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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A general approach to spirolactonized Si-rhodamines.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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A general approach has been developed for the synthesis of spirolactonized Si-rhodamines (s). The alternative synthetic route provides a facile opportunity to access various s bearing ring-expanded scaffolds and substituents for conjugation. By click reaction, a near-infrared (NIR) mitochondrial tracker was prepared, displaying specific mitochondrial staining in cells.
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Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Molecular Docking Studies of Xanthone Sulfonamides as ACAT Inhibitors.
Chem Biol Drug Des
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Three series of xanthone sulfonamides were synthesized, and their inhibitory activities against acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) were evaluated. Results showed that most of the title compounds exhibited strong inhibitory activity against ACAT, of which compounds 1c, 1e, 1f, 2d, 2e, and 3d were proved to be more active than the positive control Sandoz 58-035. Computational docking experiments indicated that the interaction between inhibitors and ACAT contained the H-bond interaction, the hydrophobic interaction, and the narrow hydrophobic cleft.
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Synthesis and antifungal activity of novel triazole compounds containing piperazine moiety.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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Design and synthesis of triazole library antifungal agents having piperazine side chains, analogues to fluconazole were documented. The synthesis highlighted utilization of the click chemistry on the basis of the active site of the cytochrome P450 14?-demethylase (CYP51). Their structures were characterized by (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, MS and IR. The influences of piperazine moiety on in vitro antifungal activities of all the target compounds were evaluated against eight human pathogenic fungi.
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Systematic review and meta-analysis of laparoscopic versus open distal gastrectomy.
J. Gastrointest. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Laparoscopic distal gastrectomy has been increasingly utilized in the treatment of gastric adenocarcinoma. This study aims to compare the morbidity/mortality and postoperative outcomes of laparoscopic-assisted versus open distal gastrectomy since 2000.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel fluconazole analogues bearing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety as potent antifungal agents.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
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A novel series of fluconazole based mimics incorporating 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety were designed and synthesized. All the title compounds were characterized by (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and Q-TOF-MS. Preliminary results revealed that most of analogues exhibited significant antifungal activity against seven pathogenic fungi. Compounds 9g and 9k (MIC80 ? 0.125 ?g/mL, respectively) were found more potent than the positive controls itraconazole and fluconazole as broad-spectrum antifungal agents. The observed docking results showed that the 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety enhanced the affinity binding to the cytochrome P450 14?-demethylase (CYP51).
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A histone methylation network regulates transgenerational epigenetic memory in C. elegans.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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How epigenetic information is transmitted from generation to generation remains largely unknown. Deletion of the C. elegans histone H3 lysine 4 dimethyl (H3K4me2) demethylase spr-5 leads to inherited accumulation of the euchromatic H3K4me2 mark and progressive decline in fertility. Here, we identified multiple chromatin-modifying factors, including H3K4me1/me2 and H3K9me3 methyltransferases, an H3K9me3 demethylase, and an H3K9me reader, which either suppress or accelerate the progressive transgenerational phenotypes of spr-5 mutant worms. Our findings uncover a network of chromatin regulators that control the transgenerational flow of epigenetic information and suggest that the balance between euchromatic H3K4 and heterochromatic H3K9 methylation regulates transgenerational effects on fertility.
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Self-organized vanadium and nitrogen co-doped titania nanotube arrays with enhanced photocatalytic reduction of CO2 into CH4.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Self-organized V-N co-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) with various doping amount were synthesized by anodizing in association with hydrothermal treatment. Impacts of V-N co-doping on the morphologies, phase structures, and photoelectrochemical properties of the TNAs films were thoroughly investigated. The co-doped TiO2 photocatalysts show remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activity for the CO2 photoreduction to methane under ultraviolet illumination. The mechanism of the enhanced photocatalytic activity is discussed in detail.
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Triazole derivatives with improved in vitro antifungal activity over azole drugs.
Drug Des Devel Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A series of triazole antifungal agents with piperidine side chains was designed and synthesized. The results of antifungal tests against eight human pathogenic fungi in vitro showed that all the compounds exhibited moderate-to-excellent activities. Molecular docking between 8d and the active site of Candida albicans CYP51 was provided based on the computational docking results. The triazole interacts with the iron of the heme group. The difluorophenyl group is located in the S3 subsite and its fluorine atom (2-F) can form H-bonds with Gly307. The side chain is oriented into the S4 subsite and formed hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions with the amino residues. Moreover, the phenyl group in the side chain interacts with the phenol group of Phe380 through the formation of ?-? face-to-edge interactions.
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Synthesis, antifungal activities and molecular docking studies of novel 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propyl dithiocarbamates.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A series of 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propyl dithiocarbamates as new analogs of fluconazole were synthesized and their antifungal activities were evaluated. Among these compounds, 2a-f and 3a-q exhibited higher activities than fluconazole against nearly all fungi tested except Aspergillus fumigatus. Noticeably, the in vitro biological activities of 2b, 3a, 3c, 3h-k, and 3o-q against Candida species were much better than those of fluconazole and ketoconazole. Also, 2a-d, 3a-d, 3e-f, 3h-k, 3p and 3q showed higher activities against A. fumi than fluconazole. Computational docking experiments indicated that the inhibition of CYP51 involved a coordination bond with iron of the heme group, the hydrophilic H-bonding region, the hydrophobic region, and the narrow hydrophobic cleft.
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Synthesis and evaluation of novel azoles as potent antifungal agents.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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Using a rational approach to the design of antifungal agents, a series of azole agents with 1,3,4-oxadiazole side chains were designed and synthesized. The results of preliminary in vitro antifungal tests with eight human pathogenic compounds showed that all of the title compounds exhibited excellent activities against all of the tested fungi except Aspergillus fumigatus. Compounds 11e and 11f were found to be the most effective, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.0039?g/mL, followed by voriconazole, which has a MIC of 0.0625?g/mL. The 1,3,4-oxadiazole side chain is not the major contributor but plays a role in eliciting the observed antifungal activity.
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Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of azithromycin glycosyl derivatives as potential antibacterial agents.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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A series of 11,12-cyclic carbonate azithromycin-4?-O-carbamoyl glycosyl derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as antibacterial agents to search for target compounds with excellent activity. The results of preliminary antibacterial tests against eight strains in vitro revealed that all of the title compounds exhibited improved activities with broad spectrum compared with the parent compound. The glycosylated side chains may be the pharmacophores responsible for the improved activity.
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Recent progress in synthetic and biological studies of GPI anchors and GPI-anchored proteins.
Curr Opin Chem Biol
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Covalent attachment of glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) to the protein C-terminus is one of the most common posttranslational modifications in eukaryotic cells. In addition to anchoring surface proteins to the cell membrane, GPIs also have many other important biological functions, determined by their unique structure and property. This account has reviewed the recent progress made in disclosing GPI and GPI-anchored protein biosynthesis, in the chemical and chemoenzymatic synthesis of GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins, and in understanding the conformation, organization, and distribution of GPIs in the lipid membrane.
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Nickel titanates hollow shells: nanosphere, nanorod, and their photocatalytic properties.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Two kinds of hollow shell structured nickel titanates (nanosphere, nanorod) were prepared by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method using carbon material as the template. Their phase structure, morphology, and optical properties were well characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Comparing with the template-free NiTiO3 (NiTiO3-TF), the two kinds of hollow shell structured NiTiO3 have larger Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface areas. Both NiTiO3 nanosphere (NiTiO3-NS) and nanorod (NiTiO3-NR) showed remarkably photocatalytic H2 evolution from the methanol aqueous solution under full-arc lamp and visible light. Additional, their photocatalytic activities were also determined by photo-degradation of methyl blue (MB), and the degradation yield reached nearly 100% within 100 min on NiTiO3-NR under visible light. Whatever in photocatalytic H2 evolution or MB degradation, their photocatalytic activities all followed the order: NiTiO3-NR > NiTiO3-NS > NiTiO3-TF. The higher photocatalytic activities of the hollow shelled NiTiO3 should be due to their larger BET surface areas and more utilization of the incident light.
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Forced miR-146a expression causes autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome in mice via downregulation of Fas in germinal center B cells.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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By inhibiting target gene expression, microRNAs (miRNAs) play major roles in various physiological and pathological processes. miR-146a, a miRNA induced upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and virus infection, is also highly expressed in patients with immune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögrens syndrome, and psoriasis. Whether the high level of miR-146a contributes to any of these pathogenesis-related processes remains unknown. To elucidate the function of miR-146a in vivo, we generated a transgenic (TG) mouse line overexpressing miR-146a. Starting at an early age, these TG mice developed spontaneous immune disorders that mimicked human autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) with distinct manifestations, including enlarged spleens and lymph nodes, inflammatory infiltration in the livers and lungs, increased levels of double-negative T cells in peripheral blood, and increased serum immunoglobulin G levels. Moreover, with the adoptive transfer approach, we found that the B-cell population was the major etiological factor and that the expression of Fas, a direct target of miR-146a, was significantly dampened in TG germinal center B cells. These results indicate that miR-146a may be involved in the pathogenesis of ALPS by targeting Fas and may therefore serve as a novel therapeutic target.
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Synthesis and antifungal activity of the novel triazole derivatives containing 1,2,3-triazole fragment.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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A series of fluconazole analogues containing 1,2,3-triazole fragment have been designed and synthesized on the basis of the active site of the cytochrome P450 14?-demethylase (CYP51). Their structures were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and LC-MS. The MIC80 values indicate that the target compounds 1a-r showed higher activities against nearly all the fungi tested to some extent except against Aspergillus fumigatus. Compounds 1c, e, f, l and p showed 128 times higher activity (with the MIC80 value of 0.0039 mg/mL) than that of fluconazole against Candida albicans and also showed higher activity than that of the other positive controls.
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Opposite Effects of Single-Dose and Multidose Administration of the Ethanol Extract of Danshen on CYP3A in Healthy Volunteers.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of single- and multidose administration of the ethanol extract of danshen on in vivo CYP3A activity in healthy volunteers. A sequential, open-label, and three-period pharmacokinetic interaction study design was used based on 12 healthy male individuals. The plasma concentrations of midazolam and its metabolite 1-hydroxymidazolam were measured. Treatment with single dose of the extract caused the mean C max of midazolam to increase by 87% compared with control. After 10 days of the danshen extract intake, the mean AUC0-12, C max, and t 1/2 of midazolam were decreased by 79.9%, 66.6%, and 43.8%, respectively. The mean clearance of midazolam was increased by 501.6% compared with control. The in vitro study showed that dihydrotanshinone I in the extract could inhibit CYP3A, while tanshinone IIA and cryptotanshinone could induce CYP3A. In conclusion, a single-dose administration of the danshen extract can inhibit intestinal CYP3A, but multidose administration can induce intestinal and hepatic CYP3A.
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The efficacy of thymosin alpha 1 for severe sepsis (ETASS): a multicenter, single-blind, randomized and controlled trial.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Severe sepsis is associated with a high mortality rate despite implementation of guideline recommendations. Adjunctive treatment may be efficient and require further investigation. In light of the crucial role of immunologic derangement in severe sepsis, thymosin alpha 1 (T?1) is considered as a promising beneficial immunomodulatory drug. The trial is to evaluate whether T?1 improves 28-day all-cause mortality rates and immunofunction in patients with severe sepsis. METHODS: We performed a multicenter randomized controlled trial in six tertiary, teaching hospitals in China between May 12, 2008 and Dec 22, 2010. Eligible patients admitted in ICU with severe sepsis were randomly allocated by a central randomization center to the control group or T?1 group (1:1 ratio). The primary outcome was death from any cause and was assessed 28 days after enrollment. Secondary outcomes included dynamic changes of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR (mHLA-DR) on day 0, 3, 7 in both groups. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. RESULTS: A total of 361 patients were allocated to either the control group (n = 180) or T?1 (n = 181) group. The mortalities from any cause within 28 days in the T?1 group and control group were 26.0% and 35.0% respectively with a marginal P value (nonstratified analysis, P = 0.062; log rank, P = 0.049); the relative risk of death in the T?1 group as compared to the control group was 0.74 (95% CI 0.54 to 1.02). Greater improvement of mHLA-DR was observed in the T?1 group on day 3 (mean difference in mHLA-DR changes between the two groups was 3.9%, 95% CI 0.2 to 7.6%, P = 0.037) and day 7 (mean difference in mHLA-DR changes between the two groups was 5.8%, 95% CI 1.0 to 10.5%, P = 0.017) than in the control group. No serious drug-related adverse event was recorded. CONCLUSIONS: The use of T?1 therapy in combination with conventional medical therapies may be effective in improving clinical outcomes in a targeted population of severe sepsis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00711620.
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Synthesis and Evaluation of Protein Conjugates of GM3 Derivatives Carrying Modified Sialic Acids as Highly Immunogenic Cancer Vaccine Candidates.
Medchemcomm
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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GM3, a sialylated trisaccharide antigen expressed by a number of tumors, is an attractive target in the design of therapeutic cancer vaccines. However, a serious problem associated with GM3 is that it is poorly immunogenic. To overcome this problem for the development of GM3-based cancer vaccines, four GM3 derivatives, including 5-N-p-methylphenylacetyl, 5-N-p-methoxyphenylacetyl, 5-N-p-acetophenylacetyl and 5-N-p-chlorophenylacetyl GM3, were synthesized and then coupled to a carrier protein, keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH). The resultant glycoconjugates were evaluated as vaccines in mouse and compared to the KLH conjugate of 5-N-phenylacetyl GM3 (GM3NPhAc), a highly immunogenic GM3 derivative that was previously investigated as a vaccine candidate. All of the four new GM3 derivatives were proved to be more immunogenic than GM3NPhAc and elicit very strong T cell-dependent immune responses desirable for cancer immunotherapy. It was concluded that the new GM3 derivatives can form promising vaccine candidates that may be used to combine with cell glycoengineering for cancer immunotherapy.
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A Brassica napus lipase locates at the membrane contact sites involved in chloroplast development.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2011
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Fatty acids synthesized in chloroplast are transported to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for triacylglycerols (TAGs) resembling. The development of chloroplast also requires lipids trafficking from ER to chloroplast. The membrane contact sites (MCSs) between ER and chloroplast has been demonstrated to be involved for the trafficking of lipids and proteins. Lipids trafficking between ER and chloroplast is often accompanied by lipids interconversion. However, it is rarely known how lipids interconversion happens during their trafficking.
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Discovery of novel xanthone derivatives as xanthine oxidase inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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Xanthine oxidase is the key enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and then to uric acid. In this study, a series of xanthone derivatives were synthesized as effective and a new class of xanthine oxidase inhibitor. Compounds 8a, 8c, 8i, 8g and 8r showed good inhibition against xanthine oxidase. The presence of a cyano group at the para position of benzyl moiety turned out to be the preferred substitution pattern. Molecular modeling studies were performed to gain an insight into its binding mode with xanthine oxidase, and to provide the basis for further structure-guided design of new non-purine xanthine oxidase inhibitors associated with the xanthone framework.
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Synthesis and antifungal activity of novel triazole derivatives.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2011
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A series of novel azoles (a-v), which are analogues of fluconazole, have been designed and synthesized as potential antifungal agents by the click reaction. The click reaction approach toward the synthesis of novel 1,2,3-triazolyl linked triazole antifungal derivatives a-v was achieved by Cu(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of propargylated intermediate 5 with substituted azidomethyl benzene. In addition, the target compounds tested can increase antifungal activity.
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Design, synthesis and molecular docking studies of novel triazole as antifungal agent.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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In order to meet the urgent need for novel antifungal agents with improved activity and broader spectrum, a series of 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-[(4-substituted trifluoromethyl phenyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-propan-2-ols were designed, synthesized and evaluated as antifungal agents. The MIC(80) values indicate that the compounds 7a-7q, 8a-8d showed higher antifungal activities against Candida albicans than 5a-5i, 6a-6j. Moreover, the molecular model for the binding between compound 5a, 7a and the active site of CACYP51 was provided based on the computational docking results, and the structure-activity relationship was analyzed.
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Synthesis, in vitro evaluation and molecular docking studies of new triazole derivatives as antifungal agents.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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On the basis of the active site of lanosterol 14?-demethylase from Candida albicans (CACYP51), a series of 1-(2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one derivatives were synthesized as fluconazole analogs. Results of the preliminary antifungal tests against eight human pathogenic fungi in vitro showed that these compounds exhibited activities to some extent, and some displayed excellent antifungal activities against C. albicans than reference drug fluconazole. Flexible molecular docking was used to analyze the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of the target compounds. The designed compounds interact with CACYP51 through hydrophobic, van der Waals and hydrogen-bonding interactions.
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Design, synthesis and antifungal activities of novel 1,2,4-triazole derivatives.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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A series of novel 1,2,4-triazole derivatives with a 4-(4-substitutedphenyl) piperazine side chain were designed and synthesized based on the structure of lanosterol 14?-demethylase (CYP51). Their antifungal activities against eight human pathogenic fungi were evaluated in vitro by measuring the minimal inhibitory concentrations. Nearly all tested compounds were found to be more potent against Candida albicans than control drug fluconazole. Noticeably, the MIC(80) value of compounds 6,7,9,14 and 29 is 16 times lower than that of voriconazole against C. albicans. The activities of compounds 7 and 21 against Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro are comparable to that of voriconazole with a MIC(80) value of 0.0156 ?g/mL. Moreover, the molecular model for the binding between compound 7 and the active site of CACYP51 was provided based on the computational docking results.
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Design, synthesis and antifungal evaluation of 1-(2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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Based on the structure of the active site of cytochrome P450 14?-demethylase (CYP51) and the conclusions of the structure-activity relationships of azole antifungals, a series of 1-(2-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one of fluconazole analogs was synthesized. All compounds were characterized by IR, HRMS, (1)HNMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis. Results of preliminary antifungal in vitro test using eight human pathogenic species showed that some compounds displayed comparable or even better antifungal activities than reference drug fluconazole and that compound 3i exhibited significant activity against Candida albicans being worthy of further optimization.
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New azoles with antifungal activity: Design, synthesis, and molecular docking.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2010
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In order to search for many target compounds with excellent activities, a series of 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-2-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-3-[(4-substituted phenyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-propan-2-ols were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as antifungal agents. Results of preliminary antifungal tests against eight human pathogenic fungi in vitro showed that all the title compounds exhibited excellent activities with broad spectrum. Moreover, a molecular model for the binding between 5a and the active site of CACYP51 was provided based on the computational docking results.
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Synthesis, molecular docking, and biological evaluation of novel triazole derivatives as antifungal agents.
Chem Biol Drug Des
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2010
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Twenty-eight novel triazole derivatives (compounds 1a-v, 2a-f) have been synthesized for structure-activity relationship studies as antifungal agents. The compounds were designed on the basis of the structure of fluconazole and molecular modeling of the active site of the cytochrome P450 14?-demethylase (CYP51). All of them are reported for the first time. Their chemical structures are characterized by (1) H NMR, (13) C NMR, LC-MS, and elemental analysis. The antifungal activities have been evaluated in vitro by measuring the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Compounds 1a-v exhibited higher activity against nearly all fungi tested except Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fum) than fluconazole (FCZ). The computational molecular docking experiments indicated that the inhibition of CYP51 involves a coordination bond with iron of the heme group, a hydrophilic H-bonding region, a hydrophobic region, and a narrow hydrophobic binding cleft.
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Synthesis and in vitro inhibitory activity of matrine derivatives towards pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2010
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Matrine, a sophora alkaloid, exhibited good anti-inflammation effects in our previous report. In the present study, a series of matrine derivatives were synthesized via classical Michael addition. Biological studies showed that the synthetic derivatives had good inhibitory effect towards TNF-? production and NF?B transcriptional activity. The introduction of various amino groups to the keto beta position could improve the biochemical profile, resulting in the identification of more potent derivates, such as 1f, with higher inhibitory activity than both matrine and sophoramine.
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WO3 modified titanate network film: highly efficient photo-mineralization of 2-propanol under visible light irradiation.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2010
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WO(3) modified titanate network film was prepared by an improved low-temperature two-step hydrothermal method. It showed a high mineralization yield (over 90%) for 2-propanol (IPA) photo-decomposition by only 2 h of visible light (lambda > or = 420 nm) irradiation. Furthermore, it exhibited quite good stability in this photocatalytic mineralization.
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Synthesis and antifungal evaluation of novel triazole derivatives as inhibitors of cytochrome P450 14alpha-demethylase.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2010
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A series of 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-substituted-2-propanols (1a-v, 2a-w), which are analogues of fluconazole, have been designed and synthesized as the potential antifungal agents by the click reaction. Click reaction approach toward the synthesis of two sets of novel 1,2,3-triazolyl linked triazole antifungal derivatives 1a-v, 2a-w was achieved by Cu(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of propargylated intermediate 8 with substituted azidomethyl benzene. The 1,2,3-triazolyl group was inserted into the side chain of the target molecule which can increase the antifungal activity of compounds.
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Altered microRNA expression profile with miR-146a upregulation in CD4+ T cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2010
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Increasing evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate the expression pattern and function of miRNAs in CD4+ T cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
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First identification of xanthone sulfonamides as potent acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2010
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Inhibitors of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) would be useful anti-atherogenic agents, since an absence of ACAT affects the absorption and transformation of cholesterol, indirectly resulting in the reduction of cholesteryl ester accumulation in blood vessels. This report discloses xanthone sulfonamides as novel class small molecule inhibitors of ACAT. A series of xanthone sulfonamides were synthesized and evaluated to result in the identification of several potent ACAT inhibitors, among which 2n proved to be more potent than the positive control Sandoz58-35. Moreover, a molecular model for the binding between 2n and the active site of ACAT-2 was provided based computational docking results.
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Platform for in situ real-time measurement of protein-induced conformational changes of DNA.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2010
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A platform for in situ and real-time measurement of protein-induced conformational changes in dsDNA is presented. We combine electrical orientation of surface-bound dsDNA probes with an optical technique to measure the kinetics of DNA conformational changes. The sequence-specific Escherichia coli integration host factor is utilized to demonstrate protein-induced bending upon binding of integration host factor to dsDNA probes. The effects of probe surface density on binding/bending kinetics are investigated. The platform can accommodate individual spots of microarrayed dsDNA on individually controlled, lithographically designed electrodes, making it amenable for use as a high throughput assay.
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Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel triazole derivatives as inhibitors of cytochrome P450 14alpha-demethylase.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2009
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Based on the results of computational docking to the active site of the cytochrome P450 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51), a series of 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-substituted-2-propanols as analogs of fluconazole were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as antifungal agents. The MIC(80) values indicate that compounds 1a-n exhibited higher activity against nearly all fungi tested except Aspergillus fumigatus than fluconazole, while compounds 2a-f, 3a-f showed no activity or only moderate activity against all fungi tested. Noticeably, the MIC value of compounds 1a, 1b and 1g is 64 times lower than that of fluconazole against Microsporum gypseum in vitro. And compounds 1a, 1b and 2b showed 128 times higher activity (with the MIC(80) value of 0.0039 microg/mL) than that of fluconazole against Candida albicans and also showed higher activity than that of the other positive controls. Computational docking experiments indicated that the inhibition of CYP51 involves a coordination bond with iron of the heme group, the hydrophilic H-bonding region, the hydrophobic region, and the narrow hydrophobic cleft. In addition, the activity of the compounds would be enhanced when the side chains were shorter.
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HMGA2 exhibits dRP/AP site cleavage activity and protects cancer cells from DNA-damage-induced cytotoxicity during chemotherapy.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2009
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HMGA proteins are not translated in normal human somatic cells, but are present in high copy numbers in pluripotent embryonic stem cells and most neoplasias. Correlations between the degree of malignancy, patient prognostic index and HMGA levels have been firmly established. Intriguingly, HMGA2 is also found in rare tumor-inducing cells which are resistant to chemotherapy. Here, we demonstrate that HMGA1a/b and HMGA2 possess intrinsic dRP and AP site cleavage activities, and that lysines and arginines in the AT-hook DNA-binding domains function as nucleophiles. We also show that HMGA2 can be covalently trapped at genomic abasic sites in cancer cells. By employing a variety of cell-based assays, we provide evidence that the associated lyase activities promote cellular resistance against DNA damage that is targeted by base excision repair (BER) pathways, and that this protection directly correlates with the level of HMGA2 expression. In addition, we demonstrate an interaction between human AP endonuclease 1 and HMGA2 in cancer cells, which supports our conclusion that HMGA2 can be incorporated into the cellular BER machinery. Our study thus identifies an unexpected role for HMGA2 in DNA repair in cancer cells which has important clinical implications for disease diagnosis and therapy.
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The role of L. monocytogenes serotype 4b gtcA in gastrointestinal listeriosis in A/J mice.
Foodborne Pathog. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2009
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Serotype 4b strains of Listeria monocytogenes have been responsible for most large outbreaks of listeriosis. In L. monocytogenes serotype 4b, gtcA and gltA have been implicated in serotype-specific glycosylation of the teichoic acid of the cell wall with galactose and glucose. In this study, we investigated the impact of mutations in gltA (resulting in absence of glucose on teichoic acid) and gtcA (resulting in absence of galactose, and markedly reduced glucose on teichoic acid) on virulence following intragastric infection of anesthetized A/J mice. The gltA mutant was not impaired in virulence in this model. In contrast, testing of gtcA mutants constructed in two different strains showed that the mutants were recovered in lower numbers than their respective parent strains from the spleen, liver, ceca, and gall bladders of intragastrically inoculated mice. Genetic complementation of the gtcA mutation partially restored gastrointestinal virulence. When mice were inoculated intravenously, the gtcA mutants were also recovered in lower numbers from the liver (for both mutant strains) and the spleen (for one mutant strain) than their respective parental strains. The mutants were also evaluated for invasion and intracellular multiplication in the Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cell line. Inactivation of gltA did not affect invasion or intracellular growth of the bacteria. In contrast, gtcA mutants showed decreased invasion, but normal multiplication in Caco-2 cells. Overall, these data demonstrate a role for gtcA in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal listeriosis in mice, and suggest that diminished ability of gtcA mutants to invade intestinal epithelial cells may be partly responsible for decreased gastrointestinal virulence.
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Synthesis and antibacterial activities of N-glycosylated derivatives of tyrocidine A, a macrocyclic peptide antibiotic.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2009
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An efficient and practical method for macrocyclic glycopeptide synthesis was developed and utilized to synthesize tyrocidine A and its glycosylated derivatives. The method is based on solid-phase peptide synthesis using 2-chlorotrityl resin as the solid-phase support and glycosyl amino acids as building blocks. After glycopeptides with fully protected glycans and side chains were released from the acid-labile resin, their C- and N-termini were intramolecularly coupled in solution to afford cyclic glycopeptides in quantitative yields. This synthetic method should be generally applicable to various macrocyclic glycopeptides. Biological studies of the synthetic tyrocidine A derivatives showed that linking glycans directly to the Asn residue of tyrocidine A diminished its antibacterial activity, but linking glycans to Asn via a simple spacer did not. These results revealed the important impact of glycans on the activities, and probably the structures, of glycopeptide antibiotics.
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Optimization of coliphage HK022 Integrase activity in human cells.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2009
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The Integrase (Int) site-specific recombinase of coliphage HK022 catalyzes integrative and excisive DNA recombination between two attachment (att) sites in human cells without the need to supply the accessory proteins Integration Host Factor (IHF) and Excisionase (Xis). Previous work has shown that under these conditions, reactions in cis, i.e. both att sites are located on the same chromosome, can be detected without selection. However, recombination in trans, i.e. one att site positioned on a chromosome and the other on an episomal vector, was detected only after selection. Here we show that optimization of the int-HK022 gene for human codon usage according to the GeneOptimizer software algorithm, as well as addition of accessory proteins IHF and Xis improve the recombination efficiencies in human cells, such that recombinants in a trans reaction could be detected without selection.
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Passive immunization of crayfish (Procambius clarkiaii) with chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2009
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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major cause of mortality in shrimp lacking a true adaptive immune response. In this study, high activity egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) against WSSV for passive immunization of crustaceans was already prepared as crude and purified product, while an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test was used for quality control of IgY activity. The effectiveness of IgY of intramuscular injection, oral administration, and immersion was investigated in crayfish (Procambius clarkiaii) against WSSV. The result showed that the groups treated with IgY from inactivated WSSV and DNA vaccine were, respectively, 20% and 80% mortality, which were significant difference in survival rates (P < 0.05) from the positive control groups. The groups in diet added 10% egg yolk powder and 1% IgY power showed 53.3% and 67.7% mortality, respectively, and the immersion showed 46.7% mortality, which have significantly different compared to the positive groups (P < 0.05). These results indicated passive immunization of specific IgY antibodies through intramuscular injection, oral administration, and immersion have effective to protect crayfish against WSSV. It is noteworthy that IgY as feed additive and immersion solution is useful and feasible methods in practical work. Thus, our results suggest that the passive immunization of crayfish with IgY against WSSV will have potential development to prevent and control WSSV in practical culture.
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Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-substituted benzylamino-2-propanols.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
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Based on the results of computational docking to the active site of the cytochrome P450 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51), a series of 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-substituted benzylamino-2-propanols as analogs of fluconazole were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as antifungal agents. Results of preliminary antifungal tests against eight human pathogenic fungi in vitro showed that all the title compounds exhibited excellent activities with broad spectrum.
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Synthesis and in vitro antitumor activities of xanthone derivatives containing 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazole moiety.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
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To explore the more active antitumor compounds, two series of new xanthones, containing 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazole moiety were designed and synthesized. Eatons Reagent and "click reaction" were used in the synthesis. Most of the title compounds showed good inhibitory activity against the hepatoma carcinoma cell line (Bel-7402) and human cervical carcinoma cell line (HeLa) in vitro. Compounds 10a, 10e, 10f, 11r and 11t had potent activity with IC(50) values, ranging from 2.2 ± 0.17 to 7.1 ± 0.27 ?M, which was equivalent to Doxorubicin.
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Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel 1, 2, 4-triazole derivatives as antifungal agent.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
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A series of novel 1, 2, 4-triazole derivatives (9a-p) have been designed and synthesized as the potential antifungal agents. All compounds were characterized by (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and LCMS. Their antifungal activities against seven human pathogenic fungi were evaluated in vitro by measuring the minimal inhibitory concentrations. Most of the tested compounds were found to be more potent against Candida albicans than the control drug fluconazole.
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Design, synthesis and molecular docking studies of sinomenine derivatives.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
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In order to search for drugs with excellent anti-inflammatory activities, a series of novel sinomenine derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their inhibition activities against NF-?B activation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Compared with the natural parent sinomenine, compounds 2a-w showed higher activity, while compounds 1a-o showed similar activity against NF-?B. Moreover, a molecular model for the binding between compound 2v and the active site of p50 was provided on the basis of the computational docking results.
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Synthesis and antifungal activities of glycosylated derivatives of the cyclic peptide fungicide caspofungin.
ChemMedChem
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Diseases caused by systemic fungal infections have become a significant clinical problem in recent decades. A series of glycosyl derivatives of the approved cyclic peptide antifungal drug caspofungin conjugated with ?-D-glucopyranose, ?-D-galactopyranose, ?-D-xylopyranose, ?-L-rhamnopyranose, ?-maltose and ?-lactose units were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as new potential antifungal drugs. The compounds were obtained by coupling the corresponding glycosyl amines to the free primary amino groups of caspofungin through a bifunctional glutaryl linker. In contrast to caspofungin, these glycosylated derivatives are soluble in water, but are not hygroscopic and moreover, are more stable than caspofungin under high humidity and temperature. CD studies showed that glycosylation has very little impact on the conformation of the cyclic peptide of caspofungin. In?vitro antifungal tests against seven human pathogenic fungi revealed that the caspofungin-monosaccharide conjugates, but not the disaccharide conjugates, have increased antifungal activities against the majority of tested fungus species relative to caspofungin. The ?-D-glucopyranosyl derivative 2?a showed the strongest and broadest antifungal activity, providing a lead for further studies.
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Combining synthetic carbohydrate vaccines with cancer cell glycoengineering for effective cancer immunotherapy.
Cancer Immunol. Immunother.
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Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) are useful targets for the development of cancer vaccines or immunotherapies. However, a major obstacle in this application of TACAs is their poor immunogenicity. To overcome the problem, a new immunotherapeutic strategy combining synthetic vaccines made of artificial TACA derivatives and metabolic glycoengineering of cancer cells to express the artificial TACA derivatives was explored. Using a murine leukemia model FBL3 with GM3 antigen as the target, it was shown that artificial GM3 N-phenylacetyl derivative (GM3NPhAc) elicited robust antigen-specific T cell-dependent immunity and that N-phenylacetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNPhAc) as the biosynthetic precursor of GM3NPhAc selectively glycoengineered cancer cells to express GM3NPhAc both in vitro and in vivo. It was also demonstrated that GM3NPhAc-specific antisera and antibodies mediated strong cytotoxicity to ManNPhAc-treated FBL3 cell. Furthermore, vaccination with a conjugate vaccine made of GM3NPhAc followed by ManNPhAc treatment could significantly suppress tumor growth and prolong the survival of tumor-bearing mouse. These results have proved the feasibility of the new cancer immunotherapeutic strategy, as well as its efficacy to cure cancer, which is of general significance.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of triazole derivatives as potential antifungal agent.
Chem Biol Drug Des
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A series of triazole antifungal agents with piperidine side chains were designed and synthesized. Results of preliminary antifungal tests against eight human pathogenic fungi in vitro showed that all the title compounds exhibited excellent activities with broad spectrum. Moreover, a molecular model for the binding between compound 12 and the active site of CACYP51 was provided based on the computational docking results. The side chain of the compound 12 is oriented into substrate access channel 2 (FG loop) and forms hydrophobic and van der waals interactions with surrounding hydrophobic residues. The phenyl group of the side chain can interact with the phenyl group of Phe380 through the formation of ?-? face-to-edge interaction.
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New triazole derivatives as antifungal agents: synthesis via click reaction, in vitro evaluation and molecular docking studies.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
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A series of 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-substituted-2-propanols (5a-5y) which are analogues of fluconazole, have been designed and synthesized via Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition on the basis of computational docking experiments to the active site of the cytochrome P450 14?-demethylase (CYP51). The in vitro antifungal activities of all the target compounds were evaluated against eight human pathogenic fungi. Compound 5l showed the best antifungal activities.
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