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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Correlation Between Hyperhomocysteinemia and Outcomes of Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction.
Am J Ther
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Overwhelming clinical and epidemiological studies have identified elevated plasma total homocysteine (Hcy) as new important risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular disease. But the relationship between outcome and hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been rarely reported. This study aimed to evaluate the association between hyperhomocysteinemia and short-term outcomes of patients with AMI. Eight hundred five patients were divided into high Hcy level group (group H: N = 457) and low Hcy level group (group L: N = 348) according to the plasma Hcy levels of 15 mmol/L. The comparisons were made between 2 groups in the following aspects: sex, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, the time for symptom from onset to percutaneous coronary intervention, homoccyteine, creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme (creatine kinase myocardial band), and the incidence of 30-day adverse events. The incidences of heart failure, cardiac rupture, death, and the total adverse cardiovascular events were statistically significantly higher in group H than in group L. But the incidence of postoperative angina pectoris and reinfarction was similar between groups. The results of logistic regression showed that the incidence of 30-day adverse events was closely related to the age and the level of Hcy. An elevated plasma total Hcy level in patients with AMI experienced pemutaneous coronary intervention may be related to the short-term outcomes. An elevated high plasma Hcy level also seems to be an independent predictor of 30-day cardiovascular events in patients with AMI.
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Stable SET knockdown in breast cell carcinoma inhibits cell migration and invasion.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Breast cancer is the most malignant tumor for women, however, the mechanisms underlying this devastating disease remain unclear. SET is an endogenous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and involved in many physiological and pathological processes. SET could promote the occurrence of tumor through inhibiting PP2A. In this study, we explore the role of SET in the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and ZR-75-30. The stable suppression of SET expression through lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) was shown to inhibit the growth, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Knockdown of SET increases the activity and expression of PP2Ac and decrease the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). These data demonstrate that SET may be involved in the pathogenic processes of breast cancer, indicating that SET can serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer.
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A comparative study of techniques for differential expression analysis on RNA-Seq data.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technology allow high-throughput cDNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to be widely applied in transcriptomic studies, in particular for detecting differentially expressed genes between groups. Many software packages have been developed for the identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between treatment groups based on RNA-Seq data. However, there is a lack of consensus on how to approach an optimal study design and choice of suitable software for the analysis. In this comparative study we evaluate the performance of three of the most frequently used software tools: Cufflinks-Cuffdiff2, DESeq and edgeR. A number of important parameters of RNA-Seq technology were taken into consideration, including the number of replicates, sequencing depth, and balanced vs. unbalanced sequencing depth within and between groups. We benchmarked results relative to sets of DEGs identified through either quantitative RT-PCR or microarray. We observed that edgeR performs slightly better than DESeq and Cuffdiff2 in terms of the ability to uncover true positives. Overall, DESeq or taking the intersection of DEGs from two or more tools is recommended if the number of false positives is a major concern in the study. In other circumstances, edgeR is slightly preferable for differential expression analysis at the expense of potentially introducing more false positives.
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Treatment-related fatigue with everolimus and temsirolimus in patients with cancer-a meta-analysis of clinical trials.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, everolimus and temsirolimus, are approved for the treatment of a variety of malignancies. Fatigue has been described with these agents as a common side effect, although the overall incidence and risk remain unclear. We performed a meta-analysis to calculate the overall incidence of fatigue in cancer patients treated with everolimus and temsirolimus and to compare the differences in incidence with placebo. The electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases were searched for studies to include in the meta-analysis. Eligible studies were phase II and III prospective clinical trials of cancer patients treated with single drug everolimus or temsirolimus with toxicity data on fatigue. Overall incidence rates, relative risk (RR), and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated employing fixed or random effects models depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. A total of 9,760 patients with a variety of malignancies from 56 prospective clinical trials were included for the meta-analysis. The overall incidences of all-grade and high-grade fatigue in cancer patients treated with mTOR inhibitor (everolimus or temsirolimus) were 45.4 % (95 % CI 36.9-55.8 %) and 8.7 % (95 % CI 7.2-10.4 %), respectively. The relative risks of fatigue of mTOR inhibitor compared to placebo were increased for all-grade (RR?=?1.22, 95 % CI 1.08-1.38, P?=?0.002) and high-grade (RR?=?1.82, 95 % CI 1.24-2.69, P?=?0.002) fatigue. The incidence of all-grade fatigue of patients treated with everolimus was higher than those with temsirolimus (RR?=?1.85, 95 % CI 1.71-2.01, P?
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Emulsified isoflurane anesthesia decreases brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and induces cognitive dysfunction in adult rats.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a severe complication characterized by cognitive decline in patients following anesthesia and surgery. Previous studies have suggested that volatile anesthetics, for example isoflurane, may contribute to such impairment. In the present study, the effects of emulsified isoflurane (EI) exposure on cognitive function, as well as the potential mechanisms, were investigated in animal models. Eight-month-old male rats were administered a single intravenous injection of 8% EI. The rats were then subjected to the Morris water maze test to assess their cognitive functions at different time-points following drug administration. Samples were taken in order to detect the plasma corticosterone concentration and the levels of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), as well as the expression of BDNF and NGF in the hippocampal region. The results showed that a single injection of EI caused reversible learning and memory dysfunction in adult rats. It was found that downregulation of BDNF expression may contribute to the isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment of these rats. Increased expression of NGF may be associated with the protection mechanism subsequent to learning and memory function decline, and therefore may accelerate the recovery of cognitive function.
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Activation of the Rab7 GTPase by the MON1-CCZ1 Complex Is Essential for PVC-to-Vacuole Trafficking and Plant Growth in Arabidopsis.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Rab GTPases serve as multifaceted organizers during vesicle trafficking. Rab7, a member of the Rab GTPase family, has been shown to perform various essential functions in endosome trafficking and in endosome-to-lysosome trafficking in mammalian systems. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes eight putative Rab7 homologs; however, the detailed function and activation mechanism of Rab7 in plants remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Arabidopsis RABG3f, a member of the plant Rab7 small GTPase family, localizes to prevacuolar compartments (PVCs) and the tonoplast. The proper activation of Rab7 is essential for both PVC-to-vacuole trafficking and vacuole biogenesis. Expression of a dominant-negative Rab7 mutant (RABG3f(T22N)) induces the formation of enlarged PVCs and affects vacuole morphology in plant cells. We also identify Arabidopsis MON1 (MONENSIN SENSITIVITY1) and CCZ1 (CALCIUM CAFFEINE ZINC SENSITIVITY1) proteins as a dimeric complex that functions as the Rab7 guanine nucleotide exchange factor. The MON1-CCZ1 complex also serves as the Rab5 effector to mediate Rab5-to-Rab7 conversion on PVCs. Loss of functional MON1 causes the formation of enlarged Rab5-positive PVCs that are separated from Rab7-positive endosomes. Similar to the dominant-negative Rab7 mutant, the mon1 mutants show pleiotropic growth defects, fragmented vacuoles, and altered vacuolar trafficking. Thus, Rab7 activation by the MON1-CCZ1 complex is critical for vacuolar trafficking, vacuole biogenesis, and plant growth.
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Asymmetric synthesis of 3,3,5,5-tetrasubstituted 1,2-dioxolanes: total synthesis of epiplakinic acid F.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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The first enantioselective total synthesis of epiplakinic acid F (1) was achieved through a pivotal step involving a radical-mediated asymmetric peroxidation of vinylcyclopropanes with molecular oxygen to construct highly substituted 1,2-dioxolanes. Subsequent conversions of the chiral 1,2-dioxolanes led to total synthesis of epiplakinic acid F (1) and the confirmation of its absolute configuration. The enantiomer of epiplakinic acid F methyl ester (2) was also prepared.
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Neocortical Tet3-mediated accumulation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine promotes rapid behavioral adaptation.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is a novel DNA modification that is highly enriched in the adult brain and dynamically regulated by neural activity. 5-hmC accumulates across the lifespan; however, the functional relevance of this change in 5-hmC and whether it is necessary for behavioral adaptation have not been fully elucidated. Moreover, although the ten-eleven translocation (Tet) family of enzymes is known to be essential for converting methylated DNA to 5-hmC, the role of individual Tet proteins in the adult cortex remains unclear. Using 5-hmC capture together with high-throughput DNA sequencing on individual mice, we show that fear extinction, an important form of reversal learning, leads to a dramatic genome-wide redistribution of 5-hmC within the infralimbic prefrontal cortex. Moreover, extinction learning-induced Tet3-mediated accumulation of 5-hmC is associated with the establishment of epigenetic states that promote gene expression and rapid behavioral adaptation.
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Hemorrhagic events in cancer patients treated with aflibercept: a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Aflibercept (Ziv-aflibercept, VEGF Trap, AVE005) is an engineered protein that functions as a decoy receptor to bind vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). Hemorrhagic events, including epistaxis, gastrointestinal bleeding, and pulmonary bleeding, is one of its major adverse effects, but the incidence rate and overall risk has not been systematically studied. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of published clinical trials to investigate the incidence and relative risk of hemorrhagic events in cancer patients treated with aflibercept. Electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane databases, and American Society of Clinical Oncology abstracts were searched. Eligible studies were phase II and III prospective clinical trials of cancer patients treated with aflibercept with toxicity profile on hemorrhagic events. Overall incidence rates, relative risk (RR), and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using fixed or random effects models depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. A total of 4,538 patients with a variety of solid tumors from 13 prospective clinical trials were included for the meta-analysis. The overall incidences of all-grade and high-grade hemorrhagic events in cancer patients were 22.1 % (95 % CI, 16.5-29.7 %) and 4.2 % (95 % CI, 3.9-4.6 %), respectively. The relative risks of hemorrhagic events of aflibercept compared to control were increased for all-grade (RR?=?2.63; 95 % CI, 2.07-3.34) and high-grade (RR?=?2.45, 95 % CI, 1.62-3.72) hemorrhagic events. The risk of developing high-grade hemorrhagic events with aflibercept was comparable to that of bevacizumab (RR?=?1.26; 95 % CI, 0.89-1.79). Aflibercept is associated with an increased risk of developing hemorrhagic events in patients with solid tumors. Close monitoring and management of hemorrhagic events are recommended.
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Identification of Prolapsing Mitral Valve Scallops by a Three-Dimensional Multiplanar Reconstruction Method.
Echocardiography
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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The objectives of this study were twofold: to assess the diagnostic utility of three-dimensional (3D) multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) in identifying prolapsing mitral valve (MV) scallops, and (2) to compare two-dimensional (2D) transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and 3DMPR to (2D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) approaches among patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP).
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Learning curve for endoscope holder in endoscopic thyroidectomy via complete areola approach: a prospective study.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Endoscopic thyroidectomy via complete areola approach (ETCAA) is becoming the preferred choice of some patients due to the perfect cosmetic result. Endoscope holder plays an important role in the procedures. Research on the learning curve is helpful in training of endoscope holder and improvement of the whole procedure.
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Developing conversed microsatellite markers and their implications in evolutionary analysis of the Bemisia tabaci complex.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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The study of population genetics among the Bemisia tabaci complex is limited due to the lack of conserved molecular markers. In this study, 358, 433 and 322 new polynucleotide microsatellites are separately identified from the transcriptome sequences of three cryptic species of the B. tabaci complex. The cross species transferability of 57 microsatellites was then experimentally validated. The results indicate that these markers are conserved and have high inter-taxon transferability. Thirteen markers were employed to assess the genetic relationships among six cryptic species of the B. tabaci complex. To our surprise, the inferred phylogeny was consistent with that of mitochondrial COI sequences, indicating that microsatellites have the potential to distinguish species of the B. tabaci complex. Our results demonstrate that development of microsatellites from transcriptome data is a fast and cost-effective approach. These markers can be used to analyze the population genetics and evolutionary patterns of the B. tabaci complex.
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Drug-Induced Acute Liver Injury Within 12 Hours After Fluvastatin Therapy.
Am J Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Although statins are generally well-tolerated drugs, recent cases of drug-induced liver injury associated with their use have been reported. A 52-year-old Chinese man reported with liver damage, which appeared 12 hours after beginning treatment with fluvastatin. Patient presented with complaints of increasing nausea, anorexia, and upper abdominal pain. His laboratory values showed elevated creatine kinase and transaminases. Testing for autoantibodies was also negative. The liver biochemistries eventually normalized within 3 weeks of stopping the fluvastatin. Therefore, when prescribing statins, the possibility of hepatic damage should be taken into account.
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Electrochemical fabrication of a novel polycarbazole coating for the headspace solid-phase microextraction and GC determination of some chlorobenzenes.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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A novel polycarbazole coating was prepared by cyclic voltammetry on a platinum wire. The solution for electropolymerization contained N,N-dimethylformamide, propylene carbonate (v/v = 1:9), 0.10 M carbazole and 0.10 M tetrabutylammonium perchlorate; the cyclic scan potential range was 0.8-2.0 V (versus Ag/AgCl). The resulting polycarbazole coating showed a porous structure and had a large specific surface area. When it was used for the headspace solid-phase microextraction of chlorobenzenes (i.e. chlorobenzene, 2-chlorotoluene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene) followed by GC analysis, it presented excellent analytical performance. Under the optimized conditions the linear ranges were 0.25-250 ?g/L with correlation coefficients >0.985, and the low detection limits were 15-61 ng/L (S/N = 3) for different chlorobenzenes. The RSDs were 2.4-4.9% for five successive measurements with a single fiber, and for fiber-to-fiber they were 6.3-13.1% (n = 5). Furthermore, the polycarbazole coating displayed good thermal stability (>350°C) and durability (more than 250 times). The proposed method was successfully applied to the extraction and determination of chlorobenzenes in waste water and lake water, and the recoveries for standards added were 86-114% for different analytes.
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A phage-displayed peptide recognizing porcine aminopeptidase N is a potent small molecule inhibitor of PEDV entry.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Three phage-displayed peptides designated H, S and F that recognize porcine aminopeptidase N (pAPN), the cellular receptor of porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) were able to inhibit cell infection by TGEV. These same peptides had no inhibitory effects on infection of Vero cells by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). However, when PEDV, TGEV and porcine pseudorabies virus were incubated with peptide H (HVTTTFAPPPPR), only infection of Vero cells by PEDV was inhibited. Immunofluoresence assays indicated that inhibition of PEDV infection by peptide H was independent of pAPN. Western blots demonstrated that peptide H interacted with PEDV spike protein and that pre-treatment of PEDV with peptide H led to a higher inhibition than synchronous incubation with cells. These results indicate direct interaction with the virus is necessary to inhibit infectivity. Temperature shift assays demonstrated that peptide H inhibited pre-attachment of the virus to the cells.
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Characterization and dietary regulation of oligopeptide transporter (PepT1) in different ploidy fishes.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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The oligopeptide transporter (PepT1) is located on the brush-border membrane of the intestinal epithelium which has been regarded as a mediator of protein absorption. Here, we cloned and characterized PepT1 genes from diploid (red crucian carp), triploid and tetraploid fish. Then, the PepT1 expression pattern in different tissues and embryogenesis were assayed. Meanwhile, using real-time PCR and western blotting, we showed the expression profiles of diets with different protein levels, protein sources and additives (sodium butyrate) in triploids. The cDNAs of the three different ploidy fishes have a high sequence similarity of PepT1 among vertebrates. PepT1 mRNA expression was also developmentally regulated and showed the strongest expression around the 2-cell and 4-cell stage in all three kinds of fishes. The maternal transcripts were first detected in eggs and dropped from blastula stage to muscle contraction stage. Tissue expression studies showed higher expression of PepT1 genes in the intestines of fishes compared with other tissues. In adults, triploids showed significantly higher expression levels of PepT1 in the intestines of the three kinds of ploidy fishes during breeding season and non-breeding season. In addition, high or low protein level diets both promote PepT1 expression in the intestine. We also confirmed that fish meal showed a significant increase in PepT1 expression than soybean meal in triploid intestines. Furthermore, sodium butyrate additives induce PepT1 expression that may be mediated by CDX2 and CREB. This research provides a new insight into protein absorption and its regulation in triploid fish.
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Incidence and risk of proteinuria with aflibercept in cancer patients: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Aflibercept is a human recombinant fusion protein with antiangiogenic effects that functions as a decoy receptor to bind vascular endothelial growth factor A. Proteinuria is one of its major adverse effects with a substantial variation in the incidence rate, and the overall risk of proteinuria has not been systematically studied. We performed a meta-analysis of published clinical trials to quantify the incidence and relative risk of proteinuria in cancer patients treated with aflibercept.
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Transcriptomic analyses reveal the adaptive features and biological differences of guts from two invasive whitefly species.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The gut of phloem feeding insects is critical for nutrition uptake and xenobiotics degradation. However, partly due to its tiny size, genomic information for the gut of phloem feeding insects is limited.
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[Determination of heavy metals in artificial soil on railway rock-cut slopes by microwave digestion-AAS].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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The purpose of this paper is as follows: (1) Optimizing the parameters of microwave digestion-atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and establishing method for the determination of heavy metals in artificial soils. (2) Evaluating heavy metal pollution conditions in artificial soil samples from railway rock-cut slopes. The results showed that the mixture of HNO3-H2O2-HF was found to have the best digestion efficiency; under the optimized conditions, the recoveries of the method ranged from 95% to 105%; the measurement precision and the relative deviation were less than 4% and 5%, respectively; the concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn were significantly higher in the artificial soil on railway rock-cut slope than in the control soil, and they were 4.7, 1.3 and 1.2 times as much as the control soil, respectively; compared to the contents of Cr, Cu and Fe in control soils, there was no significant difference. This research will provide a reliable method for determining metal elements in artificial soils on rock-cut slopes and a theoretical basis for the management of the railway rock-cut slopes.
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The direct amidation of ?-diketones with amines via TBHP-promoted oxidative cleavage of C(sp(2))-C(sp(2)) bonds.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
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A novel and efficient direct amidation of ?-diketones with amines via TBHP-promoted oxidative cleavage of C(sp(2))-C(sp(2)) bonds has been developed. The strategy provides an alternative approach to amides under metal-free conditions.
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Unprecedented ortho-acylation of azoxybenzenes with ?-oxocarboxylic acids by Pd-catalyzed C-H activation and decarboxylation.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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A palladium-catalyzed ortho-acylation reaction of azoxybenzenes with ?-oxocarboxylic acids was developed in the presence of K2S2O8. The established methodology provides a direct approach to obtain acylated azoxybenzenes in good yields.
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Supplementation with oat protein ameliorates exercise-induced fatigue in mice.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Oat protein was purified from oat meal and its effects on swimming performance and related biochemical parameters were investigated. Thirty male Kun-ming mice were divided into the normal control, the oat meal and the oat protein group (n = 10). They were fed with a laboratory food for 30 days, then were subjected to swim to exhaustion. Their swimming endurance and the major metabolic substrates were measured from serum, liver and muscle. The results showed that no significant differences were observed in swimming endurance test between the normal control group and the oat protein group (P > 0.05). Mice in the oat meal group had significantly longer swimming endurance compared to the normal control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, dietary oat protein increased the levels of liver glycogen, enhanced the activities of lactic dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase, and decreased the levels of blood urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde in serum. These results suggested that oat protein was effective in improving the physiological condition of the mice.
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Oat ?-glucan inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in mice.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is part of the spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, there are few suitable animal models to study the pathogenesis of NASH or very limited advances in the prevention. Our aims were to establish a mouse model of NASH by intraperitoneally injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at a dose of 1.5 mg per kg body weight per day for 6 weeks and to investigate the potential inhibitory effects of oat ?-glucan (1%, 5%, or 10%) added to a specific pathogen-free diet. Intraperitoneal injection of LPS for 6 weeks increased serum LPS levels; decreased serum glucagon-like peptide-2 levels; triggered abnormal aminotransferase activity, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance; and increased hepatic proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, interleukin-1?), triglyceride, and malonyl dialdehyde levels; but reduced hepatic superoxide dismutase activity. Histologic evaluation revealed evidence of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and mild necrosis in LPS-treated mice. Dietary supplementation of oat ?-glucan prevented most of the LPS-induced metabolic disorders, and improved hepatic steatosis and inflammation, although a dose-dependent effect was not observed. In conclusion, oat ?-glucan could inhibit LPS-induced NASH in mice.
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Global transcriptome profiles of Camellia sinensis during cold acclimation.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Tea is the most popular non-alcoholic health beverage in the world. The tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) needs to undergo a cold acclimation process to enhance its freezing tolerance in winter. Changes that occur at the molecular level in response to low temperatures are poorly understood in tea plants. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of cold acclimation, we employed RNA-Seq and digital gene expression (DGE) technologies to the study of genome-wide expression profiles during cold acclimation in tea plants.
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Liquid-Phase Syntheses and Material Properties of Two-Dimensional Nanocrystals of Rare Earth-Selenium Compound Containing Planar Se Layers: RESe2 Nanosheets and RE4O4Se3 Nanoplates.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Synthesis of diverse two-dimensional nanostructures with unique material properties is of current interest and multidisciplinary importance but remains a challenge for trivalent rare earth (RE)-selenium (Se) compounds because of the weak affinity between hard rare earth cations and soft selenium anions. In this article, for the first time, we report a mild solution approach toward a series of two-dimensional trivalent RE-selenium compound nanocrystals, namely RESe2 nanosheets (RE = La to Nd, for EuSe2, nanobars were obtained) and RE4O4Se3 nanoplates (RE = Nd, Sm, Gd to Ho), under a high chemical potential of selenium obtained by activating SeO2 powder with oleylamine in high boiling point organic solvents. Both kinds of nanocrystals contain Se with -1 valence in planar Se layers, allowing for a great variability in their crystal structures. Satellite diffraction peaks were observed in the electron diffraction pattern of LaSe2 nanosheets, indicating the presence of Peierls distortion in the Se layers. In the RE4O4Se3 nanoplates, the interaction between Se(2-) ions and [Se-Se](2-) dumbbells in the Se layers increases when the radii of the RE(3+) ions decrease along the lanthanide series, resulting in a narrower optical band gap (from 1.96 to 1.73 eV). The LaSe2 nanosheet films fabricated by drop-casting exhibited good electrical conductivity at room temperature (about 1 ?·cm(-1)). Further, the RE4O4Se3 nanoplates showed very high light extinction capacity in the visible region (extinction coefficient ?i: 4.4 × 10(5) cm(-1) for Nd4O4Se3, and 3.1 × 10(5) cm(-1) for Gd4O4Se3), comparable to that (5 × 10(5) cm(-1)) of CuInS2 commonly used in solar cells.
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A monoclonal antibody against transmissible gastroenteritis virus generated via immunization of a DNA plasmid bearing TGEV S1 gene.
Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a member of the coronaviruses. The viral spike (S) protein of TGEV mediates interaction between TGEV and its susceptible cells. Herein, DNA plasmid bearing TGEV S1 gene (the N terminal half of TGEV S gene) was used to immunize BALB/c mice followed by generation of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) using the hybridoma technique. The generated MAb (1H4) was identified by ELISA. Immunofluorescence assays showed that MAb 1H4 was able to detect infection of cells with TGEV. The MAb 1H4 distinguished TGEV from other control viruses. Additionally, although the type of MAb 1H4 was IgM, it could reduce cell infection by TGEV in a dose-dependent manner.
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Cu(II)-catalyzed decarboxylative acylation of acyl C-H of formamides with ?-oxocarboxylic acids leading to ?-ketoamides.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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CuBr2-catalyzed decarboxylative acylation of the acyl C-H of N-monosubstituted and N,N-disubstituted formamides with ?-oxocarboxylic acids leading to ?-ketoamides was developed, which generated the corresponding products in good yields.
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Icotinib combined with rapamycin in a renal transplant recipient with epidermal growth factor receptor-mutated non-small cell lung cancer: A case report.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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As kidney transplant recipients are at increased risk of developing cancer, regular monitoring should be undertaken to monitor the balance between immunosuppression and graft function and to identify malignancy. The present study reports the outcome of the treatment of adenocarcinoma of the lung (T1aN0M1a, stage IV) using the molecular-targeted therapy, icotinib, in a 66-year-old male renal transplant patient receiving rapamycin and prednisolone as ongoing renal immunosuppressive therapy. An initial partial response to icotinib was achieved, and graft function remained good. However, the patient subsequently developed interstitial pneumonitis. The plasma concentrations of rapamycin and icotinib were within the normal ranges, which excluded the possibility of a pharmacokinetic drug interaction and indicated that the interstitial pneumonitis was likely to be associated with the side-effects of icotinib. Drug therapy was discontinued and the patient underwent a segmentectomy. Tacrolimus was administered for ongoing renal graft immunosuppression. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the concomitant administration of icotinib and rapamycin in post-transplant de novo lung cancer. It is also the first report of interstitial pneumonitis associated with icotinib in a post-transplant patient.
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Prognostic significance of COX-2 immunohistochemical expression in colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of the literature.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is believed to be an important enzyme in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Correlations between the expression of COX-2 with tumor growth and distant metastasis have become an issue; thus, attention has been paid to COX-2 as a prognostic factor. Various studies examined the relationship between COX-2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) overexpression with the clinical outcome in patients with colorectal cancer, but yielded conflicting results. The prognostic significance of COX-2 overexpression in colorectal cancer remains controversial.
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Direct use of formamides as amino group sources via C-N bond cleavage: a catalytic oxidative synthesis of ?-ketoamides from acetophenones and formamides under metal-free conditions.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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An efficient and direct use of formamides as amino group sources for the synthesis of ?-ketoamides was developed under metal-free conditions. The reaction was based on the oxidative coupling of acetophenones with formamides and generated the desired products in good yields in the presence of t-BuOOH/I(2)/PhCO(2)H.
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The characteristics and expression profiles of the mitochondrial genome for the Mediterranean species of the Bemisia tabaci complex.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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The whiteflies under the name Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) are species complex of at least 31 cryptic species some of which are globally invasive agricultural pests. Previously, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the indigenous New World B. tabaci species was sequenced and major differences of gene order from the postulated whitefly ancestral gene order were found. However, the sequence and gene order of mitogenomes in other B. tabaci species are unknown. In addition, the sequence divergences and gene expression profiles of mitogenomes in the B. tabaci species complex remain completely unexplored.
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Regulation and function of Arabidopsis AtGALK2 gene in abscisic acid response signaling.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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AtGALK2 belongs to galactokinase of GHMP family in Arabidopsis thaliana. Two homozygous T-DNA insertion mutants (Atgalk2-1 and Atgalk2-2) of the AtGALK2 gene were identified. The AtGALK2 gene was highly expressed in flowers and roots, but less in stems, leaves and petioles. It was found that the expression of AtGALK2 gene was induced by NaCl and ABA. The two Atgalk2 mutants showed higher germination activity when treated with ABA and NaCl than wild type (Col-0). Through comparing the results of seed germination, root growth, stomatal aperture, water loss, and proline accumulation between the Atgalk2 mutants and Col-0, it was found that Atgalk2 mutants showed less sensitive to ABA than Col-0. The expression levels of ABI1, ABI2, RAB18, ABF3, RD22, RD29A, and RD29B in the Atgalk2 mutants were higher than in Col-0. However, the expression level of OST1 in the Atgalk2 mutants was lower than in Col-0. Taken together, these results suggested AtGALK2 was required for abscisic acid regulation of seed germination, root growth and gene expression, and was involved in salt and osmotic stress response in the early development stage. This study provides important clues to galactokinase activities of GHMP family in ABA signaling and plant development.
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Analysis of factors related to short-term prognosis in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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The present study aimed to investigate the factors related to short-term prognosis in patients undergoing direct percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). A total of 805 patients were included and divided into a control group and an adverse cardiovascular events group based on the prognosis, to compare risk factors and coronary angiographic characteristics in the two groups. In the adverse events group, the ages, admission blood glucose, uric acid (UA), homocysteine (HCY), creatine kinase (CK) and peak creatine kinase-MB (CKMB) isozyme levels were clearly higher compared with those in the control group, while the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were lower compared with those in the control group. The incidence of hypertension in females in the adverse events group was markedly higher compared with that in the control group, while the diabetes rate was lower compared with that in the control group. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, gender, hypertension, diabetes and admission blood glucose, HCY, TC and UA levels were independent risk factors of short-term prognosis in patients undergoing emergency PCI. The majority of the patients in the adverse events group were elderly females with hypertension, a large area of myocardial infarction and increased admission blood glucose, UA and HCY levels, as well as a low diabetes rate and decreased levels of acute-phase TC and LDL.
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A study of extraction process and in vitro antioxidant activity of total phenols from Rhizoma Imperatae.
Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The study investigated the extraction method of Rhizoma Imperatae and its antioxidant activity, and provided a basis for its rational development. The extraction method of Rhizoma Imperatae was determined using orthogonal design test and by total phenol content, its hydroxyl radical scavenging ability was measured by Fenton reaction, and potassium ferricyanide reduction method was used to determine its reducing power. The results showed that the optimum extraction process of Rhizoma Imperatae was a 50-fold volume of water, 30 °C, three times of extraction with 2 h each. Its IC50 for scavenging of hydroxyl radicals was 0.0948 mg/mL, while IC50 of ascorbic acid was 0.1096 mg/mL; in the ferricyanide considerable reduction method, the extract exhibited reducing power comparable to that of the ascorbic acid. The study concluded that Rhizoma Imperatae extract contains relatively large amount of polyphenols, and has a good anti-oxidation ability.
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New data on the genus Derops Sharp (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Tachyporinae) from China with description of two new species.
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Two new Chinese species of Derops are described: Derops hainanus sp. n. from Hainan and Derops yunnanus sp. n. from Yunnan. Females of Derops punctipennis Schülke and Derops schillhammeri Schülke are described for the first time and new provinces records of Derops smetanai Schülke and Derops dingshanus Watanabe are reported. The key to Chinese species of Derops published by Schülke 2003 is modified to include the new species.
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Optimizing de novo transcriptome assembly from short-read RNA-Seq data: a comparative study.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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With the fast advances in nextgen sequencing technology, high-throughput RNA sequencing has emerged as a powerful and cost-effective way for transcriptome study. De novo assembly of transcripts provides an important solution to transcriptome analysis for organisms with no reference genome. However, there lacked understanding on how the different variables affected assembly outcomes, and there was no consensus on how to approach an optimal solution by selecting software tool and suitable strategy based on the properties of RNA-Seq data.
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Paradigms and paradox in the ethylene signaling pathway and interaction network.
Mol Plant
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2011
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Phytohormone ethylene plays pivotal roles in plant response to developmental and environmental signals. During the past few years, the emerging evidence has led us to a new understanding of the signaling mechanisms and regulatory networks of the ethylene action. In this review, we focus on the major advances made in the past three years, particularly the findings leading to new paradigms and the observations under debate. With the recent demonstration of the regulation of the protein stability of numerous key signaling components including EIN3, EIL1, EIN2, ETR2, EBF1/EBF2, and ETP1/ETP2, we highlight proteasome-dependent protein degradation as an essential regulatory mechanism that is widely adopted in the ethylene signaling pathway. We also discuss the implication of the negative feedback mechanism in the ethylene signaling pathway in light of ethylene-induced ETR2 and EBF2 gene expression. Meanwhile, we summarize the controversy on the involvement of MKK9-MPK3/6 cascade in the ethylene signaling versus biosynthesis pathway, and discuss the possible role of this MAPK module in the ethylene action. Finally, we describe the complex interactions between ethylene and other signaling pathways including auxin, light, and plant innate immunity, and propose that EIN3/EIL1 act as a convergence point in the ethylene-initiated signaling network.
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Identification of a functional transposon insertion in the maize domestication gene tb1.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2011
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Genetic diversity created by transposable elements is an important source of functional variation upon which selection acts during evolution. Transposable elements are associated with adaptation to temperate climates in Drosophila, a SINE element is associated with the domestication of small dog breeds from the gray wolf and there is evidence that transposable elements were targets of selection during human evolution. Although the list of examples of transposable elements associated with host gene function continues to grow, proof that transposable elements are causative and not just correlated with functional variation is limited. Here we show that a transposable element (Hopscotch) inserted in a regulatory region of the maize domestication gene, teosinte branched1 (tb1), acts as an enhancer of gene expression and partially explains the increased apical dominance in maize compared to its progenitor, teosinte. Molecular dating indicates that the Hopscotch insertion predates maize domestication by at least 10,000 years, indicating that selection acted on standing variation rather than new mutation.
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Efficacy and safety of oral tolvaptan therapy in patients with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.
Eur. J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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Tolvaptan, an oral antagonist of the vasopressin V(2) receptor, has been found to improve hyponatremia in patients with mixed etiologies. This study analyzed a subgroup of patients with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tolvaptan in this group.
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Age-related carbonyl stress and erythrocyte membrane protein carbonylation.
Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc.
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2010
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Reactive carbonyl species (RCS) have been widely used as indicators of oxidative stress. However, the associations of carbonyl stress with aging process and biochemical alteration of erythrocyte are still poorly understood. Fresh blood samples in vacutainer tubes containing sodium heparinate were obtained from 874 volunteers who were divided into young, adult and old groups based on their age. Plasma RCS and thiols concentrations between different age groups and erythrocyte membrane protein carbonylation in the adult group were detected within 24h of the blood sampling. Results showed that the plasma thiols concentration decreased gradually during aging process, and the p-values between all three groups are less than 0.05. The plasma RCS concentration in different age groups showed a nonlinear association with age. The levels in the young group were slightly higher than the adult group (not significant) and lower than the old group (p < 0.01). The protein carbonylation of erythrocyte membrane was positively correlated with plasma RCS concentration (p < 0.01), but not plasma thiols concentration. We conclude that higher levels of RCS, not lower levels of thiols, in plasma are a direct risk factor for the protein carbonylation of erythrocyte membrane. Owing to the decrease of thiols levels and increase of RCS levels during aging process, a shift from RCS-related redox allostasis to carbonyl stress would contribute to age-related biological dysfunction and even aging process.
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[Study on HIV related stigma and discrimination among people living with HIV/AIDS and their family members.]
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2010
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OBJECTIVE: To understand the perceived stigma and discrimination and received stigma and discrimination as well as the differences and reasons of them among people living with HIV/AIDS and their family members. METHODS: 307 people were investigated and 117 of which were HIV/AIDS and the others were their family members. Face to face interview was carried out. RESULTS: HIV/AIDS and their family were living in the social environment rounded by stigma and discrimination. Stigma and discrimination could be divided into perceived stigma and discrimination and received stigma and discrimination, and these two kinds of stigma and discrimination were statistically significant different between HIV/AIDS and their family members (t = -12.540, P = 0.000), and the perceived stigma and discrimination was more serious than received stigma and discrimination. The perceived stigma and discrimination were related to their self-efficacy (OR = 0.558, P = 0.041), family APGAR (OR = 0.650, P = 0.027), infected with HIV or not (OR = 2.116, P = 0.004). The received stigma and discrimination were related to their self-efficacy (OR = 0.468, P = 0.028), family APGAR (OR = 0.427, P = 0.000) whether infected by HIV (OR = 3.412, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination did exist in the environment where HIV/AIDS and their family lived, suggesting that it was necessary to develop a series of policies and measures to fight against stigma and discrimination.
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Molecular Cloning of the Genes Encoding the PR55/B?/? Regulatory Subunits for PP-2A and Analysis of Their Functions in Regulating Development of Goldfish, Carassius auratus.
Gene Regul Syst Bio
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2010
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The protein phosphatase-2A (PP-2A), one of the major phosphatases in eukaryotes, is a heterotrimer, consisting of a scaffold A subunit, a catalytic C subunit and a regulatory B subunit. Previous studies have shown that besides regulating specific PP-2A activity, various B subunits encoded by more than 16 different genes, may have other functions. To explore the possible roles of the regulatory subunits of PP-2A in vertebrate development, we have cloned the PR55/B family regulatory subunits: ? and ?, analyzed their tissue specific and developmental expression patterns in Goldfish ( Carassius auratus). Our results revealed that the full-length cDNA for PR55/B? consists of 1940 bp with an open reading frame of 1332 nucleotides coding for a deduced protein of 443 amino acids. The full length PR55/B? cDNA is 2163 bp containing an open reading frame of 1347 nucleotides encoding a deduced protein of 448 amino acids. The two isoforms of PR55/B display high levels of sequence identity with their counterparts in other species. The PR55/B? mRNA and protein are detected in brain and heart. In contrast, the PR55/B? is expressed in all 9 tissues examined at both mRNA and protein levels. During development of goldfish, the mRNAs for PR55/B? and PR55/B? show distinct patterns. At the protein level, PR55/B? is expressed at all developmental stages examined, suggesting its important role in regulating goldfish development. Expression of the PR55/B? anti-sense RNA leads to significant downregulation of PR55/B? proteins and caused severe abnormality in goldfish trunk and eye development. Together, our results suggested that PR55/B? plays an important role in governing normal trunk and eye formation during goldfish development.
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MADS-box genes of maize: frequent targets of selection during domestication.
Genet Res (Camb)
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2010
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MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that are key regulators of plant inflorescence and flower development. We examined DNA sequence variation in 32 maize MADS-box genes and 32 randomly chosen maize loci and investigated their involvement in maize domestication and improvement. Using neutrality tests and a test based on coalescent simulation of a bottleneck model, we identified eight MADS-box genes as putative targets of the artificial selection associated with domestication. According to neutrality tests, one additional MADS-box gene appears to have been under selection during modern agricultural improvement of maize. For random loci, two genes were indicated as targets of selection during domestication and four additional genes were indicated to be candidate-selected loci for maize improvement. These results suggest that MADS-box genes were more frequent targets of selection during domestication than genes chosen at random from the genome.
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Phase I study of icotinib hydrochloride (BPI-2009H), an oral EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with advanced NSCLC and other solid tumors.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2010
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The goal of this study was to assess the safety and tolerability of icotinib hydrochloride (BPI-2009H), a new selective epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR TKI), and to explore its pharmacokinetics (PK) and clinical activity in patients with advanced solid tumors, mainly those with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after the failure of the prior platinum-based chemotherapy.
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Ethylene-induced stabilization of ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 and EIN3-LIKE1 is mediated by proteasomal degradation of EIN3 binding F-box 1 and 2 that requires EIN2 in Arabidopsis.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2010
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Plant responses to ethylene are mediated by regulation of EBF1/2-dependent degradation of the ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) transcription factor. Here, we report that the level of EIL1 protein is upregulated by ethylene through an EBF1/2-dependent pathway. Genetic analysis revealed that EIL1 and EIN3 cooperatively but differentially regulate a wide array of ethylene responses, with EIL1 mainly inhibiting leaf expansion and stem elongation in adult plants and EIN3 largely regulating a multitude of ethylene responses in seedlings. When EBF1 and EBF2 are disrupted, EIL1 and EIN3 constitutively accumulate in the nucleus and remain unresponsive to exogenous ethylene application. Further study revealed that the levels of EBF1 and EBF2 proteins are downregulated by ethylene and upregulated by silver ion and MG132, suggesting that ethylene stabilizes EIN3/EIL1 by promoting EBF1 and EBF2 proteasomal degradation. Also, we found that EIN2 is indispensable for mediating ethylene-induced EIN3/EIL1 accumulation and EBF1/2 degradation, whereas MKK9 is not required for ethylene signal transduction, contrary to a previous report. Together, our studies demonstrate that ethylene similarly regulates EIN3 and EIL1, the two master transcription factors coordinating myriad ethylene responses, and clarify that EIN2 but not MKK9 is required for ethylene-induced EIN3/EIL1 stabilization. Our results also reveal that EBF1 and EBF2 act as essential ethylene signal transducers that by themselves are subject to proteasomal degradation.
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Does carbonyl stress cause increased blood viscosity during storage?
Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2010
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The structural and biochemical changes to erythrocytes during storage, called storage lesion, are important factors that contribute to decreases in the efficacy and safety of blood transfusions. However, the biochemical mechanisms are only partly understood.
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[Soil microbial biomass and activity in relation to stand age of poplar shelterbelts].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-25-2009
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Taking 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20 years old poplar (Populus euramericana cv. "N 3016") shelterbelts in Jianping County, Liaoning Province as test objects, the effects of establishing shelterbelts on the farmland soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, and microbial activity were evaluated. After the establishment of shelterbelts, the concentrations of organic carbon and total nitrogen, the microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, and the basal respiration in 0-15 cm soil layer increased after an initial decrease, being reached or exceeded the levels of the control after 20 years afforestation. The metabolic quotient increased significantly after 5 years afforestation, but decreased with increasing stand age. All the results suggested that under the effects of shelterbelt establishment, farmland soil microbial biomass and activity had obvious change.
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EIN3/EIL1 cooperate with PIF1 to prevent photo-oxidation and to promote greening of Arabidopsis seedlings.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2009
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The ability to switch from skotomorphogenesis to photomorphogenesis is essential for seedling development and plant survival. Recent studies revealed that COP1 and phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs) are key regulators of this transition by repressing the photomorphogenic responses and/or maintaining the skotomorphogenic state of etiolated seedlings. Here we report that the plant hormone ethylene plays a crucial role in the transition from skotomorphogenesis to photomorphogenesis by facilitating greening of etiolated seedlings upon light irradiation. Activation of EIN3/EIL1 is both necessary and sufficient for ethylene-induced enhancement of seedling greening, as well as repression of the accumulation of protochlorophyllide, a phototoxic intermediate of chlorophyll synthesis. EIN3/EIL1 were found to induce gene expression of two key enzymes in the chlorophyll synthesis pathway, protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A and B (PORA/B). ChIP and EMSA assays demonstrated that EIN3 directly binds to the specific elements present in the PORA and PORB promoters. Genetic studies revealed that EIN3/EIL1 function in cooperation with PIF1 in preventing photo-oxidative damage and promoting cotyledon greening. Moreover, activation of EIN3 reverses the blockage of greening triggered by cop1 mutation or far-red light irradiation. Consistently, EIN3 acts downstream of COP1 and its protein accumulation is enhanced by COP1 but decreased by light. Taken together, EIN3/EIL1 represent a new class of transcriptional regulators along with PIF1 to optimize de-etiolation of Arabidopsis seedlings. Our study highlights the essential role of ethylene in enhancing seedling development and survival through protecting etiolated seedlings against photo-oxidative damage.
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Phosphatidylcholine in membrane of Escherichia coli changes bacterial antigenicity.
Can. J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2009
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This study reports that Escherichia coli phosphatidylcholine-positive (PC+) strain Top10/ptac66 (PC+ PE+), in which borrelial PC synthase (PCS) directly condenses exogenous choline with CDP-diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG) to form PC, displayed not only stronger resistance to antimicrobial peptides cecropin P1 and indolicidin, but also decreased ability to attract macrophages to the abdominal cavity of infected mice in the 36 h following infection, compared with the control strain Top10/ptac85 (PC- PE+). Rabbit sera raised against the PC+ strains Top10/ptac66 (PC+ PE+) and AD93/ptac67 (PC+ PE-) recognized a different set of periplasmic proteins and lipopolysaccharides,compared with those detected by antisera to the PC- strains Top10/ptac85 and AD93 (PC- PE-) . Electron microscopy also showed that the morphology of cell wall of Top10/ptac66 was different from that of the control strain Top10/ptac85. Enhancement of bacterial resistance to antimicrobe peptides, alteration of bacterial antigenicity and evasion of macrophage attacks in mice suggest that PC in the bacterial membrane may play a role in bacterial evasion of the innate or adaptive immune response of the host.
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[Preliminary studies on the function of Arabidopsis CK1A gene].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2009
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A casein kinase 1 protein gene, CK1A, was isolated from Arabidopsis seedlings by RT-PCR method. This gene contains an open reading frame of 2,112 bp, which encodes 703 amino acids. The plant expression vector of 35S: GFP: CK1A was constructed by the Gateway System. The 35S: GFP: CK1A fusion protein was localized to the nucleus in onion epidermal cell, indicating that the product of CK1A gene plays a role in the cell nucleus. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that CK1A was highly expressed in flowers, stems and roots, but less in leaves and leafstalks. The yeast two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that CK1A and CRY2 can interact in vivo under blue light, which indicates that CK1A may play an important role in blue light signal induction of Arabidopsis.
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Using association mapping in teosinte to investigate the function of maize selection-candidate genes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2009
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Large-scale screens of the maize genome identified 48 genes that show the putative signature of artificial selection during maize domestication or improvement. These selection-candidate genes may act as quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control the phenotypic differences between maize and its progenitor, teosinte. The selection-candidate genes appear to be located closer in the genome to domestication QTL than expected by chance.
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Mutational analysis of Arabidopsis PP2CA2 involved in abscisic acid signal transduction.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2009
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The homozygous T-DNA mutant of the PP2CA2 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana was identified at DNA and RNA levels. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed expression of PP2CA2 was induced by NaCl and ABA. When grown in presence of increasing concentration of exogenous ABA the pp2ca2 mutant showed a significant loss of ABA sensitivity in terms of seed germination, efficiency of post-germination growth and root growth. In presence of all ABA and NaCl concentrations tested the germination percentage of wild-type seeds was lower than that of mutant ppca2 seeds. Furthermore, in the presence of exogenous ABA, the pp2ca2 seeds showed higher germination percentages than wild-type at different stages of development and the pp2ca2 seedlings showed a reduced inhibition of root growth compared with wild-type plants. The above results indicated that the pp2ca2 was an ABA-hyposensitive mutant.
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Leptin promotes the immune escape of lung cancer by inducing proinflammatory cytokines and resistance to apoptosis.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2009
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A growing body of evidence suggests that chronic inflammation contributes to cancer development and progression. Tumor-derived immunoinflammatory cytokines help tumor cells escape immune control and limit the success of immunotherapy. Leptin has been proven to promote cancer progression by inducing cancer cell proliferation and invasion. However, the proinflammatory effects of leptin on lung cancer cells have not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that human lung cancer A549 and H157 cells express leptin receptors Ob-Ra and Ob-Rb, and that leptin stimulation increases the production of immunoinflammatory cytokines: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin (PGE2). Moreover, leptin stimulation activated the JAK/STAT3, PI3K/AKT and MEK1/2 signaling pathways, which contributed to VEGF, IL-6 and PGE2 production. Besides increasing immunoinflammatory cytokines, leptin also protected human lung cancer cells from tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-induced ligand-mediated cytotoxic death. Thus, we conclude that leptin promotes the immune escape of lung cancer by inducing proinflammatory cytokines and resistance to apoptosis.
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[Ecological adaptability of Hordeum jubatum to magnesite dust].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
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Hordeum jubatum was pot-cultured with the soil sprayed with different amounts of magnesite dust (0, 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 30%) to study the magnesium (Mg) tolerance of the plant. After sprayed onto soil surface, the magnesite dust could rapidly form a crust. When the amount of the sprayed dust was bigger than 20%, soil pH increased significantly, soil conductivity had a gradual decrease, whereas soil organic matter content increased after an initial decrease. With the increasing amount of sprayed magnesite dust, the leaf chlorophyll content of H. jubatum increased first and decreased then, while the leaf soluble protein content showed a trend of increase-decrease-increase. H. jubatum had stronger tolerance to Mg. When the soil Mg content was as high as 4.61 g x kg(-1), H. jubatum could still grow well, indicating that this plant species could be used as an appropriate candidate for the ecological restoration of waste lands in magnesite mining areas.
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Spared pre-irradiated area in pustular lesions induced by icotinib showing decreased expressions of CD1a+ langerhans cells and FGFR2.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
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Icotinib hydrochloride, a novel inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, has been approved by the State Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Up to date, cutaneous response to icotinib is largely unknown. Here we report an uncommon lesional phenomenon in a 56-year-old Chinese male with non-small-cell lung cancer, who received icotinib as a second-line treatment. Characteristic papulopustular rash on the chest and back was observed 4 days later. Interestingly, the rash completely spares a pre-irradiated area. The immunohistochemical study in the lesional skin area and spared skin area revealed a significant decrease in CD1a(+) Langerhans cells, Ki-67 as well as FGFR2 in the spared area than in the lesional area. Thus, the present case indicated that loss of the basal layer of proliferative cells and antigen-presenting cells (Langerhans cell), as well as the down-regulation of FGFR2 signaling in the pre-irradiated skin area, may join forces in inhibiting icotinib-associated cutaneous reactions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of both lesional area and lesion-spared area in a Chinese male receiving treatment with a new epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (icotinib). The immunohistochemical reactions described here also provide new insight into the pathogenesis of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor-related skin toxicities, and the role that other tyrosine kinase receptors (including FGFR) played in non-small-cell lung cancer.
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[Determination of heavy metal by AAS in railway rock-cut slope soil].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
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Heavy metal contents in railway rock-cut slope soil have directly influenced ecosystem on rock-cut slope and eco-envi- ronment safety of farmland nearby. In the study heavy metal Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu and Mn was determined by AAS in railway rock-cut slope and control soil samples on Cheng-Da Railway crossing purple soil in Sichuan province. The results showed that Pb and Mn were significantly higher in rock-cut soil than in control soil, that is 29.7%-35.4%, while Cd, Zn and Cu were similar in both soils.
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Lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 mediates late-phase PGE2 production in bone marrow derived macrophages.
PLoS ONE
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Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and release of prostaglandins (PGs) by macrophages are consistent features of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage inflammation. The two major PGs, PGE(2) and PGD(2), are synthesized by the prostanoid isomerases, PGE synthases (PGES) and PGD synthases (PGDS), respectively. Since the expression profile and the individual role of these prostanoid isomerases-mediated inflammation in macrophages has not been defined, we examined the LPS-stimulated PGs production pattern and the expression profile of their synthases in the primary cultured mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM). Our data show that LPS induced both PGE(2) and PGD(2) production, which was evident by ?8 hrs and remained at a similar ratio (?1?1) in the early phase (?12 hrs) of LPS treatment. However, PGE(2) production continued increase further in the late phase (16-24 hrs); whereas the production of PGD(2) remained at a stable level from 12 to 24 hrs post-treatment. In response to LPS-treatment, the expression of both COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was detected within 2 to 4 hrs; whereas the increased expression of microsomal PGES (mPGES)-1 and a myeloid cell transcription factor PU.1 did not appear until later phase (?12 hrs). In contrast, the expression of COX-1, hematopoietic-PGDS (H-PGDS), cytosolic-PGES (c-PGES), or mPGES-2 in BMDM was not affected by LPS treatment. Selective inhibition of mPGES-1 with either siRNA or isoform-selective inhibitor CAY10526, but not mPGES-2, c-PGES or PU.1, attenuated LPS-induced burst of PGE(2) production indicating that mPGES-1 mediates LPS-induced PGE(2) production in BMDM. Interestingly, selective inhibition of mPGES-1 was also associated with a decrease in LPS-induced iNOS expression. In summary, our data show that mPGES-1, but not mPGES-2 or c-PGES isomerase, mediates LPS-induced late-phase burst of PGE(2) generation, and regulates LPS-induced iNOS expression in BMDM.
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Characterization of oligopeptide transporter (PepT1) in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol.
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The oligopeptide transporter (PepT1) is located on the brush-border membrane of the intestinal epithelium, and plays an important role in dipeptide and tripeptide absorptions from protein digestion. In this study, we cloned the PepT1 cDNA from grass carp and characterized its expression profile in response to dietary protein and feed additives (sodium butyrate) treatments. The PepT1 gene encodes a protein of 714 amino acids with high sequence similarity with other vertebrate homologues. Expression analysis revealed highest levels of PepT1 mRNA expression in the foregut of grass carp. In addition, PepT1 mRNA expression exhibited diurnal variation in all three bowel segments of intestine with lower levels of expression in daytime than nighttime. During embryonic development, PepT1 showed a dynamic pattern of expression reaching maximal levels of expression in the gastrula stage and minimal levels in the organ stage. The PepT1 expression showed constant levels from 14 to 34 day post-hatch. To determine whether fish diet of different protein contents may have any effect on PepT1 expression, we extended our research to dietary regulation of PepT1 expression. We found that dietary protein levels had a significant effect on PepT1 gene expression. In addition, PepT1 mRNA levels were higher after feeding with fish meal than with soybean meal. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo sodium butyrate treatments increased PepT1 expression in the intestine of grass carp. The results demonstrate for the first time that PepT1 mRNA expression is regulated in a temporal and spatial pattern during development, and dietary protein and feed additives had a significant effects on PepT1 gene expression in grass carp.
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Pivotal role of reactive oxygen species in differential regulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced prostaglandins production in macrophages.
Mol. Pharmacol.
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Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggers the production of inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and prostaglandins (PGs) by pulmonary macrophages. Here, we investigated if ROS influenced PGs production in response to LPS treatment in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). We observed that pretreatment of BMDM with two structurally unrelated ROS scavengers, MnTMPyP and EUK-134, not only prevented LPS-induced ROS accumulation, but also attenuated the LPS-induced PGD(2), but not PGE(2), production. Conversely LPS-induced PGD(2), but not PGE(2), production, was potentiated with the cotreatment of BMDM with H(2)O(2). These data suggest that ROS differentially regulate PGD(2) and PGE(2) production in BMDM. In addition, selective inhibition of the ROS generator NADPH oxidase (NOX) using either pharmacologic inhibitors or its p47(phox) subunit deficient mouse BMDM also attenuated LPS-induced PGD(2), but not PGE(2) production, suggesting the critical role of NOX-generated ROS in LPS-induced PGD(2) production in BMDM. We further found that both hematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS) siRNA and its inhibitor HQL-79, but not lipocalin PGDS (L-PGDS) siRNA and its inhibitor AT-56, significantly attenuated LPS-induced PGD(2) production, suggesting that H-PGDS, but not L-PGDS, mediates LPS-induced PGD(2) production in BMDM. Furthermore, data from our in vitro cell-free enzymatic studies showed that coincubation of the recombinant H-PGDS with either MnTMPyP, EUK-134, or catalase significantly decreased PGD(2) production, whereas coincubation with H(2)O(2) significantly increased PGD(2) production. Taken together, our results show that LPS-induced NOX-generated ROS production differentially and specifically regulates the H-PGDS-mediated production of PGD(2), but not PGE(2), in mouse BMDM.
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Inhalation of hydrogen gas reduces liver injury during major hepatotectomy in swine.
World J. Gastroenterol.
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To study the effect of H2 gas on liver injury in massive hepatectomy using the intermittent Pringle maneuver in swine.
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Analysis of a native whitefly transcriptome and its sequence divergence with two invasive whitefly species.
BMC Genomics
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Genomic divergence between invasive and native species may provide insight into the molecular basis underlying specific characteristics that drive the invasion and displacement of closely related species. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptome of an indigenous species, Asia II 3, of the Bemisia tabaci complex and compared its genetic divergence with the transcriptomes of two invasive whiteflies species, Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED), respectively.
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[Effects of understory removal and nitrogen addition on the soil chemical and biological properties of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation in Keerqin Sandy Land].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
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A full factorial experiment was conducted to study the effects of understory removal and nitrogen addition (8 g x m(-2)) on the soil NO(3-)-N and NH(4+)-N concentrations, potential net nitrogen mineralization rate (PNM) and nitrification rate (PNN), microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), MBC/MBN, urease and acid phosphomonoesterase activities, and Olsen-P concentration in a Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation in Keerqin Sandy Land during a growth season. Understory removal decreased the soil NH(4+)-N concentration, PNM, MBC, and MBN/MBN significantly, increased the soil Olsen-P concentration, but had little effects on the soil NO(3-)-N concentration, PNN, and urease and acid phosphomonoesterase activities. Nitrogen addition increased the soil NO(3-)-N concentration, PNM and PNN significantly, but had little effects on the other test properties. The interaction between understory removal and nitrogen addition had significant effects on the soil NH(4+)-N concentration, but little effects on the soil NO(3-)-N concentration. However, the soil NO(3-)-N concentration in the plots of understory removal with nitrogen addition was increased by 27%, compared with the plots of nitrogen addition alone, which might lead to the leaching of NO3-. It was suggested that understory vegetation could play an important role in affecting the soil chemical and biological properties in Mongolian pine plantations, and hence, the importance of understory vegetation should not be neglected when the forest management and restoration were implemented.
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Characterization of patients and its relationship with medical complaints.
Chin. Med. J.
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Patient characteristics may be an internal factor influencing patient complaints, but in China patient characterization is restricted to patient satisfaction surveys, and few studies have considered the relationship between patient characteristics and patient complaints. The aim of this research was to determine the reasons for complaints.
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Alternative splicing and trans-splicing events revealed by analysis of the Bombyx mori transcriptome.
RNA
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Alternative splicing and trans-splicing events have not been systematically studied in the silkworm Bombyx mori. Here, the silkworm transcriptome was analyzed by RNA-seq. We identified 320 novel genes, modified 1140 gene models, and found thousands of alternative splicing and 58 trans-splicing events. Studies of three SR proteins show that both their alternative splicing patterns and mRNA products are conserved from insect to human, and one isoform of Srsf6 with a retained intron is expressed sex-specifically in silkworm gonads. Trans-splicing of mod(mdg4) in silkworm was experimentally confirmed. We identified integrations from a common 5-gene with 46 newly identified alternative 3-exons that are located on both DNA strands over a 500-kb region. Other trans-splicing events in B. mori were predicted by bioinformatic analysis, in which 12 events were confirmed by RT-PCR, six events were further validated by chimeric SNPs, and two events were confirmed by allele-specific RT-PCR in F(1) hybrids from distinct silkworm lines of JS and L10, indicating that trans-splicing is more widespread in insects than previously thought. Analysis of the B. mori transcriptome by RNA-seq provides valuable information of regulatory alternative splicing events. The conservation of splicing events across species and newly identified trans-splicing events suggest that B. mori is a good model for future studies.
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Efficacy of microwave versus radiofrequency ablation for treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma: experimental and clinical studies.
Eur Radiol
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To prospectively compare microwave (MW) ablation using a modified internal cooled-shaft antenna with radiofrequency (RF) ablation in in vivo porcine liver and in patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma (sHCC).
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Effects of icotinib, a novel epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer.
Oncol. Rep.
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one of the most promising targets for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Our study demonstrated the antitumor effects of icotinib hydrochloride, a highly selective epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR TKI), in two EGFR-mutated lung cancer cell lines compared to A549, a cell line without EGFR mutations. We incubated PC-9 and HCC827 human lung cancer cell lines both with (E746-A750) mutations with various concentrations of icotinib and gefitinib for 48 h. Cell proliferation and migration were determined using a real-time cell invasion and migration assay and cytotoxicity assay. Apoptosis was assessed by measuring Annexin V staining using flow cytometry. The antitumor effects of icotinib compared to gefitinib were similar and were most effective in reducing the proliferation of EGFR-mutated cells compared to non-mutated controls. Our results suggest the possibility of icotinib as a new therapeutic agent of EGFR-mutated cancer cells, which has the potential to be used in the first-line treatment of EGFR-mutated NSCLC.
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CT and MR imaging patterns for pancreatic carcinoma invading the extrapancreatic neural plexus (Part I): Anatomy, imaging of the extrapancreatic nerve.
World J Radiol
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Pancreatic carcinoma is an extremely high-grade malignant tumor with fast development and high mortality. The incidence of pancreatic carcinoma continues to increase. Peripancreatic invasion and metastasis are the main characteristics and important prognostic factors in pancreatic carcinoma, especially invasion into the nervous system; pancreatic nerve innervation includes the intrapancreatic and extrapancreatic nerves. A strong grasp of pancreatic nerve innervation may contribute to our understanding of pancreatic pain modalities and the metastatic routes for pancreatic carcinomas. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are helpful techniques for depicting the anatomy of extrapancreatic nerve innervation. The purpose of the present work is to show and describe the anatomy of the extrapancreatic neural plexus and to elucidate its characteristics using CT and MRI, drawing on our own previous work and the research findings of others.
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CT and MR imaging patterns for pancreatic carcinoma invading the extrapancreatic neural plexus (Part II): Imaging of pancreatic carcinoma nerve invasion.
World J Radiol
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Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are excellent modalities which have the ability to detect, depict and stage the nerve invasion associated with pancreatic carcinoma. The aim of this article is to review the CT and MR patterns of pancreatic carcinoma invading the extrapancreatic neural plexus and thus provide useful information which could help the choice of treatment methods. Pancreatic carcinoma is a common malignant neoplasm with a high mortality rate. There are many factors influencing the prognosis and treatment options for those patients suffering from pancreatic carcinoma, such as lymphatic metastasis, adjacent organs or tissue invasion, etc. Among these factors, extrapancreatic neural plexus invasion is recognized as an important factor when considering the management of the patients.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.