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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Combined evaluation of serum follicle-stimulating hormone, inhibin B, chromosome karyotyping and AZF microdeletion of Y-chromosome for predicting outcomes of testicular sperm aspiration in azoospermic patients].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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To assess the value of combined evaluation of serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), inhibin B (INHB), chromosome karyotyping and AZF microdeletion of Y-chromosome (AZF-MD-Ych) in predicting the success of testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) in azoospermic patients.
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Chloride intracellular channel 1 regulates prostate cancer cell proliferation and migration through the MAPK/ERK pathway.
Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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Abstract Aims: To investigate the effect of chloride intracellular channel 1 (CLIC1) on the proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and DU145 and the possible molecular mechanisms.
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A new species of Nilothauma Kieffer from China, with a key to known species of the genus (Diptera: Chironomidae).
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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A new species of the genus Nilothauma Kieffer, N. pandum sp. n., is described, and its morphological descriptions and illustrations are also given. A key to the males of Nilothauma is given. The adult male of N. pandum sp. n. can be distinguished from known species of the genus by the following combination of characters: anal point very broadly lanceolate with microtrichia in median ridge and apical margin, rounded at apex; superior volsella pad-like, expanded distally; median volsella curved, rounded at apex, with 2 long basal setae and 1 long median seta. 
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) gene are associated with microscopic polyangiitis in the northern Han Chinese population.
Mod Rheumatol
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Objectives. Our study was designed to evaluate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TLR2 gene with antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCAs)-associated vasculitides (AAV) in the northern Han Chinese population. Methods. The TLR2 SNPs rs1898830, rs11938228, rs3804099, rs3804100, and rs7656411 were analyzed in 195 AAV patients [granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), n = 100; microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), n = 76; eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), n = 19] and 501 ethnically and geographically matched healthy controls. Genetic association analysis was carried out using PLINK (version 1.07). For multiple comparisons, a Bonferroni adjustment was conducted (pc = p*n, where n was the number of tested SNPs). Results. The overall frequencies of alleles and genotypes of TLR2 polymorphisms did not differ significantly between AAV patients and controls. The C allele of rs3804100 and the haplotype (C-C) formed by rs3804100 and rs3804099, however, were over-represented in the MPA patient group (pc = 0.018, pc = 0.016, respectively). Moreover, the frequencies of the C allele of both rs3804100 and rs3804099 were higher in the anti-MPO ANCA positive subgroup vs. healthy controls (pc = 0.003, pc = 0.013, respectively). Conclusions. We conclude that rs3804100 of TLR2 predisposes to MPA in northern Han Chinese. Future studies with larger sample sizes in the northern Han Chinese and other populations are required to extend and verify our current findings.
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Impaired erythrocyte deformability in transgenic HO-1G143H mutant mice.
Transgenic Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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To investigate the potential effects of variation of HO-1 activity on hemorheology, this study compared the hemorheological properties between transgenic HO-1G143H mutant mice and wild-type (WT) control mice. Fresh blood samples were obtained from mice via the ocular venous sinus. The whole blood viscosity was measured using a cone-plate viscometer. Erythrocyte deformability and aggregation was measured using ektacytometry. The elongation index was significantly reduced in the HO-1G143H mutant mice compared to the WT mice at the shear rates of 600, 800, and 1,000 s(-1). The integrated elongation index was decreased in the HO-1G143H mutant mice compared to the WT mice. There was no statistically significant difference between the HO-1G143H mutant mice and the WT mice in terms of whole blood viscosity, aggregation index, amplitude of aggregation, and aggregation half time. The present study demonstrated that a reduction in HO-1 activity results in an impaired erythrocyte deformability. Although the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear, our study brings to light the participation of HO-1 in the variations of hemorheology.
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Nanoplasmonic biosensor: Coupling electrochemistry to localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy on nanocup arrays.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The nanoscale Lycurgus cup arrays were hybrid structures of nanocups and nanoparticles with ultrasensitivity to refractive index change. In this study, an electrochemical localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor was developed by coupling electrochemistry to LSPR spectroscopy measurement on the nanoscale cup arrays (nanoCA). Based on the combination of electrochemistry and LSPR measurement, the electrochemical LSPR on nanoCA was observed with significant resonance wavelength shifts in electrochemical modulation. The synchronous implementation of cyclic voltammetry and optical transmission spectrum can be used to obtain multiply sensing information and investigate the enhancement for LSPR from electrochemical scanning. The electrochemical enhanced LSPR was utilized as biosensor to detect biomolecules. The electrochemical LSPR biosensor with synchronous electrochemical and optical implement showed higher sensitivity than that of conventional optical LSPR measurement. Detecting with multi-transducer parameters and high sensitivity, the electrochemical LSPR provided a promising approach for chemical and biological detection.
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Postoperative Changes in Amniotic Membrane as a Carrier for Allogeneic Cultured Limbal Epithelial Transplantation.
Am. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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To investigate the morphologic changes and outcomes of the amniotic membrane as a carrier for allogeneic cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation.
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Role of basophils in the pathogenesis of minimal change nephrotic syndrome: A literature review.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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A number of studies have verified that minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) may result from the dysfunction of T cells and B cells, although the precise mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. It is widely recognized that MCNS is a T helper (Th)2-dominant glomerular disease caused by an imbalanced Th1/Th2 immune response. Increased levels of the Th2 cytokines, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, have been demonstrated to be closely associated with disease activity. In addition, basophils can affect the Th1/Th2 balance by enhancing the Th2 response and impairing the Th1 response, which are then involved in the development of numerous diseases. However, whether basophils are vital in the pathogenesis of MCNS remains unknown. Frequent positivity of the human basophil degranulation test in patients with MCNS has been observed. Thus, basophils should be analyzed in order to determine their role in the pathogenesis of MCNS.
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Overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of SIRT1 in mouse heart causes cardiomyocyte apoptosis and early-onset heart failure.
Sci China Life Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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SIRT1, a mammalian ortholog of yeast silent information regulator 2 (Sir2), is an NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase that plays a critical role in the regulation of vascular function. The current study aims to investigate the functional significance of deacetylase activity of SIRT1 in heart. Here we show that the early postnatal hearts expressed the highest level of SIRT1 deacetylase activity compared to adult and aged hearts. We generated transgenic mice with cardiac-specific expression of a dominant-negative form of the human SIRT1 (SIRT1H363Y), which represses endogenous SIRT1 activity. The transgenic mice displayed dilated atrial and ventricular chambers, and died early in the postnatal period. Pathological, echocardiographic and molecular phenotype confirmed the presence of dilated cardiomyopathy. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end-labeling analysis revealed a greater abundance of apoptotic nuclei in the hearts of transgenic mice. Furthermore, we show that cardiomyocyte apoptosis caused by suppression of SIRT1 activity is, at least in part, due to increased p53 acetylation and upregulated Bax expression. These results indicate that dominant negative form of SIRT1 (SIRT1H363Y) overexpression in mouse hearts causes cardiomyocyte apoptosis and early-onset heart failure, suggesting a critical role of SIRT1 in preserving normal cardiac development during the early postnatal period.
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Three-way interactions between the tomato plant, tomato yellow leaf curl virus, and Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) facilitate virus spread.
J. Econ. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Plant defense responses can greatly affect plant viruses and their herbivore vectors. The current article reports on plant defense responses involving jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), and proteinase inhibitor (PI) in the three-way interaction between tomato plants, tomato yellow leaf curl virus, and the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). The results showed that feeding by viruliferous B. tabaci increases the longevity and fecundity of nonviruliferous B. tabaci that subsequently feed on the same plant. Feeding by nonviruliferous B. tabaci alone suppressed plant defense responses involving JA and PI but induced responses involving SA. Feeding by viruliferous B. tabaci increased the suppression of plant defenses involving JA and PI but did not increase responses involving SA. These results indicate that the interactive effects of tomato yellow leaf curl virus and B. tabaci on plants increase vector fitness and virus transmission by reducing plant defense.
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[Effect of spermatozoa from different sources on normal fertilization of oocytes and embryo quality and development in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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To evaluate the impact of spermatozoa from different sources on normal fertilization of oocytes, embryo quality and embryo developmental potential in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles.
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Reduced white matter integrity and cognitive deficits in maintenance hemodialysis ESRD patients: A diffusion-tensor study.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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The purpose of this investigation was to examine the association between cognition disorders and microstructural white matter (WM) changes in maintenance hemodialysis end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients.
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A Replication Study and a Meta-Analysis of the Association between the CDKN2A rs1333049 Polymorphism and Coronary Heart Disease.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether rs1333049 was associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in Han Chinese. Methods: This case-control study was involved with 599 CHD patients and 591 non-CHD controls. Meanwhile, a comprehensive meta-analysis was also conducted to establish the contribution of rs1333049 to CHD. Results: Our results showed that rs1333049 increased the risk of CHD by 38% (OR=1.38, 95% CI=1.18-1.62). A breakdown analysis by gender further indicated that rs1333049 increased the risk of CHD in men by 29% (OR=1.29, 95% CI=1.05-1.58) and in women by 64% (OR=1.64, 95% CI=1.25-2.16). A follow-up subgroup analysis by age showed there was a significant association between rs1333049 and CHD in women younger than 65 (?55 years: p=0.001, 55-65 years: p=0.008) and in men aged between 55 and 65 years (p=0.005). Our meta-analysis was involved with 21 studies (25 stages) among 20969 cases and 34114 controls. Our results showed that rs1333049 led to a significantly increased risk of CHD (OR=1.30, 95% CI=1.21-1.39). Further subgroup analyses by ethnicity showed rs1333049 increased the CHD risk by 30% in Europeans (OR=1.30, 95% CI=1.16-1.47) and 27% in Asians (OR=1.27, 95% CI=1.22-1.33). Conclusions: Our case-control study and meta-analysis suggest that rs1333049 is a useful risk marker of CHD.
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Reduced risk of lung cancer with metformin therapy in diabetic patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Emerging evidence from epidemiologic studies and basic science suggests an inverse association between metformin use and cancer risk in diabetic patients. However, the association with lung cancer is not consistent. We summarized the evidence currently available (2009-2013) and explored sources of heterogeneity. Metformin therapy was associated with significantly lower risks of cancers of the lung (4 studies; pooled relative risk = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55, 0.95; P = 0.02) and respiratory system (6 studies; pooled relative risk = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.96; P = 0.01). There was evidence of moderate heterogeneity (I(2) > 50%). The major sources of heterogeneity were smoking adjustment status and cancer site. The relative risk from studies that adjusted for smoking was 1.16-fold (95% CI: 1.00, 1.35) closer to the null than that from studies not adjusting for smoking. The relative risk of respiratory cancer was 1.23-fold (95% CI: 1.02, 1.49) closer to the null than that for lung cancer. In conclusion, metformin use appears to be associated with lower risks of lung and respiratory cancer in diabetic patients. However, caution regarding overestimation is needed, since adjustment for smoking attenuates the association.
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E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b in innate and adaptive immunity.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Casitas B-lineage lymphoma proto-oncogene-b (Cbl-b), a RING finger E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, has been demonstrated to play a crucial role in establishing the threshold for T-cell activation and controlling peripheral T-cell tolerance via multiple mechanisms. Accumulating evidence suggests that Cbl-b also regulates innate immune responses and plays an important role in host defense to pathogens. Understanding the signaling pathways regulated by Cbl-b in innate and adaptive immune cells is therefore essential for efficient manipulation of Cbl-b in emerging immunotherapies for human disorders such as autoimmune diseases, allergic inflammation, infections, and cancer. In this article, we review the latest developments in the molecular structural basis of Cbl-b function, the regulation of Cbl-b expression, the signaling mechanisms of Cbl-b in immune cells, as well as the biological function of Cbl-b in physiological and pathological immune responses in animal models and human diseases.
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B cell subsets and dysfunction of regulatory B cells in IgG4-related diseases and primary Sjögren's syndrome: the similarities and differences.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a multisystem-involved autoimmune disease. Abnormally activated and differentiated B cells may play important roles. Regulatory B cells (Breg) are newly defined B cell subgroups with immunosuppressive functions. In this study, we investigated the differences of B cell subsets, the expressions of co-stimulatory molecules on B cells, and the function of Breg cells in patients with IgG4-RD, primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) as well as in healthy controls (HC).
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Mechanism of dialkyl phthalates removal from aqueous solution using ?-cyclodextrin and starch based polyurethane polymer adsorbents.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
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Phthalate esters have been known as potent endocrine disruptors and carcinogens; and their removal from water have been of considerable concern recently. In the present study, ?-cyclodextrin polyurethane polymer (GPP), ?-cyclodextrin/starch polyurethane copolymer (GSP), and starch polyurethane polymer (SPP) have been synthesized and characterized. Their adsorption efficiencies for the removal of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP) from aqueous solutions were investigated. The characterization results showed the success of the synthesis. The isotherms were L-type, and both the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm gave good fittings to the adsorption data. Adsorption mechanisms suggested that these adsorbents spontaneously adsorb phthalate molecules driven mainly by enthalpy change, and the adsorption process was attributed to multiple adsorbent-adsorbate interactions such as hydrogen bonding, ?-? stacking, and pore filling. The results showed that starch and ?-cyclodextrin polyurethane polymer adsorbents have excellent potential as adsorbent materials for the removal of phthalates from the contaminated water.
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Geographical distribution, a risk factor for the incidence of lupus nephritis in China.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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Geographical variation in lupus nephritis epidemiology may indicate important environmental factors contributions to the etiology of lupus nephritis. This paper first describes the epidemiology of biopsy-proven lupus nephritis in China by performing a systematic literature review and the possible social-environmental influential factors.
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Myelin protein zero and its antibody in serum as biomarkers of n-hexane-induced peripheral neuropathy and neurotoxicity effects.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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Chronic exposure to n-hexane can lead to peripheral neuropathy that no effective treatment regimen could be applied presently. This study investigated whether myelin protein zero (P0) protein and its antibody could be used to distinguish n-hexane intoxication and protect workers from peripheral neuropathy.
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[Serum follicle-stimulating hormone in combination with serum inhibin B evaluates spermatogenesis of azoospermic men].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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This study is in an attempt to evaluate the diagnostic significance to predict the spermatogenesis of azoospermic men in examination of serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) combinatiing with serum inhibin B (INHB).
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Optic neuropathy induced by experimentally reduced cerebrospinal fluid pressure in monkeys.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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To examine the influence of experimentally reduced cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and neuroretinal rim area of the optic nerve head.
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C-type natriuretic peptide attenuates LPS-induced endothelial activation: involvement of p38, Akt, and NF-?B pathways.
Amino Acids
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Endothelial activation elicited by inflammatory agents is regarded as a key event in the pathogenesis of several vascular inflammatory diseases. In the present study, the inhibitory effects and underlying mechanism of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) on LPS-induced endothelial activation were examined in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The effect of CNP on adhesion molecule expression was assessed using quantitative real-time RT-PCR and western blotting analyses. The nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), MAPK, and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in LPS-stimulated HUVECs were investigated using western blotting analyses, and the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured using a fluorescence method. Pretreatment with CNP inhibited LPS-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin, and P-selectin in a concentration-dependent manner. CNP suppressed the phosphorylation of p65 and NF-?B activation in LPS-stimulated cells. Moreover, CNP reduced ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation induced by LPS but not JNK. Furthermore, CNP induced Akt phosphorylation and activation of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. CNP significantly inhibited the production of intracellular ROS. These results suggest that CNP effectively attenuated LPS-induced endothelial activation by inhibiting the NF-?B and p38 signaling pathways, eliminating LPS-induced intracellular ROS production, and activating the PI3K/Akt/HO-1 pathway in HUVECs; thereby, demonstrating that CNP may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of sepsis and inflammatory vascular diseases.
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The ?6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit of Frankliniella occidentalis is not involved in resistance to spinosad.
Pestic Biochem Physiol
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Insects evolve resistance which constrains the sustainable use of insecticides. Spinosyns, a class of environmentally-friendly macrolide insecticides, is not an exception. The mode of inheritance and the mechanisms of resistance to spinosad (the most common spinosyn insecticide) in Frankliniella occidentalis (Western flower thrips, WFT) were investigated in this study. Resistance (170,000-fold) was autosomal and completely recessive. Recent studies showed that deletion of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ?6 subunit gene resulted in strains of Drosophila melanogaster, Plutella xylostella and Bactrocera dorsalis that are resistant to spinosad, indicating that nAChR?6 subunit maybe important for the toxic action of this insecticide. Conversely, a G275E mutation of this subunit in F. occidentalis was recently proposed as the mechanism of resistance to spinosad. We cloned and characterized nAChR?6 from three susceptible and two spinosad resistant strains from China and the USA. The Fo?6 cDNA is 1873bp and the open reading frame is 1458bp which encodes 485 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 53.5-kDa, the 5' and 3' UTRs are 121 and 294bp, respectively. There was no difference in the cDNA sequence between the resistant and susceptible thrips, suggesting the G275E mutation does not confer resistance in these populations. Ten isoforms of Fo?6, arising from alternative splicing, were isolated and did not differ between the spinosad-susceptible and resistant strains. Quantitative real time PCR analysis showed Fo?6 was highly expressed in the first instar larva, pupa and adult, and the expression levels were 3.67, 2.47, 1.38 times that of the second instar larva. The expression level was not significantly different between the susceptible and resistant strains. These results indicate that Fo?6 is not involved in resistance to spinosad in F. occidentalis from China and the USA.
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Effects of red blood cell lysing solutions on the detection of peripheral basophils of healthy normals and SLE patients by flow cytometry.
J Immunoassay Immunochem
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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To evaluate the effect of four widely used red blood cell lysing solutions on counting and measurement of activation marker of peripheral basophils in normals and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients by flow cytometry. Our results showed that the light scatter properties including FS and SS value of leukocytes in whole blood were preserved when whole blood samples were lysed in RBC Lysis Buffer and FACS Lysing Solution, while were affected when lysed in distilled water or ACK. By counting basophils, RBC Lysis Buffer and FACS Lysing Solution were almost the same level, while were significantly lower when lysed in distilled water or ACK. The expressions of CD203c on peripheral basophils of SLE patients were significantly higher than those of normals. Comparing the data of CD203c expression obtained demonstrated that there were no significant differences among them, while FACS Lysing Solution treatment leads to a slightly lower staining intensity of CD203c. We provide a solid description that the widely used red blood cell lysing reagents may influence the light scatter properties of leukocytes, the accuracy of quantity of absolute number of the existence of basophil subsets and the quantity of staining intensity of cell-activated marker CD203c fluorescence when measured by flow cytometry.
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Bemisia tabaci Q carrying tomato yellow leaf curl virus strongly suppresses host plant defenses.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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The concurrence of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) with the spread of its vector Bemisia tabaci Q rather than B in China suggests a more mutualistic relationship between TYLCV and Q. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that viruliferous B and Q have different effects on plant defenses. We found the fecundity of nonviruliferous B, nonviruliferous Q, viruliferous Q and viruliferous B was 11.080, 12.060, 10.760, and 11.220 respectively on plants previously attacked by the other biotype, however, on their respective noninfested control leaves fecundity was 12.000, 10.880, 9.760, and 8.020 respectively. Only viruliferous B had higher fecundity on viruliferous Q-infested plants than on control plants. The longevity of viruliferous B showed the same phenomenon. At 1 d infestion, the jasmonic acid content in leaves noninfested and in leaves infested with nonviruliferous B, nonviruliferous Q, viruliferous B and viruliferous Q was 407.000, 281.333, 301.333, 266.667 and 134.000?ng/g FW, respectively. The JA content was lowest in viruliferous Q-infested leaves. The proteinase inhibitor activity and expression of JA-related upstream gene LOX and downstream gene PI II showed the same trend. The substantial suppression of host defenses by Q carrying TYLCV probably enhances the spread of Q and TYLCV in China.
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Chloral hydrate-dependent reduction in the peptidoglycan-induced inflammatory macrophage response is associated with lower expression levels of toll-like receptor 2.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of action of chloral hydrate on the peptidoglycan (PGN)-induced inflammatory macrophage response. The effect of chloral hydrate on the production of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by murine peritoneal macrophages with PGN-stimulation was investigated. In addition, RAW264.7 cells transfected with a nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) luciferase reporter plasmid stimulated by PGN were used to study the effect of chloral hydrate on the levels NF-?B activity. Flow cytometry and western blotting were performed to investigate the expression levels of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in the treated RAW264.7 cells. It was identified that chloral hydrate reduced the levels of IL-6 and TNF-? produced by the peritoneal macrophages stimulated with PGN. The levels of NF-?B activity of the RAW264.7 cells stimulated by PGN decreased following treatment with chloral hydrate, which was associated with a reduction in the expression levels of TLR2 and reduced levels of TLR2 signal transduction. These data demonstrate that chloral hydrate reduced the magnitude of the PGN-induced inflammatory macrophage response associated with lower expression levels of TLR2.
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Cadmium accumulation and tolerance of two castor cultivars in relation to antioxidant systems.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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To investigate the effects of Cd on tolerance and antioxidant activities of castor, two different castor (Ricinus communis L.) cultivars (Zibo No. 5 and Zibo No. 8) were used for a hydroponic experiment (0, 1 and 2mg/L Cd) and a pot experiment using Cd-contaminated soil (34mg/kg) with the addition of ethylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid (EDTA). The results indicated that there were significant differences between the two cultivars with respect to Cd uptake in shoots (113-248mg/kg for Zibo No. 5 and 130-288mg/kg Zibo No. 8), biomass tolerance indexes (64.9%-74.6% for Zibo No. 5 and 80.1%-90.9% for Zibo No. 8) in the hydroponic experiment and survival rates (0% for Zibo No. 5 and 100% for Zibo No. 8) determined by the addition of EDTA in the pot experiment, suggesting that Zibo No. 8 has higher tolerance than Zibo No. 5. Moreover, the castor cultivars have low bioconcentration factors (4.80% for Zibo No. 5 and 5.43% for Zibo No. 8) and low translocation factors (<1%). Consequently, Zibo No. 8 can participate in Cd phytostabilization in highly Cd-polluted areas. The results indicated that glutathione (GSH) as a non-enzymatic antioxidant, and antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), were cultivar- and dose-dependent. The higher tolerance of Zibo No. 8 compared with Zibo No. 5 can be attributed to the higher GSH levels in the root and higher GPX activity in the leaf.
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Macrophages are the dominant effector cells responsible for IgG-mediated passive systemic anaphylaxis challenged by natural protein antigen in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice.
Cell. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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IgG-induced passive systemic anaphylaxis (PSA), a serious adverse effect of passive immune therapy using therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, has been greatly emphasized. However, controversy exists regarding the type of effector cells involved in IgG-induced anaphylaxis as a result of the induction of PSA by different IgG subtypes or the use of mice with varying genetic backgrounds. To clarify the effector cells for PSA, the PSA model with serious hypothermia was established by IgG monoclonal antibody (mAb) against natural protein or complete antigen, not hapten conjugate, in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. The results indicated that PSA could be remarkably inhibited by the depletion of macrophages but not by the depletion of whole leukocytes, basophils, neutrophils or monocytes. We further confirmed that macrophages are indispensable for the PSA induced by all six IgG-natural antigen complexes in both strains of mice. Additionally, platelet-activating factor (PAF) was found to be the major effector mediator for IgG-induced anaphylaxis. Moreover, gene knock-out of the third component of complement (C3) did not affect PSA-related hypothermia in C57BL/6 mice. These results indicate that macrophages and PAF act as dominant effector cells and mediator molecules, respectively, and are indispensable components in the induction of IgG-mediated PSA induced by IgG mAb and natural protein antigen. Based on the above results, we hypothesize that inconsistencies in effector cells for PSA may be associated with different features of the mAb-antigen system that might affect the magnitude of Fc?Rs cross-linking on effector cells.
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Silencing of Ether à go-go 1 by shRNA inhibits osteosarcoma growth and cell cycle progression.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Recently, a member of the voltage-dependent potassium channel (Kv) family, the Ether à go-go 1 (Eag1) channel was found to be necessary for cell proliferation, cycle progression and tumorigenesis. However, the therapeutic potential of the Eag1 channel in osteosarcoma remains elusive. In the present study, a recombinant adenovirus harboring shRNA against Eag1 was constructed to silence Eag1 expression in human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells. We observed that Eag1-shRNA inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of MG-63 cells due to the induction of G1 phase arrest. Moreover, in vivo experiments showed that Eag1-shRNA inhibited osteosarcoma growth in a xenograft nude mice model. In addition, selective inhibition of Eag1 significantly decreased the expression levels of cyclin D1 and E. Taken together, our data suggest that the Eag1 channel plays a crucial role in regulating the proliferation and cell cycle of osteosarcoma cells, and represents a new and effective therapeutic target for osteosarcoma.
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Systematic screening of common wastewater-marking pharmaceuticals in urban aquatic environments: implications for environmental risk control.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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In this report, we refer to pharmaceuticals that are widespread in the urban aquatic environment and that mainly originate from wastewater treatment plants or non-point source sewage as "wastewater-marking pharmaceuticals" (WWMPs). To some extent, they reflect the condition or trend of water contamination and also contribute to aquatic environmental risk assessment. The method reported here for screening typical WWMPs was proposed based on academic concerns about them and their concentrations present in the urban aquatic environment, as well as their properties of accumulation, persistence, eco-toxicity and related environmental risks caused by them. The screening system consisted of an initial screening system and a further screening system. In the former, pharmaceuticals were categorised into different evaluation levels, and in the latter, each pharmaceutical was given a normalised final evaluation score, which was the sum of every score for its properties of accumulation, persistence, eco-toxicity and environmental risk in the aquatic environment. The system was applied to 126 pharmaceuticals frequently detected in the aquatic environment. In the initial screening procedure, five pharmaceuticals were classified into the "high" category, 16 pharmaceuticals into the "medium" category, 15 pharmaceuticals into the "low" category and 90 pharmaceuticals into the "very low" category. Subsequently, further screening were conducted on 36 pharmaceuticals considered as being of "high", "medium" and "low" categories in the former system. We identified 7 pharmaceuticals with final evaluation scores of 1-10, 10 pharmaceuticals with scores of 11-15, 15 pharmaceuticals with scores from 16 to 20 and 4 pharmaceuticals with scores above 21. The results showed that this screening system could contribute to the effective selection of target WWMPs, which would be important for spatial-temporal dynamics, transference and pollution control of pharmaceuticals in the urban aquatic environment. However, there remains a number of pharmaceutical parameters with measured data gaps, such as organic carbon adsorption coefficients and bioconcentration factors, which, if filled, would improve the accuracy of the screening system.
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Detoxification enzymes of Bemisia tabaci B and Q: biochemical characteristics and gene expression profiles.
Pest Manag. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is one of the most invasive and destructive pests of field crops worldwide. The sibling species B and Q are the two most damaging members of the B. tabaci species complex. That Q is more resistant than B to many insecticides has been well documented. Over the last decade, Q has gradually displaced B and has become the dominant form of B. tabaci in field agricultural systems in most parts of China. To help understand the differences in insecticide resistance, the activities and gene expression profiles of detoxification enzymes in B. tabaci B and Q were investigated.
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Monodispersed bimetallic PdAg nanoparticles with twinned structures: formation and enhancement for the methanol oxidation.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Monodispersed bimetallic PdAg nanoparticles can be fabricated through the emulsion-assisted ethylene glycol (EG) ternary system. Different compositions of bimetallic PdAg nanoparticles, Pd??Ag??, Pd??Ag?? and Pd??Ag?? can be obtained via adjusting the reaction parameters. For the formation process of the bimetallic PdAg nanoparticles, there have two-stage growth processes: firstly, nucleation and growth of the primary nanoclusters; secondly, formation of the secondary nanoparticles with the size-selection and relax process via the coalescence or aggregation of the primary nanoclusters. The as-prepared PdAg can be supported on the carbon black without any post-treatment, which exhibited high electro-oxidation activity towards methanol oxidation under alkaline media. More importantly, carbon-supported Pd??Ag?? nanoparticles reveal distinctly superior activities for the methanol oxidation, even if compared with commercial Pt/C electro-catalyst. It is concluded that the enhanced activity is dependant on the unique twinning structure with heterogeneous phase due to the dominating coalescence growth in EG ternary system.
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PTPN2 rs1893217 single-nucleotide polymorphism is associated with risk of Behçet's disease in a Chinese Han population.
Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Behçet's disease (BD) is a rare, chronic, relapsing, systemic, immune-mediated vasculitis and the etiology remains to be defined. This study investigated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 2 (PTPN2) and inducible T-cell co-stimulator-ligand gene (ICOSLG) in Chinese Han BD patients and healthy controls because SNPs of these two genes are associated with risk of developing other auto-inflammation diseases.
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Construction and characterisation of near-isogenic Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) strains resistant to Cry1Ac toxin.
Pest Manag. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Resistance to insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins has arisen in multiple populations of the worldwide Brassica pest Plutella xylostella (L.). To help elucidate the mechanism of resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in a population from Florida, two pairs of near-isogenic lines (NILs) were developed.
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Effects of short-term environmental hyperthermia on patterns of cerebral blood flow.
Physiol. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Environmental hyperthermia is a very common risk factor for many occupations, however, its potential influences on cerebral circulation remain obscure. In this study, 20 participants underwent two simulated environmental thermal conditions (50 °C/25 °C, 1 h), and their cerebral blood flows (CBFs) were quantified using a pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (ASL) MR imaging. During the experiment, the physiological parameters, including rectal temperature, arterial blood pressure and weight loss, heart rate and respiration rate, were recorded, and a visual analog scale (VAS) test was performed during both conditions to evaluate the psychological state including vigilance, anxiety, vigor, confidence, anger, nervousness, drowsiness, and loquacity. After scanning, a highly-demanding attentional task--the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) was performed for behavioral performance evaluation. Compared with that during normothermic condition, the global CBF (gCBF) during hyperthermic condition showed a tendency of decrease, but no significant differences. Regional CBFs (rCBFs) were significantly altered mainly in the prefrontal cortex, somatosensory areas and limbic system. Physiological detection revealed significantly decreased diastolic pressure and systolic pressure and accelerated respiration rate. Furthermore, linear multivariate regression analysis showed that altered rCBFs in several regions could be predicted by physiological (systolic pressure, rectal temperature) and psychological (vigilance, drowsiness, nervousness, anger) changes. And PVT revealed significantly slower attentional reaction during hyperthermia, and the longer reaction time was correlated with the altered rCBF in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). These findings suggested that during short-term hyperthermia gCBF might remain relatively stable under the integrated effect of physiological changes and cerebral auto-regulation, rather than decreased solely dependently on hyperthermia-induced physiological changes. Furthermore, altered regional blood distribution might be accounted for neural activity of thermal sensation and regulation, mood state and cognitive changes.
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[Changes in serum vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-9 after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and thoracotomic Lobectomy in the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are important factors in angiogenesis. These factors function in the angiogenesis of lung cancers. The aim of this study is to determine the changes in serum VEGF and MMP-9 after patients with NSCLC were subjected to lobectomy. The aim of this study is also to compare the differences in the changes observed between video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and traditional open surgery (TOS).
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Effects of plant virus and its insect vector on Encarsia formosa, a biocontrol agent of whiteflies.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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In this study, we investigated the tritrophic interactions among a persistently transmitted plant virus, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), its insect vector, the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci, and a parasitoid, Encarsia formosa Gahan, one of the most extensively used biological control agents. As an emerging invasive pest worldwide, the two most damaging whiteflies are B. tabaci B and Q cryptic species. On healthy tomato plants, parasitoid-induced mortality was significantly higher in B. tabaci B than in Q. In contrast, similar mortality levels of B and Q were observed on TYLCV-infected plants. A higher rate of parasitism was consistently observed in B, independent of the TYLCV infection. Similarly, the life history traits of E. formosa were influenced by both TYLCV and the two cryptic species of B. tabaci. Specifically, E. formosa parasitizing B had a greater adult longevity and shorter developmental time on healthy plants, whereas the parasitoids developing from Q has a greater adult longevity on TYLCV-infected plants. The emergence rate of E. formosa was unaffected by either B. tabaci cryptic species or the virus. These results suggest that the vector-borne pathogen can manipulate the host suitability of a parasitoid and hence the parasitoid-host interactions.
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Transcriptomic dissection of sexual differences in Bemisia tabaci, an invasive agricultural pest worldwide.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Sex difference involving chromosomes and gene expression has been extensively documented. In this study, the gender difference in the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci was investigated using Illumina-based transcriptomic analysis. Gender-based RNAseq data produced 27 Gb reads, and subsequent de novo assembly generated 93,948 transcripts with a N50 of 1,853 bp. A total of 1,351 differentially expressed genes were identified between male and female B. tabaci, and majority of them were female-biased. Pathway and GO enrichment experiments exhibited a gender-specific expression, including enriched translation in females, and enhanced structural constituent of cuticle in male whiteflies. In addition, a putative transformer2 gene (tra2) was cloned, and the structural feature and expression profile of tra2 were investigated. Sexually dimorphic transcriptome is an uncharted territory for the agricultural insect pests. Molecular understanding of sex determination in B. tabaci, an emerging invasive insect pest worldwide, will provide potential molecular target(s) for genetic pest control alternatives.
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Genetic Association Study of TNFAIP3, IFIH1, IRF5 Polymorphisms with Polymyositis/Dermatomyositis in Chinese Han Population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TNFAIP3, IFIH1, and IRF5 genes have been associated with several auto-inflammation diseases, while the susceptibility between these genes and idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) were not reported. This study aimed to investigate whether TNFAIP3, IFIH1, and IRF5 gene polymorphisms confer susceptibility for the IIMs in Chinese Han population.
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Preferences for treatment of lobectomy in Chinese lung cancer patients: video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery or open thoracotomy?
Patient Prefer Adherence
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study was designed to investigate the preferences for treatment of lobectomy in Chinese lung cancer patients and differences in the psychological and social factors that influence treatment decision-making.
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Associations between TNF-?-308A/G polymorphism and susceptibility with dermatomyositis: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Some surveys had inspected the effects of the tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-308A/G polymorphism on susceptibility to dermatomyositis (DM), and showed mixed results. To briefly review these consequences, a comprehensive meta-analysis was carried out to estimate the relationship between them much more accurately.
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Comparison of short-term effect of thoracoscopic segmentectomy and thoracoscopic lobectomy for the solitary pulmonary nodule and early-stage lung cancer.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To compare the short-term effect of anatomic video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) segmentectomy and VATS lobectomy.
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Location of symbionts in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci affects their densities during host development and environmental stress.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Bacterial symbionts often enhance the physiological capabilities of their arthropod hosts and enable their hosts to expand into formerly unavailable niches, thus leading to biological diversification. Many arthropods, including the worldwide invasive whitefly Bemisia tabaci, have individuals simultaneously infected with symbionts of multiple genera that occur in different locations in the host. This study examined the population dynamics of symbionts that are located in different areas within B. tabaci. While densities of Portiera and Hamiltonella (which are located in bacteriocytes) appeared to be well-regulated during host development, densities of Rickettsia (which are not located in bacteriocytes) were highly variable among individual hosts during host development. Host mating did not significantly affect symbiont densities. Infection by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus did not affect Portiera and Hamiltonella densities in either sex, but increased Rickettsia densities in females. High and low temperatures did not affect Portiera and Hamiltonella densities, but low temperature (15 °C) significantly suppressed Rickettsia densities whereas high temperature (35 °C) had little effect on Rickettsia densities. The results are consistent with the view that the population dynamics of bacterial symbionts in B. tabaci are regulated by symbiont location within the host and that the regulation reflects adaptation between the bacteria and insect.
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The endosymbiont Hamiltonella increases the growth rate of its host Bemisia tabaci during periods of nutritional stress.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) harbors several bacterial symbionts. Among the secondary (facultative) symbionts, Hamiltonella has high prevalence and high infection frequencies, suggesting that it may be important for the biology and ecology of its hosts. Previous reports indicated that Hamiltonella increases whitefly fitness and, based on the complete sequencing of its genome, may have the ability to synthesize cofactors and amino acids that are required by its host but that are not sufficiently synthesized by the host or by the primary endosymbiont, Portiera. Here, we assessed the effects of Hamiltonella infection on the growth of B. tabaci reared on low-, standard-, or high-nitrogen diets. When B. tabaci was reared on a standard-nitrogen diet, no cost or benefit was associated with Hamiltonella infection. But, if we reared whiteflies on low-nitrogen diets, Hamiltonella-infected whiteflies often grew better than uninfected whiteflies. Furthermore, nitrogen levels in field-collected whiteflies indicated that the nutritional conditions in the field were comparable to the low-nitrogen diet in our laboratory experiment. These data suggest that Hamiltonella may play a previously unrecognized role as a nutritional mutualist in B. tabaci.
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[Comparison of the Changes of Thyroid Hormones after Video-assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery and Conventional Thoracotomy in Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is the representative thoracic minimally invasive surgery. Compared with traditional open surgery (TOS), VATS has an advantage of less invasiveness, quicker recovery and milder postoperative pain. The aim of this study is to compare the influences of VATS and conventional thoracotomic lobectomy on thyroid hormones in treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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Autophagy activation reduces renal tubular injury induced by urinary proteins.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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Autophagy is shown to be beneficial for renal tubular injury caused by nephrotoxic drugs. To investigate whether autophagy could protect renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) from injury induced by urinary proteins, we studied the activity and action of autophagy in TECs after urinary protein overload in vivo and in vitro. We found that autophagic vacuoles increased in TECs from patients with minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) and rat models with severe proteinuria induced by cationic BSA. In HK-2 cells, exposure to urinary proteins extracted from patients with MCNS led to a significant increase in autophagosome and autolysosome formation and decrease in SQSTM1/p62 protein level. Urinary protein addition also induced lysosomal turnover of LC3-II and perinuclear clustering of lysosomes. These changes were mediated by a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent mechanism. Furthermore, pretreatment of HK-2 cells with rapamycin reduced the production of LCN2/NGAL and HAVCR1/KIM-1 and the level of apoptosis induced by urinary proteins. In contrast, blocking autophagy with chloroquine or BECN1 siRNAs exerted an opposite effect. Similar results were also observed in animal models with proteinuria after treatments with rapamycin and chloroquine. Taken together, our results indicated an increase in autophagic flux, which mounts an adaptive response in TECs after urinary protein overload.
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Facultative Symbiont Hamiltonella Confers Benefits to Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), an Invasive Agricultural Pest Worldwide.
Environ. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
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Bacterial symbionts infect most insect species, including important pests such as whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), and often exert important effects on host ecology. The facultative symbiont Hamiltonella is found at high frequencies in the B. tabaci MED (type: Mediterranean-MED) in China. The prevalence of this symbiont in natural populations suggests beneficial effects of infection or manipulation of host reproduction. To date, however, no empirical studies on the biological role of Hamiltonella on the host B. tabaci have been reported. Here, we investigated the effects of Hamiltonella infection on the sex ratio and several fitness parameters in B. tabaci MED by comparing Hamiltonella-infected whiteflies with Hamiltonella-free ones. We found that Hamiltonella-infected whiteflies produced significantly more eggs, exhibited significantly higher nymphal survival, faster development times, and larger adult body size in comparison with Hamiltonella-free whiteflies, while no evidence of reproductive manipulation by Hamiltonella were found in B. tabaci MED. In conclusion, Hamiltonella infection substantially enhanced B. tabaci MED performance. This beneficial role may, at least partially, explain the high prevalence of Hamiltonella in B. tabaci MED populations and may also contribute to their effectiveness in spread of the plant pathogens tomato yellow leaf curl virus.
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TAM Receptors Affect Adult Brain Neurogenesis by Negative Regulation of Microglial Cell Activation.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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TAM tyrosine kinases play multiple functional roles, including regulation of the target genes important in homeostatic regulation of cytokine receptors or TLR-mediated signal transduction pathways. In this study, we show that TAM receptors affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and loss of TAM receptors impairs hippocampal neurogenesis, largely attributed to exaggerated inflammatory responses by microglia characterized by increased MAPK and NF-?B activation and elevated production of proinflammatory cytokines that are detrimental to neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Injection of LPS causes even more severe inhibition of BrdU incorporation in the Tyro3(-/-)Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) triple-knockout (TKO) brains, consistent with the LPS-elicited enhanced expression of proinflammatory mediators, for example, IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, and inducible NO synthase, and this effect is antagonized by coinjection of the anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin in wild-type but not TKO brains. Conditioned medium from TKO microglia cultures inhibits neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. IL-6 knockout in Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) double-knockout mice overcomes the inflammatory inhibition of neurogenesis, suggesting that IL-6 is a major downstream neurotoxic mediator under homeostatic regulation by TAM receptors in microglia. Additionally, autonomous trophic function of the TAM receptors on the proliferating neuronal progenitors may also promote progenitor differentiation into immature neurons.
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[The activity of special CTLs in diminishing CD55(high) subgroup in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
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To investigate the activities of cytokine induced killer cells (CIK cells) and specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in killing CD55(high) subgroup in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line.
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Positive Association between GCKR rs780093 Polymorphism and Coronary Heart Disease in the Aged Han Chinese.
Dis. Markers
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2013
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Objective. Previous studies have confirmed that GCKR rs780093 polymorphism is associated with triglyceride (TG), a known risk factor of coronary heart disease (CHD). The goal of our study is to explore the association of GCKR rs780093 polymorphism with CHD in Han Chinese population. Methods and Results. A total of 568 CHD cases and 494 non-CHD controls were enrolled in the current case-control study. Genotyping was done using melting temperature shift (Tm-shift) approach. Our results also showed that GCKR rs780093 polymorphism was significantly associated with TG level (P = 0.0016). Although there was no significant association between cases and controls (P > 0.05), a breakdown analysis by age yielded a significant association of GCKR rs780093 polymorphism with CHD in individuals aged 65 and older (genotype: ?(2) = 6.86; df?=?2; P = 0.03; allele: ?(2) = 4.11; df?=?1; P = 0.04). Conclusion. Our findings confirmed the contribution of GCKR rs780093 polymorphism to TG metabolism and demonstrated GCKR rs780093 as a risk factor of CHD in individuals aged 65 and older.
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Preparation and characterization of a hydrogel carrier to deliver gatifloxacin and its application as a therapeutic contact lens for bacterial keratitis therapy.
Biomed Mater
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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A soft and biocompatible hydrogel exhibiting a higher loading and the sustained release of gatifloxacin (GFLX) was developed as the potential matrix to fabricate a therapeutic contact lens for curing bacterial keratitis. 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and five other kinds of vinyl monomers with different side groups were used as co-monomers. Copolymerization took place in a cornea shaped mould via the gradient temperature-elevating method. The results of drug loading and in vitro release experiments showed that P(HEMA-co-MAA) achieved the highest drug loading of 11.78±0.77 µg mg(-1) among the obtained hydrogels, as well as a slow release. In addition, its physical properties and cytocompatibility were also proved suitable and safe for wearing on the eye surface. In animal experiments, a rat model of bacterial keratitis was established and employed to evaluate the clinical results of certain treatments employing obtained hydrogels; saline and GFLX eye drops were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Corneal abscess and opacity caused by epithelial erosion and stromal ulceration were almost healed after wearing the drug loaded P(HEMA-co-MAA) hydrogel for 48 h. Its excellent antibacterial effect was also confirmed by testing the bacterial activity in tear extraction via the streak line method.
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Plant-mediated changes in the feeding behavior of an invasive whitefly.
Environ. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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The invasive whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a worldwide pest of agricultural crops that feeds on a wide variety of host plants. Although host plant preference is known to vary among B. tabaci biotypes, far less is known about the potential for intraspecific divergence caused by long-term isolation on a single species of host plant. We tested the hypothesis that multigenerational isolation of B. tabaci B, a biotype that has been well-established in China for nearly two decades, on three different host plants would lead to population-level divergence in feeding behaviors. We used individuals from a cabbage-feeding (Brassica oleracea L.) population of B. tabaci B to create three populations reared exclusively on B. oleracea, cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), or tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) for >80 generations. We then used electrical penetration graph techniques to investigate the feeding behavior of the three B. tabaci populations on each of the three host plants (nine total treatments). Across all three host plants, the cabbage-specific population equaled or exceeded the performance of the cucumber-specific (CuSP) and tomato-specific (ToSP) populations. Strikingly, neither CuSP nor ToSP ever had the best feeding performance on their natal hosts. Our results support the hypothesis that feeding differentiation has occurred, but we found no evidence that these changes increased the feeding performance of either CuSP or ToSP. Although confirming that rapid interpopulation divergence is possible, our findings nonetheless suggest that this differentiation did not yield highly adapted populations that might pose problems for future efforts at pest management.
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The activity of SV40 promoter can be inhibited by overexpression of heme oxygenase-1 in tumor cells.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is both beneficial and detrimental to the host in some viral infections by catalyzing the conversion of heme to biliverdin, iron, and carbon monoxide. Simian Virus 40 (SV40) early promoter plays an important role in transforming many cells as it can drive the transcription of large T antigen, which is a potent oncogene. In order to determine the effect of HO-1 on the SV40 early promoter, tumor cells overexpressing HO-1 and HO-1 dominant-negative mutant (glycine143 mutated to histidine) (HO-1G143H) were used. Western blot and HO activity for HO-1/HO-1G143H expression, cell growth, and luciferase activity driven by SV40 promoter were detected in this study. The luciferase activity was suppressed notably in BGC-823 cells transiently overexpressing HO-1, but significantly increased in BGC-823 cells transiently overexpressing HO-1G143H, compared with the mock, respectively. HO-1 overexpression in BGC-823 cells caused the cells containing Blasticidin-resistant gene driven by SV40 promoter to grow slowly under Blasticidin screening, compared with control groups. The luciferase activities were also suppressed in BGC-823, A549, and HepG2 cells stably overexpressing HO-1, and increased in these cell lines stably overexpressing HO-1G143H, compared with the mock, respectively. The results demonstrated that overexpression of HO-1 suppressed transcription driven by SV40 promoter in tumor cells and that HO-1 catalysates might play a major role in the process. Our preliminary results suggested that HO-1 might possess promising counteraction in cell transformation by suppressing SV40 large T-antigen expression, potentially applicable to therapeutic interventions in some virus diseases.
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Molecular cloning and characterization of a P-glycoprotein from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Macrocyclic lactones such as abamectin and ivermectin constitute an important class of broad-spectrum insecticides. Widespread resistance to synthetic insecticides, including abamectin and ivermectin, poses a serious threat to the management of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), a major pest of cruciferous plants worldwide. P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a member of the ABC transporter superfamily, plays a crucial role in the removal of amphiphilic xenobiotics, suggesting a mechanism for drug resistance in target organisms. In this study, PxPgp1, a putative Pgp gene from P. xylostella, was cloned and characterized. The open reading frame (ORF) of PxPgp1 consists of 3774 nucleotides, which encodes a 1257-amino acid peptide. The deduced PxPgp1 protein possesses structural characteristics of a typical Pgp, and clusters within the insect ABCB1. PxPgp1 was expressed throughout all developmental stages, and showed the highest expression level in adult males. PxPgp1 was highly expressed in midgut, malpighian tubules and testes. Elevated expression of PxPgp1 was observed in P. xylostella strains after they were exposed to the abamectin treatment. In addition, the constitutive expressions of PxPgp1 were significantly higher in laboratory-selected and field-collected resistant strains in comparison to their susceptible counterpart.
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Association between TGF-?1 polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma risk: a meta-analysis.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Associations between transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk remained controversial. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to investigate these associations.
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Knockdown of LGR5 suppresses the proliferation of glioma cells in vitro and in vivo.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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Leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), one of the target genes of the Wnt signaling pathway, has recently been identified as a marker for brain cancer stem-like cells. However, the role of LGR5 in glioma is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between LGR5 expression and pathological grade in glioma, and the impact of LGR5 on the proliferation of glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. Firstly, LGR5 expression was immunohistochemically evaluated in 54 resected gliomas of different pathologic grades, and its association with Ki-67 was evaluated. Subsequently, using western blotting and qRT-PCR, the expression of LGR5 was assessed in three glioma cell lines U87, U118 and U251. Moreover, the effects of LGR5 knockdown by siRNA on glioma cell proliferation, cell cycle, clone formation and tumorsphere formation in vitro and gliomagenesis in vivo were assessed. The results revealed that i) LGR5 was positively expressed in all glioma specimens and its expression increased with pathologic grade and Ki-67 expression; ii) LGR5 was highly expressed in three glioma cell lines and its expression was reduced significantly by siRNA; and iii) RNAi-mediated downregulation of endogenous LGR5 in U87 cells resulted in the suppression of cell proliferation, arrest of the cell cycle, and reduction in clone and tumorsphere formation in vitro. In addition, LGR5 depletion significantly inhibited tumor orthotopic xenograft growth in nude mice. These findings indicate that LGR5 plays a major role in gliomagenesis by promoting neoplastic cell proliferation, suggesting LGR5 as a molecular marker for pathology and a novel therapeutic target for malignant glioma.
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Biosensor analysis of natural and artificial sweeteners in intact taste epithelium.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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Sweeteners are commonly used as food additives in our daily life, which, however, have been causing a number of undesirable diseases since the last century. Therefore, the detection and quantification of sweeteners are of great value for food safety. In this study, we used a taste biosensor to measure and analyze different sweeteners, both natural and artificial sweeteners included. Electrophysiological activities from taste epithelium were detected by the multi-channel biosensors and analyzed with spatiotemporal methods. The longtime signal result showed different temporal-frequency properties with stimulations of individual sweeteners such as glucose, sucrose, saccharin, and cyclamate, while the multi-channel results in our study revealed the spatial expression of taste epithelium to sweet stimuli. Furthermore, in the analysis of sweetener with different concentrations, the result showed obvious dose-dependent increases in signal responses of the taste epithelium, which indicated promising applications in sweetness evaluation. Besides, the mixture experiment of two natural sweeteners with a similar functional unit (glucose and sucrose) presented two signal patterns, which turned out to be similar with responses of each individual stimulus involved. The biosensor analysis of common sweeteners provided new approaches for both natural and artificial sweeteners evaluation.
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Overexpressions of HO-1/HO-1G143H in C57/B6J mice affect melanoma B16F10 lung metastases rather than change the survival rate of mice-bearing tumours.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is often upregulated in tumour tissues and endows tumour cells with cytoprotection and antiapoptosis. It is worthy of note that some people show higher activity of HO-1 and some anti-cancer therapies could induce HO-1 expression in normal tissues, but the effect of HO-1 of normal tissues on tumours among these people remains unknown. To assess the effect of HO-1 of normal tissues on tumour progressiveness, we investigated the growth, metastasis and angiogenic potential of murine melanoma B16F10 cells in transgenic mice overexpressing HO-1 and its negative dominant mutant HO-1G143H, respectively. The results demonstrated that neither overexpression of HO-1 nor overexpression of HO-1G143H in normal tissues could significantly change the survival rate of tumour-bearing mice, but HO-1 overexpression could inhibit lung metastases and HO-1G143H could significantly promote lung metastases. Meanwhile, the leukocytes infiltration was reduced and angiogenesis was promoted in tumours in mice overexpressing HO-1, but the opposite was true in mice overexpressing HO-1G143H. Our findings suggested that overexpression of HO-1 might be conducive to patients bearing melanoma metastasis.
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Chronic disease mortality in rural and urban residents in Hubei Province, China, 2008-2010.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Chronic non-communicable diseases have become the major cause of death in China. This study describes and compares chronic disease mortality between urban and rural residents in Hubei Province, central China.
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Umami evaluation in taste epithelium on microelectrode array by extracellular electrophysiological recording.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Umami is one of the basic tastes along with sweet, bitter, sour and salty. It is often elicited by amino acids and can provide a palatable flavor for food. With taste epithelium as the sensing element, microelectrodes can be used to evaluate umami taste by biological responses of the tissue. The electrophysiological activities to umami stimuli are measured with a 60-channel microelectrode array (MEA). Local field potential (LFP) recorded by a MEA system showed different temporal characteristics respectively with l-glutamic acid (l-Glu), l-aspartic acid (l-Asp), l-monosodium glutamate (l-MSG) and l-monosodium aspartate (l-MSA), while remarkable differences were observed between amino acids and their sodium salts. We also found that a dose-dependent behavior in the increasing concentrations of umami stimulations and a synergistic enhancement between amino acids and purine nucleotides can be detected. The investigation of this evaluation for umami represents a promising approach for distinguishing and evaluating umami tastants.
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Tomato spotted wilt virus infection reduces the fitness of a nonvector herbivore on pepper.
J. Econ. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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Plant pathogens and insect herbivores often share hosts under natural conditions. Hence, pathogen-induced changes in a host plant can affect the herbivore and vice versa. Even though plant viruses are ubiquitous in the field, little is known about plant-mediated interactions between viruses and nonvector herbivores. Here we tested whether the performance of the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype Q, was altered when raised on pepper infected with Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). TSWV infection reduced B. tabaci fecundity and longevity and increased B. tabaci developmental time but did not affect the insects survival or female body lengths. Our results demonstrate that TSWV infection can decrease the fitness of B. tabaci biotype Q on pepper plants.
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A genome-wide association study in Han Chinese identifies a susceptibility locus for primary Sjögrens syndrome at 7q11.23.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Primary Sjögrens syndrome is one of the most common autoimmune diseases. So far, genetic studies of Sjögrens syndrome have relied mostly on candidate gene approaches. To identify new genetic susceptibility loci for primary Sjögrens syndrome, we performed a three-stage genome-wide association study in Han Chinese. In the discovery stage, we analyzed 556,134 autosomal SNPs in 542 cases and 1,050 controls. We then validated promising associations in 2 replication stages comprising 1,303 cases and 2,727 controls. The combined analysis identified GTF2I at 7q11.23 (rs117026326: Pcombined = 1.31 × 10(-53), combined odds ratio (ORcombined) = 2.20) as a new susceptibility locus for primary Sjögrens syndrome. Our analysis also confirmed previously reported associations in Europeans in the regions of STAT4, TNFAIP3 and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Fine mapping of the region around GTF2I showed that rs117026326 in GTF2I had the most significant association, with associated SNPs extending from GTF2I to GTF2IRD1-GTF2I.
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Midgut transcriptome response to a Cry toxin in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).
Gene
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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To investigate the response of Plutella xylostella transcriptome in defending against a Bt toxin, high-throughput RNA-sequencing was carried out to examine Cry1Ac-susceptible and -resistant strains. The comparative analysis indentified over 2900 differentially expressed unigenes (DEUs) between these two strains. Gene Ontology analysis placed these unigenes primarily into cell, cell part, organelle, binding, catalytic, cellular process, metabolic process, and response to stimulus categories. Based on pathway analyses, DEUs were enriched in oxidoreductase activity and membrane lipid metabolic processes, and they were also significantly enriched in pathways related to the metabolic and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Most of the unigenes involved in the metabolic pathway were up-regulated in resistant strains. Within the ABC transporter pathway, majority of the down-regulated unigenes belong to ABCC2 and ABCC10, respectively, while up-regulated unigenes were mainly categorized as ABCG2. Furthermore, two aminopeptidases, and four cadherins encoding genes were significantly elevated as well. This study provides a transcriptome foundation for the identification and functional characterization of genes involved in the Bt resistance in an agriculturally important insect pest, P. xylostella.
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Relative amount of symbionts in Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Q changes with host plant and establishing the method of analyzing free amino acid in B. tabaci.
Commun Integr Biol
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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The impact of symbionts on their insect hosts depends on their infection density. In the current study, we investigated the effects of host plants (cucumber, cabbage, and cotton) on the relative amount of symbionts Portiera and Hamiltonella in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Q. The relative amounts of symbionts in 3 host plant B. tabaci Q populations with the same genetic background were evaluated by quantitative PCR. The whiteflies of cabbage population harbored more Portiera than those of cucumber and cotton populations, and the relative amount of Portiera did not differ statistically between cotton and cucumber populations. The whiteflies of cucumber and cabbage populations harbored more Hamiltonella than that of cotton population, and the relative amount of Hamiltonella did not differ statistically between cabbage and cucumber populations, indicated that the relative amount of symbionts was significantly affected by host plant. In addition, the method of analyzing the composition of free amino acid in B. tabaci was established. Twenty-eight amino acids were detected in the B. tabaci Q population, the non-essential amino acids, such as glutamate, glutamine, alanine, proline and the essential amino acid arginine were the dominant amino acids in B. tabaci Q.
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Tomato yellow leaf curl virus alters the host preferences of its vector Bemisia tabaci.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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Bemisia tabaci, the whitefly vector of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), seriously reduces tomato production and quality. Here, we report the first evidence that infection by TYLCV alters the host preferences of invasive B. tabaci B (Middle East-Minor Asia 1) and Q (Mediterranean genetic group), in which TYLCV-free B. tabaci Q preferred to settle on TYLCV-infected tomato plants over healthy ones. TYLCV-free B. tabaci B, however, preferred healthy tomato plants to TYLCV-infected plants. In contrast, TYLCV-infected B. tabaci, either B or Q, did not exhibit a preference between TYLCV-infected and TYLCV-free tomato plants. Based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS)analysis of plant terpene volatiles, significantly more ?-myrcene, thymene, ?-phellandrene, caryophyllene, (+)-4-carene, and ?-humulene were released from the TYLCV-free tomato plants than from the TYLCV-infected ones. The results indicate TYLCV can alter the host preferences of its vector Bemisia tabaci B and Q.
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Identification of biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma using network-based bioinformatics methods.
Eur. J. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide. Despite several efforts to elucidate molecular mechanisms involved in this cancer, they are still not fully understood.
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[Report of two cases of calcifying epithelioma in children].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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The presenting symptom of calcifying epithelioma was a hard, slowly growing subcutaneous mass. The two cases in this paper were both girls. The five and eight year-old girls were occurred in anteri or inferior of ear lobe and in preauricular respectively. This tumor was composed of two cell types: the shadow cells and basophilic cells with small calcifying areas. The tumor was finally removed without replase in a year follow-up.
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[Experimental study on distortion product otoacoustic emission used for hearing monitoring in the oto-neurosurgery operation].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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To explore the feasibility of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) used for hearing monitoring in the oto-neurosurgery operation.
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Overexpression of Bmi-1 contributes to the invasion and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma by increasing the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)?2, MMP-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor via the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2013
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumours and it carries a poor prognosis due to a high rate of recurrence or metastasis after surgery. Bmi-1 plays a significant role in the growth and metastasis of many solid tumours. However, the exact mechanisms underlying Bmi-1-mediated cell invasion and metastasis, especially in HCC, are not yet known. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the expression of Bmi-1 in HCC samples and its relationship with clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic value, we also investigated related mechanisms underlying Bmi-1-mediated cell invasion in HCC. Our results showed that Bmi-1 is upregulated in HCC tissues compared to matched non-cancer liver tissues; and its expression is positively associated with tumour size, metastasis, venous invasion and AJCC TNM stage, respectively; multivariate analysis showed that high expression of Bmi-1 was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. In addition, the shRNA-mediated inhibition of Bmi-1 reduced the invasiveness of two HCC cell lines in vitro by upregulating phosphatase and the tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) expression, inhibiting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling pathway and downregulating the expression and activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). These data demonstrate that Bmi-1 plays a vital role in HCC invasion and that Bmi-1 is a potential therapeutic target for HCC.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.