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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Synthesis and Herbicidal Evaluation of Triketone-containing Quinazoline-2,4-diones.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Exploring novel 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.27, HPPD) inhibitors is one of the most promising research directions in herbicide discovery. To discover new triketone herbicides with broad-spectrum weed control as well as the excellent crop selectivity, a series of (total 52) novel triketone-containing quinazoline-2,4-dione derivatives were synthesized and further bio-evaluated. The greenhouse testing indicated that many of newly synthesized compounds showed better or the excellent herbicidal activity against broadleaf and monocotyledonous weeds at the dosages of 37.5-150 g ai/ha. The structure and activity relationship in this study indicated that triketone-containing quinazoline-2, 4-dione motif has possessed a great impact on herbicide activity and may be utilized for further optimization. Among the new compounds, III-b and VI-a~d displayed broader spectrum of weed control than mesotrione. In addition, the compound III-b also demonstrated comparatively superior crop selectivity to mesotrione, thus possessing a great potential for weed control in field.
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Macrophage activation by polysaccharides from Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz through the nuclear factor-?B pathway.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Abstract Context: Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz is a traditional herb. Atractylodes macrocephalaon polysaccharides (AMP) have been found to enhance immunity and improve heart function. However, the mechanisms of the immunomodulatory effect have not been investigated. Objective: We examined whether AMP activated macrophages and explored the mechanisms of activation. Materials and methods: AMP was prepared and evaluated its immunomodulatory activity (25, 50, 100, and 200??g/mL) by detecting the phagocytosis and the production of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), IFN-?, and nitric oxide (NO) in RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, the role of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) pathway was examined in regulating TNF-? and NO production. Results: The phagocytosis of macrophages was enhanced by AMP in a dose-dependent manner and the maximal phagocytosis of macrophages occurred at concentrations of 100 and 200??g/mL. NO, TNF-?, and IFN-? release was also found to be dose dependent by increasing concentrations of AMP and reached the peak at a concentration of 200??g/mL. In addition, AMP induced inhibitor kappaB (I?B) degradation and the activation of NF-?B by p65 nuclear translocation, and then the activation of NF-?B in nucleus peaked at a concentration of 200??g/mL. Besides, NF-?B-specific inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) decreased AMP-induced NO and TNF-? production. Discussion and conclusion: These data suggest that AMP may modulate macrophage activities by stimulating NF-?B or activating NF-?B-dependent mechanisms.
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Predicting the long-term toxicity of five-antibiotic mixtures to Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Q67.
Pak J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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Concentration addition (CA) is commonly used as a standard additive reference model to predict the short-term toxicity for most chemical mixtures. Whether CA can predict the long-term toxicity of antibiotic mixtures was investigated. The long-term toxicity of five antibiotics including apramycin sulfate, paromomycin sulfate, tetracycline hydrochloride, chloramphenicol and streptomycin sulfate and their mixtures to a photo bacterium Q67 were detected by the long-term toxicity microplate analysis procedure. Seven five-antibiotic mixtures with various concentration ratios and concentration levels were designed by employing uniform design ray method. The long-term mixture toxicity was predicted by CA based on the toxicity data of single antibiotics. The results showed that Weibull or Logit function fit well with the long-term toxicity data of all the components and their mixtures (R>0.98 and RMSE<0.07). According the toxicity index, the negative logarithm of mean effect concentration, the long-term toxicity of the five antibiotics differs greatly and is higher than their short-term toxicity. The predicted values by CA model conformed to the experimental values of mixtures, which implies CA can predict reliable results for the long-term toxicity of antibiotic mixtures.
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A tolerant lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus paracasei, and its immunoregulatory function.
Can. J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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The aim of the present investigation was to isolate a probiotic strain from 23 samples of yurts cheese and 21 samples of kumiss (collected from scattered households in Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia), and from eN-Lac Capsules, a health-promoting product. The isolates were subjected to biochemical characterization analysis and were tested for tolerance to low pH, sodium salt, bile salt, pepsin, and trypsin. 16S DNA sequence analysis was conducted to identify the strain. The possible dose-dependent role of strain LP2 in immunomodulation was investigated using the ICR mouse model (from the Institute of Cancer Research). Daily, we conducted clinical observations, a carbon clearance test, a spleen lymphocyte proliferation test, and measurements of body mass and lymphoid organ index. Natural killer cell activity and delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction were determined. The results showed that 3 selected strains (LP2, LP4, and LP9) had high tolerance to low pH, sodium chloride, and bile salt and were not significantly different from Lactobacillus paracasei in terms of morphology, colony, and biochemistry characterizations. A further tolerance test showed that LP2 had the highest survival rate (90%) under the conditions of pH 3.0, 0.3% bile salt, 10 mg/mL pepsin, and 10 mg/mL trypsin for 24 h. The sequence heterogeneities within the 16S rDNA genes molecularly elucidated that the LP2 belongs to the L. paracasei family, on the basis of a homology of 99.6%. A significant enhanced footpad swelling reaction and natural killer cell activity in the middle-dose (10(8) cfu/mL) and the high-dose (10(9) cfu/mL) groups were observed but without obvious dose dependence (P < 0.05). Lymphocyte proliferation was also increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.01) compared with that of the control group, indicating a positive immunoregulatory effect.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of the subterranean termite, Reticulitermes chinensis Snyder (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Abstract We have determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Reticulitermes chinensis Snyder. The total length of the R. chinensis is 15,925?bp with 65.27% A?+?T content. It consists of 13 protein-coding, 22 tRNA, 2 rRNA genes and an A?+?T-rich control region. All the protein-coding genes used ATN as start codon. But the stop codons were TAA, TAG, and an incomplete termination codon (T) abutting an adjacent tRNA gene. The A?+?T-rich control region was 1125?bp in length with 67.02% A?+?T content.
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Global transcriptional response of Acinetobacter baumannii to a subinhibitory concentration of tigecycline.
Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a significant nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Multidrug resistance has limited the treatment options for A. baumannii. Tigecycline belongs to a new class of modified tetracycline antimicrobials known as glycylcyclines and has demonstrated good in vitro antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp. However, tigecycline-resistant strains may be generated during treatment. To explore the response to tigecycline in A. baumannii, the transcriptional profile of A. baumannii was determined in the presence and absence of tigecycline. The results showed that a major facilitator superfamily (MFS) efflux pump and multiple transcriptional regulators possibly involved in the stress response and drug resistance were upregulated in response to tigecycline. Strong suppressors in the aerobic phenylacetate catabolic pathway and a number of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters were also observed after exposure to tigecycline. Furthermore, A. baumannii showed a lower minimum inhibitory concentration of ceftazidime in the presence of tigecycline owing to downregulated OXA-23 and AmpC. These finding suggest that the response of A. baumannii to tigecycline is multifactorial and includes MFS family efflux pump transcriptional regulators and metabolic pathways, such as the phenylacetate catabolic pathway.
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Decreased expression of glutathione S-transferase pi correlates with poorly differentiated grade in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Glutathione S transferase pi (GSTP1) is a member of phase II detoxification enzymes as a major regulator of cell signaling in response to stress, hypoxia, growth factors, and other stimuli. The clinical role of GSTP1 in cancer is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum GSTP1 level in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and the GSTP1 expression in tissue samples from patients with OSCC and OSCC lines.
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In vitro and in vivo evidence for amphotericin B as a P-glycoprotein substrate on the blood-brain barrier.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Amphotericin B (AMB) has been a mainstay therapy for fungal infections of the central nervous system, but its use has been limited by its poor penetration into the brain, the mechanism of which remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in AMB crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The uptake of AMB by primary brain capillary endothelial cells in vitro was significantly enhanced after inhibition of P-gp by verapamil. The impact of two model P-gp inhibitors, verapamil and itraconazole, on brain/plasma ratios of AMB was examined in both uninfected CD-1 mice and those intracerebrally infected with Cryptococcus neoformans. In uninfected mice, the brain/plasma ratios of AMB were increased 15 min (3.5 versus 2.0; P < 0.05) and 30 min (5.2 versus 2.8; P < 0.05) after administration of verapamil or 45 min (6.0 versus 3.9; P < 0.05) and 60 min (5.4 versus 3.8; P < 0.05) after itraconazole administration. The increases in brain/plasma ratios were also observed in infected mice treated with AMB and P-gp inhibitors. The brain tissue fungal CFU in infected mice were significantly lower in AMB-plus-itraconazole or verapamil groups than in the untreated group (P < 0.005), but none of the treatments protected the mice from succumbing to the infection. In conclusion, we demonstrated that P-gp inhibitors can enhance the uptake of AMB through the BBB, suggesting that AMB is a P-gp substrate.
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Water-dispersible silicon dots as a peroxidase mimetic for the highly-sensitive colorimetric detection of glucose.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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We demonstrate that photoluminescent Si-dots exhibit intrinsic peroxidase-like activity, and can catalyze the oxidization of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) by H2O2, and produce a color change. This strategy can be used to detect glucose with high sensitivity and selectivity.
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Relationships Between Children's Exposure to Ethnic Produce and Their Dietary Behaviors.
J Immigr Minor Health
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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The current study examined relationships between children's ethnic produce exposure and healthy dietary practices among Latino, Hmong and non-Hispanic white children. One hundred Latino, 100 Hmong, and 92 non-Hispanic white parents of children ages 5-8 years old in northern California completed a cross-sectional survey. Children's exposure to ethnic produce from Hmong and Latino cultures, overall fruit and vegetable consumption, and fast food and ethnic restaurant use were measured. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare variables across different ethnic groups. Spearman's correlation was used to assess the relationship between variables. Children's overall ethnic produce exposure, as well as exposure to produce from other cultures, was significantly correlated with overall fruit and vegetable consumption. There was a marginal (p = 0.053) negative association between ethnic produce exposure and fast food restaurant use among Latino children. These findings suggest that promoting ethnic produce is an effective strategy for enhancing healthy dietary practices among children.
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HDG11 upregulates cell-wall-loosening protein genes to promote root elongation in Arabidopsis.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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The gain-of-function mutant edt1 shows significantly enhanced drought tolerance and a well-developed root system including deeper primary roots and more lateral roots. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the improved root system of edt1, we performed transcriptome comparison between the wild-type and edt1 roots. One of the interesting findings from the analysis was that several gene families of cell-wall-loosening proteins were upregulated in the mutant roots, including expansins, extensins, xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs), pectin-related enzymes, and cellulases. Most of these genes contain HD-binding cis-elements in their promoters predominantly with the TTTAATTT sequence, which can be bound by HDG11 in vitro and in vivo. The coordinated expression of these gene families overlaps fast root elongation. Furthermore, overexpression of AtEXPA5, which was dramatically upregulated in edt1, resulted in longer primary roots because cells were more extended longitudinally. When combined by crossing the AtEXPA5-overexpression lines with one pectin methylesterase inhibitor family protein (PMEI) gene (At5g62360)- or one cellulase (CEL) gene (At2g32990)-overexpression lines, the primary roots of the progeny even exceeded both parents in length. Our results demonstrate that HDG11 directly upregulates cell-wall-loosening protein genes, which is correlated with altered root system architecture, and confirm that cell-wall-loosening proteins play important roles in coordinating cell-wall extensibility with root development. The results of transgene experiments showed that expansin works together with PMEI and CEL to generate synergistic effects on primary root elongation, suggesting that different cell-wall-loosening protein families may function in combination to generate optimal effects on root extensibility.
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Increased lymphocyte to monocyte ratio is associated with better prognosis in patients with newly diagnosed metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma receiving chemotherapy.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Inflammation has been demonstrated to be widely involved in the carcinogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the prognostic significance of lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR) in metastatic NPC is not fully addressed. The purpose of the study is to investigate the prognostic impact of pre-treatment absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), absolute monocyte count (AMC), and LMR on patients with newly diagnosed metastatic NPC undergoing chemotherapy. Between January 2006 and December 2010, patients with newly diagnosed metastatic NPC undergoing chemotherapy were retrospectively collected. The prognostic significance of baseline clinical features and inflammatory markers was investigated. A total of 256 patients were eligible for the study. The best cut-off value of ALC, AMC, and LMR was 2.25?×?10(9)/L, 0.35?×?10(9)/L, and 5.07, respectively. Patients in the high LMR group had a significantly longer overall survival (OS) (25.0 months [24.50-25.49]) than patients in the low LMR group (16.0 months [15.51-16.49]; p?
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Cooking up diversity. Impact of a multicomponent, multicultural, experiential intervention on food and cooking behaviors among elementary-school students from low-income ethnically diverse families.
Appetite
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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This study evaluated the impact of a pilot intervention promoting ethnic produce through classroom food demonstrations, tastings and home cooking activities among ethnically diverse elementary-school children ages 5-8?years old and their family members in Northern California. A total of 604 intervention students from four schools participated in classroom food demonstrations and tasting activities using seven food recipes. The control group included 600 students from two additional schools. Each recipe featured one vegetable from Latino, Hmong, or mainstream American cultures. Intervention students also received food kits containing ingredients to take home for each recipe. Mixed methods of quantitative student and parent pre-post surveys, parent feedback surveys, and qualitative focus groups were used to evaluate the intervention. Generalized estimating equations were used for survey data analysis. Qualitative data from parent focus groups were analyzed based on the principles of grounded theory. Both quantitative and qualitative results revealed that intervention students increased familiarity, preferences, and consumption of the featured vegetables and significantly increased their involvement in food preparation at home. Qualitative results showed that children were actively involved in food preparation at home. In addition, the intervention helped parents increase their appreciation for new foods and recipes. The results suggest that promoting locally grown ethnic produce to children is effective in increasing their consumption of a variety of vegetables and their involvement in food preparation at home.
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Surgical strategy for isolated caudate lobectomy: experience with 16 cases.
HPB Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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Introduction. Surgical resection is the most effective treatment for neoplasm in the caudate lobe. Isolated caudate lobectomy is still a challenge for hepatobiliary surgeons. No widely accepted surgical strategy for the procedure has been developed yet. Objective. To get a better understanding of isolated caudate lobectomy and to optimize the procedure. Materials and Methods. 16 cases of isolated caudate lobectomy were reviewed to summarize the surgical experience. Results. All the 16 cases of isolated caudate lobectomy were carried out successfully, among which left side approach was adopted in two cases (12.5%), right side approach in three cases (18.75%), and both sides approach in 11 cases (68.75%). No severe complications occurred. Conclusion. The majority of neoplasms confined to the caudate lobe can be resected safely by left and right side approach with proper anatomic surgical procedure, usually in the sequence of mobilization, outflow control, inflow control, and division of the hepatic parenchyma. Fully mobilizing the caudate lobe from the inferior vena cava (IVC) is of great importance. Division of the retrohepatic ligament and the venous ligament facilitated the procedure.
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Identifying the component responsible for antagonism within ionic liquid mixtures using the up-to-down procedure integrated with a uniform design ray method.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Various chemicals in the environment always exist as mixtures. Toxicity interaction within mixtures may pose potential hazards and risks to the environmental safety and human health. Recent studies showed that toxicity interaction by ionic liquid (IL) mixtures can be related to a certain component. To identify the component, we developed a novel procedure integrating an up-to-down process with the uniform design-based ray method (UDUD) and applied it into an IL mixture system of four 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ILs (simply [bmim]X) where X=Cl(-), Br(-), CH3OSO3(-) and CH3(CH2)7OSO3(-). It was shown that two mixture rays in the quaternary system exhibited significant antagonistic interaction. In this paper, the UDUD was first employed to design four ternary mixture systems. The microplate toxicity analysis was used to determine the toxicities of various mixtures to a freshwater photobacterium Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67. The concentration addition was taken as an additive reference to assess the toxicity interactions taking place in mixtures. The results revealed that some ternary mixture rays including [bmim]CH3(CH2)7OSO3 display antagonism while the ternary rays without [bmim]CH3(CH2)7OSO3 exhibit additivity. On these grounds, we again designed all binary mixtures containing [bmim]CH3(CH2)7OSO3, determined their toxicities and assessed toxicity interaction. The results showed that three binary mixture systems produce antagonism. Thus, it may be concluded that [bmim]CH3(CH2)7OSO3 is indeed a key component inducing mixture antagonism.
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Comparison of ferulic acid content in Radix Angelicae Sinensis, Danggui-Buxue-Tang and Danggui-Sini-Tang.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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The aim of the present study was to determine the ferulic acid (FA) content of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (AS), Danggui-Buxue-Tang (DBT) and Danggui-Sini-Tang (DST) using the same ultra performance liquid chromatography system and method. FA was eluted using an Acquity BEH C18 column (100×2.1 mm inner diameter; 1.7 ?m). A mobile phase of methanol and 0.5% acetic acid was used and a flow rate of 0.3 ml/min was selected. The calibration curve exhibited a good linear regression (R(2)=0.9997). The inter- and intra-day precision measurements of FA ranged between 0.27 and 3.03% and the recovery ranged between 98.44 and 101.64% with relative standard deviation (RSD) values ?4.73%. The method was reliable and simple. The results of the chromatographic analyses indicate that the FA contents of the DBT and DST decoctions were increased compared with that of AS due to the presence of other herbs.
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Prenatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides and infant birth weight in China.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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In utero exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) is thought to be potentially harmful to fetal development. We aimed to investigate the associations of maternal and cord serum OCPs levels with infant birth weight in China. In this study, we measured serum levels of 18 OCPs in 81 mother-infant pairs, including DDT, hexachlorocyclohexanes (BHC), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), heptachlors, chlordanes, endosulfan-I, and mirex using a high-resolution-gas-chromatography with high-resolution-mass-spectrometry method. We found that p,p'-DDE and ?-BHC had the highest detection rate in both maternal and cord blood serum (97.2% and 96.7%, respectively), followed by HCB (93.0%, 51.7%), p,p'-DDT (88.7%, 36.7%), and p,p'-DDD (83.1%, 60.0%). Among all OCPs, the concentration of p,p'-DDE was the highest (mothers geometric mean (GM): 203.54ngg(-1), newborns GM: 116.14ngg(-1)), followed by HCB (70.62ngg(-1), 65.16ngg(-1)), and ?-BHC (67.67ngg(-1), 33.39ngg(-1)). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that each 1ngg(-1) increment of cord serum p,p'-DDE, total DDT, and ?-BHC was associated with a 0.10g, 0.10g, and 0.92g decrease in infant birth weight, respectively, and as the cord serum concentrations of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, HCB and mirex increased, the infant birth weight was also decreased, although the associations were not statistically significant due to the relatively small sample size. These results suggest that p,p'-DDE, ?-BHC, and HCB were the predominant OCPs in the serum of Chinese pregnant women and cord blood of their newborns. Prenatal exposure to DDT, ?-BHC, HCB, and mirex were associated with a decrease in birth weight, but these results need validation in larger sample-sized studies.
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Allograft inflammatory factor-1 alleviates liver disease of BALB/c mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) plays an important role in various inflammatory conditions. Our previous study demonstrated that AIF-1 was over-expressed in the liver of BALB/c mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum and played significant role in the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis. The aim of this study was to focus on the effect of AIF-1 treatment on liver fibrosis and necrosis of BALB/c mice infected with S. japonicum. Seventy-two BALB/c mice were infected with cercariae of S. japonicum and then divided into three groups: AIF-1-treated group, saline-treated group, and control group. The vital signs, liver function, egg load, and hepatic pathological changes of the mice were assessed, and the levels of AIF-1 and TNF-? in the liver and spleen were measured at 5, 8, and 14 weeks postinfection. The treatment of AIF-1 on the mice infected with S. japonicum suppressed the expression of TNF-? and increased the effectiveness of AIF-1 in the liver and spleen at 14 weeks postinfection. Histopathological analysis and Masson trichrome staining for the liver tissues showed that the liver fibrosis and necrosis were alleviated previously compared with other infected mice at 14 weeks postinfection. The treatment of AIF-1 on the mice infected with S. japonicum can alleviate hepatic fibrosis and necrosis which indicate that AIF-1 use may prevent and cure the liver fibrosis.
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Nicotine promotes cell proliferation and induces resistance to cisplatin by ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor?mediated activation in Raw264.7 and El4 cells.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Although nicotine is a risk factor for carcinogenesis and atherosclerosis, epidemiological data indicate that nicotine has therapeutic bene?ts in treating Alzheimer's disease. Our previous studies also showed that nicotine-treated dendritic cells have potential antitumor effects. Hence, the precise effects of nicotine on the biological characterizations of cells are controversial. The aim of the present study was to assess the roles of ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), Erk1/2-p38-JNK and PI3K-Akt pathway in nicotine-mediated proliferation and anti-apoptosis effects. The results firstly showed that nicotine treatment clearly augmented cell viability and upregulated PCNA expression in both Raw264.7 and El4 cells. Meanwhile, nicotine afforded protection against cisplatin-induced toxicity through inhibiting caspase-3 activation and upregulating anti-apoptotic protein expression. Further exploration demonstrated that nicotine efficiently abolished cisplatin-promoted mitochondria translocation of Bax and the release of cytochrome c. The pretreatment of ?-bungarotoxin and tubocurarine chloride significantly attenuated nicotine-augmented cell viability, abolished caspase-3 activation and ?7 nAChR upregulation. Both Erk-JNK-p38 and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways could be activated by nicotine treatment in Raw264.7 and El4 cells. Notably, when Erk-JNK and PI3K-Akt activities were inhibited, nicotine-augmented cell proliferation and anti-apoptotic effects were abolished accordingly. The results presented here indicate that nicotine could achieve ?7 nAChR-mediated proliferation and anti-apoptotic effects by activating Erk-JNK and PI3K-Akt pathways respectively, providing potential therapeutic molecules to deal with smoking-associated human diseases.
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Electrochemiluminescence aptasensor for adenosine triphosphate detection using host-guest recognition between metallocyclodextrin complex and aptamer.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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A sensitive and label-free electrochemiluminescence (ECL) aptasensor for the detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was successfully designed using host-guest recognition between a metallocyclodextrin complex, i.e., tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(II)-?-cyclodextrin [tris(bpyRu)-?-CD], and an ATP-binding aptamer. In the protocol, the NH2-terminated aptamer was immobilized on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by a coupling interaction. After host-guest recognition between tris(bpyRu)-?-CD and aptamer, the tris(bpyRu)-?-CD/aptamer/GCE produced a strong ECL signal as a result of the photoactive properties of tris(bpyRu)-?-CD. However, in the presence of ATP, the ATP/aptamer complex was formed preferentially, which restricted host-guest recognition, and therefore less tris(bpyRu)-?-CD was attached to the GCE surface, resulting in an obvious decrease in the ECL intensity. Under optimal determination conditions, an excellent logarithmic linear relationship between the ECL decrease and ATP concentration was obtained in the range 10.0-0.05 nM, with a detection limit of 0.01 nM at the S/N ratio of 3. The proposed ECL-based ATP aptasensor exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity, without time-consuming signal-labeling procedures, and is considered to be a promising model for detection of aptamer-specific targets.
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Sexual differences in cell proliferation in the ventricular zone, cell migration and differentiation in the HVC of juvenile Bengalese finch.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Song control nuclei have distinct sexual differences and thus are an ideal model to address how brain areas are sexually differentiated. Through a combination of histological analysis and electrical lesions, we first identified the ventricle site for HVC progenitor cells. We then found that there were significant sex differences in the cellular proliferation activity in the ventricular zone of the HVC, the number of migrating cells along the radial cells (positive immunoreactions to vimentin) and differentiation towards neurons. Through co-culturing of male and female slices containing the developing HVC in the same well, we found that the male slices could produce diffusible substances to masculinize the female HVC. By adding estrogen, an estrogen antagonist, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or its antibody into the culture medium, separately or in combination, we found that these diffusible substances may include estrogen and BDNF. Finally, we found that 1) estrogen-induced BDNF upregulation could be detected 48 hr after estrogen treatment and could not be blocked by a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor inhibitor and 2) the amount of VEGF mRNA expressed in the developing HVC and its adjacent area did not display any significant sex differences, as did the distribution of VEGF and laminin-expressing endothelial cells in the developing HVC. Because these findings are largely different from previous reports on the adult female HVC, it is suggested that our estrogen-induced BDNF up-regulation and the resultant sexual differentiation might not be mediated by VEGF and endothelial cells, but instead, may result from the direct effects of estrogen on BDNF.
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Identification of clinically relevant fungi and prototheca species by rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus PCR coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Multilocus PCR coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) is a new strategy for pathogen identification, but information about its application in fungal identification remains sparse.
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[Analysis of cancer incidence and mortality in Henan province, 2009].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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To analyze the cancer incidence and mortality of Henan province in 2009.
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Incidence, survival and prevalence of esophageal and gastric cancer in linzhou city from 2003 to 2009.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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This study describes recent trends in incidence, survival and prevalence of subgroups of esophageal and gastric cancer in Linzhou city between 2003 and 2009. Data of esophageal and gastric cancer for the period of interest were extracted from the Linzhou Cancer Registry. Using information on tumor morphology or anatomical site, data were divided into six groups; esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, esophageal adenocarcinoma, other and unspecified types of esophageal cancer, and cardia, non-cardia, and unspecified anatomical site of stomach cancer. Incidence, survival and prevalence rates for each of the six cancer groups were calculated. The majority of esophageal cancers were squamous cell carcinomas (82%). Cardiac cancer was the major gastric cancer group (64%). The incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric cardiac cancer increased between 2003 and 2009. Both esophageal and gastric cancer had a higher incidence in males compared with females. Overall survival was poor in all sub-groups with 1 year survival ranging from 45.9 to 65.6% and 5 year survival ranging from 14.7 to 30.5%. Prevalence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric cardiac cancer was high (accounting for 80% overall). An increased focus on prevention and early diagnosis, especially in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric cardiac cancer, is required.
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Cytotoxic ent-Kaurane Diterpenoids from Salvia cavaleriei.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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Fifteen new ent-kaurane diterpenoids, compounds 1-15, and two known analogues, 4-epi-henryine A (16) and leukamenin E (17), were isolated from the whole plants of Salvia cavaleriei. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic methods, and their absolute configurations were determined by electronic circular dichroism and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses with Cu K? radiation. Compounds 1-15 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines, HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW480, as well as the noncancerous Beas-2B cell line. Compounds 1-10, 12, 14, and 15 showed broad-spectrum cytotoxicity, with compounds 1, 3, 6-10, 12, and 15 exhibiting more potent cytotoxicity than the positive control, cis-platin, with IC50 values ranging from 0.65 to 6.4 ?M.
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[Microscopic Raman spectral characteristics and diagnostic value of pathological lip minor salivary glands affected in primary Sjögrens syndrome].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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To investigate the Raman spectral characteristics of the pathological lip minor salivary glands affected in primary Sjögrens syndrome.
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[Determination of heavy metals in artificial soil on railway rock-cut slopes by microwave digestion-AAS].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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The purpose of this paper is as follows: (1) Optimizing the parameters of microwave digestion-atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and establishing method for the determination of heavy metals in artificial soils. (2) Evaluating heavy metal pollution conditions in artificial soil samples from railway rock-cut slopes. The results showed that the mixture of HNO3-H2O2-HF was found to have the best digestion efficiency; under the optimized conditions, the recoveries of the method ranged from 95% to 105%; the measurement precision and the relative deviation were less than 4% and 5%, respectively; the concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn were significantly higher in the artificial soil on railway rock-cut slope than in the control soil, and they were 4.7, 1.3 and 1.2 times as much as the control soil, respectively; compared to the contents of Cr, Cu and Fe in control soils, there was no significant difference. This research will provide a reliable method for determining metal elements in artificial soils on rock-cut slopes and a theoretical basis for the management of the railway rock-cut slopes.
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[Molecular characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus collected from human infections in Shenzhen, between 2002 and 2008].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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To determine the occurrence and distribution of specific clones of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus(VP)isolated in Shenzhen and to assess the relationship between serotype O3:K6 and the globally distributed pandemic clone.
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Green synthesis of carbon dots with down- and up-conversion fluorescent properties for sensitive detection of hypochlorite with a dual-readout assay.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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High quality carbon dots (C-dots) with down- and up-conversion fluorescence have been synthesized through low-temperature carbonization using sweet pepper as the carbon source. The C-dots with a quantum yield (QY) of 19.3% exhibit superior photophysical properties, for example, narrow and symmetric emission spectra, large stock shifts, resistance to photobleaching, and excitation-dependent fluorescence behavior. The excellent C-dots serve as useful fluorescent probes for hypochlorite (ClO(-)) detection by both down- and up-conversion fluorescence. Two consecutive linear ranges allow a wide determination of ClO(-) concentrations with a low detection limit of 0.05 ?mol L(-1) and 0.06 ?mol L(-1) (S/N = 3) for down- and up-conversion fluorescence measurements, respectively. The proposed detection method is advantageous because it is simple, sensitive, dual-signalling model and low-cost and has potential extensive applications in environmental and biological assays.
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A label-free electrochemiluminescence aptasensor for thrombin detection based on host-guest recognition between tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(II)-?-cyclodextrin and aptamer.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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An ultrasensitive label-free electrochemiluminescence (ECL) aptasensor for the detection of thrombin was developed based on the specific recognition between tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(II)-?-cyclodextrin (tris(bpyRu)-?-CD) and the anti-thrombin aptamer (aptamer). The NH2-aptamer was first immobilized on the activated glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by coupling interaction. By use of the specific recognition between tris(bpyRu)-?-CD and aptamer, tris(bpyRu)-?-CD was then attached on the surface of GCE. Resulting from the outstanding photoactive properties of tris(bpyRu)-?-CD, the fabricated GCE performed strong ECL signal with the coreactant of 2-(dibutylamino)ethanol (DBAE). However, in the presence of thrombin, aptamer-thrombin bioaffinity complexes were formed, which restricted the recognition activities between aptamer and tris(bpyRu)-?-CD. Thus, fewer tris(bpyRu)-?-CD could be attached on the surface of GCE and led to an obvious decrease of ECL signal. Fortunately, the difference of ECL intensity before and after combination with thrombin was logarithmically linear with the concentration of thrombin in a wide range of 10nM-1pM. Meantime, a detection limit of 0.1pM without any other signal labeling or amplifying procedures indicated that the biosensor performed excellent sensitivity, operability and simplicity.
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[Detection of EML4-ALK fusion gene in non-small cell lung cancer and its clinicopathologic correlation].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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To investigate the frequency of EML4-ALK fusion gene in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, and its correlation with clinicopathologic features.
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Decreased susceptibility to tigecycline in Acinetobacter baumannii mediated by a mutation in trm encoding SAM-dependent methyltransferase.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen and multidrug-resistant isolate. Although tigecycline is a potent antibiotic for treating infections with multidrug-resistant isolates, resistance is becoming a problem. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of tigecycline resistance in A. baumannii.
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Relationship between HLA-G polymorphism and susceptibility to recurrent miscarriage: A meta-analysis of non-family-based studies.
J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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The HLA-G 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism had been inconsistently associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM) risk. We examined the association by performing a meta-analysis.
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Association between the (TAAAA)n SHBG polymorphism and PCOS: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Gynecol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Human sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a specific plasma transport glycoprotein for sex steroid hormones, and serum SHBG levels were decreased in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. To clarify the conflicting data in the literature concerning the association between PCOS and the (TAAAA)n SHBG polymorphism, and influence of the (TAAAA)n SHBG polymorphism on serum SHBG levels of PCOS patients, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed in this study. Literature search was conducted through PubMed, EMBASE and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. Five studies were included, representing 1595 individuals. No statistically significant associations were found between the (TAAAA)n SHBG allele and genotype with PCOS risk. Moreover, because the influence of the (TAAAA)n SHBG polymorphism on serum SHBG levels of PCOS patients in studies included in our review was investigated in different way to classify the alleles, we were unable to perform a meta-analysis and hence could not draw any conclusions. In conclusion, this study indicates that there is insufficient evidence to demonstrate a conclusive association between the (TAAAA)n SHBG polymorphism with the risk of PCOS, which needs to be further confirmed by further studies.
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Outcome of Laparoscopy-Guided Hysteroscopic Tubal Catheterization for Infertility Due to Proximal Tubal Obstruction.
J Minim Invasive Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2013
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To determine pregnancy outcomes after laparoscopy-guided hysteroscopic tubal catheterization and to report its role in the era of in vitro fertilization.
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Screening for differentially expressed genes between left- and right-sided colon carcinoma by microarray analysis.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Left-sided colon carcinoma (LSCC) and right-sided colon carcinoma (RSCC) differ in their genetic susceptibilities to neoplastic transformation. The present study identified 11 genes that were differentially expressed in LSCC and RSCC by expression profiling with microarray analysis. Compared with RSCC, the human genes for L-lactate dehydrogenase B chain (LDHB), cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor D (CDKN2D), phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-3-kinase C2 domain-containing subunit ? (PI3KC2?), protocadherin fat 1 (FAT; a human protein that closely resembles the Drosophila tumor suppressor, fat) and dual specificity protein phosphatase 2 (DUSP2) were upregulated in LSCC. By contrast, genes for ubiquitin D (UBD), casein kinase-1 binding protein (CK1BP), synaptotagmin-13 (SYT1), zinc finger protein 560 (ZNF560), pleckstrin homology domain-containing family B member 2 (PLEKHB2) and IgGFc-binding protein (FCGBP) were downregulated in LSCC compared with RSCC. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis revealed that the mRNA levels of UBD and CK1BP in LSCC were significantly lower compared with those in RSCC (P=0.033 and P= 0.005, respectively), whereas the mRNA levels of LDHB and CDKN2D in LSCC were significantly higher compared with those in RSCC (P=0.008 and P=0.017, respectively). Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that the expression of CDKN2D in LSCC was significantly higher compared with that in RSCC, while the expression of UBD in LSCC was significantly lower compared with that in RSCC. The present study provides important insights into the understanding of the molecular genetic basis for the different biological behaviors observed between LSCC and RSCC. These insights may therefore serve as a basis for the identification of novel colon cancer markers and therapeutic targets.
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Gold nanoparticle coupled with fluorophore for ultrasensitive detection of protamine and heparin.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Here we report a novel label-free fluorescent sensor for ultrasensitive detection of protamine and heparin based on the high quenching ability of gold nanoparticles to the fluorescence of fluorescein. The fluorescence was significantly quenched when fluorescein molecules were attached to the surface of gold nanoparticles by electrostatic interaction. Upon addition of protamine, the fluorescein molecules were detached from the surface of the gold nanoparticles due to the stronger adsorption of protamine on the surface of AuNPs, and resulting in the recovery of the fluorescein molecules fluorescence. Heparin is able to bind with Protamine specifically. In the presence of heparin, the interaction of heparin with protamine makes the AuNPs de-aggregate and the fluorescein molecules re-attach to the AuNPs, which lead to marked fluorescence quench again. By measuring the changes in the fluorescence of the fluorescein molecules, the concentration of protamine and heparin were sequentially determined. The linear response range was obtained over the concentration range from 0 to 0.8 ?g/mL and 4 to 1.6 ?g/mL with the low detection limit 0.0067 ?g/mL and 0.0013 ?g/mL for protamine and heparin, respectively.
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Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding for CC chemokines were not associated with the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Chemokines play a pivotal role in immune regulation and response, and previous studies suggest an association between immune deficiency and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
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Does ambient air pollutants increase the risk of fetal loss? A case-control study.
Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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To examine the associations between the ambient air pollution and early fetal loss.
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Six novel missense mutations causing factor X deficiency and application of thrombin generation test.
Thromb. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Inherited factor X (FX) deficiency is a rare hemorrhagic condition characterized by a variable clinical presentation weakly correlating with laboratory phenotype and genotype. Thrombin generation test (TGT) offers potential clinical advantages in the evaluation of hypocoagulable states.
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[Detection of anaerobes and drug sensitivity from the periodontal pockets of patients with combined periodontal-endodontic lesions].
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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To investigate the correlation between the composition of bacterial flora isolated from deep periodontal pockets with combined periodontal-endodontic lesions, and to test the antibiotic susceptibility of anaerobes.
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Cigarette smoke extract induces the expression of GRP78 in A549 cells via the p38/MAPK pathway.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To determine the involvement of glucose?regulated protein 78 (GRP78) in the cigarette smoke extract (CSE)?induced apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells and the potential mechanisms underlying this effect, A549 cells that originate from alveolar type II epithelial cells were exposed to various CSE conditions in the present study. GRP78 expression and its effect on the apoptosis of A549 cells were investigated using techniques such as RT-PCR, western blot analysis, gene knockdown by GRP78 siRNA interference and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick?end labeling assay. The activity of the p38/mitogen?activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and its involvement in GRP78 expression were also analyzed using SB203580, a p38/MAPK pathway inhibitor. It was demonstrated that GRP78 expression in the cells was significantly upregulated following CSE exposure and a 12?h exposure of 5% CSE was the most efficient in inducing GRP78 expression. This CSE?induced GRP78 expression was significantly attenuated by GRP78 siRNA or by the use of SB203580. The downregulation of GRP78 expression by GRP78 siRNA also led to the increased expression of caspase-3 and an increased apoptotic index (AI, P<0.05 vs. other groups). These results suggested that CSE induced GRP78 expression in A549 cells. This study demonstrated that upregulated GRP78 expression may be anti?apoptotic effects and the p38/MAPK pathway was involved in the process of CSE?induced GRP78 expression in A549 cells.
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Efficient synthesis and antiproliferative activity of novel thioether-substituted flavonoids.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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As widely occurring natural products, flavonoids are an important source for drug discovery, due to their structural diversity and broad-spectrum biological activity. In this work, a library of novel, thioether-substituted flavonoids with diverse heterocyclic groups was synthesized via a microwave-assisted procedure with the advantages of good yields, short times, mild conditions and ready isolation of the products. Their antiproliferative activities were evaluated against six cancer cell lines, HCCLM-7, Hela, MDA-MB-435S, SW-480, Hep-2, and MCF-7 by the MTT-based assay. Compared with the positive control 5-fluorouracil, three compounds, 6a, 6b and 6j were successfully identified as the most promising candidates, due to their higher potency and broad-spectrum bioactivity with IC50 values in the range of 0.43 ?M-6.7 ?M.
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Progesterone inhibits the migration and invasion of A549 lung cancer cells through membrane progesterone receptor ?-mediated mechanisms.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality in the world. The incidence of lung cancer, particularly lung adenocarcinoma, is increasing in women compared to men. The role of sex hormones in the development of lung cancer has attracted substantial interest, but remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that membrane progesterone receptor ? (mPR?) was expressed in a lung adenocarcinoma cell line, A549, and was located on the cell membrane. In additional experiments, we found that mPR? functioned as an essential mediator for progesterone (P4)-induced inhibitory effects on cell migration and invasion of A549 cells. Furthermore, PP1 (an Src pathway inhibitor), when co-incubated with P4, synchronously enhanced the inhibitory effects of P4 on cell migration and invasion. To explore the mechanisms of inhibition, we found that P4 and PP1 induced a cascade of molecular signaling events, such as dephosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). Our study provides a mechanistic view on the effects of P4 through mPR??Src/FAK relevant pathways in human lung adenocarcinoma cells and may aid in the development of novel therapeutic tools for the treatment of lung cancer.
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A double signal amplification platform for ultrasensitive and simultaneous detection of ascorbic acid, dopamine, uric acid and acetaminophen based on a nanocomposite of ferrocene thiolate stabilized Fe?O?@Au nanoparticles with graphene sheet.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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A double signal amplification platform for ultrasensitive and simultaneous detection of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA) and acetaminophen (AC) was fabricated by a nanocomposite of ferrocene thiolate stabilized Fe?O?@Au nanoparticles with graphene sheet. The platform was constructed by coating a newly synthesized phenylethynyl ferrocene thiolate (Fc-SAc) modified Fe?O?@Au NPs coupling with graphene sheet/chitosan (GS-chitosan) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface. The Fe?O?@Au-S-Fc/GS-chitosan modified GCE exhibits a synergistic catalytic and amplification effect toward AA, DA, UA and AC oxidation. The oxidation peak currents of the four compounds on the electrode were linearly dependent on AA, DA, UA and AC concentrations in the ranges of 4-400 ?M, 0.5-50 ?M, 1-300 ?M and 0.3-250 ?M in the individual detection of each component, respectively. By simultaneously changing the concentrations of AA, DA, UA and AC, their electrochemical oxidation peaks appeared at -0.03, 0.15, 0.24 and 0.35 V, and good linear current responses were obtained in the concentration ranges of 6-350, 0.5-50, 1-90 and 0.4-32 ?M with the detection limits of 1, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.05 ?M (S/N=3), respectively.
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Synthesis and antifungal activity of 3-(1,3,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-indoles and 3-(1,3,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)methyl-indoles.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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On the basis of the principle of combination of active structural moieties, a modified and efficient synthetic method for three series of novel indole-based 1,3,4-oxadiazoles is described. Bioassays conducted at Syngenta showed that several of the synthesized compounds exhibit higher antifungal activity than pimprinine, the natural product which inspired this synthesis. Two main structural alterations were found to broaden the spectrum of biological activity in most cases. Compounds 3g, 6c, 6e, 6h, 9d, 9e, 9h and 9m (Fig. 1) were identified as the most active on the biological assays, and will be studied further.
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Recombinant Luteinizing Hormone supplementation in poor responders undergoing IVF: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Gynecol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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The results of several studies about the effectiveness of recombinant luteinizing hormone (rLH) supplementation in poor responder in vitro fertilization (IVF) patients were conflicting. To evaluate the current available data regarding the efficacy of rLH supplementation in poor responders, a meta-analysis was performed. A systemic search was performed without language limitation but restricted to randomized controlled trial (RCT). We mainly explored MEDLINE, EMBASE, CNKI and Cochrane Library for the relevant studies. Three studies were considered eligible for inclusion. The meta-analysis indicated that rLH supplementation did not increase the ongoing pregnancy rate in poor responders (OR 1.30, 95% CI: 0.80, 2.11). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the number of oocytes retrieved, total dose of rFSH used, total duration of stimulation, number of retrieved metaphase II oocytes and cycle cancellation rate between the study and control groups. In conclusions, the available evidence does not support the addition of rLH in poor responders treated with rFSH and GnRHa for IVF. It was inconclusive. Future research should be based on strict criteria to define poor responders, and large, well-designed RCTs are necessary to definitively answer the important question of whether there was need to use rLH in poor responders undergoing IVF.
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B19, a novel monocarbonyl analogue of curcumin, induces human ovarian cancer cell apoptosis via activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the autophagy signaling pathway.
Int. J. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The unfolded protein response, autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis regulate tumor cell fate and have become novel signaling targets for the development of cancer therapeutic drugs. Curcumin has been used to treat several different cancers, including ovarian cancer, in clinical trials and research; however, the role of ER stress and autophagy in the therapeutic effects of curcumin and new curcumin analogues remains unclear.
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Tea polyphenols prevent lung from preneoplastic lesions and effect p53 and bcl-2 gene expression in rat lung tissues.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Lung cancer is one of the cancers that have the highest incidence and the highest mortality rate, and it is of great interest to identify ways to prevent its occurrence. We had established an animal model by using 3,4-benzopyrene intra-pulmonary injection in our previous study, and had observed that the rats lung carcinoma incidence and multiplicity were significantly reduced by green tea administration. This study further investigated the effect of tea polyphenols on rat lung preneoplastic lesions using the lung carcinoma model established by 3,4-benzopyrene intra-pulmonary injection. Sprague-Dawley rats of the same age were randomly divided into 10 groups and treated with 3,4-benzopyrene by intra-pulmonary injection. Five groups were given 0.3% solution of tea polyphenols (equivalent to 1.2% of green tea) in drinking water, while the other 5 groups were given pure drinking water. The rats were sacrificed at 0, 1, 4, 8 and 16 weeks after carcinogen treatment. In the control groups of rats, local bronchial inflammation were observed at 1 week after 3,4-benzopyrene treatment. From 4 weeks to 16 weeks after carcinogen treatment, hyperplasia, cell hyperproliferation, heterogeneity were observed in the bronchial epithelium. Meanwhile, the expression of p53 mRNA and protein, as well as the level of bcl-2, increased in the bronchial epithelial lesion. Tea polyphenols treatment significantly alleviated the bronchial epithelial lesions. At the same time, tea polyphenols treatment enhanced p53 expression, but reduced bcl-2 expression. These results indicated that tea polyphenols may have preventive effect against lung preneoplasm lesions, possibly through regulating the expression of some critical genes such as p53 and bcl-2.
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[The effect of 5-fluorouracil on enriching cancer stem cells of hepatoma cell line BEL-7402].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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To investigate the effect of 5-FU (5-fluorouracil) on enriching cancer stem cells of HCC cell line BEL-7402 and the biological characteristics of enriched cells.
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[Magnetic resonance imaging findings of lesions in limbic system related structures in general paresis of insane].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2011
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To analyze the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of lesions in the limbic system related structures in general paresis of insane (GPI) patients so as to explore its pathogenesis and provide a new MRI diagnostic method.
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[Bioinformatic prediction of conserved microRNAs and their target genes in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2011
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a recently discovered class of small (-21nt), non-coding, endogenous, single-stranded RNAs in eukaryotes, regulate gene expression negatively at the post-transcriptional levels depending on the extent of complementation between miRNA and mRNA. To date, a large number of miRNAs have been reported in many species, but none for eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). In this paper, a computational homology search approach based on the conservation of miRNA sequences and the stem-loop hairpin secondary structures of miRNAs was adopted. The search was started with the known plant miRNAs compared to eggplant expressed sequence tags (EST) databases to find potential miRNAs. Following a range of filtering criteria, a total of 16 potential miRNAs belonging to 12 families were identified. Three pairs of sense and antisense strand eggplant miRNAs belonging to three different miRNA families were also found. Furthermore, miR390 and miR399 sense/antisense pairs are identified for the first time in plants. Using online software psRNATarget, we further predicted the target genes of these 16 miRNAs and got 71 potential targets genes on base of 15 eggplant miRNAs. Most of these target genes were predicted to encode proteins that play key role in eggplant growth, development, metabolism, and stress responses.
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Norcantharidin inhibits the expression of extracellular matrix and TGF-?1 in HK-2 cells induced by high glucose independent of calcineurin signal pathway.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
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Norcantharidin (NCTD) was shown in our previous studies to attenuate renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in rat models with diabetic nephropathy (DN). The aim of this study was to determine the effects of NCTD on the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) and TGF-?1 in HK-2 cells stimulated by high glucose and on calcineurin (CaN)/NFAT pathway. Whether or not the antifibrotic effect of NCTD on renal interstitium was dependent on its inhibition of CaN pathway was also investigated. Experimental concentrations of NCTD were verified by cytotoxic test and MTT assay. HK-2 cells were transfected with CaN small interference RNA (siRNA). The mRNA and protein expressions of FN, ColIV, TGF-?1, and CaN in HK-2 cells were detected by real-time PCR and western blot. The CaN/NFAT pathway was examined by indirect immunofluorescence and western blot. Our study revealed that NCTD concentrations over 5?mg/l had overt cytotoxicity on HK-2 cells. Meanwhile, both 2.5 and 5 mg/l NCTD inhibited HK-2 cell proliferation (P < 0.05). NCTD inhibited the upregulation of FN, ColIV, and TGF-?1 of HK-2 cells stimulated by high glucose (P < 0.05), and also significantly downregulated the expression of CaN mRNA and protein in HK-2 cells (P < 0.05). In addition, not only was the nuclear translocation of NFATc inhibited, but its protein level in the nucleus was also reduced. Following CaN siRNA transfection, CaN mRNA and protein expression were significantly decreased. In contrast, the protein levels of FN, ColIV, and TGF-?1 increased in HK-2 cells stimulated by high glucose (P < 0.05). However, NCTD treatment downregulated their expression. These results indicated that NCTD could decrease the expression of ECM and TGF-?1 in HK-2 cells stimulated by high glucose, downregulate CaN expression, and block the CaN/NFAT signaling pathway. However, the effect of NCTD on inhibition of the expression of ECM and TGF-?1 was not associated with its inhibition of the CaN/NFAT pathway.
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Assessment of daily intake of toxic elements due to consumption of vegetables, fruits, meat, and seafood by inhabitants of Xiamen, China.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2011
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This study was designed to estimate the dietary intake of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) (total and methyl), and arsenic (As) by inhabitants of Xiamen, China. The concentrations of these toxic elements (TEs) were determined in vegetables, fruits, meat, and seafood samples randomly acquired in 5 districts of Xiamen between 2005 and 2009. Health risks were evaluated for inhabitants of Xiamen due to dietary consumption. The target hazard quotient (THQ) values for individual elements were far below 1, indicating minimal noncarcinogenic risks from TEs for inhabitants of Xiamen under the current food consumption rate. However, consumption of the entire foodstuffs could lead to potential health risks since the 95th percentile HI was higher than 1. The relative contributions of Cd, Pb, Hg T, and As to the HI were 16.0%, 15.9%, 5.9%, and 62.2% for the mean exposure level, and 13.3%, 13.4%, 5.6%, and 67.9% for the 95th percentile estimate. The THQ value of methyl mercury through consumption of cephalopod was less than 1. Tomato, cephalopod, eggplant, cabbage, orange, and pork were the main sources of total dietary intakes of TEs. The estimation of carcinogenic risk shows that the carcinogenic rate of arsenic exceeded the accepted risk level of 10(-4) . Therefore, the carcinogenic risk of arsenic for inhabitants of Xiamen is of concern. Practical Application:? Tomato, cephalopod, eggplant, cabbage, orange, and pork were the main sources of dietary intakes of TEs in Xiamen, China. The carcinogenic risk of arsenic for inhabitants in this area who consume large amounts of fruits and vegetables daily may be of concern. Consumers are encouraged to eat fruits and vegetables with different origins and eat less cephalopod to reduce the possibilities of continuously eating commodities from the contaminated areas.
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Induction of specific immune response and suppression of fertility by B-cell-epitope-based mimovirus vaccine.
Reproduction
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2011
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SPINLW1 (previously known as eppin (epididymal protease inhibitor)) is a target under intense scrutiny in the study of male contraceptive vaccines. B-cell-dominant epitopes are now recognized as key parts of the induction of humoral immune responses against target antigens. The generation of robust humoral responses in vivo has become a crucial problem in the development of modern vaccines. In this study, we developed a completely novel B-cell-dominant-epitope-based mimovirus vaccine, which is a kind of virus-size particulate antigen delivery system. The mimovirus successfully self-assembled from a cationic peptide containing a cell-penetrating peptide of TAT49-57 and a plasmid DNA encoding both three SPINLW1 (103-115) copies and adjuvant C3d3. The male mice were immunized with the epitope-based mimovirus vaccine, which resulted in a gradual elevation of specific serum IgG antibody levels. These reached a peak at week 4. Mating for the fertility assay showed that the mimovirus vaccine had accomplished a moderate fertility inhibition effect and investigation into the mechanism of action showed that it did so by interfering with the reproductive function of the sperm but that it did not damage the structures of the testes or cause serum testosterone to decline. Our results suggest an ideal protocol for suppressing fertility in mice by an engineered mimovirus vaccine.
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[Determination of silver content in silver-loaded coral hydroxyapatite in relation to the biocompatibility].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2011
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To determine the amount of silver in silver-loaded coral hydroxyapatite (Ag(+)-CHA) bone substitute and its impact on the biocompatibility of this material with mouse embryonic osteoblast cells.
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Novel synthetic methods for N-cyano-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamides and their fungicidal activity.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2011
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A novel synthetic method of N-cyanocarboxamides has been developed with advantages of mild reaction condition, simpler procedure and easy reactant-product isolation compared with the existing methods. Using this novel method, 16 new N-cyano-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide derivatives were synthesized and their structures were characterized by spectrum analysis. Further antifungal activity study showed that most of the newly synthesized compounds have good antifungal activity selectively against Rhizoctonia solani among the six fungi tested. Particularly, compound 12h was identified as the most promising candidate with an EC(50) of 2.63 ?g/mL against R. solani.
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Norcantharidin, a protective therapeutic agent in renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2011
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Progressive renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a common final pathway of nearly all forms of chronic kidney disease. Many efforts have been done to arrest or prevent renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis but with little progress. Nowadays, few therapeutic agents are available in clinical use. Norcantharidin (NCTD) is of great benefit in anticancer treatment, by inducing cell apoptosis, inhibiting cell proliferation, in addition, blocking tumor metastasis and angiogenesis in cancer, whereas little attention is given to its relationship with other diseases. Our recent studies demonstrated that NCTD was protective against renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis both in vivo and in vitro. The underlying mechanisms may include modulation of TGF-?1/Smad signal cascade, inhibition of protein serine/threonine phosphatases (PPP) as well as NF-?B. NCTD may be a promising therapeutic agent for renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In the present article, we will review the action of NCTD in renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis and discuss its possible mechanisms.
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Hypoxia-induced increases in A549/CDDP cell drug resistance are reversed by RNA interference of HIF-1? expression.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2011
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This study aimed to investigate the effects of knocking down hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) through RNA interference on hypoxia-induced increases in drug resistance in A549/CDDP cells, and to study the underlying mechanisms. A small interfering RNA (siRNA) eukaryotic expression vector targeting HIF-1? was constructed and transfected into A549/CDDP cells treated with hypoxia. The mRNA and protein levels of HIF-1?, multidrug resistance-1 (MDR1), and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemistry. Cell viability following treatment with cisplatin was determined by MTT assay. Hypoxia increased the resistance of A549/CDDP cells to cisplatin and this effect was reversed by the siRNA inhibition of HIF-1? expression. Expression of HIF-1? siRNA also downregulated HIF-1?, MDR1 and MRP mRNA, and protein expression in A549/CDDP cells treated with hypoxia (p<0.05). Hypoxia-induced resistance of A549/CDDP cells to cisplatin is reversed by the siRNA inhibition of HIF-1? expression. This effect may be mediated by a decreased expression of MDR1 and MRP.
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[The curative effects of different drugs on liver cell damage of rats induced by acute nickel carbonyl poisoning].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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To assess the curative effects of different drugs on liver cell damage of rats induced by acute nickel carbonyl poisoning.
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Silencing of the human TERT gene by RNAi inhibits A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2011
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Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is the catalytic subunit and the activity determinant factor of the telomerase enzyme which maintains the length of human chromosomes. In recent years it has become an attractive molecular target for cancer gene therapy. In the present study, we show that hTERT siRNA effectively suppressed the expression of hTERT mRNA and hTERT protein levels, reduced telomerase activity, and induced apoptosis of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells (P<0.05). In vivo, tumors treated with the hTERT siRNA were of reduced sizes, indicating that the hTERT siRNA also reduced the tumorigenic potential of lung adenocarcinoma cells (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that hTERT siRNA can cause effective suppression of telomerase and lead to apoptosis in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. hTERT siRNA may, therefore, be a strong candidate for highly selective therapy for chemoprevention and treatment of lung adenocarcinoma.
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Sites of origin and developmental dynamics of the neurons in the core and shell regions of torus semicircularis in the Chinese softshell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis).
J. Comp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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To know the embryogenesis of the core and shell regions of the midbrain auditory nucleus, a single dose of [(3)H]-thymidine was injected into the turtle embryos at peak stages of neurogenesis in the shell and core of the torus semicircularis. Following sequential survival times, labeled neurons and the dynamics of cell proliferation were examined. The expression of vimentin (VM), reelin, calbindin, parvalbumin, and substance P were also studied. The results showed that: 1) progenitor cells for the core and shell regions were generated in different sites of the ventricular zone; 2) the length of the cell cycle or S-phase for the shell region were both longer than those for the core region (4.7 and 3.2 hours longer, respectively), suggesting that mitotic activity in the core region is higher than it is in the shell region; 3) the elongated cell bodies of the labeled core and shell cells had close apposition to VM fibers, suggesting that the migration of these cells is guided by VM fibers; 4) the germinal sites of the core and shell constructed by projecting the orientation of radial VM fibers back to the ventricular zone was consistent with those obtained by short and sequential survival [(3)H]-thymidine radiography; and 5) the beginning of positive staining for parvalbumin in the core region was interposed between those for calbindin and substance P in the shell regions. This study contributes to the understanding of how auditory nuclei are organized and how their components developed and evolved.
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Comparative proteomic analysis of cellular response of human airway epithelial cells (A549) to benzo(a)pyrene.
Toxicol. Mech. Methods
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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This work aimed to investigate the cellular response of human airway epithelial cells (A549) to oxidative stress induced by benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]. Levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation were investigated in A549 cells treated with varying concentrations of B(a)P. A comparative proteomic analysis of total proteins was performed in cells treated with 1 µM B(a)P [B(a)P-1] and untreated cells. The expression of Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD), one of the identified down-regulated proteins in B(a)P-1 cells, was then analyzed by Western blotting. The total antioxidant activity, total superoxide dismutase activity, catalase (CAT) activity, and glutathione reductase (GR) activity were all analyzed after B(a)P treatment. Our results demonstrated that 1 µM B(a)P could induce ROS generation and lead to lipid peroxidation in A549 cells, and 23 differentially expressed proteins were identified. The expression levels of Mn SOD and the total SOD were induced at 0.1 µM and suppressed at 1 µM and 10 µM. Up-regulation of CAT and GR activity resulted in an increase in total antioxidant activity in A549 after exposure to B(a)P. These findings provide a basis for understanding the mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction and perturbation of antioxidant status induced by B(a)P on airway epithelial cells.
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Correlation of Skp2 overexpression to prognosis of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma from South China.
Chin J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2), which plays a role in cell cycle regulation, is commonly overexpressed in a variety of human cancers and associated with poor prognosis. However, its role in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is not well understood. In this study, we examined the clinical significance of Skp2, with a particular emphasis on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS), in NPC cases in South China, where NPC is an epidemic. Additionally, we explored the function of Skp2 in maintaining a cancer stem cell-like phenotype in NPC cell lines. Skp2 expression was assessed for 127 NPC patients using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry and analyzed together with clinicopathologic features, OS, and DFS. Skp2 expression was detectable, or positive, in 75.6% of patients. Although there was no correlation between Skp2 and any clinicopathologic factor, Skp2 expression significantly portended inferior OS (P = 0.013) and DFS (P = 0.012). In the multivariate model, Skp2 expression remained significantly predictive of poor OS [P = 0.009, risk ratio (RR) = 4.06] and DFS (P = 0.008, RR = 3.56), and this was also true for clinical stage (P = 0.012 and RR=3.201 for OS; P = 0.002 and RR=1.94 for DFS) and sex (P = 0.016 and RR=0.31 for OS; P = 0.006 and RR = 0.27 for DFS). After Skp2 knockdown, a colony formation assay was used to evaluate the self-renewal property of stem-like cells in the NPC cell lines CNE-1 and CNE-2. The colony formation efficiency in CNE-1 and CNE-2 cells was decreased. In Skp2-transfected CNE-1 and CNE-2 cells, side population (SP) proportion was increased as detected by flow cytometry. Skp2 is an independent prognostic marker for OS and DFS in NPC. Skp2 may play a role in maintaining the cancer stem cell-like phenotype of NPC cell lines.
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Norcantharidin attenuates tubulointerstitial fibrosis in rat models with diabetic nephropathy.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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To investigate the effects of norcantharidin (NCTD) on tubulointerstitial fibrosis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in streptozotocin-induced rat model.
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[Effects of recombinant human erythropoietin on serum levels of neuron-specific enolase, S-100? protein and myelin basic protein in rats following status epilepticus].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2011
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This study examined the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO) on the serum levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), S-100? protein and myelin basic protein (MBP) in young rats 24 hrs after lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in order to study the potential role of r-HuEPO in epileptic brain damage.
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Effects of the metals lead and zinc on the growth, development, and reproduction of Pardosa astrigera (Araneae: Lycosidae).
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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Metal pollution is a serious environmental problem worldwide, and severely threatens biological diversity and human health. In order to investigate the effects of metals on a potential indicator species of wolf spider, Pardosa astrigera (Araneae: Lycosidae), 3rd-instar spiderlings were exposed to metals by using sublethal concentrations of PbCl? and ZnCl? solutions as their drinking water. The total durations of development of P. astrigera from the 3rd to 6th instars were significantly longer than that of the control group, and females showed a sharp reduction in total egg number. Body weights were significantly decreased in the mature spiders exposed to PbCl? solutions and ZnCl? solutions of high concentration (100 mM). These results suggest that detoxifying strategies deployed by P. astrigera against metal intoxication incur the costs of delayed development, and reduced growth and reproduction.
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A model to determine 3-month mortality risk in patients with acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure.
Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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Liver failure has high mortality. There are accurate but controversial models to determine mortality of patients with acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure (ACHBLF). We developed a logistic regression model (LRM) and tested its ability to predict the 3-month mortality of patients with ACHBLF.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.