Early diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of acute osteomyelitis (AO) is challenging. Here, we use a polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated chemotactic peptide cinnamoyl-F-(D)L-F-(D)L-F (cFLFLF) conjugated with hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC) and labeled with Tc-99m ([(99m)Tc]cFLFLF) to image AO in a rat model and to validate its efficacy in early diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation of AO.
Accurate measurement of pesticides in biological fluids such as blood is important for quantifying environmental exposures. Beyond sample enrichment and separation, the method presented here is focused on studies of interactions between pesticides and co-existed proteins. It was experimentally demonstrated that entrapped or adsorbed pesticide residues within the folded native structures of proteins were poorly recovered using direct solvent extraction solely. We described here an effective approach termed Enzymatic Digestion-Organic Solvent Extraction (eDOSE) that utilizes the enzymatic approach to disrupt the folded structures of proteins and release entrapped or adsorbed pesticide residues. In this approach, samples were first reduced, alkylated, tryptically digested and then diluted 10 times before the subsequent extraction using an n-hexane solution. Resultant pesticide residues were determined by capillary gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer. Mean recoveries of the 5 organophosphorus pesticides pre-spiked in fish blood including diazinon, parathion-methyl, malathion, parathion-ethyl and ethion were 85%, 95%, 84%, 103%, and 43% respectively using eDOSE strategy but only 24%, 45%, 40%, 27%, and 29% respectively using direct solvent extraction approach. The eDOSE approach was effective for demonstrating the critical role of folded native structure of serum albumin in adsorption of exogenous chemicals. It provides an alterative means for denaturation of proteins when the target analytes are not stable in acidic solution or entrapped within the protein aggregates caused by organic solvents such as acetone that have been applied for protein denaturation. The eDOSE approach should be able to combine with other advanced techniques of enrichment and separation for more efficient and accurate measurement of target compounds present in the context of complex biological systems. This approach can provide wide applications to the analysis of a variety of small molecules including environmental pesticide residues and metabolites as well as other toxins present in cells, tissues and biofluids.
Organochlorine pesticides have been extensively used worldwide for agricultural purposes. Due to their resistance to metabolism, a major public health concern has been raised. Aberrant hepatic lipid composition has been a hallmark of many liver diseases associated with exposure to various toxins and chemicals. And thus lots of efforts have been focused on the development of analytical techniques that can rapidly and quantitatively determine the changes in fatty acid composition of hepatic lipids. In this work, changes in fatty acid composition of hepatic lipids in response to DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) exposure were quantitatively analyzed by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometric approach based on stable isotope-coded transmethylation. It has been quantitatively demonstrated that polyunsaturated fatty acids including C20:3n3, C20:4n6, and C22:6n3 decrease in response to DDT exposure. However, saturated long chain fatty acids including C16:0, C18:0, as well as monounsaturated long chain fatty acid C18:1n9 consistently increase in a DDT-concentration-dependent manner. In particular, much higher changes in the level of hepatic C16:0 and C18:0 for male fish were observed than that for female fish. These experimental results are in accordance with qualitative histopathological analysis that revealed liver morphological alterations. The stable isotope-coded mass spectrometric approach provides a reliable means for investigating hepatotoxicity associated with fatty acid synthesis, desaturation, mitochondrial beta-oxidation, and lipid mobilization. It should be useful in elucidation of hepatotoxic mechanisms and safety assessment of environmental toxins.
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