non-benzodiazepine hypnotics on sleep quality and severity in patients with OSA: a meta-analysis.
Sleep Breath
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Although there is a high co-occurrence of insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the administration of sedative hypnotics in patients with OSA is still inconsistent. The aim is to study the effect of non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (non-BZDs) on sleep quality and severity in patients with OSA.
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Expression of G-protein subunit ?-14 is increased in human placentas from preeclamptic pregnancies.
J. Histochem. Cytochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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G-proteins mediate cellular function upon interaction with G-protein coupled receptors. Of the 16 mammalian G-protein ? subunits identified, G-protein subunit ?-11 (GNA11) and -14 (GNA14) have been implicated in modulating hypertension and endothelial function. However, little is known about their expression and roles in human placentas. Here, we examined GNA11 and GNA14 protein expression in first trimester (FT), normal term (NT), and severe preeclamptic (sPE) human placentas as well as in NT human umbilical cords. We found that GNA11 and GNA14 were immunolocalized primarily in trophoblasts, villous stromal cells, and endothelial cells in placentas as well as in endothelial and/or smooth muscle cells of the umbilical cord artery and vein. Western blotting revealed that the GNA14, but not GNA11, protein levels were increased (2.5-2.9 fold; p<0.01) in sPE vs. NT placentas. GNA11 protein was detected only in NT, but not FT, placentas, whereas GNA14 protein levels were increased (7.7-10.6 fold; p<0.01) in NT vs. FT placentas. Thus, GNA11 and GNA14 may mediate the function of several cell types in placentas. Moreover, the high expression of GNA14 in sPE placentas may also imply its importance in sPE pregnancies as in the other hypertension-related disorders.
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Meta-analysis on radiofrequency ablation in combination with transarterial chemoembolization for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and TACE alone for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang Datebases were searched for the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and retrospective cohort studies from the establishment of the databases to January 2014. The bibliographies of the included studies were searched, too. After study selection, assessment, data collection and analysis were undertaken, we performed this meta-analysis by using the RevMan5.2 software. Seventeen studies involving 1116 patients met the inclusion criteria with 530 treated with RFA-plus-TACE and 586 with TACE alone. The results of meta-analysis showed that the combination of TACE and RFA was obviously associated with higher 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates (OR1-year=3.98, 95% CI 2.87-5.51, P<0.00001; OR2-year=3.03, 95% CI 2.10-4.38, P<0.00001; OR3-year=7.02, 95% CI 4.14-11.92, P<0.00001) than TACE alone. The tumor complete necrosis rate in patients treated with TACE and RFA was higher than that of TACE alone (OR=13.86, 95% CI 8.04-23.89, P<0.00001). And there was a significant difference in local recurrence rate between two different kinds of treatment (OR=0.24, 95%CI 0.14-0.44, P<0.00001). Additionally, combination of TACE and RFA was associated with higher complete tumor necrosis rates than TACE mono-therapy in the treatment of HCC. However, RFA plus TACE was found to be associated with a lower local recurrence rate than TACE monotherapy. TACE-plus-RFA treatment was associated with a higher response rate (RR) than the TACE-alone treatment (OR=3.90, 95% CI=2.37-6.42, P<0.00001). TACE-plus-RFA treatment did not differ from the TACE-alone treatment in terms of stable disease (SD) rate (OR=0.38, 95% CI=0.11-1.26, P=0.11). Meta-analyses showed that the combination of RFA and TACE was associated with a significantly lower progressive disease (PD) rate (OR=0.15, 95% CI=0.05-0.43, P=0.0005). The rate of AFP reducing or returning to normal in serum in RFA plus TACE group was obviously lower than TACE alone group (OR=4.62, 95% CI 2.56-8.34, P<0.00001). The effect of TACE plus RFA for HCC is better than TACE mono-therapy. The combined therapy can elevate the patients' overall survival rate, tumor necrosis rate and the rate of AFP reducing or returning to normal in serum and decrease local recurrence rate, PD rate compared with TACE alone.
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Morphological evidence for a neurotensinergic periaqueductal gray-rostral ventromedial medulla-spinal dorsal horn descending pathway in rat.
Front Neuroanat
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Neurotensin (NT) is an endogenous neuropeptide that exerts potent opioid-independent analgesic effects, most likely via the type 2 NT receptor (NTR2). Previous morphological and electrophysiological studies suggested that the NT-NTR2 system is primarily localized in structures that constitute the descending pain control pathway, such as the periaqueductal gray (PAG), the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), and the spinal dorsal horn (SDH). However, relevant morphological evidence for this neurotensinergic (NTergic) circuit is lacking. Thus, the aim of the present study was to morphologically elucidate the potential sites and connections in the NT-NTR2 system that are involved in the descending pain control pathway. Based on light and electron microscopy combined with anterograde and retrograde tracing, we found evidence that NTR2-immunoreactive (IR) neurons in the RVM receive NT-IR projections originating from the PAG; express NT, serotonin (5-HT), or both; and send projections that terminate in laminae I and II of the SDH. These results suggest that NTR2 may contribute to pain control by binding to NT in the PAG-RVM-SDH pathway. In conclusion, our data provide morphological evidence for an NTergic PAG-RVM-SDH pathway, implicating novel mechanisms of NT-induced analgesia.
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PDE2 Is a Novel Target for Attenuating Tumor Formation in a Mouse Model of UVB-Induced Skin Carcinogenesis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Our previous studies demonstrated that the topical application of caffeine is a potent inhibitor of UVB-induced carcinogenesis and selectively increases apoptosis in tumors but not in non-tumor areas of the epidermis in mice that are at a high risk for developing skin cancer. While this effect is mainly through a p53 independent pathway, the mechanism by which caffeine inhibits skin tumor formation has not been fully elucidated. Since caffeine is a non-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, we investigated the effects of several PDE inhibitors on the formation of sunburn cells in mouse skin after an acute exposure to ultraviolet light B (UVB). The topical application of a PDE2 inhibitor, erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine hydrochloride (EHNA hydrochloride), stimulated epidermal apoptosis compared to control (P<0.01) and to a greater extent than caffeine whereas a PDE4 inhibitor attenuated the epidermal apoptosis compared to control (P<0.01). Since PDE2 hydrolyzes cyclic nucleotides, mainly cGMP, the effects of EHNA hydrochloride on epidermal apoptosis following UVB exposure may be mediated, in part, by increased cGMP signaling. Data demonstrated that the topical application of dibutyryl cGMP stimulated epidermal apoptosis (P<0.01) following an acute exposure to UVB. Treating UVB-pretreated mice topically with 3.1 µmole or 0.8 µmole of EHNA hydrochloride attenuated tumor formation to a greater extent than treating with 6.2 µmole caffeine when these compounds were applied once a day, five days a week for 18 weeks. These observations suggest a novel role for PDE2 in UVB-induced tumorigenesis and that PDE2 inhibitors that mediate cGMP signaling may be useful for the prevention and treatment of skin cancer.
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Spatio-temporal expression and functional involvement of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in diabetic mechanical allodynia in rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) is one of the most common clinical manifestations of diabetes mellitus (DM), which is characterized by prominent mechanical allodynia (DMA). However, the molecular mechanism underlying it has not fully been elucidated. In this study, we examined the spatio-temporal expression of a major nociceptive channel protein transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and analyzed its functional involvement by intrathecal (i.t.) application of TRPV1 antagonists in streptozocin (STZ)-induced DMA rat models. Western blot and immunofluorescent staining results showed that TRPV1 protein level was significantly increased in the soma of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons on 14 days after STZ treatment (DMA 14 d), whereas those in spinal cord and skin (mainly from the central and peripheral processes of DRG neurons) had already been enhanced on DMA 7 d to peak on DMA 14 d. qRT-PCR experiments confirmed that TRPV1 mRNA level was significantly up-regulated in the DRG on DMA 7 d, indicating a preceding translation of TRPV1 protein in the soma but preferential distribution of this protein to the processes under the DMA conditions. Cell counting assay based on double immunostaining suggested that increased TRPV1-immunoreactive neurons were likely to be small-sized and CGRP-ergic. Finally, single or multiple intrathecal applications of non-specific or specific TRPV1 antagonists, ruthenium red and capsazepine, at varying doses, effectively alleviated DMA, although the effect of the former was more prominent and long-lasting. These results collectively indicate that TRPV1 expression dynamically changes during the development of DMA and this protein may play important roles in mechanical nociception in DRG neurons, presumably through facilitating the release of CGRP.
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Comparative chloroplast genomes of photosynthetic orchids: insights into evolution of the Orchidaceae and development of molecular markers for phylogenetic applications.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The orchid family Orchidaceae is one of the largest angiosperm families, including many species of important economic value. While chloroplast genomes are very informative for systematics and species identification, there is very limited information available on chloroplast genomes in the Orchidaceae. Here, we report the complete chloroplast genomes of the medicinal plant Dendrobium officinale and the ornamental orchid Cypripedium macranthos, demonstrating their gene content and order and potential RNA editing sites. The chloroplast genomes of the above two species and five known photosynthetic orchids showed similarities in structure as well as gene order and content, but differences in the organization of the inverted repeat/small single-copy junction and ndh genes. The organization of the inverted repeat/small single-copy junctions in the chloroplast genomes of these orchids was classified into four types; we propose that inverted repeats flanking the small single-copy region underwent expansion or contraction among Orchidaceae. The AT-rich regions of the ycf1 gene in orchids could be linked to the recombination of inverted repeat/small single-copy junctions. Relative species in orchids displayed similar patterns of variation in ndh gene contents. Furthermore, fifteen highly divergent protein-coding genes were identified, which are useful for phylogenetic analyses in orchids. To test the efficiency of these genes serving as markers in phylogenetic analyses, coding regions of four genes (accD, ccsA, matK, and ycf1) were used as a case study to construct phylogenetic trees in the subfamily Epidendroideae. High support was obtained for placement of previously unlocated subtribes Collabiinae and Dendrobiinae in the subfamily Epidendroideae. Our findings expand understanding of the diversity of orchid chloroplast genomes and provide a reference for study of the molecular systematics of this family.
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Alterations in the neural circuits from peripheral afferents to the spinal cord: possible implications for diabetic polyneuropathy in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats.
Front Neural Circuits
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) presents as a wide variety of sensorimotor symptoms and affects approximately 50% of diabetic patients. Changes in the neural circuits may occur in the early stages in diabetes and are implicated in the development of DPN. Therefore, we aimed to detect changes in the expression of isolectin B4 (IB4, the marker for nonpeptidergic unmyelinated fibers and their cell bodies) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, the marker for peptidergic fibers and their cell bodies) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats showing alterations in sensory and motor function. We also used cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) to show the morphological changes of the myelinated fibers and motor neurons. STZ-induced diabetic rats exhibited hyperglycemia, decreased body weight gain, mechanical allodynia and impaired locomotor activity. In the DRG and spinal dorsal horn, IB4-labeled structures decreased, but both CGRP immunostaining and CTB labeling increased from day 14 to day 28 in diabetic rats. In spinal ventral horn, CTB labeling decreased in motor neurons in diabetic rats. Treatment with intrathecal injection of insulin at the early stages of DPN could alleviate mechanical allodynia and impaired locomotor activity in diabetic rats. The results suggest that the alterations of the neural circuits between spinal nerve and spinal cord via the DRG and ventral root might be involved in DPN.
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[Effect of Interfering the ?-catenin by Lentiviral Vector-mediated RNAi on the Biological Behavior of Mouse Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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This study was aimed to investigate the effect of Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway on the biologic behavior of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(mBM-MSC) by constructing a RNAi lentiviral vector specific to ?-catenin. Three pairs of shRNA coding sequences directed against different sites of ?-catenin mRNA were designed and were linked into lentiviral vector plasmid PLB for constructing the PLB-?-catenin/shRNA1, PLB-?-catenin/shRNA2 and PLB-?-catenin/ shRNA3. Those plasimds and lentiviral packaging plasimds were co-transfected into the packaging cells 293FT, then the virus particles were collected and the viral titer was assayed after concentration, and these viral particles were infected to MSC. The flow cytometry was used to sort GFP (+)cells, Western blot and RT-PCR were used to verify the inhibitory effect of those cells on expression of ?-catenin gene in cells, CCK-8 method was used to detect the cell proliferation level, Annexin-V/7-AAD was used to determine the cell apoptosis after interference, the cell scratch and transwell tests were used to detect the migration capalbility of MSC. The results showed that the efficient inhibition of ?-catenin mRNA and protein expression, and the suppression of MSC proliferation were observed in group of PLB-?-catenin/shRNA2(inteference group), while there was no significant changes of MSC proliferation between negative group(PLB group) and the normal group (control group). The flow cytometric detection indicated that after induced by serum starvation for 72 h, the apoptosis of MSC increased in inteference group, but there was no difference between PLB and control groups(P > 0.05). The cell scratch and transwell tests demonstrated that the migration capability of MSC in inteference group dicreased significantly, while the migration capability of MSC in control group was not changed obvi-ously. It is concluded that the constructed specific RNAi lentivirus can effectively inhibit the expression of ?-catenin gene, decrease expression level of ?-catenin mRNA and protein. The Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in biological behavior of BM-MSC.
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[Source and Effect of IL-22 in Graft Versus Host Disease Mouse after Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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This study was purposed to explore the cellular source of IL-22 in graft versus host disease (GVHD) mouse following allo-geneic bone marrow transplantation. BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were used as recipients and donors, respectively. GVHD model was established by irradiated BABL/c mice inoculated with mixed suspension of C57BL/6 bone marrow cells and splenic lymphocytes. The mice were divided into normal group(normal), total body irradiated group(TBI), bone marrow cell-transplanted group(BMT), and the combination of bone marrow cell and splenic lymphocytes-induced GVHD group(BS). The level of IL-22 in plasma was detected by ELISA. The cellular source of IL-22 and IL-22(+) subsets were detected by flow cytometry. The results showed that compared with normal mice, the level of IL-22 in plasma from BS mice was the highest(P < 0.01). All the lymphocytes of spleen, lymph nodes and peripheral blood from BS mice could produce IL-22, in which the percentage of IL-22(+)CD4(+) T cell was higher than that of IL-22(+)CD8(+) T cells. Not only Th22 cells but also Th1 and Th17 cells were the cellular source of IL-22 in GVHD mice. It is concluded that the high level of IL-22 has been found in mice with GVHD, which mainly originates from IFN-?(-)IL-17(-)IL-22(+) Th22 cells.
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[Construction of Hybridoma Cells with IL1RAP as a New Marker for Leukemia Stem Cells and Detection of Its Monoclonal Antibody].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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This study was aimed to prepare and identify human monoclonal antibody against IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP), which is a new identified surface marker for leukemia stem cell (LSC), BALB/c mice were immunized with recombinant hu-IL1RAP and the spleen cells from immunized mice were fused with SP2/0 myeloma cells by conventional hybridoma technique. Positive hybridoma cells were selected and cultured. ELISA and Western blot were used to detect the type, titer and sensitivity of antibody. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and used to test the antibody specificity. The results showed that 8 hybridoma cell lines able to stably secrete IL1RAP monoclonal antibodies were obtained and named 3H6E10, 4B6A6, 8G11B5, 9E9F2, 10D8A7, 1C7H7, 1D7G11 and 2D3D3 respectively. These monoclonal antibodies belonging to IgG1/? type could specifically bind to IL1RAP from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. It is concluded that the hybridoma cell lines with stable secretion of IL1RAP monoclonal antibodies is successfully constructed, thus providing novel ways to effectively clear LSC in the future.
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Distinct cerebellar engrams in short-term and long-term motor learning.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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Cerebellar motor learning is suggested to be caused by long-term plasticity of excitatory parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (PF-PC) synapses associated with changes in the number of synaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs). However, whether the AMPARs decrease or increase in individual PF-PC synapses occurs in physiological motor learning and accounts for memory that lasts over days remains elusive. We combined quantitative SDS-digested freeze-fracture replica labeling for AMPAR and physical dissector electron microscopy with a simple model of cerebellar motor learning, adaptation of horizontal optokinetic response (HOKR) in mouse. After 1-h training of HOKR, short-term adaptation (STA) was accompanied with transient decrease in AMPARs by 28% in target PF-PC synapses. STA was well correlated with AMPAR decrease in individual animals and both STA and AMPAR decrease recovered to basal levels within 24 h. Surprisingly, long-term adaptation (LTA) after five consecutive daily trainings of 1-h HOKR did not alter the number of AMPARs in PF-PC synapses but caused gradual and persistent synapse elimination by 45%, with corresponding PC spine loss by the fifth training day. Furthermore, recovery of LTA after 2 wk was well correlated with increase of PF-PC synapses to the control level. Our findings indicate that the AMPARs decrease in PF-PC synapses and the elimination of these synapses are in vivo engrams in short- and long-term motor learning, respectively, showing a unique type of synaptic plasticity that may contribute to memory consolidation.
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Association between the interleukin-13 gene and development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in southern Chinese Han population: a case-control study.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2013
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Interleukin-13 (IL-13) has been implicated to be responsible for recruitment of inflammatory cells from the blood to the lung, regulation of matrix metalloproteinase and induction of mucin production and secretion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We determined plasma IL-13 levels in patients with COPD and investigated its association with common polymorphisms of IL-13 gene in a case-control study.
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Antinociceptive Effect of Prostatic Acid Phosphatase in a Rat Model of Cancer-induced Bone Pain.
Pain Physician
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is a severe chronic pain that is less than adequately controlled by conventional analgesics. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) has been considered as a diagnostic marker for prostate cancer and its transmembrane isoform has been reported to play an antinociceptive effect in neuropathic and inflammatory pain. However, it remains unknown whether it has an analgesic effect on CIBP and what are the underlying mechanisms.
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Antioxidant Therapy for Pain Relief in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Pain Physician
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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Currently, there is no specific therapy for chronic pancreatitis (CP). The treatment of micronutrient antioxidant therapy for painful CP has been sporadically used for more than 30 years, however, its efficacy are still poorly understood.
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[Risk factors for failure of continuous veno-venous hemodialysis in the treatment of acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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To evaluate the independent risk factors for failure of continuous veno-venous hemodialysis (CVVHD) in the treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI) following cardiac surgery.
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Inverse relationship between p53 and phospho-Chk1 (Ser317) protein expression in UVB-induced skin tumors in SKH-1 mice.
Exp. Mol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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Immunohistochemical evaluation of serial stored paraffin sections from 42 keratoacanthomas and 11 squamous cell carcinomas demonstrated that skin tumors from UVB-exposed mice showed an inverse relationship (>95%) between p53 protein expression and phospho-Chk1 (Ser317), but not phospho-Chk1 (Ser345) protein expression. Tumors expressing high levels and large areas of p53 protein had no detectable phospho-Chk1 (Ser317), whereas tumors expressing high levels and large areas of phospho-Chk1 (Ser317) protein had no detectable p53. Squamous cell carcinomas that demonstrated heterogeneous p53 and phospho-Chk1 (Ser317) protein expression within the same tumor showed that areas expressing p53 were negative for phospho-Chk1 (Ser317) immunostaining while areas expressing phospho-Chk1 (Ser317) were negative for p53. Similar patterns were observed for keratoacanthomas. These findings were also observed in epidermal areas distant from tumors that demonstrated no detectable phospho-Chk1 (Ser317), but appreciable p53 protein in the basal layer. Tumors from congenic hairless p53 knockout mice had elevated levels of phospho-Chk1 (Ser317) compared to tumors from p53 wild-type SKH-1 controls. After a single acute exposure to UVB, normal epidermal cells from a p53 knockout mouse expressed a relatively high level of phospho-Chk1 (Ser317) whereas epidermal cells from a p53 wild-type littermate induced p53 protein and expressed a relatively low level of phospho-Chk1 (Ser317). These data illustrate the dynamic regulation of checkpoint function, suggesting that phosphorylation of Chk1 on Serine 317 is regulated by p53 status and that p53 may act as a molecular on/off switch for phosphorylation at this site.
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Roles of the three Ras proteins in the regulation of dimorphic transition in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.
FEMS Yeast Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Ras proteins in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are essential for growth and dimorphic transition. The dimorphic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is distantly related to S. cerevisiae. Its genome encodes three Ras proteins. Here, we show that the three Ras proteins in Y. lipolytica are critical for dimorphic transition but are dispensable for growth. Among the three Ras proteins, YlRas2 plays a major role in the regulation of dimorphic transition, whereas YlRas1 plays a minor role in this process. The additional Ras protein, YlRas3, which resembles mammalian K-Ras4B at the C-terminus, does not seem to have a significant role in dimorphic transition. Thus, the three Ras proteins do not act equally in the regulation of dimorphic transition. We also show that the expression of YlRAS2 was increased dramatically at the transcriptional level during yeast-to-hypha transition, consistent with a major role of YlRas2 in the regulation of dimorphic transition. YlRas2s function in dimorphic transition depends on the active GTP-bound form of YlRas2 and its localization to the plasma membrane. YlRas2 could also partially function on the endomembranes. In addition, we identified the transcription factor Mhy1 as a potential signal transducer downstream of YlRas2 in the control of dimorphic transition. This finding suggests that novel signaling pathway controlled by Ras proteins regulating dimorphic transition may exist in Y. lipolytica.
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Polydopamine gradients by oxygen diffusion controlled autoxidation.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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We report a simple and facile protocol to fabricate mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA) gradients on different surfaces. An oxygen diffusion phenomenon was used for dopamine autoxidation to form thickness gradients of PDA on different substrates. These PDA gradients showed gradual changes in thickness, roughness, wettability and light transmittance.
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[Curative effect of a comprehensive interventional treatment modality on hepatocellular carcinoma complicated with main branch portal vein tumor thrombosis].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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To explore the therapeutic efficacy of a combined treatment modality using transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) complicated with main branch intraportal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT).
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T273 plays an important role in the activity and structural stability of arginine kinase.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Arginine kinase (AK) is a key enzyme for cellular energy metabolism, catalyzing the reversible phosphoryl transfer from phosphoarginine to ADP in invertebrates. The amino acid residue C271 is involved in keeping AKs activity and constraining the orientation of the substrate arginine. However, the roles of the C271 interaction amino acid residues in AKs substrate synergism, activity and structural stability are still unclear. The crystal structure of AK implied that the amino acid residue T273 interacted with the residue C271 and might play vital roles in keeping AKs activity, substrate synergism and structural stability. The mutations T273G and T273A led to significantly loss of activity, obviously decreased of substrate synergism and structural stability. Furthermore, spectroscopic experiments indicated that mutations T273G and T273A impaired the structure of AK and led them to a partially unfolded state. The inability to fold to the functional state made the mutations prone to aggregate under environmental stresses. Moreover, the mutations T273S and T273D almost had no effects on AKs activity and structural stability. This study herein indicated that the residue T273 played key roles in AKs activity, substrate synergism and structural stability.
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[Concentrations of antibiotics in vegetables from manure-mended farm].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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Sixteen typical antibiotics including four tetracyclines, four quinolones, and eight sulfonamides in vegetables from manure-amended farm were determined using the ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and their health risks to human via the diet pathway was assessed. Most antibiotics were frequently detected in vegetable samples, with the detection rate from 11% to 90%. Concentrations of a single compound were mainly less than 5 microg x kg(-1) (D. W.), with the maximum of 23.88 microg x kg(-1) and the average of 0.91 microg x kg(-1), respectively. Norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, sulfamehtaoid and sulfadiazine were the dominant compounds. At least one antibiotic was detected in a single vegetable samples, and even up to ten antibiotics. The concentration of quinolones in underground parts was higher than those in aboveground parts. Intake dose of antibiotics via the consumption of the detected vegetables was lower than ADI, suggesting a lower health risk. But combination toxicity and resistance of antibiotics should not be ignored.
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Terpenoids and their anti-HIV-1 activities from Excoecaria acerifolia.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Five new diterpenoids named excocarinols A-E (1-5) including three pimaranes, one cleistanthane, and one nor-beyerane, together with nine known compounds, were isolated from the EtOAc extract of the Chinese ethnodrug Gua-jing-ban (Excoecaria acerifolia Didr.). Their structures were elucidated by the analysis of spectroscopic data including 1D, 2D NMR and HR-MS. The anti-HIV-1 bioassay on the diterpenoids showed that excocarinol A (1) exhibited moderate anti-HIV-1 activity with EC50 5.58 ?M and SI (Selection Index) over 112.71.
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Lanostane triterpenoids with cytotoxic activities from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma hainanense.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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Twelve lanostane triterpenoids (1-12) including a new one 16?,26-dihydroxylanosta-8,24-dien-3-one (1) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma hainanense. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR and MS spectroscopic analyses. All isolates were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against human tumor cell lines K-562, SMMC-7721, and SGC-7901 and five compounds (1, 2, 5,7, and 9) showed definite cytotoxicities against K-562 cell line. Meanwhile, compounds 2, 5,7, and 9 exhibited cytotoxic activities against SMMC-7721 and SGC-7901 cell lines.
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[Construction of shRNA expression vector targeting AATF and establishment of stably transfected U937 cells].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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This study was aimed to construct the targeting AATF shRNA eukaryotic expression vector and establish the stably transfected U937 cell lines. The sequence of AATF mRNA was obtained from GenBank. After excluding homeology, three plasmid expression vectors coding shRNA targeting 228 ? 249, 303 ? 324 and 443 ? 464 of AATF gene sequence were synthesized. Two terminals of shRNA carried BamHI and HindIII restriction sites. The selected nucleotides were cloned into the plasmid pSilencer 3.1-H1 neo respectively, and the resultant recombinant plasmids were named as pSA-1, pSA-2, pSA-3. The sequences of the recombinant plasmids were identified by DNA sequencing. The recombinant plasmids were transfected into the cell line U937 by electroporation with Neon(TM) Transfection System. The transfected cells were persistently screened under G418 (500 mg/L), and isolated with a limited dilution for 8 weeks. The inhibition of AATF mRNA and protein expression was respectively detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. The results indicated that RNAi eukaryotic expression vectors targeting AATF had correct reading frame and nucleotide sequence. Real-time PCR revealed that AATF shRNA effectively silenced mRNA expression of AATF. Western blot analysis found that AATF shRNA obviously suppressed protein expression of AATF (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the shRNA eukaryotic expression vector has been successfully constucted which can inhibit the expression of AATF, and the establishment of stably transfected U937 cell lines provide a original route for exploring the mechanism of AATF in human Leukemia further.
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Therapeutic embolization of high-flow priapism 1 year follow up with color Doppler sonography.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of color Doppler sonography (CDS) for the diagnosis of high-flow priapism and the treatment of cavernosal arterial fistula via super-selective arterial embolization.
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Chronic intermittent hypoxia increases ? cell mass and activates the mammalian target of rapamycin/hypoxia inducible factor 1/vascular endothelial growth factor A pathway in mice pancreatic islet.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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Growing evidence from population and clinic based studies showed that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and its characterizing chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) were independently associated with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the pathogenesis by which OSA induces glucose metabolic disorders is not clear. We determined changes in pancreatic ? cell mass and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1)/vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) pathway following IH exposure.
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A new stilbene dimer from Vitis amurensis.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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One new stilbene dimer named amurensin O (1), together with one known resveratrol trimer melapinol B (2), was isolated from Vitis amurensis, and their structures were identified on the basis of spectral analysis, especially 2D NMR spectral analysis.
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Three new isopimarane diterpenoids from Excoecaria acerifolia.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Three new isopimarane diterpenoids named excoecarins F-H (1-3) were isolated from the EtOAc extract of the Chinese ethnodrug Gua-jing-ban (Excoecaria acerifolia Didr.). Their structures were elucidated by the analysis of spectroscopic data including 1D, 2D NMR and HR-MS. The anti-HIV-1 bioactivity test of 1 and 2 showed weak activity.
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Volvalerenol A, a New Triterpenoid with a 12-Membered Ring from Valeriana hardwickii.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Volvalerenol A (1), an unprecedented type of triterpenoid with a 7/12/7 tricyclic ring system, was obtained from the ethanol extracts of the roots of Valeriana hardwickii. The structure and relative configurations were established by comprehensive analysis of MS and NMR spectroscopic data. The possible biogenetic pathway of 1 was also deduced.
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High plasma D-dimer level is associated with decreased survival in patients with lung cancer: a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2013
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An elevated plasma D-dimer level indicates the activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis. Several studies suggested that high level of plasma D-dimer was associated with the prognosis of lung cancer. In the present study, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between plasma D-dimer level and the prognosis of lung cancer based on larger sample size. We retrieved the literature, assessed and selected the data, and performed the statistical analysis according to the RevMan 5.0 guidelines. Literature-based searching was guided to gather data, and fixed-effects model was used to pool the hazard ratio according to the test of heterogeneity. A total of seven eligible studies including 1,377 lung cancer patients were analyzed. Survival time was significantly better in patients in the low D-dimer group than those in the high D-dimer group (hazard ratio for high D-dimer group = 1.12; 95 % confidence interval 1.02 to 1.23). Patients with high levels of D-dimer have a poorer overall survival compared with those patients with low levels of D-dimer.
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[Effect of AMPK agonist 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in U937 cells].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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To investigate the effect of AMPK agonist 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of U937 cells and explore its possible mechanism.
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[Chemical constituents from Daphne acutiloba].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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To study the chemical constituents from Daphne acutiloba.
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Global microRNA expression profiling reveals differential expression of target genes in 6-hydroxydopamine-injured MN9D cells.
Neuromolecular Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Recent evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in neurodegenerative diseases. However, little is known about how these small RNAs contribute to dopaminergic neuronal apoptosis. Here, we profiled the expression of miRNAs in MN9D cells with and without 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) treatment by miRCURY™ LNA microRNA arrays. We identified six miRNAs (miR-668-3p, let-7d-3p, miR-3077-3p, miR-665-5p, miR-99b-3p, and miR-323-3p) that were significantly lower and five miRNAs (miR-875, miR-207, miR-425-5p, miR-19b-3p, and miR-338-3p) that were significantly higher after 6-OHDA treatment. Among them, five have been demonstrated to be implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Consistent with our prediction, the deregulated miRNAs target mRNAs, such as peroxiredoxin III (Prx III) and Myc, also showed changes in their expression levels. Furthermore, using a dual-luciferase reporter assay, we confirmed that Prx III was a direct target gene of miR-875. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that changes in miRNA expression occur after 6-OHDA treatment and suggest that miRNAs and their predicted targets have a potential role in apoptosis of MN9D cells.
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Disruption of E627 and R683 interaction is responsible for B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia caused by JAK2 R683G(S) mutations.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) is an important mediator of cytokine receptor signaling and plays key roles in hematopoietic and immune responses. The acquired JAK2 R683G(S) somatic mutations are detected in 15% of patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and are presumed to be a biomarker for B-ALL. However, how JAK2 R683G(S) mutations lead to B-ALL is still unclear. Our results indicated that the E627 and R683 interaction played a vital role in JAK2 autoinhibition. Mutations (R683S, R683G and E627A) disrupting this interaction led to JAK2 constitutive activation, while mutations (R683K, E627D) restoring this interaction decreased its activity. Furthermore, spectroscopy experiments implied that disruption of the E627 and R683 interaction abolished JH1/JH2 domain interactions and forced the JH1 domain into the open, active conformation. Mutations abolishing this interaction promoted the proliferation of Ba/F3 cells. The results herein may provide clues to understanding the mechanism of JAK2 R683G(S) mutation-associated B-ALL.
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Whole-exome sequencing to identify novel somatic mutations in squamous cell lung cancers.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Squamous cell lung cancer is a major histotype of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that is distinct from lung adenocarcinoma. We used whole-exome sequencing to identify novel non-synonymous somatic mutations in squamous cell lung cancer. We identified 101 single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) including 77 non-synonymous SNVs (67 missense and 10 nonsense mutations) and 11 INDELs causing frameshifts. We also found four SNVs located within splicing sites. We verified 62 of the SNVs (51 missense, 10 nonsense and 1 splicing-site mutation) and 10 of the INDELs as somatic mutations in lung cancer tissue. Sixteen of the mutated genes were also mutated in at least one patient with a different type of lung cancer in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutation in Cancer (COSMIC) database. Four genes (LPHN2, TP53, MYH2 and TGM2) were mutated in approximately 10% of the samples in the COSMIC database. We identified two missense mutations in C10orf137 and MS4A3 that also occurred in other solid-tumor tissues in the COSMIC database. We found another somatic mutation in EP300 that was mutated in 4.2% of the 2,020 solid-tumor samples in the COSMIC database. Taken together, our results implicate TP53, EP300, LPHN2, C10orf137, MYH2, TGM2 and MS4A3 as potential driver genes of squamous cell lung cancer.
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Down-regulation of insulin signaling is involved in painful diabetic neuropathy in type 2 diabetes.
Pain Physician
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Previous theories considered that the main cause of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) was due to hyperglycemia. However, recent evidence indicated that hyperinsulinemia plays a greater role in type 2 diabetic metabolisms (T2DM).
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Quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method with magnetic graphitized carbon black and primary secondary amine as adsorbent and its application in pesticide residue analysis.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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By using magnetic graphitized carbon black and primary secondary amine (GCB/PSA/MNPs) as adsorbent, a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method was proposed for pesticide residue analysis in vegetables. The magnetic adsorbent was fabricated via simple co-mixing method based on an "aggregate warp" mechanism. To achieve the optimum conditions of modified QuEChERS toward target analytes, several parameters, including the composition of analyte protectants and the amount of the adsorbents were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a simple, rapid and effective method for the determination of 10 pesticide residues in vegetables was established by coupling modified QuEChERS to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. The detection limits of the proposed method for 10 pesticides ranged from 0.39 to 8.6ng/g. Good linearity (R value?0.990) was achieved at concentration levels of 10-200ng/g, and acceptable method reproducibility was found as intra- and inter-day precisions, yielding the relative standard deviations less than 10.7% and 13.4%, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 69.9-125.0% at different concentrations for real samples. Compared with the reported methods for the determination of a large number of samples, the proposed method has the advantage of less time-consuming in clean-up procedure.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.