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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The Superoxide Dismutase from Red Claw Crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus: Molecular Cloning and Characterization Analysis.
Zool. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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In the present study, an extracellular copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (ecCuZnSOD) gene and a mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mtMnSOD) gene were cloned from hemocytes of red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus. The open reading frame (ORF) of ecCuZnSOD is 498 bp and encodes a 166 amino acids (aa) protein, whereas the ORF of mtMnSOD is 654 bp and encodes a 218 aa protein. The amino acid sequences of C. quadricarinatus ecCuZnSOD and mtMnSOD showed high similarities with those of ecCuZnSODs and mtMnSODs of other crustaceans, respectively. Both ecCuZnSOD and mtMnSOD of C. quadricarinatus were highly expressed in hepatopancreas, hemocytes, intestine, and gill; low transcript levels were seen in other tissues (heart, muscle, and nerve). The immune responses of ecCuZnSOD and mtMnSOD were studied following inoculation with Spiroplasma eriocheiris and Aeromonas hydrophila. After S. eriocheiris or A. hydrophila challenge, mRNA transcription of ecCuZnSOD and mtMnSOD in hemocytes and gill was upregulated. mRNA transcription of ecCuZnSOD in the hepatopancreas was also upregulated after S. eriocheiris or A. hydrophila inoculation. mtMnSOD in hepatopancreas was upregulated after A. hydrophila inoculation, whereas this was down-regulated after S. eriocheiris challenge. After S. eriocheiris and A. hydrophila challenge, total SOD activity and CuZnSOD activity both increased compared to control group. The results showed that these SODs from C. quadricarinatus likely play an important role in protecting some tissues from reactive oxygen intermediates produced during challenge from S. eriocheiris and A. hydrophila.
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Development of andrographolide loaded PLGA microspheres: Optimization, characterization and in vitro-in vivo correlation.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2014
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The purpose of this study was to develop a sustained-release drug delivery system based on the injectable PLGA microspheres loaded with andrographolide. The andrographolide loaded PLGA microspheres were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method with optimization of formulation using response surface methodology (RSM). Physicochemical characterization, in vitro release behavior and in vivo pharmacokinetics of the optimized formulation were then evaluated. The percent absorbed in vivo was determined by deconvolution using the Loo-Riegelman method, and then the in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) was established. Results showed that the microspheres were spherical with a smooth surface. Average particle size, entrapment efficiency and drug loading were found to be 53.18±2.11?m, 75.79±3.02% and 47.06±2.18%, respectively. In vitro release study showed a low initial burst release followed by a prolonged release up to 9 days and the release kinetics followed the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. After a single intramuscular injection, the microspheres maintained relatively high plasma concentration of andrographolide over one week. A good linear relationship was observed between the in vitro and in vivo release behavior (R(2)=0.9951). These results suggest the PLGA microspheres could be developed as a potential delivery system for andrographolide with high drug loading capacity and sustained drug release.
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(BMI)3LnCl6 crystals as models for the coordination environment of LnCl3 (Ln = Sm, Eu, Dy, Er, Yb) in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic-liquid solution.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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A series of (BMI)3LnCl6 (Ln = Sm, Eu, Dy, Er, Yb) crystals was prepared from solutions of LnCl3 dissolved in the ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMICl). Crystals with Ln = 5% Sm + 95% Gd and with Ln = 5% Dy + 95% Gd were also grown to assess the importance of cross-relaxation in the Sm and Dy samples. The crystals are isostructural, with monoclinic space group P21/c and four formula units per unit cell. The first coordination sphere of Ln(3+) consists of six Cl(-) anions forming a slightly distorted octahedral LnCl6(3-) center. The second coordination sphere is composed of nine BMI(+) cations. The emission spectra and luminescence lifetimes of both (BMI)3LnCl6 crystals and LnCl3 in BMICl solution were measured. The spectroscopic similarities suggest that crystalline (BMI)3LnCl6 provides a good model of the Ln(3+) coordination environment in BMICl solution.
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iTRAQ-based proteomic study of the effects of Spiroplasma eriocheiris on Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis hemocytes.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Spiroplasma eriocheiris is as a novel pathogen of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis tremor disease. The hemocytes have been shown to be major target cells in S. eriocheiris infection. The aim of this study was to examine the hemocytes' immune response at the protein levels. The differential proteomes of the crab hemocytes were analyzed immediately prior to injection with the pathogen, and at 10 d post-injection by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantization (iTRAQ) labeling, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 1075 proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS and de novo sequencing data. Using a 1.2-fold change in expression as a physiologically significant benchmark, 76 differentially expressed proteins (7.07%) were reliably quantified by iTRAQ analysis. Thirty-five (3.26%) proteins were up-regulated and 41 (3.81%) proteins were down-regulated resulting from a S. eriocheiris infection. Approximately 20 differential proteins in hemocytes were involved in the stress and immune responses. Up-regulated proteins included alpha-2-macroglobulin (?2M), prostaglandin D synthase (GST), ferritin, and heat shock protein 60. Down-regulated proteins included two lectins (mannose-binding protein and hemocytin), three kinds of serine proteinase inhibitors (two serpins and pacifastin), three different kinds of serine proteases, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK), and two thioredoxins (Trx), crustin, etc. Selected bioactive factors (?2M, GST, ferritin, tubulin, crustin, thioredoxin, clip domain serine protease and serpin) are verified by their immune roles in the S. eriocheiris infection using Real-time PCR. The variation trend of immune gene's mRNA expression is similar with the result of iTRAQ, except the tubulin. The prophenoloxidase-activating system, antimicrobial action and antioxidant system involved in the immune responses of E. sinensis is believed to be a resistance to S. eriocheiris infection. This is the first report of the proteome response of crab hemocytes against S. eriocheiris infection. These findings contribute to our understanding of tremor disease processes in crabs, and provide the first evidence to promote a search for potential biomarkers of the disease.
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Investigation of the effect of pore size on gas uptake in two metal-organic frameworks.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Two porous metal–organic frameworks (1 and 2) with a fsc topology based on mixed ligands have been assembled and characterized. The different pillared ligands (pyrazine for 1 and 4,4?-bipyridine for 2) significantly influence the pore size of the frameworks. Gas uptake measurements reveal that complex 1 possesses higher H2, CO2, and CH4 uptake capacities than 2, although the surface area of 1 is lower than that of complex 2. These results further experimentally prove that the pore size plays an important role in gas uptake in porous MOFs, and the slit pore with a size of ~6 Å exhibits stronger interactions with gas molecules.
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Identification of a novel cognate cytosolic Hsp70 gene (MnHsc70-2) from oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense and comparison of its expressions with the first cognate Hsc70 (MnHsc70-1) under different stresses.
Cell Stress Chaperones
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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The 70-kDa family of heat-shock proteins (Hsp70) plays an important role in the host immunity, which is widely expressed in eukaryotic cells as a major chaperone protein. In the present study, the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of a second cognate cytosolic Hsp70 family member (MnHsc70-2) was cloned and characterized from Macrobrachium nipponense, which is an economically and nutritionally important crustacean. The cDNA was 2,717 bp, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,950 bp, which encodes a protein of 649 amino acids with a theoretical molecular weight of 71.1 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.27. Sequence alignment showed that the MnHsc70-2 shared 75-97 % identity with other heat-shock proteins. Compared to the previously identified cognate Hsp70 (MnHsc70-1) in M. nipponense, MnHsc70-2 showed quite different expression profiles under unstressed conditions in all tested tissues, including the hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gill, intestine, nerve, and muscle. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that MnHsc70-2 showed the closest relationship with MnHsc70-1. Heat-inducibility assays showed that two isolated messenger RNAs (mRNAs) displayed different expression profiles in both the hepatopancreas and gill tissues. MnHsc70-1 mRNA expression level decreased at first and then increased to the normal level, whereas MnHsc70-2 mRNA level increased at first and then decreased. The expressions of two MnHsc70s showed substantial obvious heat-inducible regulation in both the hepatopancreas and gill. Under bacterial challenge by Aeromonas hydrophila, both MnHsc70-1 and MnHsc70-2 mRNA level was up-regulated moderately. The results suggested that two cognate Hsc70s may play essential functions in mediating responses to heat-shock and bacterial challenge.
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Photofragmentation of Gas-Phase Lanthanide Cyclopentadienyl Complexes: Experimental and Time-Dependent Excited-State Molecular Dynamics.
Organometallics
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Unimolecular gas-phase laser-photodissociation reaction mechanisms of open-shell lanthanide cyclopentadienyl complexes, Ln(Cp)3 and Ln(TMCp)3, are analyzed from experimental and computational perspectives. The most probable pathways for the photoreactions are inferred from photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PI-TOF-MS), which provides the sequence of reaction intermediates and the distribution of final products. Time-dependent excited-state molecular dynamics (TDESMD) calculations provide insight into the electronic mechanisms for the individual steps of the laser-driven photoreactions for Ln(Cp)3. Computational analysis correctly predicts several key reaction products as well as the observed branching between two reaction pathways: (1) ligand ejection and (2) ligand cracking. Simulations support our previous assertion that both reaction pathways are initiated via a ligand-to-metal charge-transfer (LMCT) process. For the more complex chemistry of the tetramethylcyclopentadienyl complexes Ln(TMCp)3, TMESMD is less tractable, but computational geometry optimization reveals the structures of intermediates deduced from PI-TOF-MS, including several classic "tuck-in" structures and products of Cp ring expansion. The results have important implications for metal-organic catalysis and laser-assisted metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (LCVD) of insulators with high dielectric constants.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel fluconazole analogues bearing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety as potent antifungal agents.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
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A novel series of fluconazole based mimics incorporating 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety were designed and synthesized. All the title compounds were characterized by (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and Q-TOF-MS. Preliminary results revealed that most of analogues exhibited significant antifungal activity against seven pathogenic fungi. Compounds 9g and 9k (MIC80 ? 0.125 ?g/mL, respectively) were found more potent than the positive controls itraconazole and fluconazole as broad-spectrum antifungal agents. The observed docking results showed that the 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety enhanced the affinity binding to the cytochrome P450 14?-demethylase (CYP51).
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Molecular cloning and characterization of the lipopolysaccharide and ?-1,3-glucan binding protein from oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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The lipopolysaccharide and ?-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), one of the pattern recognition proteins, plays an important role in the innate immune response of invertebrates. A 1,506 bp full-length cDNA of a LGBP gene was cloned and characterized from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (named as MnLGBP). Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the cDNA clone has an open reading frame of 1,119 bp, encoding a protein of 372 amino acids including a 21-aa signal peptide. The calculated molecular mass of the mature protein (351 aa) was 39.9 kDa with an estimated pI of 4.63. The MnLGBP sequence contains: (1) two putative integrin-binding motifs, (2) a glucanase motif, (3) two putative N-glycosylation sites, (4) one protein kinase C phosphorylation site, and (5) a putative recognition motif for ?-1,3-linkage of polysaccharides. Sequence comparison based on the deduced amino acid sequence of MnLGBP showed varied identity of 89, 76 and 74% with those of Macrobrachium rosenbergii LGBP, Marsupenaeus japonicus ?-1,3-glucan binding proteins, and Fenneropenaeus chinensis LGBP, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that MnLGBP was expressed in nerve, intestine, muscle, gill, heart, haemocytes and at the highest level in hepatopancreas. After challenge with the pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the expression of MnLGBP mRNA was significantly upregulated in the hepatopancreas compared to the control group. At the same time, the mRNA level of MnproPO increased dramatically at 48 h after injection of bacteria. These data should be helpful to better understand the function of MnLGBP in the prawn immune system.
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Establishment of spiroplasma-infected hemocytes as an in vitro laboratory culture model of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Spiroplasma is a novel pathogen of commercially exploited crustaceans. To more full clarify its pathogenic mechanism at the molecular level in vitro, a spiroplasma-infected hemocytes model was developed as described here, using a modified method of hemocytes culture from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. It has been standardized by employing L-15 growth medium supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum along with 0.15% glucose, 0.75% NaCl, antibiotics (100 U ml(-1) penicillin, 100 U ml(-1) streptomycin) and a suitable pH of 7.20-7.40, incubated at 28°C without the requirement for 5% carbon dioxide. Cytopathic effects of Spiroplasma eriocheiris in the cultures, including cell debris and cellular exudates, were observed as early as 36 h post-inoculation. The green fluorescent dye Alex-488 was used as an immunofluorescence marker of S. eriocheiris to study its adhesion to, and infection of, the host cell. At about 24-h post-inoculation, a large number of spiroplasmas were observed infecting the host hemocytes cells, which became slug-like and widely distributed in the culture. Intracellular inclusion bodies containing spiroplasmas, and a large number of free spiroplasmas released from the ruptured cells, were observed using transmission electron microscopy. All the results show that S. eriocheiris can invade E. sinensis hemocytes in vitro, and this can provide a significant step forward toward further study of the relationship between the novel pathogen spiroplasma and its hosts in laboratory experimental studies.
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Novel 3-substituted ocotillol-type triterpenoid derivatives as antibacterial candidates.
Chem Biol Drug Des
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Plant-derived triterpenoid saponins are involved in the plant defense system by targeting bacterial membranes. A series of ocotillol-type triterpenoid derivatives were synthesized starting from PPD, one of the main components of Panax ginseng and their antibacterial activity against several representative bacteria were evaluated. Compounds 5 and 11 exhibited excellent antibacterial activity with MIC values of 1 ?g/mL against Staphylococcus aureus and 8 ?g/mL and 4 ?g/mL against Bacillus subtilis, respectively. Furthermore, when compounds 5 and 11 were combined with two commercial antibiotics kanamycin and chloramphenicol, they showed strong synergistic activity at sub-MIC levels against S. aureus USA300 and B. subtilis 168. Moreover, chloramphenicol turned from a bacteriostatic to a bactericidal agent when combined with compound 11 against B. subtilis 168.
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Stereoselective property of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol ocotillol type epimers affects its absorption and also the inhibition of P-glycoprotein.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Stereoselectivity has been proved to be tightly related to drug action including pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. (20S,24R)-epoxy-dammarane-3,12,25-triol (24R-epimer) and (20S,24S)-epoxy-dammarane-3,12,25-triol (24S-epimer), a pair of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) ocotillol type epimers, were the main metabolites of PPD. Previous studies have shown that 24R-epimer and 24S-epimer had stereoselectivity in pharmacological action and pharmacokinetics. In the present study, the aim was to further study the pharmacokinetic characteristics of both epimers, investigate their absorption mechanism and analyze the selectivity effects of ocotillol type side chain and C24 stereo-configuration on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vivo and in vitro. Results showed that the absolute bioavailability of 24R-epimer was about 14-fold higher than that of 24S-epimer, and a linear kinetic characteristic was acquired in doses of 5-20 mg/kg for both epimers after oral administration. Furthermore, the apparent permeability coefficients of 24R-epimer were 5-7 folds higher than that of 24S-epimer having lower efflux ratios in Caco-2 cell models. Moreover, both 24R-epimer and 24S-epimer had similar inhibitory effects on P-gp by increasing cellular retention of rhodamine 123 in Caco-2 cells and decreasing efflux of digoxin across Caco-2 cell monolayers. In situ in vivo experiments showed that the inhibition of 24R-epimer on P-gp was stronger than that of 24S-epimer by single-pass intestinal perfusion of rhodamine 123 in rats. Western blot analyses demonstrated that both epimers had no action on P-gp expression in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, with respect to the stereoselectivity, C24 S-configuration of the ocotillol type epimers processed a poor transmembrane permeability and could be distinguished by P-gp. Sharing a dammarane skeleton, both 24R-epimer and 24S-epimer were potent inhibitors of P-gp. This study provides a new case of stereoselective pharmacokinetics of chiral compounds which contributes to know the chiral characteristics of P-gp and structure-action relationship of PPD type and ocotillol type ginsenosides as a P-gp inhibitor.
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A tubular europium-organic framework exhibiting selective sensing of Fe3+ and Al3+ over mixed metal ions.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
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A luminescent europium-organic framework with tubular channels based on the H4BTMIPA ligand (H4BTMIPA = 5,5-methylenebis(2,4,6-trimethylisophthalic acid)) was assembled and characterized. The [H2N(CH3)2](+) ions as counterions are located in the channels. The cation exchange between [H2N(CH3)2](+) and metal ions resulted in complex that can selectively sense Fe(3+) and Al(3+) ions through fluorescence quenching and enhancement, respectively.
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Synthesis, antifungal activity, and molecular docking studies of novel triazole derivatives.
Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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In order to meet the urgent need for novel antifungal agents with improved activity and broader spectrum, a series of 3/4-[[N-alkyl-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-(1H-1, 2, 4-triazole)] propylamino] benzylethyl carbonate were designed, synthesized and evaluated as antifungal agents. The MIC80 values indicate that all the compounds showed only moderate or even no antifungal activities against nearly all the tested fungal pathogens. Moreover, the interactions of the most active compounds in the drug binding site of CACYP51 were also explored with the help of docking studies.
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Quantitative detection and proliferation dynamics of a novel Spiroplasma eriocheiris pathogen in the freshwater crayfish, Procambarus clarkii.
J. Invertebr. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Spiroplasma eriocheiris disease control based on sensitive quantitative methods has become a priority. A SYBR Green real-time PCR that can simultaneously detect and quantify S. eriocheiris in the freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii was produced and evaluated. In the asymptomatic crayfish, hemolymph exhibited the statistically greatest number of S. eriocheiris copies indicating a tissue-specific pathogen infection characteristic. The curve of the pathogen amount change in vivo assumed a very similar shape with the typical one-step growth curve. A turning point from chronic infection to acute infection was suggested from 3 to 4 days when the S. eriocheiris copies in hemolymph increased substantially.
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Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of azithromycin glycosyl derivatives as potential antibacterial agents.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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A series of 11,12-cyclic carbonate azithromycin-4?-O-carbamoyl glycosyl derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as antibacterial agents to search for target compounds with excellent activity. The results of preliminary antibacterial tests against eight strains in vitro revealed that all of the title compounds exhibited improved activities with broad spectrum compared with the parent compound. The glycosylated side chains may be the pharmacophores responsible for the improved activity.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel ocotillol-type triterpenoid derivatives as antibacterial agents.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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A novel class of ocotillol-type triterpenoid derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity against several representative pathogenic bacterial strains. Compounds 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD), 3, 5, 16 and 24 exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Compounds 3 and 5 also displayed promising antibacterial activity against a community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA; strain USA300). Furthermore, compounds PPD, 3 and 16 combined with two commercially available antibiotics kanamycin and chloramphenicol showed strong synergistic inhibitory effects at their sub-MIC concentrations against S. aureus USA300 and Bacillus subtilis 168. Additionally, cytotoxic activity assay showed that the compounds tested did not affect cell viability of the human epithelial kidney (HEK-293) and human cervical (HeLa) cells at their MICs.
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Synthesis and antifungal activity of the novel triazole derivatives containing 1,2,3-triazole fragment.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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A series of fluconazole analogues containing 1,2,3-triazole fragment have been designed and synthesized on the basis of the active site of the cytochrome P450 14?-demethylase (CYP51). Their structures were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and LC-MS. The MIC80 values indicate that the target compounds 1a-r showed higher activities against nearly all the fungi tested to some extent except against Aspergillus fumigatus. Compounds 1c, e, f, l and p showed 128 times higher activity (with the MIC80 value of 0.0039 mg/mL) than that of fluconazole against Candida albicans and also showed higher activity than that of the other positive controls.
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Diversity of lectins in Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their expression patterns under spiroplasma MR-1008 stimulation.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2013
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Lectins play important roles in crustacean innate immunity through recognition of foreign pathogens. In this study, 20 lectins including C-type lectins [dual-carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) type and single-CRD type], L-type lectin, and lectin with low-density lipoprotein class A (LDLa) domain were identified from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The tissue distribution and expression patterns of these lectins under spiroplasma strain MR-1008 challenge were investigated. Most of the lectins were found to be mainly distributed in the hepatopancreas. Lectin5, Lectin14, Lectin17, and Lectin18 exhibited the highest expression level in the hemocytes, nerve, intestine, and heart, respectively. MrLec1 to MrLec6 (dual-CRD lectins) in the hepatopancreas were up-regulated by spiroplasma challenge. Single-CRD lectins reached the highest level at 72 h after spiroplasma challenge. Lectin9 and Lectin15 both belong to L-type lectins. At post-spiroplasma challenge, Lectin9 expression was up-regulated, whereas Lectin15 expression was down-regulated. Lectin11 with LDLa domain showed the highest level after 12 h Lectin18 and Lectin20, namely, CD209, were also up-regulated by spiroplasma challenge. Lectin14, a C-type lectin, quickly reached the highest level after 2 h Lectin16 showed the highest level after 72 h Lectin5 reached the highest level in cultured hemocytes after 6 h Lectin17 in the intestine and Lectin14 in the nerve were slightly up-regulated after 6 and 2 h, respectively. Our research results indicate that lectins may play important roles in early or late immune responses against spiroplasma challenge.
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Identification and comparative analysis of the Eriocheir sinensis microRNA transcriptome response to Spiroplasma eriocheiris infection using a deep sequencing approach.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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The Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis is one of the most important freshwater aquaculture crustacean species in China. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are important effectors in the intricate host-pathogen interaction network. To increase the repertoire of miRNAs characterized in crustaceans and to examine the relationship between host miRNA expression and pathogen infection, we used the Illumina/Solexa deep sequencing technology to sequence two small RNA libraries prepared from haemocytes of E. sinensis under normal conditions and during infection with Spiroplasma eriocheiris. The high-throughput sequencing resulted in approximately 30,975,151 and 30,826,277 raw reads corresponding to 12,077,088 and 16,271,545 high-quality mappable reads for the normal and infected haemocyte samples, respectively. Bioinformatic analyses identified 735 unique miRNAs, including 36 that are conserved in crustaceans, 134 that are novel to crabs but are present in other arthropods (PN-type), and 565 that are completely new (PC-type). Two hundred twenty-eight unique miRNAs displayed significant differential expression between the normal and infected haemocyte samples (p < 0.0001). Of these, 133 (58%) were significantly up-regulated and 95 (42%) were significantly down-regulated upon challenge with S. eriocheiris. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) experiments were preformed for 10 miRNAs of the two samples, and agreement was found between the sequencing and RT-qPCR data. To our knowledge, this is the first report of comprehensive identification of E. sinensis miRNAs and of expression analysis of E. sinensis miRNAs after exposure to S. eriocheiris. Many miRNAs were differentially regulated when exposed to the pathogen, and these findings support the hypothesis that certain miRNAs might be essential in host-pathogen interactions. Our results suggest that elucidation of the molecular mechanisms responsible for miRNA regulation of the hosts innate immune system should help with the development of new control strategies to prevent or treat S. eriocheiris infections in crustaceans.
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Di-?-pivalato-?O,O:O;?O:O,O-bis-[(methanol-?O)bis-(2,2,6,6-tetra-methylhepta-ne-3,5-dionato)praseo-dymium(III)].
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2011
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In the centrosymmetric dimeric title compound, [Pr(2)(C(5)H(9)O(2))(2)(C(11)H(19)O(2))(4)(CH(3)OH)(2)], the two praseodymium(III) atoms are eight-coordinate and are bridged by O atoms from the two pivalate anions. Each Pr(III) ion is further coordinated by two chelating 2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-3,5-hepta-nedionate (thd(-)) ligands and one methanol mol-ecule. The distance between the two Pr(III) ions is 4.273?(5)?Å. Intra-molecular hydrogen bonds exists between the methanol hy-droxy group on one Pr(III) atom and a chelating O atom of a thd(-) ligand coordinated to the symmetry-related Pr(III) atom.
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Effect of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol and its epimeric derivatives on myocardial injury induced by isoproterenol.
Arzneimittelforschung
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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It was reported Panax ginseng had diverse components and multifaceted pharmacological functions. This study aims to investigate the effect of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PT, CAS 179799-20-3) and its epimeric derivatives (20S, 24R-epoxy-dammarane-3beta, 6alpha, 12beta, 25-tetraol, PTD1 and 20S, 24S-epoxy-dammarane-3beta, 6alpha, 12beta, 25-tetraol, PTD2) on myocardial injury induced by isoproterenol in rats.
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Adsorption of organophosphates into microporous and mesoporous NaX zeolites and subsequent chemistry.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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Due to the neurotoxicity of organophosphate (OP) pesticides and nerve agents synthesized as military or terror agents, their safe destruction and disposal is of considerable current importance. A representative OP, trimethyl phosphate (TMP), was adsorbed onto NaX zeolite, two mesoporous modifications, and a low-silica X zeolite. The nucleophilic chemical reactions of TMP with the zeolites were investigated by solid-state 13C and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and the solvent extracts by 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR. Nucleophilic substitution and subsequent hydrolysis reaction schemes are proposed. All of the zeolites have similar TMP decomposition yields, supporting the hypothesis that slow or incomplete diffusion of TMP in the microporous zeolite regions limits TMP decomposition.
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Synthesis, molecular docking, and biological evaluation of novel triazole derivatives as antifungal agents.
Chem Biol Drug Des
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2010
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Twenty-eight novel triazole derivatives (compounds 1a-v, 2a-f) have been synthesized for structure-activity relationship studies as antifungal agents. The compounds were designed on the basis of the structure of fluconazole and molecular modeling of the active site of the cytochrome P450 14?-demethylase (CYP51). All of them are reported for the first time. Their chemical structures are characterized by (1) H NMR, (13) C NMR, LC-MS, and elemental analysis. The antifungal activities have been evaluated in vitro by measuring the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Compounds 1a-v exhibited higher activity against nearly all fungi tested except Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fum) than fluconazole (FCZ). The computational molecular docking experiments indicated that the inhibition of CYP51 involves a coordination bond with iron of the heme group, a hydrophilic H-bonding region, a hydrophobic region, and a narrow hydrophobic binding cleft.
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Spiralin-like protein SLP31 from Spiroplasma eriocheiris as a potential antigen for immunodiagnostics of tremor disease in Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.
Folia Microbiol. (Praha)
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2010
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Spiroplasma eriocheiris caused massive mortality of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis but little is known about the molecular characteristics of this microorganism. We described here the identification of a spiralin-like protein (SLP31) from S. eriocheiris and expression in Escherichia coli. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the clone has an open reading frame of 837 bp encoding a protein of 279 amino acids. Theoretical isoelectric point and molar mass for SLP31 are 7.72 and 31 kDa, respectively. The similarity of SLP31 deduced amino acid sequence shared with the spiralin from other species indicated that the gene may be a member of spiralin family. The TGA codon in Spiroplasma serves not as a stop signal but as a code for the amino acid tryptophan. After cloning the SLP31, the gene was site-mutated from TGA to TGG and transcribed in E. coli to full expression of SLP31. The purified recombinant protein was used to determine the immune reactivity by Western blotting which suggests that SLP31 could be a good antigen for immunodiagnostic of tremor disease in E. sinensis.
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Spiroplasma eriocheiris sp. nov., associated with mortality in the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2010
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A motile bacterium, designated strain TDA-040725-5(T), was isolated from the haemolymph of a Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, with tremor disease. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the strain was phylogenetically distinct from other spiroplasmas but was closely related to Spiroplasma mirum ATCC 29335(T). Cells of strain TDA-040725-5(T) were variable in length and shape, helical and motile, as determined by phase-contrast light microscopy. Examination by electron microscopy revealed wall-less cells delimited by a single membrane. The strain grew in M1D or R-2 liquid media at 20-40 °C, with optimum growth at 30 °C. Doubling time at the optimal temperature was 24 h. The strain catabolized glucose and hydrolysed arginine but did not hydrolyse urea. The DNA G+C content was 29.7±1 mol%. The genome size was ~1.4-1.6 Mbp. Serological analysis, performed using the deformation test, did not reveal any reciprocal titres ?320, indicating that strain TDA-040725-5(T) had minimal cross-reactivity to strains of recognized species of the genus Spiroplasma. Based on this evidence, strain TDA-040725-5(T) (?=?CCTCC M 207170(T) ?=?DSM 21848(T)) represents a novel species of the genus Spiroplasma, for which the name Spiroplasma eriocheiris sp. nov. is proposed, belonging to the novel Spiroplasma serological group XLIII.
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Study on the structure-function relationship of 20(S)-panaxadiol and its epimeric derivatives in myocardial injury induced by isoproterenol.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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This study was aimed to investigate structure-function relationship of 20(S)-panaxadiol (PD) and its epimeric derivatives ((20S, 24S)-epoxy-dammarane-3?, 12?, 25-triol, PDD1 and (20S, 24R)-epoxy-dammarane-3?, 12?, 25-triol, PDD2) in myocardial ischemia injury in rats. It was shown that PD and PDD2 resulted in a reduction in creatine kinase activity. PD and PDD2 inhibited the elevation of malondialdehyde content, the reduction of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. The pathohistological changes were ameliorated by PD and PDD2. The configuration of C-24 of funan ring was linked to the pharmacological action of 20(S)-panaxadiol and its epimeric derivatives.
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Identification of adhesin-like protein ALP41 from Spiroplasma eriocheiris and induction immune response of Eriocheir sinensis.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2010
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Spiroplasma eriocheiris is a causative agent of the tremor disease (TD) of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis which is a novel pathogen of aquatic animals found in recent years. A gene, adhesin-like protein (ALP41), of S. eriocheiris from E. sinensis was identified and its characteristics were analyzed in present paper. The role of this pathogens host-binding protein in promoting immune responses was characterized through analyzing the interaction between S. eriocheiris and E. sinensis. The full-length DNA of ALP41 is 1074 bp and encodes 357 amino acid residues. The theoretical molecular weight and isoelectric point for the ALP41 are 40.94 kDa and 4.79, respectively. Since UGA is read as a tryptophan codon and not as a termination signal in most Mollicute species, the ALP41 gene was site-mutated from TGA to TGG and transcribed in Escherichia coli to full expression; the titer of rabbits anti-ALP41 serum was about 1:6000. A specific immunoreactive band was identified when rabbits anti-S. eriocheiris serum was opposed to the recombinant protein. The ALP41 band was detected using anti-ALP41 serum and the total proteins of S. eriocheiris. Realtime-PCR was used for detection of expression levels of the immune genes in E. sinensis. Among the examined genes, the mRNA expression of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), prophenoloxidase (proPO), peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6) and pacifastin light chain (PLC) in E. sinensis were significantly induced after ALP41 treatment.
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Identification and characterization of spiralin-like protein SLP25 from Spiroplasma eriocheiris.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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Spiroplasma eriocheiris causes tremor disease (TD) of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis, but little is known about the molecular characterization of this pathogen. The present study was undertaken to identify a unique gene of spiroplasma, spiralin-like protein (SLP25) and analyze its character. The full-length DNA of SLP25 is 699 bp encodes a protein of 232 amino acid residues. The theoretical isoelectric point and molecular weight for the SLP25 are 4.50 and 24.67 kDa, respectively. The similarity of SLP25 deduced amino acid sequence, shared with the spiralin from other species, indicated that the gene might be a member of the spiralin family. After cloning the SLP25, the gene was site-mutated from TGA to TGG and transcribed in E. coli to full expression of the recombinant SLP25. Anti-SLP25 serum was prepared by immunization of rabbits. The titer of anti-SLP25 serum was about 1:20000. A SLP25 band was detected by anti-SLP25 antibody using the total proteins of S. eriocheiris. A specific immunoreactive band was detected when anti-S. eriocheiris serum was opposed to the recombinant protein. This finding suggests that SLP25 could be a good antigen for immunodiagnosis of TD of E. sinensis.
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Immune responses and gene expression in hepatopancreas from Macrobrachium rosenbergii challenged by a novel pathogen spiroplasma MR-1008.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
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Freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii inoculated with 100 ?l novel pathogen spiroplasma strain MR-1008 in logarithmic phase (10(8) spiroplasmas ml(-1)) were examined for alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity, acid phosphatase (ACP) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, as well as expressions of 7 immune related genes in hepatopancreas after 1-28 d. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining showed obvious pathological features in hepatopancreas connective and epithelial tissue. Enzyme activity analyze showed that hepatopancreas AKP and ACP activity increased markedly (P < 0.05) when inoculated with spiroplasma MR-1008 after 5 d and 10 d, respectively. SOD enzyme activity changed less obviously and slightly increased at 1 day post-inoculation, but CAT activity decreased significantly after 5 d inoculation. The expression levels of lipopolysaccharide and ?-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), ?2-macroglobulin (?2M), AKP, ACP, CAT, and copper/zinc SOD (Cu, Zn-SOD) genes in the hepatopancreas were examined by Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) and the results demonstrated that these immune related genes were induced by challenge with spiroplasma MR-1008. The results suggested that the prawn immune responses could be activated or inhibited by spiroplasma MR-1008, and that the hepatopancreas also plays key roles in innate immunity for defense against the pathogen.
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Characterization of a monoclonal antibody to Spiroplasma eriocheiris and identification of a motif expressed by the pathogen.
Vet. Microbiol.
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Tremor disease (TD) has been found to be a lethal epidemic in Chinese mitten crab during recent years. A new species of spiroplasma, Spiroplasma eriocheiris (S. eriocheiris), was identified as the pathogen causing TD. In order to acquire appropriate biological tools for characterizing this newly discovered pathogen, we developed a new S. eriocheiris specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) 6H7. The antibody showed high binding affinity to S. eriocheiris (K(a)=6.25×10(8) M(-1)) and it bound to the adhesin-like protein (ALP41) of S. eriocheiris in Western blot analysis. Screening of a commercially available 12-mer linear peptide library by using 6H7 as bait led to isolation of a consensus sequence (FQGINHYNQMER). The clone displaying this sequence exhibited a significant, dose-dependent binding to 6H7 and inhibited the binding of S. eriocheiris to 6H7, suggesting a similar epitope between the sequence and S. eriocheiris. Homology searches and multiple sequence alignments indicated moderate homology between the consensus peptides and the ALP of S. eriocheiris. Thus, an internal image of 6H7 binding epitope might be buried in ALP41 of S. eriocheiris. In conclusion, 6H7 is a promising mAb to identify S. eriocheiris and the consensus sequence can be used in future research on the characterization of S. eriocheiris and its pathogenesis.
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Flow cytometry studies on the Macrobrachium rosenbergii hemocytes sub-populations and immune responses to novel pathogen spiroplasma MR-1008.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
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Flow cytometry provides rapid and reproducible methods for analyzing crustacean cellular immune responses to pathogens. We used this method to investigate the hemocytes sub-populations of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their immune responses to a novel pathogen spiroplasma MR-1008. M. rosenbergii inoculated with 100 ?l spiroplasma strain MR-1008 in logarithmic phase (10(8) spiroplasmas ml(-1)) were examined for total hemocytes count (THC) and changes in differential involvement of hemocytes sub-populations during 1-28 d after inoculation. The results showed that THC was dramatically lowered 1 d after inoculation, and it obviously increased at the 5 d after inoculation; thereafter, a high level of THC was maintained to 15 d. Three morphologically distinct hemocytes sub-populations including granular cells (GC), semigranular cells (SGC) and hyaline cells (HC) could be identified by flow cytometry, and the proportions of the 3 kinds of cell categories varied obviously during the infection of spiroplasma suggesting differential involvement according to the pathogen. The flow cytometry used in this study confirmed that the semigranular cells were the main hemocytes involved in the cellular defense against spiroplasma in the M. rosenbergii.
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Primary culture of hemocytes from Eriocheir sinensis and their immune effects to the novel crustacean pathogen Spiroplasma eriocheiris.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
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To investigate the interaction between Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis hemocytes and the pathogen Spiroplasma eriocheiris, a system for in vitro culture of E. sinensis hemocytes with high viability was developed. Following optimization of conditions, hemocytes survived for >35 days. After challenge with the novel crustacean pathogen S. eriocheiris, E. sinensis hemocytes began to develop vacuoles, and then they began to die (within 60 h). Real-time RT-PCR analysis of S. eriocheiris infected hemocytes identified increased expression levels of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), peroxinectin (Pox) and clip domain serine protease (cSP) genes. The expression levels of ALF, Pox, and cSP genes in hemocytes of E. sinensis demonstrated that all three immune genes were significantly induced by challenge with S. eriocheiris. Increases in Pox mRNA levels were highest (up to 36-fold) and peaked at 24-48 h post-challenge (pc) (P < 0.05) and lesser increases were evident with ALF and cSP, peaking at 24 h and at 12-48 h pc, respectively. The hemocytes culture method described herein provides a feasible in vitro research model of E. sinensis that can be used to study its immune reactions against various crab pathogens.
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catena-Poly[1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium [[dichlorido(methanol-?O)(propan-2-ol-?O)lanthanate(III)]-di-?-chlorido]].
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
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The title compound, (C(8)H(15)N(2))[LaCl(4)(CH(3)OH)(C(3)H(7)OH)], consists of one 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium (BMI(+)) cation and one hexa-hedral tetra-chlorido(methanol)(propan-2-ol)lanthanate anion. The La(III) ion is eight-coordinate, with the La(III) ion bridged by a pair of Cl atoms, so forming chains propagating along the a-axis direction. Each La(III) ion is further coordinated by two isolated Cl atoms, one methanol and one propan-2-ol mol-ecule. The coordinated methanol and propan-2-ol mol-ecules of the anion form O-H?Cl hydrogen bonds with the Cl atoms of inversion-related anions. The BMI(+) cation froms C-H?Cl hydrogen bonds with the Cl atoms of the anion. The anions are located in the C faces of the triclinic unit cell, with an inversion center in the middle of the La(2)Cl(2) ring of the polymeric chain.
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Determination of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol ocotillol type epimers in rat plasma by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
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To study stereoselectivity in the pharmacokinetics of each epimer, a rapid, specific and reliable liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method has been established for simultaneous quantitation of both epimers in rat plasma. Plasma samples were pretreated by liquid-liquid extraction. Chromatographic separations were performed on a Shim-pack XR-ODS C18 column (50 mm × 2.1mm, i.d., 2.2 ?m) with an isocratic elution. Both epimers and the internal standard tanshinone II A were ionized with an ESI source operated in positive ion mode and measured by selective reactions monitoring mode. Calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 1-1000 ng/mL with the lower limit of quantitation of 1 ng/mL for both epimers. Intra and inter-day precisions were less than 6.7% and 9.5%, and the accuracy was within ±5.8% for both epimers. The validated method has been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of the two epimers in rats after oral administration.
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