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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Cross-talk between HDAC4 and STAT6 in the transcriptional regulation of arginase-1 during mouse dendritic cell differentiation.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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L-Arginine and L-arginine-metabolizing enzymes play important roles in the biology of some types of myeloid cells, including macrophage and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. In this study, we provided evidence that arginase-1 (Arg1) is required for the differentiation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs). Expression of Arg1 was robustly induced during monocyte-derived DC differentiation. Ectopic expression of Arg1 significantly promoted monocytic DC differentiation in GM-CSF culture system, and also facilitated the differentiation of CD8?(+) conventional DC in the presence of Flt3 ligand. Knock-down of Arg1 reversed these effects. Mechanistic studies showed that the induced expression of Arg1 in differentiating DCs was caused by enhanced recruitment of HDAC4 to the Arg1 promoter region, which led to reduction in the acetylation of both histone 3 and STAT6 proteins, and subsequent transcriptional activation of Arg1. Further investigation identified a novel STAT6 binding site within the Arg1 promoter, which mediated its regulation by STAT6 and HDAC4, These observations suggest that the cross-talk between HDAC4 and STAT6 is an important regulatory mechanism of Arg1 transcription in DCs. Moreover, overexpression of Arg1 clearly abrogated the ability of HDAC inhibitor to suppress DC differentiation. In conclusion, we show that Arg1 is a novel regulator of myeloid DC differentiation.
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A honeycomb-like porous carbon derived from pomelo peel for use in high-performance supercapacitors.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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A cost-effective approach to obtain electrode materials with excellent electrochemical performance is critical to the development of supercapacitors (SCs). Here we report the preparation of a three-dimensional (3D) honeycomb-like porous carbon (HLPC) by the simple carbonization of pomelo peel followed by KOH activation. Structural characterization indicates that the as-prepared HLPC with a high specific surface area (SSA) up to 2725 m(2) g(-1) is made up of interconnected microporous carbon walls. Chemical analysis shows that the HLPC is doped with nitrogen and also has oxygen-containing groups. Electrochemical measurements show that the HLPC not only exhibits a high specific capacitance of 342 F g(-1) and 171 F cm(-3) at 0.2 A g(-1) but also shows considerable rate capability with a retention of 62% at 20 A g(-1) as well as good cycling performance with 98% retention over 1000 cycles at 10 A g(-1) in 6 M KOH. Furthermore, an as-fabricated HLPC-based symmetric SC device delivers a maximum energy density of ?9.4 Wh kg(-1) in the KOH electrolyte. Moreover, the outstanding cycling stability (only 2% capacitance decay over 1000 cycles at 5 A g(-1)) of the SC device makes it promising for use in a high-performance electrochemical energy system.
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External Application of the Volatile Oil from Blumea balsamifera May Be Safe for Liver - A Study on Its Chemical Composition and Hepatotoxicity.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Ainaxiang (Blumea balsamifera), also known as Sambong, is an important ancient medicinal herb in Southeast Asia. It is rich in volatile oil, and still widely used nowadays for skin wound healing and treatment of sore throats. We analyzed the volatile oil from Blumea balsamifera (BB oil) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Forty one components, including l-borneol, were identified. Next, the damaging effects of BB oil diluted with olive oil on liver at different concentrations (100%, 50%, 20%), were evaluated, using both normal and wounded skin. Plasma ALT, AST, ALP and TBili were assessed, along with liver histopathology. The results showed that serum levels of liver toxicity markers in the high concentration groups (100% w/v) increased compared with control groups, whereas no significant changes was observed in histopathology of liver samples. In the wound groups, treatment with BB oil resulted in a decrease in serum toxicity index, compared with normal animal groups. This study confirms the safety of short term BB oil consumption, though high BB oil doses may lead to mild liver injury and this response might be weakened in the case of cutaneous wounds. These results are expected to be helpful for guiding appropriate therapeutic use of BB oil.
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Artificial photosynthesis over graphene-semiconductor composites. Are we getting better?
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Tremendous interest is devoted to fabricating numerous graphene (GR)-semiconductor composites toward improved conversion of solar energy, resulting from the observation that the photogenerated electrons from semiconductors (e.g., TiO2, CdS) can be readily accepted or shuttled in the two-dimensional (2D) GR sheet. Yet although the hunt is on for GR-semiconductor composite based photoredox applications that aim to exploit the remarkable electronic conductivity of GR, the work necessary to find out how it could best be harnessed to improve the photocatalytic performance of semiconductors remains scanty. In this review, we highlight a few problems associated with improving the photocatalytic performance of semiconductors via methodological coupling with GR. In particular, we address strategies for harnessing the structure and electronic conductivity of GR via strengthening the interfacial contact, optimizing the electronic conductivity of GR, and spatially optimizing the interfacial charge carrier transfer efficiency. Additionally, we provide a brief overview of assembly methods for fabricating GR-semiconductor composites with controllable film infrastructure to meet the requirements of practical photocatalytic applications. Finally, we propose that, only with the principle of designing and understanding GR-semiconductor composites from a system-level consideration, we might get better at imparting the power of GR with unique and transformative properties into the composite system.
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Ultrasound-guided methylene blue dye injection for parathyroid localization in the reoperative neck.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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The goal of this study was to review a single institution's experience using intraoperative ultrasound-guided (ioUSG) methylene blue dye injection for the localization and removal of enlarged parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and a history of previous neck surgery.
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Unusual high oxygen reduction performance in all-carbon electrocatalysts.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Carbon-based electrocatalysts are more durable and cost-effective than noble materials for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), which is an important process in energy conversion technologies. Heteroatoms are considered responsible for the excellent ORR performance in many carbon-based electrocatalysts. But whether an all-carbon electrocatalyst can effectively reduce oxygen is unknown. We subtly engineered the interfaces between planar graphene sheets and curved carbon nanotubes (G-CNT) and gained a remarkable activity/selectivity for ORR (larger current, and n = 3.86, ~93% hydroxide + ~7% peroxide). This performance is close to that of Pt; and the durability is much better than Pt. We further demonstrate the application of this G-CNT hybrid as an all-carbon cathode catalyst for lithium oxygen batteries.We speculate that the high ORR activity of this G-CNT hybrid stems from the localized charge separation at the interface of the graphene and carbon nanotube, which results from the tunneling electron transfer due to the Fermi level mismatch on the planar and curved sp(2) surfaces. Our result represents a conceptual breakthrough and pioneers the new avenues towards practical all-carbon electrocatalysis.
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An interlaced silver vanadium oxide-graphene hybrid with high structural stability for use in lithium ion batteries.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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A silver vanadium oxide (SVO) material with an interlaced structure was prepared using graphene as a two-dimensional substrate that directs the crystal growth in the hydrothermal process. The obtained SVO-graphene hybrid showed high structural stability, and lithium ion batteries (LIBs) using the hybrid as the cathode showed excellent cycling stability and rate performance.
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The surgical management of asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism: proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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The surgical management of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) has undergone considerable advances over the past two decades. The purpose of this report is to review these advances.
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High-temperature inhibition of biosynthesis and transportation of anthocyanins results in the poor red coloration in red-fleshed Actinidia chinensis.
Physiol Plant
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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In plants, the role of anthocyanins trafficking in response to high temperature has been rarely studied, and therefore poorly understood. Red-fleshed kiwifruit has stimulated the world kiwifruit industry owing to its appealing color. However, fruit in warmer climates have been found to have poor flesh coloration, and the factors responsible for this response remain elusive. Partial correlation and regression analysis confirmed that accumulative temperatures above 25°C (T25) was one of the dominant factors inhibiting anthocyanin accumulation in red-fleshed Actinidia chinensis, 'Hongyang'. Expression of structural genes, AcMRP and AcMYB1 in inner pericarp sampled from the two high altitudes (low temperature area), was notably higher than the low altitude (high temperature area) during fruit coloration. AcMYB1 and structural genes coordinate expression supported the MYB-bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix)-WD40 regulatory complex mediated downregulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis induced by high temperatures in kiwifruit. Moreover, cytological observations using the light and transmission electronic microscopy showed that there were a series of anthocyanic vacuolar inclusion (AVI)-like structures involved in their vacuolization process and dissolution of the pigmented bodies inside cells of fruit inner pericarp. Anthocyanin transport was inhibited by high temperature via retardation of vacuolization or reduction in AIV-like structure formation. Our findings strongly suggested that complex multimechanisms influenced the effects of high temperature on red-fleshed kiwifruit coloration.
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Unanticipated Thyroid Cancer in Patients with Substernal Goiters: Are We Underestimating the Risk?
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
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The rate of unexpected thyroid cancers found at the time of thyroidectomy is thought to be similar in patients with cervical and substernal multinodular goiters (MNGs).
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Improving the photocatalytic activity and anti-photocorrosion of semiconductor ZnO by coupling with versatile carbon.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Coupling ZnO with carbon materials using a suitable integration method to form ZnO-carbon composites has been established as a promising strategy to ameliorate the photocatalytic performance of semiconductor ZnO. In this perspective article, we describe the recent advances and current status of enhancing the photocatalytic activity and anti-photocorrosion of semiconductor ZnO by coupling with versatile carbon materials, e.g., C60, carbon nanotube, graphene and other carbon materials. The primary roles of carbon materials in boosting the photoactivity and photostability of ZnO have been outlined and illustrated with some selected typical examples. In particular, the three main kinds of mechanisms with regard to anti-photocorrosion of ZnO by coupling with carbon have been demonstrated. Finally, we give a concise perspective on this important research area and specifically propose further research opportunities in optimizing the photocatalytic performance of ZnO-carbon composites and widening the scope of their potential photocatalytic applications.
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1,4-Benzoxazine-3(4H)-ones as potent inhibitors of platelet aggregation: design, synthesis and structure-activity relations.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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A series of novel potentially platelet aggregation-inhibiting 1,4-benzoxazine-3(4H)-one derivatives was designed and synthesized through Smiles rearrangement, reduction and acetylation reactions. The antiaggregatory activities of the target molecules on arterial blood samples from rabbits, expressed by IC?? values (?M), were then evaluated in vitro against ADP induced platelet aggregation. The favorable IC?? values of compound 8c (IC??=8.99?µM) and 8d (IC??=8.94?µM) indicated that these two compounds were the most potent molecules among all the synthesized compounds. A detailed molecular docking study to explore the interaction of compounds 8c and 8d with GP IIb/IIIa receptor showed that they these two compounds were docked into the active site of GPIIb/IIIa receptor. These results suggest that the 1,4-benzoxazine-3(4H)-one derivatives are promising lead compounds to develop new platelet aggregation inhibitors.
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Auxin inhibits stomatal development through MONOPTEROS repression of a mobile peptide gene STOMAGEN in mesophyll.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Plants, as sessile organisms, must coordinate various physiological processes to adapt to ever-changing surrounding environments. Stomata, the epidermal pores facilitating gas and water exchange, play important roles in optimizing photosynthetic efficiency and adaptability. Stomatal development is under the control of an intrinsic program mediated by a secretory peptide gene family--namely, EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR, including positively acting STOMAGEN/EPFL9. The phytohormone brassinosteroids and environment factor light also control stomatal production. However, whether auxin regulates stomatal development and whether peptide signaling is coordinated with auxin signaling in the regulation of stomatal development remain largely unknown. Here we show that auxin negatively regulates stomatal development through MONOPTEROS (also known as ARF5) repression of the mobile peptide gene STOMAGEN in mesophyll. Through physiological, genetic, transgenic, biochemical, and molecular analyses, we demonstrate that auxin inhibits stomatal development through the nuclear receptor TIR1/AFB-mediated signaling, and that MONOPTEROS directly binds to the STOMAGEN promoter to suppress its expression in mesophyll and inhibit stomatal development. Our results provide a paradigm of cross-talk between phytohormone auxin and peptide signaling in the regulation of stomatal production.
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Nanospace-confined formation of flattened Sn sheets in pre-seeded graphenes for lithium ion batteries.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Flattened Sn sheets are prepared from the pre-seeded Sn salt in the interlayer nanospace of a graphene membrane, which acts as a template to shape Sn crystals and prevent the aggregation. The sandwich structure clamping Sn sheets accommodates the volume change during charge/discharge. We show that the hybrid possesses excellent rate performance and cycling stability as an anode for lithium ion batteries.
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In vitro and in vivo CT imaging using bismuth sulfide modified with a highly biocompatible Pluronic F127.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Probe bismuth sulfide modified with Pluronic F127 (Bi2S3-PF127), which has high biocompatibility and dispersibility, is synthesized using triblock copolymer Pluronic F127 to modify hydrophobic Bi2S3 nanoparticles that are prepared by a hot injection method. TEM results show that most of the probe has a length of about 14.85 ± 1.70 nm and a breadth of about 4.79 ± 0.63 nm. After injected into the tail vein of a mouse, the probe has obvious CT contrast enhancement capability from x-ray CT imaging results. Meanwhile, the probe's in vivo toxicity is also studied. It is found that hematoxylin and eosin stains of major organs have no change. A biochemical analysis (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) prove the probe has no adverse effects. The results of a blood analysis (white blood cell count, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and platelet count) are also normal. The biological distribution of Bi by ICP-AES shows that most of nanoparticles are cleaned out after injection 48 h, and the circulation half-life of the probe is 5.0 h, suggesting that Bi2S3-PF127 has a long circulation and indicating that the Bi2S3-PF127 probe has good biocompatibility and safety.
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Synergistic foaming and surface properties of a weakly interacting mixture of soy glycinin and biosurfactant stevioside.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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The adsorption of the mixtures of soy glycinin (11S) with a biosurfactant stevioside (STE) at the air-water interface was studied to understand its relation with foaming properties. A combination of several techniques such as dynamic surface tension, dilatational rheology, fluorescence spectroscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used. In the presence of intermediate STE concentrations (0.25-0.5%), the weak binding of STE with 11S in bulk occurred by hydrophobic interactions, which could induce conformational changes of 11S, as evidenced by fluorescence and ITC. Accordingly, the strong synergy in reducing surface tension and the plateau in surface elasticity for mixed 11S-STE layers formed from the weakly interacting mixtures were clearly observed. This effect could be explained by the complexation with STE, which might facilitate the partial dissociation and further unfolding of 11S upon adsorption, thus enhancing the protein-protein and protein-STE interfacial interactions. These surface properties were positively reflected in foams produced by the weakly interacting system, which exhibited good foaming capacity and considerable stability probably due to better response to external stresses. However, at high STE concentrations (1-2%), as a consequence of the interface dominated by STE due to the preferential adsorption of STE molecules, the surface elasticity of layers dramatically decreased, and the resultant foams became less stable.
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COP1 and phyB Physically Interact with PIL1 to Regulate Its Stability and Photomorphogenic Development in Arabidopsis.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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In Arabidopsis thaliana, the cryptochrome and phytochrome photoreceptors act together to promote photomorphogenic development. The cryptochrome and phytochrome signaling mechanisms interact directly with CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1), a RING motif-containing E3 ligase that acts to negatively regulate photomorphogenesis. COP1 interacts with and ubiquitinates the transcription factors that promote photomorphogenesis, such as ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 and LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR-RED1 (HFR1), to inhibit photomorphogenic development. Here, we show that COP1 physically interacts with PIF3-LIKE1 (PIL1) and promotes PIL1 degradation via the 26S proteasome. We further demonstrate that phyB physically interacts with PIL1 and enhances PIL1 protein accumulation upon red light irradiation, probably through suppressing the COP1-PIL1 association. Biochemical and genetic studies indicate that PIL1 and HFR1 form heterodimers and promote photomorphogenesis cooperatively. Moreover, we demonstrate that PIL1 interacts with PIF1, 3, 4, and 5, resulting in the inhibition of the transcription of PIF direct-target genes. Our results reveal that PIL1 stability is regulated by phyB and COP1, likely through physical interactions, and that PIL1 coordinates with HFR1 to inhibit the transcriptional activity of PIFs, suggesting that PIL1, HFR1, and PIFs constitute a subset of antagonistic basic helix-loop-helix factors acting downstream of phyB and COP1 to regulate photomorphogenic development.
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NADPH oxidase-2 is a key regulator of human dermal fibroblasts: a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of skin fibrosis.
Exp. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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The proliferation of human skin dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) is a critical step in skin fibrosis, and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1) exerts pro-oxidant and fibrogenic effects on HDFs. In addition, the oxidative stress system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of skin disease. However, the role of NADPH oxidase as a mediator of TGF-?1-induced effects in HDFs remains unknown. Thus, our aim was to investigate the role of NADPH in human skin dermal fibroblasts. Primary fibroblasts were cultured and pretreated with various stimulants. Real-time Q-PCR and Western blotting analyses were used for mRNA and protein detection. In addition, siRNA technology was applied for gene knock-down analysis. Hydrogen peroxide production and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) measurement assay were performed. Here, our findings demonstrated that HDFs express key components of non-phagocytic NADPH oxidase mRNA. TGF-?1 induced NOX2 and reactive oxygen species formation via NADPH oxidase activity. In contrast, NOX3 was barely detectable, and other NOXs did not display significant changes. In addition, TGF-?1 phosphorylated MAPKs and increased activator protein-1 (AP-1) in a redox-sensitive manner, and NOX2 suppression inhibited baseline and TGF-?1-mediated stimulation of Smad2 phosphorylation. Moreover, TGF-?1 stimulated cell proliferation, migration, collagen I and fibronectin expression, and bFGF and PAI-1 secretion: these effects were attenuated by diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, and NOX2 siRNA. Importantly, NOX2 siRNA suppresses collagen production in primary keloid dermal fibroblasts. These findings provide the proof of concept for NADPH oxidase as a potential target for the treatment of skin fibrosis.
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Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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The aim was to formulate clinical practice guidelines for pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL).
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A nanotree-like CdS/ZnO nanocomposite with spatially branched hierarchical structure for photocatalytic fine-chemical synthesis.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Branched hierarchical CdS/ZnO nanocomposites have been synthesized for application toward photocatalytic fine-chemical synthesis. Growing ZnO nanorods on the surface of CdS nanowires boosts the light harvesting efficiency and charge separation as well as fast charge transport and collection. A Z-scheme mechanism under artificial solar light is also proposed.
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Tuning the surface charge of graphene for self-assembly synthesis of a SnNb2O6 nanosheet-graphene (2D-2D) nanocomposite with enhanced visible light photoactivity.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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A two-dimensional (2D) SnNb2O6 nanosheet-graphene (SnNb2O6-GR) nanocomposite featuring a typical 2D-2D structure has been synthesized via a simple surface charge modified self-assembly approach. The method is afforded by electrostatic attractive interaction between negatively charged SnNb2O6 nanosheets and modified graphene nanosheets with a positively charged surface in an aqueous solution. The SnNb2O6-GR nanocomposite exhibits a distinctly enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance toward degradation of organic dye in water as compared to blank SnNb2O6 nanosheets. The enhanced photoactivity is attributed to the integrated factors of the intimate interfacial contact and unique 2D-2D morphology associated with SnNbO6 and GR, which are beneficial for harnessing the electron conductivity of GR, facilitating the transfer and separation of photogenerated charge carriers over SnNbO6-GR upon visible light irradiation, and thereby contributing to the photoactivity enhancement. It is hoped that this work could enrich the facile, efficient fabrication of various 2D-2D semiconductor nanosheet-graphene composite photocatalysts toward target photocatalytic applications.
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Prognostic significance of extranodal extension of regional lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid cancer.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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The presence and location of regional lymph node metastasis affect the prognosis of patients with thyroid cancer. Lymph node classification of the current TNM system may be inadequate because it insufficiently characterizes the nature and severity of lymph node metastasis that may influence prognosis.
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Chitin microfibers reinforce soy protein gels cross-linked by transglutaminase.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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To improve the gel strength, we attempt to introduce the microcomposite concept into the food gel system. A stable positively charged chitin microfibers (CMFs) suspension was fabricated by a facile microfluidizer approach without changing its chemical structure. The obtained CMFs bearing width of about 0.5-5 ?m and length of more than 500 ?m were then developed in a transglutaminase cross-linked ?-conglycinin (7S) gel. The morphological and rheological characterizations of the 7S-CMF composited gels were done as a function of the protein and CMFs concentrations. Results showed that the presence of the CMFs network improved the gel strength significantly. This effect was CMFs content dependent and was related to the formation of a sponge-like porous microstructure. We inferred that the CMFs provided an initial framework for gel formation and added structural rigidity to the protein gel. The role of protein was to participate in network development as an electrostatic coating and gelation component.
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Soy lipophilic protein nanoparticles as a novel delivery vehicle for conjugated linoleic acid.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Soy lipophilic protein nanoparticles (LPP), which present a novel delivery vehicle for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), were fabricated by ultrasonication of the soy lipophilic protein (LP), which exhibits unique characteristics including a high loading capacity, oxidation protection and a sustained releasing profile in vitro for CLA. The CLA-loaded LPP exhibited a mean diameter of 170 ± 0.63 nm and a loading capacity of 26.3 ± 0.40% (w/w). A coating of sodium caseinate (SC) on the surface improved the colloidal stability of the CLA-loaded LPP. This encapsulation conferred protection against the oxidation of CLA, by which the head space-oxygen consumption and hydrogen peroxide value were obviously decreased in comparison with the SC-encapsulated CLA and CLA alone. The delivery system enables a sustained releasing profile of CLA in a simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT). These findings illustrate that the LPP could act as an effective delivery device for CLA, which could provide oxidation stability and a sustained release property.
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Highly crystalline lithium titanium oxide sheets coated with nitrogen-doped carbon enable high-rate lithium-ion batteries.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Sheets of Li4Ti5O12 with high crystallinity are coated with nitrogen-doped carbon (NC-LTO) using a controlled process, comprising hydrothermal reaction followed by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Acetonitrile (CH3 CN) vapor is used as carbon and nitrogen source to obtain a thin coating layer of nitrogen-doped carbon. The layer enables the NC-LTO material to maintain its sheet structure during the high-temperature CVD process and to achieve high crystallinity. Doping with nitrogen introduces defects into the carbon coating layer, and this increased degree of disorder allows fast transportation of lithium ions in the layer. An electrode of NC-LTO synthesized at 700?°C exhibits greatly improved rate and cycling performance due to a markedly decreased total cell resistance and enhanced Li-ion diffusion coefficient (D(Li)). Specific capacities of 159.2 and 145.8?mA?h?g(-1) are obtained using the NC-LTO sheets, at charge/discharge rates of 1 and 10?C, respectively. These values are much higher than values for LTO particles did not undergo the acetonitrile CVD treatment. A capacity retention value as high as 94.7% is achieved for the NC-LTO sheets after 400?cycles in a half-cell at 5?C discharge rate.
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Protein-based pickering emulsion and oil gel prepared by complexes of zein colloidal particles and stearate.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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This paper describes the successful preparation of a protein-based Pickering emulsion, with superior stability against both coalesence and creaming, through a novel strategy of facilitating the formation of protein particles and small molecular weight surfactant complexes; these complexes are able to overcome multiple challenges including limited solubility, poor diffusive mobility, and low interfacial loading. Soluble complexes of water-insoluble corn protein, zein colloidal particles, and surfactant sodium stearate (SS) were fabricated by simple ultrasonication. Gel trapping technology combined with SEM was applied to characterize the adsorbed particles monolayer at the oil-water interface; results revealed an enhanced adsorption and targeted accumulation of zein particles at the interface with the increase of SS concentration. Partial unfolding of zein particles modified by SS above its critical complexation concentration triggered the aggregation and close packing of particles at the oil-water interface and endowed a steric barrier against the coalescence of oil droplets. Moreover, protein-based oil gels without oil leakage were obtained by one-step freeze-drying of the zein-stabilized Pickering emulsions, which could be developed to a viable strategy for structuring liquid oils into semisolid fats without the use of saturated or trans fats.
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Complexation of resveratrol with soy protein and its improvement on oxidative stability of corn oil/water emulsions.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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This work was to evaluate the potential of soy protein isolate (SPI)-resveratrol (RES) complex as an emulsifier to improve the effectiveness of RES as a natural antioxidant in corn oil-in-water emulsions. The physical properties and oxidative stability of emulsions stabilized by the native SPI-RES and heated SPI-RES complexes were evaluated. The water solubility of RES was enhanced by complexation with SPI, which was mainly driven by hydrophobic interactions. Heat treatment favoured the formation of the SPI-RES complex and endowed it with a higher antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the emulsions stabilized by the SPI-RES complexes showed an increased oxidative stability with reduced lipid hydroperoxides and volatile hexanal. This improving effect could be attributed to the targeted accumulation of RES at the oil-water interface accompanied by the adsorption of SPI, as evidenced by the high interfacial RES concentration. These findings show that the soy protein-polyphenol complex exhibited a good potential to act as an efficient emulsifier to improve the oxidative stability of emulsions.
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Liver X receptor regulates mouse GM-CSF-derived dendritic cell differentiation in vitro.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Liver X receptors (LXRs) are nuclear receptors that play an essential role in lipid and cholesterol metabolism. Emerging studies indicate a potential function for LXRs in regulating dendritic cell (DC)-dependent immune responses; however, the role of LXRs in DC differentiation is largely unknown. Here, we report that LXR? regulates the differentiation of mouse GM-CSF-derived DCs. Activation or overexpression of LXR? significantly enhanced myeloid DC differentiation from mouse bone marrow (BM) cells, while siRNA-mediated knockdown of LXR? suppressed DC differentiation. In addition, we demonstrated that LXR agonist-programmed DCs showed an increased capacity for stimulating T-cell proliferation. Mechanistic studies showed that activation of LXR could inhibit the phosphorylation of STAT3 and downregulate the expression of its target, S100A9, an important negative regulator of myeloid DC differentiation. We also found that Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition interfered with the effect of LXR on STAT3 signaling via acetylation of STAT3. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that LXR activation and HDAC inhibition balanced the recruitment of STAT3 to the S100A9 promoter, which involved distinct post-translational modifications of STAT3. In conclusion, our observations demonstrated a novel role for LXR? in GM-CSF-derived DC differentiation and revealed the underlying mechanism.
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Characterisation of Skin Barrier Function Using Bioengineering and Biophysical Techniques.
Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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To characterise skin barrier function in vivo at two distinct anatomic sites using minimally invasive bioengineering and biophysical tools.
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Emodin enhances osteogenesis and inhibits adipogenesis.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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It has been suggested that the formation of osteoblasts in bone marrow is closely associated with adipogenesis, and the balance between osteogenesis and adipogenesis differentiation of MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells) is disrupted in osteoporosis. In order to improve the treatment of osteoporosis, available agents with roles of regulating the balance is highly desirable. Emodin is a natural anthraquinone derivative extracted from Chinese herbs, which have been used to treat bone diseases for thousands of years. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of emodin in modulating osteogenesis and adipogenesis remain poorly understood.
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Morphology control, defect engineering and photoactivity tuning of ZnO crystals by graphene oxide--a unique 2D macromolecular surfactant.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured materials have received significant attention because of their unique physicochemical and electronic properties. In particular, the functional properties of ZnO are strongly dependent on its morphology and defect structure, particularly for a semiconductor ZnO-based photocatalyst. Here, we demonstrate a simple strategy for simultaneous morphology control, defect engineering and photoactivity tuning of semiconductor ZnO by utilizing the unique surfactant properties of graphene oxide (GO) in a liquid phase. By varying the amount of GO added during the synthesis process, the morphology of ZnO gradually evolves from a one dimensional prismatic rod to a hexagonal tube-like architecture while GO is converted into reduced GO (RGO). In addition, the introduction of GO can create oxygen vacancies in the lattice of ZnO crystals. As a result, the absorption edge of the wide band gap semiconductor ZnO is effectively extended to the visible light region, which thus endows the RGO-ZnO nanocomposites with visible light photoactivity; in contrast, the bare ZnO nanorod is only UV light photoactive. The synergistic integration of the unique morphology and the presence of oxygen vacancies imparts the RGO-ZnO nanocomposite with remarkably enhanced visible light photoactivity as compared to bare ZnO and its counterpart featuring different structural morphologies and the absence of oxygen vacancies. Our promising results highlight the versatility of the 2D GO as a solution-processable macromolecular surfactant to fabricate RGO-semiconductor nanocomposites with tunable morphology, defect structure and photocatalytic performance in a system-materials-engineering way.
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Adrenalectomy outcomes are superior with the participation of residents and fellows.
J. Am. Coll. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Adrenalectomy is a complex procedure performed in many settings, with and without residents and fellows. Patients often ask, "Will trainees be participating in my operation?" and seek reassurance that their care will not be adversely affected. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between trainee participation and adrenalectomy perioperative outcomes.
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Self-assembly of graphene oxide at interfaces.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Due to its amphiphilic property, graphene oxide (GO) can achieve a variety of nanostructures with different morphologies (for example membranes, hydrogel, crumpled particles, hollow spheres, sack-cargo particles, Pickering emulsions, and so on) by self-assembly. The self-assembly is mostly derived from the self-concentration of GO sheets at various interfaces, including liquid-air, liquid-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces. This paper gives a comprehensive review of these assembly phenomena of GO at the three types of interfaces, the derived interfacial self-assembly techniques, and the as-obtained assembled materials and their properties. The interfacial self-assembly of GO, enabled by its fantastic features including the amphiphilicity, the negatively charged nature, abundant oxygen-containing groups and two-dimensional flexibility, is highlighted as an easy and well-controlled strategy for the design and preparation of functionalized carbon materials, and the use of self-assembly for uniform hybridization is addressed for preparing hybrid carbon materials with various functions. A number of new exciting and potential applications are also presented for the assembled GO-based materials. This contribution concludes with some personal perspectives on future challenges before interfacial self-assembly may become a major strategy for the application-targeted design and preparation of functionalized carbon materials.
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Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of thyroid: Does frozen section prevent unnecessarily aggressive operation? Six new cases and a literature review.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is very accurate in detecting papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). According to the Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology, the risk for malignancy is 97-99% when FNAC is used to diagnose PTC; the malignancy risk is 60-75% when FNAC results in suspected PTCs. The presence of hyalinizing trabecular tumor (HTT) of the thyroid can cause misdiagnosis because its cytological features mimic PTCs. However, the use of frozen section analysis can assist in the recognition of unique architecture features of HTT, and thus may help prevent the undertaking of an unnecessarily aggressive operation.
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Utility of serum thyroglobulin measurements after prophylactic thyroidectomy in patients with hereditary medullary thyroid cancer.
Surgery
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Prophylactic thyroidectomy can be curative for patients with hereditary medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) caused by RET proto-oncogene mutations. Calcitonin is a sensitive tumor marker used to follow patients. We suggest that thyroglobulin (Tg) levels should also be monitored postoperatively in these patients.
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Elevated levels of mitochonrial respiratory complexes activities and ATP production in 17-?-estradiol-induced prolactin-secretory tumor cells in male rats are inhibited by melatonin in vivo and in vitro.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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Our earlier studies indicate that melatonin inhibits the proliferation of prolactinoma and induces apoptosis of pituitary prolactin-secreting tumor in rats. Melatonin has also been shown to induce apoptosis and to reduce the production of ATP in breast tumor cells. This study analyzed the levels of the four mitochondrial respiratory complexes and the production of ATP and also the effects of melatonin treatment of prolactinoma.
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Toward Improving the Graphene-Semiconductor Composite Photoactivity via the Addition of Metal Ions as Generic Interfacial Mediator.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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We report a simple and general approach to improve the transfer efficiency of photogenerated charge carriers across the interface between graphene (GR) and semiconductor CdS by introducing a small amount of metal ions (Ca(2+), Cr(3+), Mn(2+), Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+)) as "mediator" into their interfacial layer matrix, while the intimate interfacial contact between GR and CdS is maintained. This simple strategy can not only significantly improve the visible-light-driven photoactivity of GR-CdS semiconductor composites for targeting selective photoredox reaction, including aerobic oxidation of alcohol and anaerobic reduction of nitro compound, but also drive a balance between the positive effect of GR on retarding the recombination of electron-hole pairs photogenerated from semiconductor and the negative "shielding effect" of GR resulting from the high weight addition of GR. Our current work highlights that the significant issue on improving the photoactivity of GR-semiconductor composites via strengthening interfacial contact is not just a simple issue of tighter connection between GR and the semiconductor, but it is also the optimization of the atomic charge carrier transfer pathway across the interface between GR and the semiconductor.
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Development of Novel Zein-Sodium Caseinate Nanoparticle (ZP)-Stabilized Emulsion Films for Improved Water Barrier Properties via Emulsion/Solvent Evaporation.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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This work attempted to develop novel high barrier zein/SC nanoparticle (ZP)-stabilized emulsion films through microfluidic emulsification (ZPE films) or in combination with solvent (ethyl acetate) evaporation techniques (ZPE-EA films). Some physical properties, including tensile and optical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP), and surface hydrophobicity, as well as the microstructure of ZP-stabilized emulsion films were evaluated and compared with SC emulsion (SCE) films. The emulsion/solvent evaporation approach reduced lipid droplets of ZP-stabilized emulsions, and lipid droplets of ZP-stabilized emulsions were similar to or slightly lower than that of SC emulsions. However, ZP- and SC-stabilized emulsion films exhibited a completely different microstructure, nanoscalar lipid droplets were homogeneously distributed in the ZPE film matrix and interpenetrating protein-oil complex networks occurred within ZPE-EA films, whereas SCE films presented a heterogeneous microstructure. The different stabilization mechanisms against creaming or coalescence during film formation accounted for the preceding discrepancy of the microstructures between ZP-and SC-stabilized emulsion films. Interestingly, ZP-stabilized emulsion films exhibited a better water barrier efficiency, and the WVP values were only 40-50% of SCE films. A schematic representation for the formation of ZP-stabilized emulsion films was proposed to relate the physical performance of the films with their microstructure and to elucidate the possible forming mechanism of the films.
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Reverse microemulsion-mediated synthesis of Bi2S3-QD@SiO2-PEG for dual modal CT-fluorescence imaging in vitro and in vivo.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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Monodispersed Bi2S3-QD@SiO2-PEG nanoparticles are prepared by a one-pot method in a reverse microemulsion system, which exhibited remarkable performances in CT and fluorescence imaging in vitro and in vivo.
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Porous MnO2 for use in a high performance supercapacitor: replication of a 3D graphene network as a reactive template.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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Graphene oxide hydrogel is used as a reactive template to prepare nanoporous materials with a 3D microstructure. The as-prepared porous MnO2 shows a capacitance retention of ~70.6% at a current density as high as 15 A g(-1), resulting from the 3D interconnected ion transport channel replicated from the graphene oxide hydrogel.
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Lithium ameliorates open-field and elevated plus maze behaviors, and brain phospho-glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta expression in fragile X syndrome model mice.
Neurosciences (Riyadh)
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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To investigate whether lithium modifies open-field and elevated plus maze behavior, and brain phospho-glycogen synthase kinase 3 (P-GSK3beta) expression in Fmr1 knockout mice.
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[Gene expression of bone mesenchymal stem cells transduced by the lentiviral vector of SOX9 gene].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2013
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To construct one lentiviral vector containing mouse SRY-related high mobility group-box gene 9 (SOX9) and transfect the murine bone mesenchymal stem cells (mBMSCs) in vitro and observe the expression of target gene.
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Selective photoredox using graphene-based composite photocatalysts.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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Graphene (GR) has proven to be a promising candidate to construct effective GR-based composite photocatalysts with enhanced catalytic activities for solar energy conversion. During the past few years, various GR-based composite photocatalysts have been developed and applied in a myriad of fields. In this perspective review, compared with the traditional applications of GR-based nanocomposites for the "non-selective" degradation of pollutants, photo-deactivation of bacteria and water splitting to H2 and O2, we mainly focus on the recent progress in the applications of GR-based composite photocatalysts for "selective" organic transformations, including reduction of CO2 to renewable fuels, reduction of nitroaromatic compounds to amino compounds, oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes and acids, epoxidation of alkenes, hydroxylation of phenol, and oxidation of tertiary amines. The different roles of GR in these GR-based nanocomposite photocatalysts such as providing a photoelectron reservoir and performing as an organic dye-like macromolecular photosensitizer have been summarized. In addition, graphene oxide (GO) as a co-catalyst in GO-organic species photocatalysts and GO itself as a photocatalyst for selective reduction of CO2 have also been demonstrated. Finally, perspectives on the future research direction of GR-based composite photocatalysts toward selective organic redox transformations are discussed and it is clear that there is a wide scope of opportunities awaiting us in this promising research field.
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Strigolactone-Regulated Hypocotyl Elongation Is Dependent on Cryptochrome and Phytochrome Signaling Pathways in Arabidopsis.
Mol Plant
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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The strigolactones have been reported in regulating hypocotyl growth in Arabidopsis. This work provides the evidence that strigolactone signaling inhibits hypocotyl elongation dependent on light and the cryptochrome and phytochrome signaling pathway.
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A unique carbon with a high specific surface area produced by the carbonization of agar in the presence of graphene.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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A unique carbon with a high specific surface area was prepared by carbonization of a polymer-based precursor, agar, in the presence of graphene. Graphene prevents the shrinkage and aggregation of the carbonized particles, resulting in extraordinarily large external surface area (?1200 m(2) g(-1)) of the carbon, which shows a high rate performance as a supercapacitor electrode.
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Severe hypercalcemic hyperparathyroidism developing in a patient with hyperaldosteronism and renal resistance to parathyroid hormone.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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We evaluated an African American woman referred in 1986 at age 33 years because of renal potassium and calcium wasting and chronic hip pain. She presented normotensive, hypokalemic, hypocalcemic, normophosphatemic, and hypercalciuric. Marked hyperparathyroidism was evident. Urinary cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) excretion did not increase in response to parathyroid hormone (PTH) infusion, indicating renal resistance to PTH. X-rays and bone biopsy revealed severe osteitis fibrosa cystica, confirming skeletal responsiveness to PTH. Renal potassium wasting, suppressed plasma renin activity, and elevated plasma and urinary aldosterone levels accompanied her hypokalemia, suggesting primary hyperaldosteronism. Hypokalemia resolved with spironolactone and, when combined with dietary sodium restriction, urinary calcium excretion fell and hypocalcemia improved, in accord with the known positive association between sodium intake and calcium excretion. Calcitriol and oral calcium supplements did not suppress the chronic hyperparathyroidism nor did they reduce aldosterone levels. Over time, hyperparathyroid bone disease progressed with pathologic fractures and persistent pain. In 2004, PTH levels increased further in association with worsening chronic kidney disease. Eventually hypercalcemia and hypertension developed. Localizing studies in 2005 suggested a left inferior parathyroid tumor. After having consistently declined, the patient finally agreed to neck exploration in January 2009. Four hyperplastic parathyroid glands were removed, followed immediately by severe hypocalcemia, attributed to "hungry bone syndrome" and hypoparathyroidism, which required prolonged hospitalization, calcium infusions, and oral calcitriol. Although her bone pain resolved, hyperaldosteronism persisted.
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Auxin controls seed dormancy through stimulation of abscisic acid signaling by inducing ARF-mediated ABI3 activation in Arabidopsis.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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The transition from dormancy to germination in seeds is a key physiological process during the lifecycle of plants. Abscisic acid (ABA) is the sole plant hormone known to maintain seed dormancy; it acts through a gene expression network involving the transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3). However, whether other phytohormone pathways function in the maintenance of seed dormancy in response to environmental and internal signals remains an important question. Here, we show that the plant growth hormone auxin, which acts as a versatile trigger in many developmental processes, also plays a critical role in seed dormancy in Arabidopsis. We show that disruptions in auxin signaling in MIR160-overexpressing plants, auxin receptor mutants, or auxin biosynthesis mutants dramatically release seed dormancy, whereas increases in auxin signaling or biosynthesis greatly enhance seed dormancy. Auxin action in seed dormancy requires the ABA signaling pathway (and vice versa), indicating that the roles of auxin and ABA in seed dormancy are interdependent. Furthermore, we show that auxin acts upstream of the major regulator of seed dormancy, ABI3, by recruiting the auxin response factors AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 10 and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 16 to control the expression of ABI3 during seed germination. Our study, thus, uncovers a previously unrecognized regulatory factor of seed dormancy and a coordinating network of auxin and ABA signaling in this important process.
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[Analysis of quality variation and genetic diversity of Desmodium styracifolium from different provenances].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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To explore the quality variation and genetic diversity of Desmodium styracifolium from different provenances, and lay a foundation for rational exploitation on germplasm resources and fine variety breeding of D. styracifolium.
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Visible-Light-Driven Oxidation of Primary C-H Bonds over CdS with Dual Co-catalysts Graphene and TiO2.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Selective activation of primary C-H bonds for fine chemicals synthesis is of crucial importance for the sustainable exploitation of available feedstocks. Here, we report a viable strategy to synthesize ternary GR-CdS-TiO2 composites with an intimate spatial integration and sheet-like structure, which is afforded by assembling two co-catalysts, graphene and TiO2, into the semiconductor CdS matrix with specific morphology as a visible light harvester. The GR-CdS-TiO2 composites are able to serve as a highly selective visible-light-driven photocatalyst for oxidation of saturated primary C-H bonds using benign oxygen as oxidant under ambient conditions. This work demonstrates a wide, promising scope of adopting co-catalyst strategy to design more efficient semiconductor-based photocatalyst toward selective activation of C-H bonds using solar light and molecular oxygen.
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Improving the visible light photoactivity of In2S3-graphene nanocomposite via a simple surface charge modification approach.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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We report an efficient and easily accessible self-assembly route to synthesize In2S3-GR nanocomposites via electrostatic interaction of positively charged In2S3 nanoparticles with negatively charged graphene oxide (GO) followed by a hydrothermal process for reduction of GO to graphene (GR). The as-synthesized In2S3-GR nanocomposites exhibit much higher visible light photocatalytic activity toward selective reduction of nitroaromatic compounds in water than bare In2S3 nanoparticles and In2S3-GR-H that is obtained from the simple "hard" integration of GR nanosheets with solid In2S3 nanoparticles without modification of surface charge. On the basis of the joint characterizations and structure-photoactivity correlation it is disclosed that the enhanced photocatalytic performance of In2S3-GR is mainly ascribed to the more efficient interfacial contact between In2S3 and the GR nanosheets than In2S3-GR-H, which would amplify the use of electron conductivity and mobility of GR to improve the lifetime and transfer of photogenerated charge carriers more efficiently and thus boost the photoactivity more effectively. This work highlights the significant effect of preparation methods on the photoactivity of GR-semiconductor nanocomposites. It is expected that such a simple electrostatic self-assembly strategy could aid to rationally fabricate more efficient GR-semiconductor nanocomposites with improved interfacial contact and photocatalytic performance toward various photocatalytic selective transformations.
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Formation of Complex Interface and Stability of Oil-in-Water (O/W) Emulsion Prepared by Soy Lipophilic Protein Nanoparticles.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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A lipophilic protein nanoparticle (LPP) was fabricated by ultrasonication of the soy lipophilic protein (LP), which contains hydrophobic proteins and phospholipids. This LPP (Rh = 136 ± 0.8 nm, ?-potential = -20 mV, pH 7.0) had an improved dispersibility and acted as an emulsifier. The oil/water (O/W) emulsion stabilized by this LPP exhibited superior physical stability over long-term storage (8 weeks), during a stress storage test (200 mM NaCl addition and heating at 90 °C), and in the presence of Tween 20 (1.0-4.0 wt %), in contrast to those emulsions stabilized by ?-conglycinin and glycinin. Langmuir-Blodgett method and interface pressure determination revealed that LPP formed rigid and rough granular film at air/water interface. The excellent stability of emulsions stabilized by LPP highlights the synergic effect between hydrophobic proteins and phospholipids. These findings suggest that the complexes of hydrophobic protein aggregates and biosurfactant could form a stable interface which could be developed into a novel strategy to fabricate a stable food emulsion.
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Towards ultrahigh volumetric capacitance: graphene derived highly dense but porous carbons for supercapacitors.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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A small volumetric capacitance resulting from a low packing density is one of the major limitations for novel nanocarbons finding real applications in commercial electrochemical energy storage devices. Here we report a carbon with a density of 1.58 g cm(-3), 70% of the density of graphite, constructed of compactly interlinked graphene nanosheets, which is produced by an evaporation-induced drying of a graphene hydrogel. Such a carbon balances two seemingly incompatible characteristics: a porous microstructure and a high density, and therefore has a volumetric capacitance for electrochemical capacitors (ECs) up to 376 F cm(-3), which is the highest value so far reported for carbon materials in an aqueous electrolyte. More promising, the carbon is conductive and moldable, and thus could be used directly as a well-shaped electrode sheet for the assembly of a supercapacitor device free of any additives, resulting in device-level high energy density ECs.
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Variant adrenal venous anatomy in 546 laparoscopic adrenalectomies.
JAMA Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Knowing the types and frequency of adrenal vein variants would help surgeons identify and control the adrenal vein during laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
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Virtual neck exploration for parathyroid adenomas: a first step toward minimally invasive image-guided surgery.
JAMA Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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To evaluate the performance of 3-dimensional (3D) virtual neck exploration (VNE) as a modality for preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas in primary hyperparathyroidism and assess the feasibility of using augmented reality to guide parathyroidectomy as a step toward minimally invasive imageguided surgery.
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Synthesis of uniform CdS nanospheres/graphene hybrid nanocomposites and their application as visible light photocatalyst for selective reduction of nitro organics in water.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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We report the self-assembly of uniform CdS nanospheres/graphene (CdS NSPs/GR) hybrid nanocomposites via electrostatic interaction of positively charged CdS nanospheres (CdS NSPs) with negatively charged graphene oxide (GO), followed by GO reduction via a hydrothermal treatment. During this facile two-step wet chemistry process, reduced graphene oxide (RGO, also called GR) and the intimate interfacial contact between CdS NSPs and the GR sheets are achieved. Importantly, the CdS NSPs/GR nanocomposites exhibit a much higher photocatalytic performance than bare CdS NSPs toward selective reduction of nitro organics to corresponding amino organics under visible light irradiation. The superior photocatalytic performance of the CdS NSPs/GR nanocomposites can be attributed to the intimate interfacial contact between CdS NSPs and the GR sheets, which would maximize the excellent electron conductivity and mobility of GR that in turn markedly contributes to improving the fate and transfer of photogenerated charge carriers from CdS NSPs under visible light irradiation. Moreover, the photocorrosion of CdS and the photodegradation of GR can be efficiently inhibited. The excellent reusability of the CdS NSPs/GR nanocomposites can be attributed to the synergetic effect of the introduction of GR into the matrix of CdS NSPs and the addition of ammonium formate as quencher for photogenerated holes. It is hoped that our current work could promote us to efficiently harness such a simple and efficient self-assembly strategy to synthesize GR-based semiconductor composites with controlled morphology and, more significantly, widen the application of CdS/GR nanocomposite photocatalysts and offer new inroads into exploration and utilization of GR-based semiconductor nanocomposites as visible light photocatalysts for selective organic transformations.
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Enhanced physical and oxidative stabilities of soy protein-based emulsions by incorporation of a water-soluble stevioside-resveratrol complex.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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To strengthen the effectiveness of resveratrol (RES) as a natural antioxidant in food systems, this work attempted to enhance the water solubility of RES by utilizing the solubilizing properties of stevioside (STE) and investigated the effect of STE-solubilized RES (STE-RES) incorporation on the stability of soy protein isolate (SPI)-based emulsions. The physical properties and oxidative stability of SPI emulsions with STE/STE-RES were evaluated. The water solubility of RES increased with the increase of STE concentration up to its critical micelle concentration, suggesting the solubilization of hydrophobic RES in STE self-assembled micelles. STE micelles competitively adsorbed at the oil-water interface with SPI, forming a mixed SPI and STE interfacial layer, thus resulting in a decrease in particle size and evident enhancement in the physical stability of SPI-based emulsions. After the incorporation of STE-RES, SPI emulsions showed an enhanced oxidative stability with reduced lipid hydroperoxides and volatile hexanal. This improvement was believed to be mainly attributed to the targeted migration of RES to the interface during the adsorption of the STE-RES complex, as evidenced by high interfacial accumulation of RES.
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Defective TiO2 with oxygen vacancies: synthesis, properties and photocatalytic applications.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Titanium dioxide (TiO2), as an important semiconductor metal oxide, has been widely investigated in the field of photocatalysis. The properties of TiO2, including its light absorption, charge transport and surface adsorption, are closely related to its defect disorder, which in turn plays a significant role in the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. Among all the defects identified in TiO2, oxygen vacancy is one of the most important and is supposed to be the prevalent defect in many metal oxides, which has been widely investigated both by theoretical calculations and experimental characterizations. Here, we give a short review on the existing strategies for the synthesis of defective TiO2 with oxygen vacancies, and the defect related properties of TiO2 including structural, electronic, optical, dissociative adsorption and reductive properties, which are intimately related to the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. In particular, photocatalytic applications with regard to defective TiO2 are outlined. In addition, we offer some perspectives on the challenge and new direction for future research in this field. We hope that this tutorial minireview would provide some useful contribution to the future design and fabrication of defective semiconductor-based nanomaterials for diverse photocatalytic applications.
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Polyunsaturated fatty acids promote the expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells by activating the JAK/STAT3 pathway.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exert immunosuppressive effects that could prove beneficial in clinical therapies for certain autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. However, the mechanism of PUFA-mediated immunosuppression is far from understood. Here, we provide evidence that PUFAs enhance the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a negative immune regulator. PUFA-induced MDSCs have a more potent suppressive effect on T-cell responses than do control MDSCs. These observations were found both in cultured mouse bone marrow cells in vitro and in vivo in mice fed diets enriched in PUFAs. The enhanced suppressive activity of MDSCs by PUFAs administration was coupled with a dramatic induction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleo- tide phosphate oxidase subunit p47(phox) and was dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Mechanistic studies revealed that PUFAs mediate its effects through JAK-STAT3 signaling. Inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation by JAK inhibitor JSI-124 almost completely abrogated the effects of PUFAs on MDSCs. Moreover, the effects of PUFAs on MDSCs and the underlying mechanisms were confirmed in tumor-bearing mice. In summary, this study sheds new light on the immune modulatory role of PUFAs, and demonstrates that MDSCs expansion may mediate the effects of PUFAs on the immune system.
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Synthesis of fullerene-, carbon nanotube-, and graphene-TiO? nanocomposite photocatalysts for selective oxidation: a comparative study.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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A series of TiO(2)-graphene (GR), -carbon nanotube (CNT), and -fullerene (C(60)) nanocomposite photocatalysts with different weight addition ratios of carbon contents are synthesized via a combination of sol-gel and hydrothermal methods. Their structures and properties are determined by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and photoelectrochemical measurements. Photocatalytic selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde is employed as a model reaction to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of the TiO(2)-carbon (GR, CNT, and C(60)) nanocomposites under visible light irradiation. The results reveal that incorporating TiO(2) with carbon materials can extend the adsorption edge of all the TiO(2)-carbon nanocomposites to the visible light region. For TiO(2)-GR, TiO(2)-CNT, and TiO(2)-C(60) nanocomposites, the photocatalytic activities of the composites with optimum ratios, TiO(2)-0.1% GR, TiO(2)-0.5% CNT, and TiO(2)-1.0% C(60), are very close to each other along with the irradiation time. Furthermore, the underlying reaction mechanism for the photocatalytic selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde over TiO(2)-carbon nanocomposites has been explored using different radical scavenger techniques, suggesting that TiO(2)-carbon photocatalysts follow the analogous oxidation mechanism toward selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol. The addition of different carbon materials has no significant influence on the crystal phase, particle size, and the morphology of TiO(2). Therefore, it can be concluded, at least for nanocomposites of TiO(2)-carbon (GR, CNT, and C(60)) obtained by the present approach, that there is no much difference in essence on affecting the photocatalytic performance of semiconductor TiO(2) among these three different carbon allotropes, GR, CNT, and C(60). Our findings point to the importance of a comparative study of semiconductor-carbon photocatalysts on drawing a relatively objective conclusion rather than separately emphasizing the unique role of GR and joining the graphene gold rush.
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Pheochromocytoma crisis is not a surgical emergency.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Pheochromocytoma crisis is a feared and potentially lethal complication of pheochromocytoma.
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Hybridization of graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes at the liquid/air interface.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2011
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The liquid/air interface provides an ideal platform for the uniform hybridization of multi-components in a thin graphene-based membrane through self-assembly. This study presents the first example for such a hybrid membrane which combines chemically active GO layers with highly conductive carbon nanotubes.
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[Fluorescence spectra analysis of whey protein isolate-dextran conjugate].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2011
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The mixed whey protein isolate (WPI)-dextran was treated by dry-heating to prepare Maillard reaction products (MRPs), which was characterized by the browning. The free amino groups content significantly decreased by 35.77% and 30.53% in glycated protein samples, as the molecular weight of dextran increased from 67 to 150 kD, respectively. This suggested that it was more difficult to be linked with WPI molecule when the chain length of dextran was increased. The characteristic of WPI-dextran conjugate was studied by fluorescence spectra in the paper. The maximum fluorescence intensity at 405 nm was obviously enhanced and G67 showed high fluorescence intensity than G150 over the wavelength range form 350 to 500 nm. This result revealed that the flourescent substance, a feature in Maillard reaction model system, was generated. As showed in the fluorescence spectra, the maximum fluorescence intensity at 470 nm was significantly decreased and the fluorescence intensity in each solution was in the order as follows: WPI>G150>G67. Moreover, the measurement of surface hydrophobicity index further showed that the hydrophobicity of WPI could be suppressed due to these two kinds of different molecular weight dextran.
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Stable nanosecond pulse generation from a graphene-based passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
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We demonstrate stable 70?ns pulse generation from a Yb-doped fiber laser passively Q-switched by a graphene-based saturable absorber mirror in a short linear cavity. The maximum output power was 12?mW and the highest single pulse energy was 46?nJ. The repetition rate of the fiber laser can be widely tuned from 140 to 257?kHz along with the increase of the pump power. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report for passively Q-switched sub-100-ns pulse operation of a graphene-based saturable absorber in a Yb-doped fiber laser.
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Growth kinetics of amyloid-like fibrils derived from individual subunits of soy ?-conglycinin.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2011
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The amyloid-like fibrillation of soy ?-conglycinin subunits (?, ?, and ?) upon heating (0-20 h) at 85 °C and pH 2.0 was characterized using dynamic light scattering, circular dichroism (CD), binding to amyloid dyes (Thioflavin T and Congo red), and atomic force microscopy. The fibrillation of all three subunits was accompanied by progressive polypeptide hydrolysis. The hydrolysis behaviors, fibrillation kinetics, and morphologies of amyloid-like fibrils considerably varied among ?, ?, and ? subunits. Faster hydrolysis rates and special fragments were observed for the ? and ? subunits compared to the ? subunit. However, the order of the fibrillation rate and capacity to form ?-sheets was ? > ? > ?, as evidenced by CD and Thioflavin T data. Moreover, sequential growth of twisted screw-structure fibrils, leading to macroscopic fibrils with distinct morphological characteristics, was observed for ?-conglycinin and individual subunits. The different fibrillation kinetics and morphologies of ?, ?, and ? subunits appear to be associated with the differences in the amino acid composition and typical sequence of peptides. Besides, the disruption of ordered structure of fibrils occurred upon further heating (6-20 h) due to extensive hydrolysis. These results would suggest that all subunits are involved in the fibrillation of ?-conglycinin, following multiple steps including polypeptide hydrolysis, assembly to amyloid structure, and growth into macroscopic fibrils with a fibril shaving process.
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Parathyroid carcinoma: a 43-year outcome and survival analysis.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2011
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Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare but ominous cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. OBJECTIVES AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The objective of the study was to review the outcomes of parathyroid cancer patients and to evaluate the factors associated with mortality.
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[Effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on the spatial learning-memory ability in dementia rats after transplanted with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2011
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To study the effect and mechanism of ginsenoside Rg1 on the spatial learning-memory ability in rats with Alzheimers disease after transplanted with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs).
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Specificity of carboxypeptidases from Actinomucor elegans and their debittering effect on soybean protein hydrolysates.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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The specificities of carboxypeptidases from Actinomucor elegans were investigated by determining enzymatic activities at pH 7.0 and pH 4.0 with 16 Z-dipeptides and three Z-tripeptides as substrates. The debittering effect was evaluated and the free amino acid compositions of the soybean protein hydrolysates were analyzed before and after treatment with A. elegans extract at pH 7.0 and pH 4.0, with carboxypeptidases from Aspergillus oryzae as control. The results of the enzyme activity determinations indicated that carboxypeptidases from A. elegans prefer hydrophobic substrates, such as Z-Phe-Leu, Z-Phe-Tyr-Leu, and Z-Phe-Tyr. The sensory evaluation and free amino acid composition analysis showed that these carboxypeptidases are efficient tools for decreasing the bitterness of peptides because they liberated the fewest free amino acids, which consisted of 73% hydrophobic amino acids, under acidic conditions. Carboxypeptidases from A. elegans display promising prospects for future applications in the protein hydrolysate industry.
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Substitution of a conserved glycine in the PHR domain of Arabidopsis cryptochrome 1 confers a constitutive light response.
Mol Plant
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2011
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CRYPTOCHROMES (CRYs) are photolyase-like ultraviolet-A/blue light photoreceptors that mediate various light responses in plants. The signaling mechanism of Arabidopsis CRYs (CRY1 and CRY2) involves direct CRY-COP1 interaction. Here, we report that CRY1(G380R), which carries a Gly-to-Arg substitution of the highly conserved G380 in the photolyase-related (PHR) domain of Arabidopsis CRY1, shows constitutive CRY1 photoreceptor activity in Arabidopsis. Transgenic plants overexpressing CRY1(G380R) display a constitutively photomorphogenic (COP) phenotype in darkness, as well as a dramatic early flowering phenotype under short-day light conditions (SD). We further demonstrate that CRY1(G380R) expression driven by the native CRY1 promoter also results in a COP phenotype in darkness. Moreover, overexpression of either the Arabidopsis homolog CRY2(G377R) or the rice ortholog OsCRY1b(G388R) of CRY1(G380R) in Arabidopsis results in a COP phenotype in darkness. Cellular localization studies indicate that CRY1(G380R) co-localizes with COP1 in the same nuclear bodies (NBs) in vivo and inhibits the nuclear accumulation of COP1 in darkness. These results suggest that the conserved G380 may play a critical role in regulating the photoreceptor activity of plant CRYs and that CRY1(G380R) might constitutively phenocopy the photo-activated CRY1 in darkness and thus constitutively mediate CRY1 signaling.
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One-pot fabrication and antimicrobial properties of novel PET nonwoven fabrics.
Biomed Mater
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2011
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Recently, with the ever-growing demand for healthy living, more and more research is focused on materials capable of killing harmful microorganisms around the world. It is believed that designing such protective materials for hygienic and biomedical applications can benefit people in professional areas and daily life. Thus, in this paper, one novel kind of antibacterial poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nonwoven fabrics was conveniently one-pot prepared, with the combined immobilization of two biological antimicrobial agents, i.e. ?-polylysine and natamycin, by using the soft methacrylate nonwoven fabrics adhesives. Then, the antimicrobial activities of the functional fabrics were investigated by using the standard shaking-flask method, showing excellent antibacterial efficiency (AE) against both Escherichia coli (8099) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) (AE > 99.99%) compared with untreated PET nonwoven fabrics. The anti-bioaerosol tests also showed similar trends. Meantime, scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that the bacteria on the antibacterial PET appeared to be partly bacteriolyzed and showed much less viability than those on the pristine ones. Moreover, the long residual biocidal action of such modified PET fabrics was also evaluated, and the antibacterial activity of antibacterial fibers was unaffected by the 3 month artificially accelerated aging.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.