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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
DoGSD: the dog and wolf genome SNP database.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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The rapid advancement of next-generation sequencing technology has generated a deluge of genomic data from domesticated dogs and their wild ancestor, grey wolves, which have simultaneously broadened our understanding of domestication and diseases that are shared by humans and dogs. To address the scarcity of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data provided by authorized databases and to make SNP data more easily/friendly usable and available, we propose DoGSD (http://dogsd.big.ac.cn), the first canidae-specific database which focuses on whole genome SNP data from domesticated dogs and grey wolves. The DoGSD is a web-based, open-access resource comprising ?19 million high-quality whole-genome SNPs. In addition to the dbSNP data set (build 139), DoGSD incorporates a comprehensive collection of SNPs from two newly sequenced samples (1 wolf and 1 dog) and collected SNPs from three latest dog/wolf genetic studies (7 wolves and 68 dogs), which were taken together for analysis with the population genetic statistics, Fst. In addition, DoGSD integrates some closely related information including SNP annotation, summary lists of SNPs located in genes, synonymous and non-synonymous SNPs, sampling location and breed information. All these features make DoGSD a useful resource for in-depth analysis in dog-/wolf-related studies.
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Genome Sequence of Tumebacillus flagellatus GST4, the First Genome Sequence of a Species in the Genus Tumebacillus.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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We present here the first genome sequence of a species in the genus Tumebacillus. The draft genome sequence of Tumebacillus flagellatus GST4 provides a genetic basis for future studies addressing the origins, evolution, and ecological role of Tumebacillus organisms, as well as a source of acid-resistant amylase-encoding genes for further studies.
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Effects of Bisphenol S on the Structures and Activities of Trypsin and Pepsin.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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The effects of bisphenol S on the structures and activities of trypsin and pepsin were investigated by various methods like UV-visible absorbance, fluorescence, circular dichroism, and molecular docking. The secondary and tertiary structures of trypsin and pepsin were altered by bisphenol S binding, which resulted in the loosening of the skeletons of trypsin and pepsin. In addition, bisphenol S induced microenvironmental changes around tyrosine and tryptophan residues of trypsin and pepsin. The activity experimental results showed that the activity of pepsin decreases obviously with the increasing concentration of BPS, while the activity of trypsin does not change remarkably. The binding and thermodynamic parameters obtained by molecular docking and fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the bindings of bisphenol S to trypsin and pepsin were spontaneous processes and hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions played a vital role in stabilizing the bisphenol S-trypsin and bisphenol S-pepsin complexes. The binding constants (KA) of bisphenol S with trypsin were 7.42 × 10(4) (298 K) and 5.91 × 10(4) L/mol (310 K), and those of pepsin were 5.78 × 10(4) (298 K) and 4.44 × 10(4) L/mol (310 K). Moreover, there was one main kind of binding site for bisphenol S on trypsin or pepsin.
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High Energy Density and Breakdown Strength from ? and ? Phases in Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-bromotrifluoroethylene) Copolymers.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Poly(vinylidene fluoride) PVDF-based copolymers represent the state of the art dielectric polymers for high energy density capacitors. Past work on these copolymers has been done with limited emphasis on the effects of copolymer composition and with a limited range of defect monomers, focusing primarily on the commercially available poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene), P(VDF-CTFE), and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene), P(VDF-HFP), and the processing thereof. To expand on this area of research, copolymers of VDF and bromotrifluoroethylene (BTFE) were synthesized examining the composition range where uniaxial stretching was possible. It is found that P(VDF-BTFE) copolymers with small BTFE contents (< 2 mol %) stabilize the ? phase, compared to P(VDF-CTFE)s and P(VDF-HFP)s that are largely ? phase in composition. Furthermore, different from P(VDF-CTFE)s and P(VDF-HFP)s, whose energy storage capabilities depend on the reversibility of the ? to ? phases transformation, high discharged energy densities (i.e., 20.8 J/cm(3) at 716 MV/m) are also achievable through the ? and ? phases in P(VDF-BTFE)s without significantly reducing crystallinity and breakdown strength. This study demonstrates new avenues to the development of high energy density ferroelectric copolymers via manipulation of the ? phase through variation of the structure and content of comonomers.
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[Output strategies for publication of international papers on clinical trials of Chinese medicine].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Scientific research output of clinical trials in Chinese medicine (CM) is insufficient, but international papers hold an important scientific position in China. Based on the current situation, we analyzed the present publication situation of international medical papers in our country, and the feasibility and urgency of publishing international papers on clinical trials of CM. Finally, we proposed to use the PDCA (plan-do-check-action) cycle method to improve the quality control and management of CM clinical trials. Moreover, by combining our experience in relevant scientific research launched at our department, we expounded strategies for improving the quantity and quality of international papers in CM.
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[Antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects of the Attractin gene on Sertoli cells in mice].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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To evaluate the effects of Attractin (Atrn) silence on the anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic abilities of TM4 Sertoli cells and its influence on the expressions of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and caspase6 in the cells.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of the Epinephelus lanceolatus (Perciformes: Serranidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the Epinephelus lanceolatus was presented in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,743?bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The gene order and composition of E. lanceolatus mitochondrial genome was similar to that of most other vertebrates. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 26.55% of A, 15.02% of C, 29.67% of T and 28.76% of G. With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand.
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[Simultaneous determination of zeranols and chloramphenicol in foodstuffs of animal origin by combination immunoaffinity column clean-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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A combination immunoaffinity column (IAC-CZ) clean-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method was successfully developed for zearalenol, beta-zearalenol and zearalenone) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in foodstuffs of animal origin. The samples (fish, liver, milk and honey) were enzymatically digested by beta-glucuronidase/sulfatase for about 16 h and then extracted with ether. The extracts were evaporated to dryness and then the residues were dissolved by 1.0 mL of 50% acetonitrile solution. After filtered and diluted with PBS buffer, the reconstituted solution were cleaned-up with a IAC-CZ and then analyzed by LC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Shimadzu Shim-pack VP-ODS column with gradient elution by acetonitrile and 2 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution. The detection was carried out by electrospray negative ionization mass spectrometry in MRM mode. The proposed method was validated by the limit of detection (0.04-0.10 microg/kg), linearity (R2 > or = 0.999 0), average recoveries (70.9%-95.6%) and precisions (2.0% - 11.8%). The developed method is reliable, sensitive and has good applicability. The combination immunoaffinity column was proved to be an effective pretreatment technique to decrease the matrix effect, and it met the requirements of residue analysis of co-occurring zeranols and chloramphenicol.
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The Spouse's Level of Education and Individuals' Dietary Behaviors in China.
Int J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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There has been a growing interest in understanding relationships between educational attainment of an individual and his or her spouse's health. However, the issue has not been extensively studied, particularly in East Asian nations.
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Prognostic value of carbohydrate tumor markers and inflammation-based markers in metastatic or recurrent gastric cancer.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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We examined the relationship between hematological parameters and clinicopathologic significance in metastatic or recurrent gastric cancer (MRGC) patients, and construct a prognostic index for MRGC patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 439 patients with MRGC. Tumor markers, inflammation-based markers such as mGPS (which combines CRP and albumin concentrations), NLR, PLR and other hematological parameters were observed in the study. CA125 was more frequently positive with peritoneal recurrence, and CEA was more frequently positive in patients with liver metastases. In the univariate analysis of survival, the following variables were associated with shorter overall survival (OS): male, previous pathology such as nerves invasion and vessel invasion, elevated CEA, CA72-4, CA125 and CA19-9, and inflammation-based variables such as Alb, CRP, mGPS, PLR, NLR, Hb, LDH, AchE and AKP. In the multivariate analysis, mGPS, CEA and CA125 were independent prognostic factors for OS. An exploration of the potential prognostic index model including the three independent factors was carried out, MSTs for the low-, moderate- and high-risk groups were 12, 10.5 and 5 months. Elevated serum CEA, CA125 and mGPS in patients with MRGC are independent negative predictor of prognosis. And the prognostic index was constructed to predict prognosis of MRGC patients more accurately.
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The role of specific PP2A complexes in the dephosphorylation of ?-H2AX.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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The formation of ?-H2AX in response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) marks damaged regions for recognition and repair. Dephosphorylation of ?-H2AX is required for cells to resume cell cycle. However, the mechanisms of ?-H2AX dephosphorylation remain underexplored. Using a loss of function screen, we identified PP2A specific subunits, B56? and ?4, involved in elimination of ?-H2AX during DSBs repair process. In the early stage of DSBs repair the inhibitory subunit ?4 binds and renders PP2Ac inactive. As DNA is repaired, ?4 releases PP2Ac and triggers the assembly of an active PP2A B56? holoenzyme. PP2A B56?, which translocates from cytoplasm into the nucleus upon DNA damage, is responsible for a direct dephosphorylation of ?-H2AX. Suppression of both B56? and ?4 leads to persistence of ?-H2AX and defects in DNA repair. In contrast, the rapid clearance of ?-H2AX in human hepatocarcinoma is correlated with the over-expression of both B56? and ?4. Functional analysis reveals that PP2A B56? coordinates with ?4 in accelerating HR repair upon DNA damage. Together, these observations gain insight of how ?-H2AX dephosphorylation is kinetically regulated during DNA repair response.
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[Influence of cationic cyclopeptide on microstructure and permeability of Caco-2 cell membrane].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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The microstructure of cationic cyclopeptide (TD-34) treated Caco-2 cell membrane was observed, and we discussed the relationship between membrane structure and insulin transmembrane permeability. Atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to observe living cell membrane in air condition and tapping mode. Results showed that the surface of Caco-2 cell membrane treated with TD-34 lost its smoothness and nearly doubled its roughness. Apparent permeability coefficients (P(app)) of insulin in Caco-2 cell monolayers increased 2.5 times. In conclusion, AFM can be used to observe microstructure of cationic cyclopeptide treated cell membrane and cationic cyclopeptide enhanced insulin delivery across Caco-2 cell membrane by increasing membrane fluidity.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of the Drepane punctata (Perciformes: Drepanidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the Drepane punctata was presented in our study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,397?bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 16 tRNA genes and a control region. The gene order and composition of D. punctata mitochondrial genome was different from that of most other vertebrates. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 24.56% of A, 16.02% of C, 27.81% of T and 31.61% of G. With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and five tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand.
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Discovery of (S)-1-(1-(Imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-6-yl)ethyl)-6-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-b]pyrazine (volitinib) as a highly potent and selective mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (c-Met) inhibitor in clinical development for treatment of cance
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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HGF/c-Met signaling has been implicated in human cancers. Herein we describe the invention of a series of novel triazolopyrazine c-Met inhibitors. The structure-activity relationship of these compounds was investigated, leading to the identification of compound 28, which demonstrated favorable pharmacokinetic properties in mice and good antitumor activities in the human glioma xenograft model in athymic nude mice.
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Compromised RNA polymerase III complex assembly leads to local alterations of intergenic RNA polymerase II transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
BMC Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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BackgroundAssembled RNA Polymerase III complexes exert local effects on chromatin processes, including influencing transcription of neighboring RNA Polymerase II transcribed genes. These properties have been designated as ¿extra-transcriptional¿ effects of the Pol III complex. Previous coding sequence microarray studies using Pol III factor mutants to determine global effects of Pol III complex assembly on Pol II promoter activity revealed only modest effects that did not correlate with proximity of Pol III complex binding sites.ResultsGiven our recent results demonstrating that tDNAs block progression of intergenic Pol II transcription, we hypothesized that extra-transcriptional effects within intergenic regions were not identified in the microarray study. To reconsider global impacts of Pol III complex binding, we used RNA sequencing to compare transcriptomes of wild type versus Pol III transcription factor TFIIIC depleted mutants. The results reveal altered intergenic Pol II transcription near TFIIIC binding sites in the mutant strains, where we observe readthrough of upstream transcripts that normally terminate near these sites, 5¿- and 3¿-extended transcripts, and de-repression of adjacent genes and intergenic regions.ConclusionsThe results suggest that effects of assembled Pol III complexes on transcription of neighboring Pol II promoters are of greater magnitude than previously appreciated, that such effects influence expression of adjacent genes at transcriptional start site and translational levels, and may explain a function of the conserved ETC sites in yeast. The results may also be relevant to synthetic biology efforts to design a minimal yeast genome.
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Transformation of the education of health professionals in China: progress and challenges.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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In this Review we examine the progress and challenges of China's ambitious 1998 reform of the world's largest health professional educational system. The reforms merged training institutions into universities and greatly expanded enrolment of health professionals. Positive achievements include an increase in the number of graduates to address human resources shortages, acceleration of production of diploma nurses to correct skill-mix imbalance, and priority for general practitioner training, especially of rural primary care workers. These developments have been accompanied by concerns: rapid expansion of the number of students without commensurate faculty strengthening, worries about dilution effect on quality, outdated curricular content, and ethical professionalism challenged by narrow technical training and growing admissions of students who did not express medicine as their first career choice. In this Review we underscore the importance of rebalance of the roles of health sciences institutions and government in educational policies and implementation. The imperative for reform is shown by a looming crisis of violence against health workers hypothesised as a result of many factors including deficient educational preparation and harmful profit-driven clinical practices.
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Soluble interleukin-6 receptor is elevated during influenza A virus infection and mediates the IL-6 and IL-32 inflammatory cytokine burst.
Cell. Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Influenza A virus (IAV) infection is a major worldwide public health problem. However, the factors involved in mediating the inflammatory response to this infection and their relationships remain poorly understood. Here, we show that IAV infection stimulates the expression of the soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), a multifunctional protein involved in IL-6 signaling. Interestingly, sIL-6R expression upregulated the levels of its own ligand, IL-6 and those of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-32. shRNA-mediated knockdown of sIL-6R suppressed IL-6 and IL-32, indicating that this regulation is dependent on sIL-6R during IAV infection. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that IL-32 participates in a negative feedback loop that inhibits sIL-6R while upregulating IL-6 expression during IAV infection. Therefore, we show that sIL-6R is a critical cellular factor involved in the acute inflammatory response to viral infection.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 1 September 2014; doi:10.1038/cmi.2014.80.
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Optimization of medium composition for cis,cis-muconic acid production by a Pseudomonas sp. mutant using statistical methods.
Prep. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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cis,cis-Muconic acid (CCMA) is used as a platform chemical for the production of several high-value compounds. For this article, an optimization strategy has been used to optimize medium composition for CCMA production from fairly cheap benzoate by Pseudomonas sp. 1167. The effect of different concentrations of medium components on CCMA production was studied. CCMA yields obtained from Plackett-Burman design (PBD) showed wide variation (3.95-5.87 g/L), and the first-order model indicated that (NH(4))(2)SO(4) (P < 0.01) and K(2)HPO(4) · 3H(2)O (P < 0.02) were the significant components for CCMA production. Then the optimization was performed by steepest ascent design (SAD) and central composite design (CCD), and a validation experiment was conducted to verify the predicted value. The optimal medium composition was: 12 g/L sodium benzoate, 2.5 g/L sodium succinate, 0.7932 g/L (NH(4))(2)SO(4), 1.5612 g/L K(2)HPO(4) · 3H(2)O, 1.2 g/L MgSO(4) · 7H(2)O, 0.4 g/L yeast extract, 0.08 g/L FeCl(3) · 6H(2)O, and 0.08 g/L ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Under these conditions, a maximum of 7.18 g/L CCMA was produced per 12 g/L benzoate with a highly efficient process within 11 hr and a molecular conversion yield of 61%. Altogether, our results provide valuable insights into nutritional supplementation of CCMA production by using statistical methods, which may benefit a cost-competitive industrial fed-batch fermentation process using a cheap substrate.
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Proteomic and metabolomic responses of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas to elevated pCO2 exposure.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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The gradually increased atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) has thrown the carbonate chemistry off balance and resulted in decreased seawater pH in marine ecosystem, termed ocean acidification (OA). Anthropogenic OA is postulated to affect the physiology of many marine calcifying organisms. However, the susceptibility and metabolic pathways of change in most calcifying animals are still far from being well understood. In this work, the effects of exposure to elevated pCO2 were characterized in gills and hepatopancreas of Crassostrea gigas using integrated proteomic and metabolomic approaches. Metabolic responses indicated that high CO2 exposure mainly caused disturbances in energy metabolism and osmotic regulation marked by differentially altered ATP, glucose, glycogen, amino acids and organic osmolytes in oysters, and the depletions of ATP in gills and the accumulations of ATP, glucose and glycogen in hepatopancreas accounted for the difference in energy distribution between these two tissues. Proteomic responses suggested that OA could not only affect energy and primary metabolisms, stress responses and calcium homeostasis in both tissues, but also influence the nucleotide metabolism in gills and cytoskeleton structure in hepatopancreas. This study demonstrated that the combination of proteomics and metabolomics could provide an insightful view into the effects of OA on oyster C. gigas.
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Exploring the interactions of decabrominateddiphenyl ether and tetrabromobisphenol A with human serum albumin.
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Decabrominateddiphenyl ether (deca-BDE) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are known as brominated flame-retardants, which are commonly found in the environment. The binding mechanisms of deca-BDE and TBBPA with human serum albumin (HSA) are still unknown. In this report, the interactions of deca-BDE and TBBPA with HSA were investigated using different spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling. The experimental results indicated the formation of complexes between deca-BDE/TBBPA and HSA with different affinity. These interactions affected the secondary structure of HSA. Thermodynamic investigations revealed that hydrophobic forces mainly drove the binding interactions of deca-BDE/TBBPA with HSA. For TBBPA, hydrogen-bonding interactions were also involved in the binding process of TBBPA with HSA. According to the analysis of experimental and theoretical data, we concluded that the binding site of deca-BDE to HSA located in the subdomain IB, while TBBPA was near to subdomain IIA and Trp-214. The binding interactions of deca-BDE and TBBPA with the most prominent carrier protein in the human circulatory system could influence mechanisms of their biochemical processes. Thus, these binding interactions can play central roles in studying the distribution and toxicity mechanisms of brominated flame-retardants.
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Sorption behavior and modeling of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on natural sediments: role of biofilm covered on surface.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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The surfaces of natural sediments are ubiquitously coated by biofilms that increase the content of organic matter in sediments. However, it is less understood whether the biofilms act as a sorbent or a barrier of mass transfer from water column to sediment phase. This study focused on the role of biofilms coverage on sediments in the sorption of bisphenol A (BPA), 17?-ethinyl estradiol (EE2), and 4-nonylphenols (4-NP) as model compounds for endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The OC-normalized distribution coefficients (k OC) for BPA, EE2 and 4-NP ranged from 10(1.87) to 10(3.09) l/kg, the k OC of EE2 was slightly higher (10(2.23) l/kg) for sediment after H2O2 oxidation than before (10(1.93) l/kg). A two-stage model with a fast section and slow section was employed to describe the sorption process (r (2)?>?0.95). The model results showed that the fast sorption section played a main role in the sorption process, while the slow section determined the extent of the reaction (the second-phase partition coefficient (k p2) ranged from 11.7 to 118.9 l/kg). The ratios of the mass transfer rate constant of the two stages for the natural sediment ranged from 6.0 to 7.2, which were somewhat lower than those for soil samples. These results indicated that the biofilm coverage on sediment may act as a barrier in mass transfer from water to sediment and scarcely increased the sorption capacity of sediments.
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Objective assessment of persistent rhinitis in Chinese and its relationship with serum indicators.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Persistent rhinitis (PR) is a chronic disease that affects millions of people. However, it lacks of a useful method, which can indicate the actual severity of the inflammation in PR patients. This study was designed to seek an examination which could reflect the actual severity of PR disease. The serum Phadiatop test, ECP level, four-phase rhinomanometry, and acoustic rhinometry were assessed in 91 adult patients with PR and 10 healthy controls. The serum total IgE was determined in some of the patients and all of the controls. The patients were divided into four groups: ARWO, ARWTO, NARWO and NARWTO. 40 % (22/55) of AR and 33.3 % (13/36) of NAR patients never complained of persistent nasal obstruction. Serum ECP levels were increased in the ARWO group. Serum total IgE was significantly elevated in the AR groups. MCA1-Min and MCA1-T were significantly reduced in the ARWO, ARWTO, and NARWO groups. NV6-Min and NV6-T were decreased in all PR groups, but only some of these differences were significant. In the ARWO group, MCA2-Min (r = -0.252), MCA2-T (r = -0.377), NV6-Min (r = -0.32), and NV6-T (r = -0.311) had significant relationships with serum ECP. We recommend acoustic rhinometry as a useful routine tool for the diagnosis of PR, even among patients without persistent subjective nasal obstruction. This technique might reveal the actual status of nasal congestion. An elevated serum ECP level might indicate severe AR and is negatively correlated with the results of acoustic rhinometry.
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Compact 4.7 W, 18.3% wall-plug efficiency green laser based on an electrically pumped VECSEL using intracavity frequency doubling.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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We have demonstrated a compact, 4.7 W green laser based on an electrically pumped vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser through intracavity frequency doubling. The overall wall-plug efficiency (electrical to green) was 18.3%. The power fluctuations were measured to be ±1.4% over a 2 h time period.
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Incidence and risk factors for AIDS-related mortality in HIV patients in China: a cross-sectional study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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To estimate the incidence and risk factors for mortality in HIV-1-infected patients in China.
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Variation in urinary stone composition between adult Uyghur and Han patients with urolithiasis in Xinjiang, China.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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To analyze variations in urinary stone composition between Uyghur and Han patients with urolithiasis in Xinjiang, China, and to explore the possible factors associated with urinary stone composition in Uyghur and Han patients.
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Use of aprotinin to reduce blood loss and transfusion in major orthopedic surgery: a meta-analysis.
Transfus. Apher. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Conflicting reports have been published regarding the effectiveness and safety of aprotinin in reducing blood loss and transfusion in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of aprotinin in reducing blood loss and transfusion in major orthopedic surgery.
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Penguins significantly increased phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution in maritime Antarctic soils.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Most studies on phosphorus cycle in the natural environment focused on phosphates, with limited data available for the reduced phosphine (PH3). In this paper, matrix-bound phosphine (MBP), gaseous phosphine fluxes and phosphorus fractions in the soils were investigated from a penguin colony, a seal colony and the adjacent animal-lacking tundra and background sites. The MBP levels (mean 200.3?ng kg(-1)) in penguin colony soils were much higher than those in seal colony soils, animal-lacking tundra soils and the background soils. Field PH3 flux observation and laboratory incubation experiments confirmed that penguin colony soils produced much higher PH3 emissions than seal colony soils and animal-lacking tundra soils. Overall high MBP levels and PH3 emissions were modulated by soil biogeochemical processes associated with penguin activities: sufficient supply of the nutrients phosphorus, nitrogen, and organic carbon from penguin guano, high soil bacterial abundance and phosphatase activity. It was proposed that organic or inorganic phosphorus compounds from penguin guano or seal excreta could be reduced to PH3 in the Antarctic soils through the bacterial activity. Our results indicated that penguin activity significantly increased soil phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution, thus played an important role in phosphorus cycle in terrestrial ecosystems of maritime Antarctica.
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Oroxylin A exerts anti-inflammatory activity on lipopolysaccharide-induced mouse macrophage via Nrf2/ARE activation.
Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Regulating inflammation could be an important measure for the effective treatment of cancer. Here we examine the mechanisms by which oroxylin A inhibits inflammation in RAW264.7 cells. The results demonstrate that pretreatment with oroxylin A (50, 100, and 150 ?mol/L) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mRNA and protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS. In addition, oroxylin A significantly increased the protein expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), and NADP(H):quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), induced Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus and up-regulated antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase reporter activity. Moreover, oroxylin A inhibited Nrf2 ubiquitination and proteasome activity. Transfection with Nrf2 siRNA knocked down Nrf2 expression and partially reversed oroxylin A-mediated inhibition of LPS-induced COX-2 and iNOS expression. Importantly, we showed for the first time that Nrf2 plays an important role in oroxylin A-suppressed inflammation in RAW264.7 cells. Uncovering the effect of oroxylin A on the regulation of Nrf2 signaling may be beneficial for developing new therapeutic strategies against inflammatory diseases.
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De novo assembly and characterization of stress transcriptome and regulatory networks under temperature, salt and hormone stresses in Lilium lancifolium.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Plants have continually confrontation with different abiotic stresses, including salt, low temperature, drought or hormone stress. The plants acclimate to the environmental stresses relating with the falls of the molecular mesh including the stress signal receiver, signal transcriptional regulation and the expression of functional and structure genes. Using the RNA-seq, we carried out a transcriptional analysis under cold treatment for investigating a profound comprehension of the signal network and molecular metabolisms reaction included in abiotic stress reaction for Lilium lancifolium. Our study identified 18,722 unigenes had demonstrated the resemblance to the known exact proteins in the Swiss-Prot protein database and classified them by Gene ontology into three primary kinds: cellular component, biological process, and molecular function, and then 15,898 unigenes aligned to existing sequences in the KEGG databases. Based on the transcriptome results of cold stress, more stress-related genes were identified and analyzed of their expressions in other abiotic stress treatments as 37 °C, ABA, JA and Na. Meanwhile, bioinformatics qRT-PCR analyses of stress genes as LlDREB1, LlAP2, LlNAC1, LlHOT, LlR2R3-MYB and LlCDPK revealed that novel candidate genes encoding ethylene responsive transporters and serine/threonine receptor-like kinases, which contributed to speculate the signal regulation pathway during the abiotic stresses; engineering genes could also boost the tolerance to stress, as protected and maintained the function and structure of cellular components. Our research conjectured the abiotic stress signal transduction pathway and identified the expected key ingredients regulating the stress tolerance in Lilium lancifolium, which would enable the in-depth molecular exploration of stress-tolerance mechanisms in lily.
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Characterisation of interaction between food colourant allura red AC and human serum albumin: Multispectroscopic analyses and docking simulations.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Binding interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) with allura red AC, a food colourant, was investigated at the molecular level through fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible, circular dichroism (CD) and Raman spectroscopies, as well as protein-ligand docking studies to better understand the chemical absorption, distribution and transportation of colourants. Results show that allura red AC has the ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA through static quenching. The negative values of the thermodynamic parameters ?G, ?H, and ?S indicated that hydrogen bond and van der Waals forces are dominant in the binding between the food colourant and HSA. The CD and Raman spectra showed that the binding of allura red AC to HSA induces the rearrangement of the carbonyl hydrogen-bonding network of polypeptides, which changes the HSA secondary structure. This colourant is bound to HSA in site I, and the binding mode was further analysed with the use of the CDOCKER algorithm in Discovery Studio.
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Magnetic solid-phase extraction based on methylcellulose coated-Fe3O4-SiO2-phenyl for HPLC-DAD analysis of sildenafil and its metabolite in biological samples.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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In the present study, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with phenyl functionalized core and a hydrophilic methylcellulose coating were synthesized. The functionalized MNPs showed excellent dispersibility in aqueous solution and they were applied to magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of sildenafil and its metabolite, desmethyl sildenafil, from human urine and plasma samples followed by high performance liquid chromatographic analysis. The factors that may influence the extraction, including the amount of MNPs, pH and salt concentration of sample solution, extraction and desorption time, and the volume of desorption solvent, were investigated in detail. Under the optimum MSPE conditions, the developed method showed satisfactory reproducibility with intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations less than 8.2% and low limits of detection of 0.41-0.96 ng mL(-1) from urine and plasma samples. The proposed material possessed good water compatibility and demonstrated excellent applicability for biological samples.
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Binding of hydroxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes to two hemoproteins, hemoglobin and myoglobin.
J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Herein, we studied the binding interactions between hydroxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes and hemoglobin and myoglobin by the use of multi-spectral techniques and molecular modeling. The ultraviolet-vis absorbance and circular dichroism spectral results indicated that the binding interactions existed between hydroxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes and hemoglobin/myoglobin. These binding interactions partially affected the soret/heme bands of hemoglobin and myoglobin. The secondary structures of hemoproteins were partially destroyed by hydroxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes. Fluorescence studies suggested that the complexes formed between hydroxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes and hemoglobin/myoglobin by hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic, and ?-? stacking interactions. In addition, molecular modeling analysis well supported the experimental results.
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Multiple injections of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells through the tail vein improve microcirculation and the microenvironment in a rat model of radiation myelopathy.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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BackgroundAt present, no effective clinical treatment is available for the late effects of radiation myelopathy. The aim of the present study was to assess the therapeutic effects of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs) in a rat model of radiation myelopathy.MethodsAn irradiated cervical spinal cord rat model was generated. UC-MSCs were injected through the tail vein at 90, 97, 104 and 111 days post-irradiation. Behavioral tests were performed using the forelimb paralysis scoring system, and histological damage was examined using Nissl staining. The microcirculation in the spinal cord was assessed using von Willebrand factor (vWF) immunohistochemical analysis and laser-Doppler flowmetry. The microenvironment in the spinal cord was determined by measuring the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor-¿ (TNF-¿) in the serum and the anti-inflammatory cytokines brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in the spinal cord.ResultsMultiple injections of UC-MSCs through the tail veil decreased the forelimb paralysis, decreased spinal cord histological damage, increased the number of neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord, increased the endothelial cell density and the microvessel density in the white matter and gray matter of the spinal cord, increased the relative magnitude of spinal cord blood flow, down-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the serum, and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in the spinal cord.ConclusionMultiple injections of UC-MSCs via the tail vein in a rat model of radiation myelopathy significantly improved the microcirculation and microenvironment through therapeutic paracrine effects.
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Somatic mutations of SUZ12 in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Neurofibromatosis 1 is a hereditary syndrome characterized by the development of numerous benign neurofibromas, a small subset of which progress to malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). To better understand the genetic basis for MPNSTs, we performed genome-wide or targeted sequencing on 50 cases. Sixteen MPNSTs but none of the neurofibromas tested were found to have somatic mutations in SUZ12, implicating it as having a central role in malignant transformation.
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Investigation on performance of zirconia and magnesia-zirconia stationary phases in hydrophilic interaction chromatography.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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In the current study, zirconia (ZrO2) and its composite, magnesia-zirconia (MgO-ZrO2), were prepared as the hydrophilic interaction chromatographic (HILIC) stationary phases (SPs). Different experimental variables including water content, pH and buffer concentration in the mobile phase (MP) as well as column temperature were systematically studied to permit an in-depth understanding of the chromatographic properties of the mentioned SPs and to explore the retention mechanism further on. The results were compared with a native SiO2 column. Adsorption was demonstrated as the main retention mechanism on the two ZrO2-based SPs. The transferring of the analytes from the MP to the ZrO2-based SPs was endothermic and high column temperature would facilitate the retention. In addition, the MgO-ZrO2 SP exhibited superior resolution, column efficiency as well as stronger retention in comparison to the bare ZrO2 SP, which demonstrated that the introduction of MgO could improve the structure and properties of the material. In conclusion, MgO-ZrO2 was a promising material for HILIC applications.
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Sensitive point-of-care monitoring of cardiac biomarker myoglobin using aptamer and ubiquitous personal glucose meter.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Myoglobin (Myo), which is one of the early markers to increase after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), plays a major role in urgent diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. Hence, monitoring of Myo in point-of-care is fundamental. Here, a novel assay for sensitive and selective detection of Myo was introduced using a personal glucose meter (PGM) as readout. In the presence of Myo, the anti-Myo antibody immobilized on the surface of polystyrene microplate could capture the target Myo. Then the selected aptamer against Myo, which was obtained using our screening process, was conjugated with invertase, and such aptamer-invertase conjugates bound to the immobilized Myo due to the Myo/aptamer interaction. Subsequently, the resulting "antibody-Myo-aptamer sandwich" complex containing invertase conjugates hydrolyzed sucrose into glucose, thus establishing direct correlation between the Myo concentration and the amount of glucose measured by PGM. By employing the enzyme amplification, as low as 50pM Myo could be detected. This assay also showed high selectivity for Myo and was successfully used for Myo detection in serum samples. This work may provide a simple but reliable tool for early diagnosis of AMI in the world, especially in developing countries.
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Photocatalytic degradation and reactor modeling of 17?-ethynylestradiol employing titanium dioxide-incorporated foam concrete.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Photocatalytic degradation of 17?-ethynylestradiol (EE2) using TiO2 photocatalysts incorporated with foam concrete (TiO2/FC) was investigated for the first time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of the samples revealed a narrow air void size distribution on the surface of FC cubes on with 5 wt% addition of P25 TiO2, and TiO2 particles were distributed heterogeneously on the surface of TiO2/FC samples. The sorption and photocatalytic degradation of EE2 with UV-light irradiation by TiO2/FC cubes were investigated. Adsorption capacity of EE2 by the TiO2/FC and blank foam concrete (FC) samples were similar, while the degradation rates showed a great difference. More than 50 % of EE2 was removed by TiO2/FC within 3.5 h, compared with 5 % by blank FC. The EE2 removal process was then studied in a photoreactor modified from ultraviolet disinfection pool and constructed with TiO2/FC materials. An integrated model including a plate adsorption-scattering model and a modified flow diffusion model was established to simulate the photocatalytic degradation process with different radiation fields, contaminant load, and flow velocity. A satisfactory agreement was observed between the model simulations and experimental results, showing a potential for the design and scale-up of the modified photocatalytic reactor.
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A one-step duplex rRT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of grass carp reovirus genotypes I and II.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Hemorrhagic disease of grass carp, caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV), leads to severe economic losses in the grass carp farming industry in China. GCRV has been divided into three genotypes based on genome sequence. Genotypes I and II (GCRV-1 and GCRV-II, respectively) are the dominant genotypes and co-infections of GCRV-I and GCRV-II are common in grass carp aquaculture. A one-step duplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay was developed for simultaneous detection of GCRV-I and GCRV-II. The PCR assay is suitable for early diagnosis of grass carp hemorrhagic disease and for epidemiological surveillance. The detection limit of the assay is 10 copies for both GCRV-I and GCRV-II, which is as high as single-target rRT-PCR and higher than conventional RT-PCR. No cross reactivity with other GCRV subtypes or other viruses was observed. One hundred and twelve samples from grass carp suspected of hemorrhagic disease were collected from South and Central China. Eleven samples were positive for GCRV-I by RT-PCR alone, and fourteen samples were positive by single-target and duplex rRT-PCR. Forty two samples were positive for GCRV-II by RT-PCR alone and forty seven samples were positive by single-target and duplex rRT-PCR. Mixed infections were found in eight samples when analyzed by RT-PCR alone and in ten samples analyzed by single-target and duplex rRT-PCR. The duplex rRT-PCR system provides a sensitive and specific method to detect and differentiate between GCRV-I and GCRV-II in a single sample. This rRT-PCR assay could be a useful tool for the routine diagnosis of these two viruses and for epidemiology studies in grass carp aquaculture.
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Pathogenicity and tissue distribution of grass carp reovirus after intraperitoneal administration.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is the causative agent of grass carp hemorrhage and causes significant loss of fingerlings. However, little is known about how the virus is distributed in organs and tissues. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of different GCRV stains in tissues and organs of grass carp. The pathogenicity and tissue distribution of GCRV were monitored after intraperitoneal administration. The study showed a distribution of GCRV in different tissues and organs, particularly in the liver, spleen, kidney, intestine, and muscle, which had a higher number of viral RNA copies during the sixth to ninth days. The kidney had the highest numbers of viral RNA copies, as high as 24000 copies. Until the fourteenth day, nearly no viral RNA copies could be detected. This study defined the virus distribution in different tissues of grass carp inoculated by i.p. and supplied clues for the pathogenesis of GCRV.
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Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of active Al2O3/g-C3N4 heterojunctions synthesized via surface hydroxyl modification.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Novel Al2O3/g-C3N4 heterojunction photocatalysts were fabricated through ultrasonic dispersion method. Al2O3, obtained via solution combustion, contained amorphous ingredient with lots of defect sites and was used as active component for transferring photo-induced electrons of g-C3N4. G-C3N4 was grafted surface hydroxyl groups in the presence of ammonia aqueous solution to combine with Al2O3 possessing positive charges via hydrogen bond. The XRD, SEM, element map, TEM, HRTEM, FT-IR, and XPS results indicate that these synthesized materials are two-phase hybrids of Al2O3 and g-C3N4 with interaction. The photocatalytic results for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) indicate that the most active heterojunction proportion is 60wt.% g-C3N4:40wt.% Al2O3, the visible light photocatalytic activity of which is 3.8 times that of a mechanical mixture. The enhanced performance is attributed to the high separation efficiency of photo-induced electrons from the LUMO of g-C3N4 injected into the defect sites of Al2O3, which is verified by photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) and surface photovoltage (SPV) measurements. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals and radical scavengers trapping experiments reveal holes (h(+)) and superoxide anion radical (O2(-)) are the main active species responsible for the degradation of RhB.
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In vitro and in silico investigations of the binding interactions between chlorophenols and trypsin.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Being the first-degree toxic pollutants, chlorophenols (CP) have potential carcinogenic and mutagenic activity and toxicity. Since there still lacks studies on molecular interactions of chlorophenols with trypsin, one major binding target of many exogenous environmental pollutants, the binding interactions between five chlorophenols, 2-CP, 2,6-DCP, 2,4,6-TCP, 2,4,6-TCP, 2,3,4,6-TCP and PCP and trypsin were characterized by the combination of multispectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling. The chlorophenols bind at the one main site of trypsin and the binding induces the changes of microenvironment and global conformations of trypsin. Different number of chloride atoms significantly affects the binding and the binding constants KA ranks as KA (2-CP) < KA (2,6-DCP) ? KA (2,4,6-TCP) < KA (2,3,4,6-TCP) < KA (PCP). These chlorophenols interacts with trypsin mainly through hydrophobic interactions and via hydrogen bonding interactions and aromatic-aromatic ?-? stacking interaction. Our results offer insights into the binding mechanism of chlorophenols with trypsin and provide important information for possible toxicity risk of chlorophenols to human health.
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Forest type affects the coupled relationships of soil C and N mineralization in the temperate forests of northern China.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) is sensitive to vegetation and climate change. Here, we investigated the influence of changes in forest types on the mineralization of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), and their temperature sensitivity (Q10) and coupling relationships by using a laboratory soil incubation experiments. We sampled soils from four forest types, namely, a primary Quercus liaotungensis forest (QL), Larix principis-rupprechtii plantation (LP), Pinus tabulaeformis plantation (PT), and secondary shrub forest (SS) in temperate northern China. The results showed that soil C and N mineralization differed significantly among forest types. Soil C and N mineralization were closely coupled in all plots, and C:N ratios of mineralized SOM ranged from 2.54 to 4.12. Forest type significantly influenced the Q10 values of soil C and N mineralization. The activation energy (Ea) of soil C and N mineralization was negatively related to the SOM quality index in all forest types. The reverse relationships suggested that the carbon quality-temperature (CQT) hypothesis was simultaneously applicable to soil C and N mineralization. Our findings show that the coupled relationships of soil C and N mineralization can be affected by vegetation change.
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The utility of repeated computed tomography to track a foreign body penetrating the esophagus to the level of the thyroid gland.
Oral Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common problem in otolaryngology. One uncommon complication of FB ingestion is penetration to the level of the thyroid gland. To our knowledge, only 21 such cases have been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of an esophageal FB penetrating to the level of the right thyroid gland.
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Interaction of a hydrophobic-functionalized PAMAM dendrimer with bovine serum albumin: thermodynamic and structural changes.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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The interaction between a hydrophobic-functionalized PAMAM dendrimer (PAMAM-NH2-C12, 25%, G4) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated by circular dichroism (CD), UV-vis, and fluorescence spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling. The analysis of the effects of dendrimer complexation on the stability and conformation of BSA indicated that the binding process of the hydrophobic-functionalized dendrimer with BSA induced the relatively large changes in secondary structure of protein. Thermal denaturation of BSA, when carried out in the presence of dendrimer, also indicated that this hydrophobic-functionalized dendrimer acted as a structure destabilizer for BSA. The hydrophobic, electrostatic, and hydrogen bonding forces played important roles in the complex formation. The putative binding site of PAMAM-NH2-C12 (25%) dendrimer on BSA was near to domain I and domain II. The effect of hydrophobic modification on the stability and structure of BSA would find useful information on the cytotoxicity of PAMAM dendrimer.
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microRNA?802 promotes lung carcinoma proliferation by targeting the tumor suppressor menin.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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microRNAs play important roles in numerous biological processes, including tumorigenesis, by modulating critical gene transcripts. In the present study, the role of microRNA?802 (miR?802) in lung cancer was investigated. The results of the quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that expression levels of miR?802 were significantly upregulated in lung cancer tissues. In vitro experiments demonstrated that miR?802 promoted cell proliferation in A549, NCI?H358 and NCI?H1299 cells. Furthermore, it was indicated that miR?802 promoted the proliferation of lung carcinoma by targeting the tumor suppressor menin. Therefore, these results suggest a previously unknown miR?802/menin molecular network controlling lung carcinoma development.
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Mutated and amplified NRAS in a subset of cutaneous melanocytic lesions with dermal spitzoid morphology: report of two pediatric cases located on the ear.
J. Cutan. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Extensive cytogenetic testing is slowly unveiling the complexity of the genomics of melanocytic tumors. NRAS mutations have been the first genetic abnormality described in malignant melanomas. We report the cases of two children, presenting a melanocytic lesion located on the ear. One appeared as a combined dermal clone inside a congenital nevus and the other as a centimetric purely dermal tumor. Both tumors were composed of spindled spitzoid melanocytes with atypical histologic features. aCGH and FISH revealed an amplification of the NRAS gene. Sequencing showed an exon 3 NRAS mutation. In the combined case, the amplification was limited to the spitzoid component, underscoring a possible phenotypic shift induced by the alteration. Similarly an overexpression of CyclinD1 and elevation of ki-67 was found in the spitzoid component confirming a raise in proliferation. Such combination of mutation and copy number increase has been previously reported for the HRAS gene in a subset of Spitz nevi. Further studies must evaluate if mutated NRAS is also amplified in melanomas arising in this clinical setting. These combined alterations could represent an early event ultimately leading to malignancy.
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Superiority of the modified Tönnis angle over the Tönnis angle in the radiographic diagnosis of acetabular dysplasia.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the limitations of the Tönnis angle as one of the most commonly used parameters in the diagnosis of acetabular dysplasia, and to explore the feasibility of the modified Tönnis angle in the diagnosis of acetabular dysplasia. A total of 224 patients (120 females and 104 males) with 448 hips, aged between 15 and 83 years (median, 45.0 years), were selected for the measurement of the center-edge (CE) and Tönnis angles. To evaluate the relative position of the medial edge of the acetabular sourcil, a new parameter, known as the center-medial-edge (CME) angle, was designed. As an improvement of the Tönnis angle, a new angle preliminarily termed the modified Tönnis angle was created. In addition, the degree of clarity of the medial edge of the acetabular sourcil on radiograph was evaluated, and the hips were divided into the clear-edge and blurred-edge groups. The hips belonging to the blurred-edge group could not be used for Tönnis angle measurements. All measurements were performed digitally using the tool of the picture-archiving communication system. Among the 448 acetabular sourcils, 142 had a blurred medial edge (31.7%). The mean value of the CME angle was 37.94°, with a range of 21.76-63.99°. The 95% prediction interval of the modified Tönnis angle was estimated to be -6.39 to 11.73°. The correlation coefficients were -0.838 between the CE and Tönnis angles, 0.889 between the Tönnis and modified Tönnis angles and -0.905 between the CE and modified Tönnis angles. In conclusion, the modified Tönnis angle can substitute for the Tönnis angle without joint space narrowing and subluxation of the hip, particularly when the Tönnis angle cannot be measured due to a blurred medial edge of the acetabular sourcil on pelvic radiograph.
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Cu(II)4L4 coordination-driven molecular container: a reusable visual colorimetric sensor for Ag(I) ions.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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A Cu4L4 square-like molecular container which can be a reusable visual sensor for Ag(+) is reported. The present results can be a useful stepwise approach for the construction of the heterometallic supramolecular complexes with potential applications.
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Probing interactions between human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell and its aptamers at single-molecule resolution.
J. Mol. Recognit.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Because cell-specific aptamers have high potential for biomedical applications, investigation of the interaction between cell and its aptamers may be of key importance for an improved understanding of biochemical processes. Herein, the interaction between human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell and its four aptamers was explored using single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS). The values of the unbinding force varied from 117.1 to 171.0?pN at the loading rate of 1.8?×?10(5) ?pN/s. Based on the dependence of singe molecule force on the atomic force microscopy loading rate, the corresponding kinetic parameters were obtained. The results revealed two activation barriers and two transient states in the unbinding process of aptamer/cell interaction. More importantly, the binding sites on A549 cells with its four aptamers were defined to be different using SMFS and flow cytometry. This work demonstrated that SMFS can be used as a powerful tool for exploring the aptamer/cell binding behavior at the single-molecule level, and may provide valuable information for the design and application of aptamer probes.
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Binding of a new bisphenol analogue, bisphenol S to bovine serum albumin and calf thymus DNA.
J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Interactions of bisphenol S, a new bisphenol analogue with bovine serum albumin and calf thymus DNA were investigated using different spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling calculation. According to the analysis of experimental and theoretical data, we concluded that hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding primarily mediated the binding processes of bisphenol S with bovine serum albumin and DNA. In addition, the electrostatic force should not be excluded. Molecular modeling studies indicated that the binding site of bisphenol S to bovine serum albumin located in the subdomain IB, while bisphenol S was a groove binder of DNA. In addition, BPS did not obviously induce second structural changes of bovine serum albumin, but it induced a conformational change of calf thymus DNA.
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Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on the structure and activity of catalase.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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TiO2 nanoparticles are the most widely used metal oxide nanoparticles and have oxidative toxicity. Catalase is an important antioxidant enzyme. Here the understanding of an effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on the activity and structure of catalase is crucial to characterize the toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles. These experimental data revealed that TiO2 nanoparticles could bind to catalase by the electrostatic and hydrogen bonding forces. On binding TiO2 nanoparticles, catalase got destabilized with the decrease of ?-helices content, the solvent polarity of environment around the fluorescence chromophores on catalase were also affected. In addition, TiO2 nanoparticles also affected the activity of catalase. TiO2 nanoparticles acted as an activator of catalase activity at a low molar concentration and as an inhibitor at a higher molar concentration. With regard to human health, the present study could provide a better understanding of the potential nanotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles.
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Effect of the vascular endothelial growth factor expression level on angiopoietin-2-mediated nasopharyngeal carcinoma growth.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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The overexpression of angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) has both pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic effects. However, the mechanisms of this protein's dual effects are poorly understood, and it remains unclear how Ang-2 cooperates with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In the current study, we investigated the effects of Ang-2 overexpression on nasopharyngeal carcinoma growth in the presence of different levels of VEGF.
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Quest for the binding mode of tetrabromobisphenol A with Calf thymus DNA.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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The binding interaction of tetrabromobisphenol A with Calf thymus DNA was studied by multi-spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. The UV-vis study revealed that an obvious interaction between tetrabromobisphenol A and Calf thymus DNA happened. The ?-?(?) transitions and the electron cloud of tetrabromobisphenol A might be changed by entering the groove of Calf thymus DNA. From the fluorescence spectral and thermodynamics studies, it was concluded that the hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic force played a major role in the binding of tetrabromobisphenol A to Calf thymus DNA. The molecular modeling study showed that the possible sites of tetrabromobisphenol A in the groove of DNA. Circular dichroism study also depicted that tetrabromobisphenol A bond to DNA. These above results would further advance our knowledge on the molecular mechanism of the binding interactions of brominated flame-retardants with nucleic acid.
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Effects of chronic electroacupuncture on depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in rats with chronic neuropathic pain.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Growing evidence indicates that chronic neuropathic pain is frequently accompanied by an array of psychiatric diseases, such as depression and anxiety. Electroacupuncture (EA), as one therapy of traditional Chinese medicine, has displayed potent antidepressant-like effects in numerous clinical studies. The present study was designed to examine the possible effects of EA on the depressive and anxiety disorders induced by neuropathic pain. A classic rat model of neuropathic pain was produced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. EA was performed on acupoints "Bai-Hui" (GV20) and unilateral "Yang-Ling-Quan" (GB34). The antidepressive and anxiolytic effects of EA treatment were analyzed using the forced swimming test (FST) and the elevated plus maze (EPM) test, respectively. CCI resulted in remarkable depression- and anxiety-like behaviors, whereas the chronic EA treatment significantly improved the behavioral deficits of CCI rats. Moreover, the phosphorylation level of the NMDA receptor type 1 (NR1) subunit was decreased in the hippocampus of CCI rats. Intriguingly, continuous EA treatment effectively blocked this decrease in the levels of pNR1. These results suggested that EA has antidepressive and anxiolytic effects on rats with neuropathic pain and that this might be associated with restoring the phosphorylation of NR1 in the hippocampus.
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Stimulation of feeding by three different glucose-sensing mechanisms requires hindbrain catecholamine neurons.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Previous work has shown that hindbrain catecholamine neurons are required components of the brain's glucoregulatory circuitry. However, the mechanisms and circuitry underlying their glucoregulatory functions are poorly understood. Here we examined three drugs, glucosamine (GcA), phloridzin (Phl) and 5-thio-d-glucose (5TG), that stimulate food intake but interfere in different ways with cellular glucose utilization or transport. We examined feeding and blood glucose responses to each drug in male rats previously injected into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus with anti-dopamine-?-hydroxylase conjugated to saporin (DSAP), a retrogradely transported immunotoxin that selectively lesions noradrenergic and adrenergic neurons, or with unconjugated saporin (SAP) control. Our major findings were 1) that GcA, Phl, and 5TG all stimulated feeding in SAP controls whether injected into the lateral or fourth ventricle (LV or 4V), 2) that each drug's potency was similar for both LV and 4V injections, 3) that neither LV or 4V injection of these drugs evoked feeding in DSAP-lesioned rats, and 4) that only 5TG, which blocks glycolysis, stimulated a blood glucose response. The antagonist of the MEK/ERK signaling cascade, U0126, attenuated GcA-induced feeding, but not Phl- or 5TG-induced feeding. Thus GcA, Phl, and 5TG, although differing in mechanism and possibly activating different neural populations, stimulate feeding in a catecholamine-dependent manner. Although results do not exclude the possibility that catecholamine neurons possess glucose-sensing mechanisms responsive to all of these agents, currently available evidence favors the possibility that the feeding effects result from convergent neural circuits in which catecholamine neurons are a required component.
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miR-107 regulates cisplatin chemosensitivity of A549 non small cell lung cancer cell line by targeting cyclin dependent kinase 8.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Previous studies demonstrated that the acquired drug resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was related to deregulation of miRNAs. However, the effects of miR-107 and the mechanism through which miR-107 affects the cisplatin chemoresistance in NSCLC have not been reported. TaqMan RT-PCR or Western blot assay was performed to detect the expression of mature miR-107 and cyclin dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) protein. The viabilities of treated cells were analyzed using MTT assay. We found that the expression level of miR-107 in A549 cells was significantly lower than that in normal human bronchial epithelial cells (0.45 ± 0.26 vs. 1.00 ± 0.29, P = 0.032). The MTT assay showed that the A549 cells transfected with miR-107 mimics were significantly more sensitive to the therapy of cisplatin than control cells. A549 cells transfected with miR-107 mimics showed a decreased CDK8 protein expression. Downregulation of CDK8 expression by siRNAs, A549 cells became more sensitive to the therapy of cisplatin. In addition, the enhanced growth-inhibitory effect by the miR-107 mimic transfection was enhanced after the addition of CDK8 siRNA. In conclusion, the present study provides the first evidence that miR-107 plays a key role in cisplatin resistance by targeting the CDK8 protein in NSCLC cell lines, suggesting that miR-107 can be used to predict a patient's response to chemotherapy as well as serve as a novel potential maker for NSCLC therapy.
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Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome caused by uncommon tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is always caused by anatomic abnormalities, including nasal cavity, pharynx, and neuromuscular dysfunctions, leading to airway narrowing. OSAS associated with a mass in the aerodigestive tract is rare. In the present study, we report OSAS caused by 9 cases of preoperative uncommon tumors in the aerodigestive tract. Two tumors in the parapharyngeal space were pleomorphic adenoma, one oropharyngeal tumor was mucoepidermoid carcinoma, one tumor in the right tonsil was schwannoma, and five tumors were non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Of the five NHL cases, one in the nasopharynx was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, two were mantle cell lymphoma, one was chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, and one was NHL. Tumors in the aerodigestive tract should be considered in the differential diagnosis of OSAS upon exacerbation of snoring or sudden gasping. Further examinations should be performed, including a routine workup (computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging) and positron emission tomography/CT.
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Apolipoprotein e gene polymorphisms are associated with primary hyperuricemia in a chinese population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Primary hyperuricemia, an excess of uric acid in the blood, is a major public health problem. In addition to the morbidity that is attributable to gout, hyperuricemia is also associated with metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. This study aims to assess the genetic associations between Apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphisms and hyperuricemia in a Chinese population.
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Combined laparoscopy and hysteroscopy vs. uterine curettage in the uterine artery embolization-based management of cesarean scar pregnancy: a cohort study.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To evaluate the efficacy of combined laparoscopy and hysteroscopy compared with traditional uterine curettage in removing the ectopic conceptus and repairing the tissue defect following uterine artery embolization (UAE) management of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP).
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L-22 enhances the invasiveness of endometrial stromal cells of adenomyosis in an autocrine manner.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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It has reported that interleukin-22 (IL-22) promotes the invasion of tumor cells. IL-22 in the endometriotic milieu stimulates the proliferation of human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs). The present study aimed to elucidate whether and how IL-22 regulates the invasion of ESCs from adenomyosis. The expression of IL-22 and its receptors in normal endometrium, eutopic endometrium and ectopic lesion was analyzed by immunohistochemistry; the invasiveness of ESCs in vitro was verified by Matrigel invasion assay; and the effects of IL-22 on the correspondent functional molecules were investigated by ELISA and flow cytometry. Here we found that IL-22 and its receptors IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 in eutopic endometrium and ectopic lesion of adenomyosis were significantly higher than that of normal endometrium. Recombinant human IL-22 (rhIL-22) increased IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 levels on ESCs. Moreover, rhIL-22 promoted the invasiveness of ESCs, and inhibited the expression of metastasis suppressor gene CD82, stimulated the secretion of IL-8, RANTES, IL-6 and VEGF of ESCs. On the contrary, the neutralizing antibody for IL-22 reversed these effects. Our current study has demonstrated that IL-22 has a positive feedback on the expression of its receptors IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 on ESCs. This autocrine effect of IL-22 promotes the invasion of ESCs possibly through regulating invasion-related molecules, suggesting that the abnormal high expression of IL-22 may play an important role in ESCs invasion and finally contribute to the origin and development of adenomyosis.
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GroupRank: Rank Candidate Genes in PPI Network by Differentially Expressed Gene Groups.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Many cell activities are organized as a network, and genes are clustered into co-expressed groups if they have the same or closely related biological function or they are co-regulated. In this study, based on an assumption that a strong candidate disease gene is more likely close to gene groups in which all members coordinately differentially express than individual genes with differential expression, we developed a novel disease gene prioritization method GroupRank by integrating gene co-expression and differential expression information generated from microarray data as well as PPI network. A candidate gene is ranked high using GroupRank if it is differentially expressed in disease and control or is close to differentially co-expressed groups in PPI network. We tested our method on data sets of lung, kidney, leukemia and breast cancer. The results revealed GroupRank could efficiently prioritize disease genes with significantly improved AUC value in comparison to the previous method with no consideration of co-exprssed gene groups in PPI network. Moreover, the functional analyses of the major contributing gene group in gene prioritization of kidney cancer verified that our algorithm GroupRank not only ranks disease genes efficiently but also could help us identify and understand possible mechanisms in important physiological and pathological processes of disease.
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A Cross-Sectional Study of the Association between Risk Factors and Hemorrhagic Disease of Grass Carp in Ponds in Southern China.
J. Aquat. Anim. Health
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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Abstract A cross-sectional survey of 215 Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella ponds was conducted in southern China between May 2010 and November 2011. An in-depth questionnaire was developed to evaluate a series of biosecurity practices, environmental factors, and management factors at the farm level. Fish samples with clinical hemorrhagic signs were also collected from each pond to assess the clinical disease of Grass Carp reovirus by using reverse transcription (RT) PCR assay. The association between the incidence of Grass Carp hemorrhagic disease (GCHD) and risk factors was analyzed using logistic regression. Of the 215 ponds, 144 showed GCHD-positive responses to RT-PCR assay. In addition, survey results revealed that inferior environmental conditions occurred in most ponds with an incidence of GCHD; such conditions included a thick mud layer; no cleansing and restoration practices (CRPs) before culture; and poor water quality (i.e., high ammonia nitrogen and nitrite concentrations and low transparency). Logistic regression model results suggested that decreased risks were associated with fry vaccination, a safe water source, and deepening of the water level, whereas increased risk factors mainly included no CRPs, excessive rearing density, disease history, and inferior water quality. Presently, control efforts are restricted to immunization of Grass Carp as the best management option for farms. Deepening the water levels and improving water sources can also effectively reduce the incidence of GCHD by diluting the pond rearing densities. Received February 2, 2013; accepted July 27, 2013.
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IL-27, a Cytokine, and IFN-?1, a Type III IFN, Are Coordinated To Regulate Virus Replication through Type I IFN.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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IL-27, a member of the IL-12 family, plays a critical role in the control of innate and adaptive immune responses. IFN-?1, a member of the type III IFN family, shows antiviral abilities. In this study, we investigated the effects of IL-27 and IFN-?1 on the replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV), a major pathogen associated with a high risk for cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. We revealed that HBV infection activates IL-27 expression and IFN-?1 production and demonstrated that viral-activated IL-27 and IFN-?1 are coordinated to inhibit HBV replication. Initially, HBV infection upregulates IL-27 expression, which, in turn, stimulates IFN-?1 production through regulating ERK1/2 signaling and by enhancing NF-?B nuclear translocation to bind to the IFN-?1 promoter. Moreover, IL-27-activated IFN-?1 upregulates IFN-?1 receptor (IL-28R1 and IL-10R?) activity, resulting in the activation of the STAT1/2 pathway, which, in turn, induces the expression of IFN-stimulated genes, including IFN-inducible dsRNA-activated protein kinase, oligoadenylate synthetase 1, and IFN-induced GTP-binding protein 1 and, finally, inhibits HBV protein expression and viral capsid-associated DNA replication. More interestingly, we also revealed that type I IFN (IFN-?) is also involved in the downregulation of HBV replication mediated by IL-27. Thus, we identified a previously unknown mechanism by which IL-27 and IFN-?1 are coordinated to regulate virus replication through type I IFN.
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Persistence of Extracellular DNA in River Sediment Facilitates Antibiotic Resistance Gene Propagation.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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The propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) represents a global threat to both human health and food security. Assessment of ARG reservoirs and persistence is therefore critical for devising and evaluating strategies to mitigate ARG propagation. This study developed a novel, internal standard method to extract extracellular DNA (eDNA) and intracellular DNA (iDNA) from water and sediments, and applied it to determine the partitioning of ARGs in the Haihe River basin in China, which drains an area of intensive antibiotic use. The concentration of eDNA was higher than iDNA in sediment samples, likely due to the enhanced persistence of eDNA when associated with clay particles and organic matter. Concentrations of sul1, sul2, tetW, and tetT antibiotic resistance genes were significantly higher in sediment than in water, and were present at higher concentrations as eDNA than as iDNA in sediment. Whereas ARGs (frequently located on plasmid DNA) were detected for over 20 weeks, chromosomally encoded 16S rRNA genes were undetectable after 8 weeks, suggesting higher persistence of plasmid-borne ARGs in river sediment. Transformation of indigenous bacteria with added extracellular ARG (i.e., kanamycin resistance genes) was also observed. Therefore, this study shows that extracellular DNA in sediment is a major ARG reservoir that could facilitate antibiotic resistance propagation.
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Matrix-bound phosphine and phosphorus fractions in surface sediments of Arctic Kongsfjorden, Svalbard: Effects of glacial activity and environmental variables.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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The surface sediments were collected from the glacial bay (GLAC), the central basin (CENTR) and their transition area (TRANS) along the fjord Kongsfjorden axis on Svalbard, Arctic, and matrix-bound phosphine (MBP), phosphorus fractions and alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) were analyzed. MBP was found in all the sediments with the concentration range of 8.93-59.45ngkg(-1)dw. The MBP levels in the CENTR sediments were two times higher than those in the GLAC and TRANS sediments, and the yield of phosphine (PH3) as a fraction of total phosphorus ranged from 1.78×10(-8) to 3.53×10(-8)mgPH3mg(-1)P. The CENTR and TRANS sediments showed higher concentrations of total phosphorus (TP), organic phosphorus (OP) and APA than the GLAC sediments, indicating that glacial activity had an important effect on the spatial variability in the concentrations of MBP and phosphorus fractions. There existed a significant positive correlation (p<0.01) between MBP and seawater depths, OP, TP, APA, total organic matter, total nitrogen and total sulfur. The multiple stepwise regression model ([MBP]=16.1[OP]+18.6[APA]-26.1pH+221.3) was obtained between MBP concentrations and environmental variables. This model could be used to predict MBP levels in the sediments. Our results indicated that the production of MBP was associated with OP decomposition and microbially mediated factors in the sediments of Kongsfjorden in Arctic.
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Comparative studies of the binding of six phthalate plasticizers to pepsin by multispectroscopic approach and molecular modeling.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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To explore the binding mechanism of phthalate plasticizers with digestive proteases, their effects on conformation and activity of pepsin by multispectroscopic approach and molecular modeling were investigated. Fluorescence spectra combined with UV-vis and circular dichroism (CD) spectra measurements indicated that the six phthalate plasticizers induced the changes of tertiary and secondary structure of pepsin. The solvent polarity of environment around both Trp and Tyr residues on pepsin were affected by phthalate plasticizers. By analyzing the fluorescence quenching and theoretical calculation data, it was concluded that a binding site exists for each phthalate plasticizer in pepsin with different binding ability. The hydrophobic, hydrogen bonding, and ?-? stacking interactions were involved in the interactions between pepsin and phthalate plasticizers. Moreover, the activity assay indicated that phthalate plasticizers were not powerfully inhibitors or activators for pepsin. These studies demonstrated that phthalate plasticizers could cause some negative effects on pepsin. The present studies may provide a way to analyze the biological safety of phthalate plasticizers on digestive proteases or other proteins.
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New triterpene saponins from the roots of Glycyrrhiza yunnanensis and their rapid screening by LC/MS/MS.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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The roots of Glycyrrhiza yunnanensis Cheng f. et L. K. Dai ex P. C. Li are used as licorice in traditional medicine of Southwest China. Triterpene saponins are the major chemical constituents. In this study, one new oleanane-type triterpenoid, glyyunnansapogenin I (I), seven new triterpene saponins, yunganosides E3 (II), L (III), M (IV), N1 (V), O (VI), P (VII) and N2 (VIII), together with four known saponins (IX-XII) were isolated from the roots of G. yunnanensis by preparative chromatography. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis including NMR and HR-MS. Based on (-)-ESI-MS/MS fragmentation behaviors of these reference standards, an LC/MS/MS method using neutral loss scan and precursor ion scan on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was established to rapidly and comprehensively analyze triterpene saponins in G. yunnanensis. Combined with high-accuracy qTOF mass spectrometry analysis, a total of 50 saponins were detected, and their structures were identified or tentatively characterized. This is the first systematic study on triterpene saponins in G. yunnanensis.
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Meta analysis about the efficacy and safety of anti-ocular hypertension eye drops without benzalkonium chloride.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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To explore the safety and efficacy of eye drops without benzalkonium chloride (BAK) in treating glaucoma and ocular hypertension.
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Spectral CT Demonstration of the Superior Mesenteric Artery: Comparison of Monochromatic and Polychromatic Imaging.
Acad Radiol
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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To investigate the performance of spectral computed tomography (CT) in depiction of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) compared to conventional polychromatic CT.
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