Overexpression of the histone methyltransferase MMSET in t(4;14)+ multiple myeloma patients is believed to be the driving factor in the pathogenesis of this subtype of myeloma. MMSET catalyzes dimethylation of lysine 36 on histone H3 (H3K36me2), and its overexpression causes a global increase in H3K36me2, redistributing this mark in a broad, elevated level across the genome. Here, we demonstrate that an increased level of MMSET also induces a global reduction of lysine 27 trimethylation on histone H3 (H3K27me3). Despite the net decrease in H3K27 methylation, specific genomic loci exhibit enhanced recruitment of the EZH2 histone methyltransferase and become hypermethylated on this residue. These effects likely contribute to the myeloma phenotype since MMSET-overexpressing cells displayed increased sensitivity to EZH2 inhibition. Furthermore, we demonstrate that such MMSET-mediated epigenetic changes require a number of functional domains within the protein, including PHD domains that mediate MMSET recruitment to chromatin. In vivo, targeting of MMSET by an inducible shRNA reversed histone methylation changes and led to regression of established tumors in athymic mice. Together, our work elucidates previously unrecognized interplay between MMSET and EZH2 in myeloma oncogenesis and identifies domains to be considered when designing inhibitors of MMSET function.
In recent years, copy number variations (CNVs), which associate with complex traits such as disease and quantitative phenotypes, are increasingly recognized as an important and abundant source of genetic variation and phenotypic diversity. CNVs have been studied in several breeds of cattle with the goal of improving selection methods for commercial use; however, little is known about the extent to which CNVs contribute to genetic variation in Qinchuan cattle. The BovineHD Genotyping BeadChip array was used for analyzing the whole genomic CNVs of Qinchuan cattle breed; we discovered 367 unique CNV events from 6 Qinchuan cattle. Accounting for overlapping regions, a total of 365 autosomal copy number variation regions (CNVRs) (131 losses and 234 gains) were identified with an average number of 60.8 CNV events per individual, which covered 13.13 Mb of the cattle genomic sequence corresponding to 0.4 % of the whole cattle genome. The average and median sizes of CNVRs were 35.07 and 18.56 kb, respectively. The CNVRs map of Qinchuan cattle was first constructed based on the BovineHD Genotyping Beadchip array. Functional analysis indicated that most genes in CNVRs that were significantly enriched are involved in environmental stress. Comparison of CNVRs in ten published studies and the 365 CNVRs identified in our study overlapped 0.7-42.7 %. These findings are the first report of CNVs mapping in Qinchuan cattle and contribute to the greater understanding of CNV genetics in commercial cattle phenotypes.
Genome-wide investigations have dramatically increased our understanding of nucleosome positioning and the role of chromatin in gene regulation, yet some genomic regions have been poorly represented in human nucleosome maps. One such region is represented by human chromosome 9p21-22, which contains the type I interferon gene cluster that includes 16 interferon alpha genes and the single interferon beta, interferon epsilon, and interferon omega genes. A high-density nucleosome mapping strategy was used to generate locus-wide maps of the nucleosome organization of this biomedically important locus at a steady state and during a time course of infection with Sendai virus, an inducer of interferon gene expression. Detailed statistical and computational analysis illustrates that nucleosomes in this locus exhibit preferences for particular dinucleotide and oligomer DNA sequence motifs in vivo, which are similar to those reported for lower eukaryotic nucleosome-DNA interactions. These data were used to visualize the region's chromatin architecture and reveal features that are common to the organization of all the type I interferon genes, indicating a common nucleosome-mediated gene regulatory paradigm. Additionally, this study clarifies aspects of the dynamic changes that occur with the nucleosome occupying the transcriptional start site of the interferon beta gene after virus infection.
The IGF family is essential for normal embryonic and postnatal development and plays important roles in the immune system, myogenesis, bone metabolism and other physiological functions, which makes the study of its structure and biological characteristics important. Tianzhu white yak (Bos grunniens) domesticated under alpine hypoxia environments, is well adapted to survive and grow against severe hypoxia and cold temperatures for extended periods. In this study, a full coding sequence of the IGF2 gene of Tianzhu white yak was amplified by reverse transcription PCR and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) for the first time. The cDNA sequence revealed an open reading frame of 450 nucleotides, encoding a protein with 179 amino acids. Its expression in different tissues was also studied by Real time PCR. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that yak IGF2 was similar to Bos taurus, and 3D structure showed high similarity with the human IGF2. The putative full CDS of yak IGF2 was amplified by PCR in five tissues, and cDNA sequence analysis showed high homology to bovine IGF2. Moreover the super secondary structure prediction showed a similar 3D structure with human IGF2. Its conservation in sequence and structure has facilitated research on IGF2 and its physiological function in yak.
Using a recently developed chemical approach, we have generated a genome-wide map of nucleosomes in vivo in Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe) at base pair resolution. The shorter linker length previously identified in S. pombe is due to a preponderance of nucleosomes separated by ?4/5 bp, placing nucleosomes on opposite faces of the DNA. The periodic dinucleotide feature thought to position nucleosomes is equally strong in exons as in introns, demonstrating that nucleosome positioning information can be superimposed on coding information. Unlike the case in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, A/T-rich sequences are enriched in S. pombe nucleosomes, particularly at ±20 bp around the dyad. This difference in nucleosome binding preference gives rise to a major distinction downstream of the transcription start site, where nucleosome phasing is highly predictable by A/T frequency in S. pombe but not in S. cerevisiae, suggesting that the genomes and DNA binding preferences of nucleosomes have coevolved in different species. The poly (dA-dT) tracts affect but do not deplete nucleosomes in S. pombe, and they prefer special rotational positions within the nucleosome, with longer tracts enriched in the 10- to 30-bp region from the dyad. S. pombe does not have a well-defined nucleosome-depleted region immediately upstream of most transcription start sites; instead, the -1 nucleosome is positioned with the expected spacing relative to the +1 nucleosome, and its occupancy is negatively correlated with gene expression. Although there is generally very good agreement between nucleosome maps generated by chemical cleavage and micrococcal nuclease digestion, the chemical map shows consistently higher nucleosome occupancy on DNA with high A/T content.
The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a subterranean eusocial rodent with a markedly long lifespan and resistance to tumorigenesis. Multiple data implicate modulation of protein translation in longevity. Here we report that 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of the naked mole-rat is processed into two smaller fragments of unequal size. The two breakpoints are located in the 28S rRNA divergent region 6 and excise a fragment of 263 nt. The excised fragment is unique to the naked mole-rat rRNA and does not show homology to other genomic regions. Because this hidden break site could alter ribosome structure, we investigated whether translation rate and amino acid incorporation fidelity were altered. We report that naked mole-rat fibroblasts have significantly increased translational fidelity despite having comparable translation rates with mouse fibroblasts. Although we cannot directly test whether the unique 28S rRNA structure contributes to the increased fidelity of translation, we speculate that it may change the folding or dynamics of the large ribosomal subunit, altering the rate of GTP hydrolysis and/or interaction of the large subunit with tRNA during accommodation, thus affecting the fidelity of protein synthesis. In summary, our results show that naked mole-rat cells produce fewer aberrant proteins, supporting the hypothesis that the more stable proteome of the naked mole-rat contributes to its longevity.
The extraction of targeted subnetworks is a powerful way to identify functional modules and pathways within complex networks. Here, we present SubNet, a Java-based stand-alone program for extracting subnetworks, given a basal network and a set of selected nodes. Designed with a graphical user-friendly interface, SubNet combines four different extraction methods, which offer the possibility to interrogate a biological network according to the question investigated. Of note, we developed a method based on the highly successful Google PageRank algorithm to extract the subnetwork using the node centrality metric, to which possible node weights of the selected genes can be incorporated.
We report a target enrichment method to map nucleosomes of large genomes at unprecedented coverage and resolution by deeply sequencing locus-specific mononucleosomal DNA enriched via hybridization with bacterial artificial chromosomes. We achieved ? 10 000-fold enrichment of specific loci, which enabled sequencing nucleosomes at up to ? 500-fold higher coverage than has been reported in a mammalian genome. We demonstrate the advantages of generating high-sequencing coverage for mapping the center of discrete nucleosomes, and we show the use of the method by mapping nucleosomes during T cell differentiation using nuclei from effector T-cells differentiated from clonal, isogenic, naïve, primary murine CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes. The analysis reveals that discrete nucleosomes exhibit cell type-specific occupancy and positioning depending on differentiation status and transcription. This method is widely applicable to mapping many features of chromatin and discerning its landscape in large genomes at unprecedented resolution.
Nucleosome positioning on the chromatin strand plays a critical role in regulating accessibility of DNA to transcription factors and chromatin modifying enzymes. Hence, detailed information on nucleosome depletion or movement at cis-acting regulatory elements has the potential to identify predicted binding sites for trans-acting factors. Using a novel method based on enrichment of mononucleosomal DNA by bacterial artificial chromosome hybridization, we mapped nucleosome positions by deep sequencing across 250 kb, encompassing the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. CFTR shows tight tissue-specific regulation of expression, which is largely determined by cis-regulatory elements that lie outside the gene promoter. Although multiple elements are known, the repertoire of transcription factors that interact with these sites to activate or repress CFTR expression remains incomplete. Here, we show that specific nucleosome depletion corresponds to well-characterized binding sites for known trans-acting factors, including hepatocyte nuclear factor 1, Forkhead box A1 and CCCTC-binding factor. Moreover, the cell-type selective nucleosome positioning is effective in predicting binding sites for novel interacting factors, such as BAF155. Finally, we identify transcription factor binding sites that are overrepresented in regions where nucleosomes are depleted in a cell-specific manner. This approach recognizes the glucocorticoid receptor as a novel trans-acting factor that regulates CFTR expression in vivo.
Graves disease, the production of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor-stimulating antibodies leading to hyperthyroidism, is one of the most common forms of human autoimmune disease. It is widely agreed that complex diseases are not controlled simply by an individual gene or DNA variation but by their combination. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which are the most common form of DNA variation, have great potential as a medical diagnostic tool. In this paper, the P-value is used as a SNP pre-selection criterion, and a wrapper algorithm with binary particle swarm optimization is used to find the rule for discriminating between affected and control subjects. We analyzed the association between combinations of SNPs and Graves disease by investigating 108 SNPs in 384 cases and 652 controls. We evaluated our method by differentiating between cases and controls in a five-fold cross validation test, and it achieved a 72.9% prediction accuracy with a combination of 17 SNPs. The experimental results showed that SNPs, even those with a high P-value, have a greater effect on Graves disease when acting in a combination.
Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a painful and refractory complication of herpes zoster. Treatments are either partially or totally ineffective for many people with PHN. Antiviral agents, used at the time of the rash, are one of the best-established approaches that may prevent the development of PHN.
To investigate the effect of salidroside on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) differentiation into the cholinergic nerve cells, so as to provide the theory basis of the combination of salidroside and stem cells for clinical therapy of nervous system diseases.
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