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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Impact of temperature on non-accidental deaths and cause-specific mortality in four districts of Jinan].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To study the relationship between daily temperature and non-accidental deaths in four districts of Jinan, and to investigate the impact of temperature on cause-specific mortality.
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[Heat vulnerability assessment in Jinan city: a comparison between residents living in urban centers and urban-fringe areas].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To find out the differences in regional characteristics of heat vulnerability between people living in urban centers and urban-fringe areas of Jinan city so as to provide basis for the development of adaptation measures to heat.
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Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: A survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government?s policy-making, service provider?s guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China.
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Community knowledge and experience of mosquitoes and personal prevention and control practices in lhasa, tibet.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Since 2009, great public attention has been paid in Lhasa City (Tibet, China) to mosquito bites and accompanying inflammatory complications. However, the potential contribution of knowledge levels, experiences, disease control and preventive practices (KEP) towards mosquitoes has not received much attention. To investigate community KEP concerning mosquitoes in Lhasa, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken in four sub-districts of urban Lhasa in 2012. Questionnaires were designed to collect information regarding socio-demographics and KEP concerning the harmful effects of mosquitoes on participants. The scoring for KEP was developed after consultation of literature. A total of 591 eligible questionnaires were examined. The majority of respondents were female (61.8%) with a mean age of 46 years. Nearly all of the respondents were of Tibetan nationality (97.4%) and living in registered native households (92.7%), who have less than primary school education. The averages of overall score, knowledge score, experience score, and practice score were 9.23, 4.53, 1.80, 2.90, respectively. The registered household with the highest overall score, knowledge score and practice score was non-native. Female subjects with monthly incomes between 1000 and 3000 RMB had higher experience scores. The correlation analysis revealed that significant positive linear correlations existed between knowledge and experience, knowledge and practices, and experience and practices towards mosquitoes. Past experiences with mosquitoes can result in a better knowledge of effective mosquito control practices in the present and the future. Though the average of overall scores related to mosquitoes is high among the participants in Lhasa, however, the knowledge about the ecological habits of mosquitoes should be strengthened. The findings in this study may help to develop strategies and measures of mosquito and mosquito-borne diseases in the future, not only in Lhasa, but also in similar altitude, latitude and longitude regions worldwide.
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Meteorological variables and bacillary dysentery cases in Changsha City, China.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the association between meteorological-related risk factors and bacillary dysentery in a subtropical inland Chinese area: Changsha City. The cross-correlation analysis and the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average with Exogenous Variables (ARIMAX) model were used to quantify the relationship between meteorological factors and the incidence of bacillary dysentery. Monthly mean temperature, mean relative humidity, mean air pressure, mean maximum temperature, and mean minimum temperature were significantly correlated with the number of bacillary dysentery cases with a 1-month lagged effect. The ARIMAX models suggested that a 1°C rise in mean temperature, mean maximum temperature, and mean minimum temperature might lead to 14.8%, 12.9%, and 15.5% increases in the incidence of bacillary dysentery disease, respectively. Temperature could be used as a forecast factor for the increase of bacillary dysentery in Changsha. More public health actions should be taken to prevent the increase of bacillary dysentery disease with consideration of local climate conditions, especially temperature.
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Evaluation of larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Allium macrostemon Bunge and its selected major constituent compounds against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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During the screening programme for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and local wild plants, the essential oil of dried bulbs of Allium macrostemon Bunge (Liliaceae) was found to possess larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. The aim of this research was to determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil and its major constituent compounds against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito, Aedes albopictus.
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The role of environmental factors in the spatial distribution of Japanese encephalitis in mainland China.
Environ Int
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the most common cause of viral encephalitis and an important public health concern in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly in China where 50% of global cases are notified. To explore the association between environmental factors and human JE cases and identify the high risk areas for JE transmission in China, we used annual notified data on JE cases at the center of administrative township and environmental variables with a pixel resolution of 1km×1km from 2005 to 2011 to construct models using ecological niche modeling (ENM) approaches based on maximum entropy. These models were then validated by overlaying reported human JE case localities from 2006 to 2012 onto each prediction map. ENMs had good discriminatory ability with the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating curve (ROC) of 0.82-0.91, and low extrinsic omission rate of 5.44-7.42%. Resulting maps showed JE being presented extensively throughout southwestern and central China, with local spatial variations in probability influenced by minimum temperatures, human population density, mean temperatures, and elevation, with contribution of 17.94%-38.37%, 15.47%-21.82%, 3.86%-21.22%, and 12.05%-16.02%, respectively. Approximately 60% of JE cases occurred in predicted high risk areas, which covered less than 6% of areas in mainland China. Our findings will help inform optimal geographical allocation of the limited resources available for JE prevention and control in China, find hidden high-risk areas, and increase the effectiveness of public health interventions against JE transmission.
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Temperature and mortality on the roof of the world: a time-series analysis in three Tibetan counties, China.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Tibet, with an average altitude of more than 4,000 meters, is warming faster than anywhere else in China. However, there have been no studies in Tibet of the relation between ambient temperature and mortality.
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Effects of the floods on dysentery in north central region of Henan Province, China from 2004 to 2009.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Zhengzhou, Kaifeng and Xinxiang, the cities in the north central region of Henan Province, suffered from many times floods from 2004 to 2009. We focused on dysentery disease consequences of floods and examined the association between floods and the morbidity of dysentery, based on a longitudinal data.
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Temperature, hospital admissions and emergency room visits in Lhasa, Tibet: a time-series analysis.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Tibet of China, with an average altitude of over 4000 m, has experienced noticeable changes in its climate over the last 50 years. The association between temperature and morbidity (most commonly represented by hospital admissions) has been documented mainly in developed countries. Little is known about patterns in China; nor have the health effects of temperature variations been closely studied in highland areas, worldwide.
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The effects of summer temperature and heat waves on heat-related illness in a coastal city of China, 2011-2013.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Devastating health effects from recent heat waves in China have highlighted the importance of understanding health consequences from extreme heat stress. Despite the increasing mortality from extreme heat, very limited studies have quantified the effects of summer extreme temperature on heat-related illnesses in China.
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Perceptions of heat risk to health: a qualitative study of professional bus drivers and their managers inJinan, China.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Summer extreme heat threatens the health of individuals, especially persons who are involved in outdoor activities. Ensuring the normal function of a city, bus drivers are among those who participate in outdoor physical activities and are exposed to excessive heat in hot summer weather. This qualitative study was performed to explore professional bus drivers' in-depth views of extreme heat risks to their health, and ultimately develop targeted advice and policy interventions for city bus drivers. An interview-based study was performed among professional bus drivers in Jinan, China, including four focus groups with professional bus drivers (n = 37) and three interviews with their managers (n = 14). Five central themes or categories from the bus driver interviews were found: concerns about summer heat; health effects related to extreme heat; adaptive measures; barriers in implementing these adaptive measures; and suggested interventions. The beneficial role of cooling facilities (particularly air-conditioning) during extreme heat are addressed. The barriers not only impede the implementation of behavioral adaptive measures but also enhance the negative attitudes of bus drivers towards their effectiveness. The responsibilities of managers in promoting preventive actions are addressed.
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The Impact of Climate Change on Infectious Disease Transmission: Perceptions of CDC Health Professionals in Shanxi Province, China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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There have been increasing concerns about the challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases due to climate change, especially in developing countries including China. Health professionals play a significant role in the battle to control and prevent infectious diseases. This study therefore aims to investigate the perceptions and attitudes of health professionals at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in different levels in China, and to consider adaptation measures to deal with the challenge of climate change. In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 staff in CDCs in Shanxi Province, China, whose routine work involves disease control and prevention. Data were analyzed using descriptive methods and logistic regression. A majority of the CDC staff were aware of the health risks from climate change, especially its impacts on infectious disease transmission in their jurisdictions, and believed climate change might bring about both temporal and spatial change in transmission patterns. It was thought that adaptation measures should be established including: strengthening/improving currently existing disease surveillance systems and vector monitoring; building CDC capacity in terms of infrastructure and in-house health professional training; development and refinement of relevant legislation, policies and guidelines; better coordination among various government departments; the involvement of the community in infectious disease interventions; and collaborative research with other institutions. This study provides a snapshot of the understanding of CDC staff regarding climate change risks relevant to infectious diseases and adaptation in China. Results may help inform future efforts to develop adaptation measures to minimize infectious disease risks due to climate change.
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Predicting local dengue transmission in Guangzhou, China, through the influence of imported cases, mosquito density and climate variability.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Each year there are approximately 390 million dengue infections worldwide. Weather variables have a significant impact on the transmission of Dengue Fever (DF), a mosquito borne viral disease. DF in mainland China is characterized as an imported disease. Hence it is necessary to explore the roles of imported cases, mosquito density and climate variability in dengue transmission in China. The study was to identify the relationship between dengue occurrence and possible risk factors and to develop a predicting model for dengue's control and prevention purpose.
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A mixed method to evaluate burden of malaria due to flooding and waterlogging in Mengcheng County, China: a case study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Malaria is a highly climate-sensitive vector-borne infectious disease that still represents a significant public health problem in Huaihe River Basin. However, little comprehensive information about the burden of malaria caused by flooding and waterlogging is available from this region. This study aims to quantitatively assess the impact of flooding and waterlogging on the burden of malaria in a county of Anhui Province, China.
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Wet climate and transportation routes accelerate spread of human plague.
Proc. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Currently, large-scale transmissions of infectious diseases are becoming more closely associated with accelerated globalization and climate change, but quantitative analyses are still rare. By using an extensive dataset consisting of date and location of cases for the third plague pandemic from 1772 to 1964 in China and a novel method (nearest neighbour approach) which deals with both short- and long-distance transmissions, we found the presence of major roads, rivers and coastline accelerated the spread of plague and shaped the transmission patterns. We found that plague spread velocity was positively associated with wet conditions (measured by an index of drought and flood events) in China, probably due to flood-driven transmission by people or rodents. Our study provides new insights on transmission patterns and possible mechanisms behind variability in transmission speed, with implications for prevention and control measures. The methodology may also be applicable to studies of disease dynamics or species movement in other systems.
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Regional impact of climate on Japanese encephalitis in areas located near the three gorges dam.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In this study, we aim to identify key climatic factors that are associated with the transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus in areas located near the Three Gorges Dam, between 1997 and 2008.
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[Real-time PCR-based detection of Bartonella vinsonii sub sp. berkhoffii by TaqMan minor groove binder probe].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii is a fastidious haemotropic Gram-negative bacterium that has been identified as an emerging causative agent for zoonotic diseases of human and dogs. This study aimed to develop a TaqMan-MGB probe based, highly sensitive and species-specific fluorescence quantitative PCR assay for rapid detection of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii.
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Mosquitoes established in Lhasa city, Tibet, China.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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In 2009, residents of Lhasa city, Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), China reported large numbers of mosquitoes and bites from these insects. It is unclear whether this was a new phenomenon, which species were involved, and whether these mosquitoes had established themselves in the local circumstances.
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A Study of the Dengue Epidemic and Meteorological Factors in Guangzhou, China, by Using a Zero-Inflated Poisson Regression Model.
Asia Pac J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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The aim of this study is to develop a model that correctly identifies and quantifies the relationship between dengue and meteorological factors in Guangzhou, China. By cross-correlation analysis, meteorological variables and their lag effects were determined. According to the epidemic characteristics of dengue in Guangzhou, those statistically significant variables were modeled by a zero-inflated Poisson regression model. The number of dengue cases and minimum temperature at 1-month lag, along with average relative humidity at 0- to 1-month lag were all positively correlated with the prevalence of dengue fever, whereas wind velocity and temperature in the same month along with rainfall at 2 months lag showed negative association with dengue incidence. Minimum temperature at 1-month lag and wind velocity in the same month had a greater impact on the dengue epidemic than other variables in Guangzhou.
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Short-term effects of meteorological factors on children hand, foot and mouth disease in Guangzhou, China.
Int J Biometeorol
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a contagious viral illness that commonly affects infants and children. The underlying risk factors have not yet been systematically examined. This study analyzed the short-term effects of meteorological factors on children HFMD in Guangzhou, China. Daily count of HFMD among children younger than 15 years and meteorological variables from 2009 to 2011 were collected to construct the time series. A generalized additive model was applied to estimate the effects of meteorological factors on HFMD occurrence, after adjusting for long-term trend, seasonal trend, day of week, and public holidays. A negative association between temperature and children HFMD occurrence was observed at lag days 1-3, with the relative risk (RR) for a 1 °C increase on lag day 2 being 0.983 (95 % confidence intervals (CI) 0.977 to 0.989); positive effect was found for temperature at lag days 5-9, with the highest effect at lag day 6 (RR?=?1.014, 95 % CI 1.006 to 1.023). Higher humidity was associated with increased HFMD at lag days 3-10, with the highest effect at lag day 8 (RR?=?1.009 for 1 % increase in relative humidity, 95 % CI 1.007 to 1.010). And we also observed significant positive effect for rainfall at lag days 4 and 8 (RR?=?1.001, 95 % CI 1.000 to 1.002) for 1-mm increase. Subgroup analyses showed that the positive effects of temperature were more pronounced among younger children. This study suggests that meteorological factors might be important predictors of children HFMD occurrence in Guangzhou.
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Rapid warming in Tibet, China: public perception, response and coping resources in urban Lhasa.
Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2013
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Tibet, average altitude more than 4,000 meters, is warming faster than anywhere else in China. The increase in temperatures may aggravate existing health problems and lead to the emergence of new risks. However, there are no actions being taken at present to protect population health due to limited understanding about the range and magnitude of health effects of climate change.
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Meteorological factors are associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Jiaonan County, China, 2006-2011.
Int J Biometeorol
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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This study examined the effect of meteorological factors on the occurrence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) using a generalized additive model with penalized smoothing splines in Jiaonan, China, from 2006 to 2011. The dose-response relationship was first examined, and then the association between daily meteorological variables and HFRS occurrence was investigated according to the dose-response curves. There were two linear segments in the temperature-HFRS relationship curve. When daily temperature was lower than 17 °C, a positive association was found [with excessive risk (ER) for 1 °C increase on the current day being 2.56 %, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.36 % to 4.80 %]. An inverse association was found when daily temperature was higher than 17 °C [ER for 1 °C increase on the current day was -12.82 % (95 % CI: -17.51 % to -7.85 %)]. Inverse associations were observed for relative humidity [ER for 1 % increase on lag day 4 was -1.21 % (95 % CI: -1.63 % to -0.79 %)] and rainfall [ER for 1 mm increase on lag day 1 was -2.20 % (95 % CI: -3.56 % to -0.82 %)]. Meteorological factors might be important predictor of HFRS epidemics in Jiaonan County.
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Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Dengue in Guangdong Province of China.
Asia Pac J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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The aim of the study was to describe the spatial and temporal patterns of dengue in Guangdong for 1978 to 2010. Time series analysis was performed using data on annual dengue incidence in Guangdong province for 1978-2010. Annual average dengue incidences for each city were mapped for 4 periods by using the geographical information system (GIS). Hot spot analysis was used to identify spatial patterns of dengue cases for 2005-2010 by using the CrimeStat III software. The incidence of dengue in Guangdong province had fallen steadily from 1978 to 2010. The time series was a random sequence without regularity and with no fixed cycle. The geographic range of dengue fever had expanded from 1978 to 2010. Cases were mostly concentrated in Zhanjiang and the developed regions of Pearl River Delta and Shantou.
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Comparison of pyrethroid resistance in adults and larvae of Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae) from four field populations in China.
J. Econ. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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The susceptibility of adults and larvae from four field populations of Culex pipiens pallens (Coguillett) (Diptera: Culicidae) in China to deltamethrin, beta-cypermethrin, and permethrin was investigated using the World Health Organization standard susceptibility test methods. One to 2 d old nonblood fed female mosquitoes emerged from pupae resulting from wild-caught larvae (F1 laboratory reared adults) were exposed to various doses of the pyrethroids. The larval bioassay was conducted using a range of concentrations to determine the LC50 values. Using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, the frequency of the kdr resistance gene was determined in each population. The bioassay data indicated that deltamethrin was the most active larvicide in all four populations with resistance ratios (RR) of 1.6-3.9-fold. This was followed by beta-cypermethrin with RR of 1.1-3.3-fold, while larvae from three mosquito populations from Beijing, Jinan, and Kaifeng had developed resistance to permethrin with RR of 12.6-, 24.0-, and 18.8-fold, respectively. The overall RR of larvae for all insecticides in ascending order was Changchun < Beijing < Kaifeng < Jinan; and ranking of the adult mortality was Changchun < Jinan = Kaifeng < Beijing. For the three pyrethroids tested, the correlation coefficient among the three test methods on the four populations and one lab strain was quite weak. The R value was 0.113-0.320 when we compared kdr detection for kdr% with LC50, -0.565 to -0.793 when kdr% versus adult mortality test, and -0.750 to 0.505 for LC50 versus adult mortality. Permethrin showed the best correlation (R = -0.793) between kdr frequency and adult mortality. This indicates that levels of susceptibility changes to an insecticide should not be based on a single method of assessment.
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Climate change and mosquito-borne diseases in China: a review.
Global Health
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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China has experienced noticeable changes in climate over the past 100?years and the potential impact climate change has on transmission of mosquito-borne infectious diseases poses a risk to Chinese populations. The aims of this paper are to summarize what is known about the impact of climate change on the incidence and prevalence of malaria, dengue fever and Japanese encephalitis in China and to provide important information and direction for adaptation policy making. Fifty-five papers met the inclusion criteria for this study. Examination of these studies indicates that variability in temperature, precipitation, wind, and extreme weather events is linked to transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in some regions of China. However, study findings are inconsistent across geographical locations and this requires strengthening current evidence for timely development of adaptive options. After synthesis of available information we make several key adaptation recommendations including: improving current surveillance and monitoring systems; concentrating adaptation strategies and policies on vulnerable communities; strengthening adaptive capacity of public health systems; developing multidisciplinary approaches sustained by an new mechanism of inter-sectional coordination; and increasing awareness and mobilization of the general public.
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Depolymerization of cytokeratin intermediate filaments facilitates intracellular infection of HeLa cells by Bartonella henselae.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Bartonella henselae is capable of invading epithelial and endothelial cells by modulating the function of actin-dependent cytoskeleton proteins. Although understanding of the pathogenesis has been increased by the development of an in vitro infection model involving endothelial cells, little is known about the mechanism of interaction between B. henselae and epithelial cells. This study aims to identify the binding candidates of B. henselae in epithelial cells and explores their effect on B. henselae infection. Pull-down assays and mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that some of the binding proteins (keratin 14, keratin 6, and F-actin) are cytoskeleton associated. B. henselae infection significantly induces the expression of the cytokeratin genes. Chemical disruption of the keratin network by using ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid promotes the intracellular persistence of B. henselae in HeLa cells. However, cytochalasin B and phalloidin treatment inhibits B. henselae invasion. Immunofluorescent staining demonstrates that B. henselae infection induces an F-actin-dependent rearrangement of the cytoskeleton. However, we demonstrated via immunofluorescent staining and whole-mount cell electron microscopy that keratin intermediate filaments are depolymerized by B. henselae. The results indicate that B. henselae achieves an intracellular persistence in epithelial cells through the depolymerization of cytokeratin intermediate filaments that are protective against B. henselae invasion.
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Spatial Analysis of Dengue Fever in Guangdong Province, China, 2001-2006.
Asia Pac J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Guangdong Province is the area most seriously affected by dengue fever in China. In this study, we describe the spatial distribution of dengue fever in Guangdong Province from 2001 to 2006 with the objective of informing priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation. Annualized incidence at a county level was calculated and mapped to show crude incidence, excess hazard, and spatial smoothed incidence. Geographic information system-based spatial scan statistics was conducted to detect the spatial distribution pattern of dengue fever incidence at the county level. Spatial scan cluster analyses suggested that counties around Guangzhou City and Chaoshan Region were at increased risk for dengue fever (P < .01). Some spatial clusters of dengue fever were found in Guangdong Province, which allowed intervention measures to be targeted for maximum effect.
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Quantitative analysis of burden of infectious diarrhea associated with floods in northwest of anhui province, china: a mixed method evaluation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Persistent and heavy rainfall in the upper and middle Huaihe River of China brought about severe floods during the end of June and July 2007. However, there has been no assessment on the association between the floods and infectious diarrhea. This study aimed to quantify the impact of the floods in 2007 on the burden of disease due to infectious diarrhea in northwest of Anhui Province.
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Temporal trend and climate factors of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome epidemic in Shenyang City, China.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2011
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Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an important infectious disease caused by different species of hantaviruses. As a rodent-borne disease with a seasonal distribution, external environmental factors including climate factors may play a significant role in its transmission. The city of Shenyang is one of the most seriously endemic areas for HFRS. Here, we characterized the dynamic temporal trend of HFRS, and identified climate-related risk factors and their roles in HFRS transmission in Shenyang, China.
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Desialylation accelerates platelet clearance after refrigeration and initiates GPIb? metalloproteinase-mediated cleavage in mice.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
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When refrigerated platelets are rewarmed, they secrete active sialidases, including the lysosomal sialidase Neu1, and express surface Neu3 that remove sialic acid from platelet von Willebrand factor receptor (VWFR), specifically the GPIb? subunit. The recovery and circulation of refrigerated platelets is greatly improved by storage in the presence of inhibitors of sialidases. Desialylated VWFR is also a target for metalloproteinases (MPs), because GPIb? and GPV are cleaved from the surface of refrigerated platelets. Receptor shedding is inhibited by the MP inhibitor GM6001 and does not occur in Adam17(?Zn/?Zn) platelets expressing inactive ADAM17. Critically, desialylation in the absence of MP-mediated receptor shedding is sufficient to cause the rapid clearance of platelets from circulation. Desialylation of platelet VWFR therefore triggers platelet clearance and primes GPIb? and GPV for MP-dependent cleavage.
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Bartonella quintana infections in captive monkeys, China.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2011
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Bartonella quintana has been considered to be specifically adapted to humans. Our isolation of the organism from 2 of 36 captive rhesus macaques in China and finding antibodies against B. quintana in 12 of 33 indicates that the reservoir hosts of B. quintana may include primates other than humans.
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Forecasting incidence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in China using ARIMA model.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2011
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China is a country that is most seriously affected by hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) with 90% of HFRS cases reported globally. At present, HFRS is getting worse with increasing cases and natural foci in China. Therefore, there is an urgent need for monitoring and predicting HFRS incidence to make the control of HFRS more effective. In this study, we applied a stochastic autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model with the objective of monitoring and short-term forecasting HFRS incidence in China.
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Nonlinear effect of climate on plague during the third pandemic in China.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2011
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Over the years, plague has caused a large number of deaths worldwide and subsequently changed history, not the least during the period of the Black Death. Of the three plague pandemics, the third is believed to have originated in China. Using the spatial and temporal human plague records in China from 1850 to 1964, we investigated the association of human plague intensity (plague cases per year) with proxy data on climate condition (specifically an index for dryness/wetness). Our modeling analysis demonstrates that the responses of plague intensity to dry/wet conditions were different in northern and southern China. In northern China, plague intensity generally increased when wetness increased, for both the current and the previous year, except for low intensity during extremely wet conditions in the current year (reflecting a dome-shaped response to current-year dryness/wetness). In southern China, plague intensity generally decreased when wetness increased, except for high intensity during extremely wet conditions of the current year. These opposite effects are likely related to the different climates and rodent communities in the two parts of China: In northern China (arid climate), rodents are expected to respond positively to high precipitation, whereas in southern China (humid climate), high precipitation is likely to have a negative effect. Our results suggest that associations between human plague intensity and precipitation are nonlinear: positive in dry conditions, but negative in wet conditions.
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Seroprevalence of antibodies to pertussis and diphtheria among healthy adults in China.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
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Despite extensive childhood immunization, pertussis remains one of the worlds leading causes of vaccine-preventable deaths. Incidence of pertussis in adolescents and adults has increased in many countries despite high vaccination coverage. In China, booster vaccinations against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis are not used in adults, and little is known about pertussis incidence in the age group. The aim of this study was to determine seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin (PT) and diphtheria among adults in China.
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Time series analysis of Japanese encephalitis and weather in Linyi City, China.
Int J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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To examine the relationship between meteorological factors and epidemiological pattern of Japanese encephalitis in Linyi City during 1956-2004.
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Distribution of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in northwestern China.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2011
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The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), has a wide distribution in China with its northwestern limits among seven provinces. During 2006-2008, distribution information was collected in 33 urban and rural areas in those boundary provinces by collecting larvae or adult mosquito from different breeding sites. Additional information of seven sites was gathered from local health authorities. Three generally accepted climatic delineations affecting distribution of the species were studied for the northwestern distribution using a geographic information system software (ArcGIS). Climatic analysis showed that the annual mean temperature higher than 11°C, the mean temperature of the coldest month, January, higher than -5°C, and the annual precipitation above 500 mm covered almost all the confirmed areas and the seasonal expansion reached areas with nearly -10°C of the mean January temperature. As a main vector of dengue fever virus in a large part of China, where Aedes aegypti is absent, Ae. albopictus is also responsible for the risk for future epidemic of dengue fever and other viral diseases in China.
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Seroprevalence of Bartonella in Eastern China and analysis of risk factors.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2010
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Bartonella infections are emerging in the Zhejiang Province of China. However, there has been no effort to date to explore the epidemiology of these infections in this region, nor to identify risk factors associated with exposure to Bartonella. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Bartonella in both patients bitten by dogs and blood donors (for control) in Eastern China, and to identify risk factors associated with exposure to Bartonella. As no previous data for this region have been published, this study will provide baseline data useful for Bartonella infection surveillance, control, and prevention.
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An immunotherapeutic treatment against flea allergy dermatitis in cats by co-immunization of DNA and protein vaccines.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2010
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Flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) is considered a harmful and persistent allergic disease in cats, dogs and humans. Effective and safe antigen-specific treatments are lacking. Previously we reported that the simultaneous co-immunization with a DNA vaccine and its cognate coded protein antigen could induce antigen-specific iTreg cells (inducible Treg cells); demonstrating its potential to protect animals from FAD in a murine model. Its clinical efficacy however, remains to be demonstrated. In this report, we clinically tested this protocol to treat established FAD in cats following flea infestations. We present data showing a profound therapeutic improvement of dermatitis in these FAD cats following two co-immunizations, not only in relieving clinical symptoms, but also the amelioration of the allergic responses, including antigen-induced wheal formation, elevated T cell proliferation, infiltration of lymphocytes and migration of mast cells to the sites. This study demonstrates that a co-immunization approach as described can be used to treat flea-induced allergic disease in animals, thus implicating its potential for a practical clinical application.
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Detection of bartonella species in small mammals from Zhejiang Province, China.
J. Wildl. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2010
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To estimate the prevalence of Bartonella in small mammals of different species, during different seasons, and at different study sites, and to provide baseline data for the risk assessment of human Bartonella infection, we captured small mammals using snap traps in Zhejiang Province, China. Bartonella species were detected in small-mammal samples by polymerase chain reaction and positive amplicons were sequenced. Bartonella DNA was detected in 47% (90/192) of Apodemus agrarius, 31% (14/45) of Rattus losea, 16% (7/43) of Rattus norvegicus, 24% (9/37) of Eothenomys melanogaster, 4% (1/28) of Niviventer confucianus, 30% (7/23) of Suncus murinus, 22% (2/9) of Microtus fortis, 27% (2/7) of Rattus tanezumi, and 29% (2/7) of Apodemus peninsulae. No Bartonella DNA was detected in 27 unidentified Soricidae or nine Mus musculus. This is the first report of Bartonella DNA detected in E. melanogaster and N. confucianus. The prevalence of Bartonella DNA varied among small-mammal species, study sites, and seasons; the prevalence of Bartonella DNA between genders did not vary significantly within a species. The sequences we report were most similar to Bartonella grahamii.
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[Biological and molecular characteristics of a cat-borne Bartonella clarridgeiae].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2009
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To characterize a Bartonella strain M9HN-SHQ from a blood culture of cat from Henan Province,China.
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Epidemiology and vector efficiency during a dengue fever outbreak in Cixi, Zhejiang Province, China.
J. Vector Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2009
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An emigrant worker returning from Southeast Asia triggered the outbreak of a DF epidemic in Zhejiang province, China, in October, 2004. Eighty-three cases, mainly young and middle-aged people between 20 and 50 (78.3%), were reported in the area of Cixi. There were no obvious occupational patterns. The majority of cases were female, with a sex ratio of 1:1.86 (m:f). The dengue virus (DENV) strains from the epidemic area were isolated and identified as DENV-1, which belongs to Asian strain 1. According to the epidemiological investigation, the incidence of DF had no relationship to temperature, humidity, or precipitation, and the Breteau index of larvae showed a clear relationship only with the House Index and Container Index. Recent dengue problems in the town have been associated with the complex social factors and hygienic conditions for endemic villagers and immigrant workers. Some hygienic measures should be taken by the local government to reduce the risk of mosquito-borne disease. These measures should aim to eliminate the breeding sites of the vector Aedes albopictus in indoor and outdoor containers filled with rainwater and thus reducing the risk of DF transmission.
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Spatial and temporal distribution of falciparum malaria in China.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2009
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Falciparum malaria is the most deadly among the four main types of human malaria. Although great success has been achieved since the launch of the National Malaria Control Programme in 1955, malaria remains a serious public health problem in China. This paper aimed to analyse the geographic distribution, demographic patterns and time trends of falciparum malaria in China.
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Optimization of pulse-field gel electrophoresis for Bartonella subtyping.
J. Microbiol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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Bartonella is a significant human pathogen and is the worlds most common bacterial zoonosis acquired from companion animals. However, there is no uniform method for Pulse-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) for Bartonella population genetics studies. Further, some genes of Bartonella can mutate frequently and may affect the use of PFGE for Bartonella. Here we designed methods to solve these problems. We standardized the bacterial concentration, selected the appropriate digestion enzyme, optimized the electrophoretic parameters and characterized reproducibly two Bartonella species strains. Thus we optimized the PFGE procedure and determined how often Bartonella mutated. Our data shows a practical protocol for inter- and intra-species identification of Bartonella and was reproducible using two species strains that showed no mutation occurred after two passages for B. elizabethae; but mutation did occur in B. henselae.
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Time series analysis of dengue fever and weather in Guangzhou, China.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2009
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Monitoring and predicting dengue incidence facilitates early public health responses to minimize morbidity and mortality. Weather variables are potential predictors of dengue incidence. This study explored the impact of weather variability on the transmission of dengue fever in the subtropical city of Guangzhou, China.
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Dispersal range of Anopheles sinensis in Yongcheng City, China by mark-release-recapture methods.
PLoS ONE
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Studying the dispersal range of Anopheles sinensis is of major importance for understanding the transition from malaria control to elimination. However, no data are available regarding the dispersal range of An. sinensis in China. The aim of the present study was to study the dispersal range of An. sinensis and provide the scientific basis for the development of effective control measures for malaria elimination in China.
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Inapparent infection during an outbreak of dengue fever in Southeastern China.
Viral Immunol.
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Dengue fever (DF) is often asymptomatic in endemic areas. Asymptomatic infection during a DF outbreak in China, where DF is not endemic, has not been reported until now. In this study a total of 365 subjects from 6 villages were recruited from October 4-7, 2009. Overall, 102 subjects (27.95%) were positive for dengue virus (DENV) IgM, and 14 subjects (3.84%) were positive for DENV IgG and IgM. In different age groups, seropositive rates varied from 12.50% to 50.00% for DENV IgM, and from 0% to 11.76% for DENV IgG. Seroprevalence of DENV IgM was significantly higher than that of DENV IgG. Seroprevalence rates of DENV IgM differed among different villages. However, the seroprevalence of DENV IgM was not statistically significantly different among gender and age groups. Asymptomatic DF infection is prevalent in non-endemic areas.
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Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 June 2012-31 July 2012.
Mol Ecol Resour
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This article documents the addition of 96 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Clarias batrachus, Marmota himalayana, Schizothorax richardsonii, Sitophilus zeamais and Syagrus romanzoffiana. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Clarias dussumeri, Clarias gariepinus, Heteropneustus fossilis, Sitophilus granarius and Sitophilus oryzae.
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Small mammal investigation in spotted fever focus with DNA-barcoding and taxonomic implications on rodents species from Hainan of China.
PLoS ONE
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Although mammals are a well-studied group of animals, making accurate field identification of small mammals is still complex because of morphological variation across developmental stages, color variation of pelages, and often damaged osteological and dental characteristics. In 2008, small mammals were collected for an epidemiological study of a spotted fever outbreak in Hainan, China. Ten species of small mammals were identified by morphological characters in the field, most using pelage color characters only. The study is extended here, in order to assess whether DNA barcoding would be suitable as an identification tool in these small mammals. Barcode clusters showed some incongruence with morphospecies, especially for some species of Rattus and Niviventer, so molecular delineation was carried out with an expanded dataset of combined cytochrome b (Cyt-b) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences. COI sequences were successfully amplified from 83% of collected mammals, but failed in all specimens of Suncus murinus, which were thus excluded in DNA barcoding analysis. Of note, ten molecular taxonomic units were found from samples of nine morphologically identified species. Accordingly, 11 species of small mammals were present in the investigated areas, including four Rattus species, three Niviventer species, Callosciurus erythraeus, Neohylomys hainanensis, Tupaia belangeri, and Suncus murinus. Based on the results of the phylogenetic and molecular delineation analyses, the systematic status of some rodent species should be redefined. R. rattus hainanicus and R. rattus sladeni are synonyms of R. andamanensis. R. losea from China and Southeast Asia comprises two independent species: R. losea and R. sakeratensis. Finally, the taxonomic status of three putative species of Niviventer should be further confirmed according to morphological, molecular and ecological characters.
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Identification of Chinese plague foci from long-term epidemiological data.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
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Carrying out statistical analysis over an extensive dataset of human plague reports in Chinese villages from 1772 to 1964, we identified plague endemic territories in China (i.e., plague foci). Analyses rely on (i) a clustering method that groups time series based on their time-frequency resemblances and (ii) an ecological niche model that helps identify plague suitable territories characterized by value ranges for a set of predefined environmental variables. Results from both statistical tools indicate the existence of two disconnected plague territories corresponding to Northern and Southern China. Altogether, at least four well defined independent foci are identified. Their contours compare favorably with field observations. Potential and limitations of inferring plague foci and dynamics using epidemiological data is discussed.
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Bartonella and Bartonella infections in China: from the clinic to the laboratory.
Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
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The current status of Bartonella studies in mainland China is reviewed including both laboratory and ecological data and limited clinical data. Detection and isolation of Bartonella species from arthropods, pets and small wild animals is commonplace; this includes a variety of known and emerging Bartonella pathogens. In contrast, the medical literature analyzed from 1980 to 2010 consists of 31 reports of only of cat scratch disease (CSD). Most cases are from the East and South-Eastern provinces, the most populated areas with best access to medical care. Disease typically is described as febrile illness with symptoms traditionally reported for CSD elsewhere in the world. Clinical observations and anamnesis are the primary bases for diagnosis, since specialized serologic and molecular diagnosis is not widely available. Seroprevalence of healthy populations determined using Bartonella henselae antigen varies from 9.6 to 19.6%. The apparent discordance postulated between possible environmental exposure to diverse Bartonella agents and restricted B. henselae case etiologies suggests a need to determine whether other Bartonella species may also be etiologic agents of human illness and emphasizes the importance of applying modern diagnostic tools widely in clinical practice in mainland China.
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