A laser heterodyne interferometer for simultaneous measuring displacement and angle based on the Faraday effect is proposed. The optical configuration of the proposed interferometer is designed and the mathematic model for measuring displacement and angle is established. The influences of the translational, lateral and rotational movements of the measuring reflector on displacement and angle measurement are analyzed in detail. The experimental setup based on the proposed interferometer was constructed and a series of experiments of angle comparison and simultaneous measuring displacement and angle were performed to verify the feasibility of the proposed interferometer for precision displacement and angle measurement.
Long manipulation length is critical for optical fiber tweezers to enhance the flexibility of non-contact trapping. In this paper a long manipulation distance of more than 40 ?m is demonstrated experimentally by the graded-index fiber (GIF) tweezers, which is fabricated by chemically etching a GIF taper with a large cone angle of 58°. The long manipulation distance is obtained by introducing an air cavity between the lead-in single mode fiber and the GIF as well as by adjusting the laser power in the existence of a constant background flow. The influence of the cavity length and the GIF length on the light distribution and the focusing length of the GIF taper is investigated numerically, which is helpful for optimizing the parameters to perform stable optical trapping. This kind of optical fiber tweezers has advantages including low-cost, easy-to-fabricate and easy-to-use.
MoS2 nanosheets with polydispersity of the lateral dimensions from natural mineral molybdenite have been prepared in the emulsions microenvironment built by the water/surfactant/CO2 system. The size, thickness, and atomic structure are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and laser-scattering particle size analysis. Meanwhile, by the analysis of photoluminescence spectroscopy and microscope, the MoS2 nanosheets with smaller lateral dimensions exhibit extraordinary photoluminescence properties different from those with relatively larger lateral dimensions. The discovery of the excitation dependent photoluminescence for MoS2 nanosheets makes them potentially of interests for the applications in optoelectronics and biology. Moreover, we demonstrate that the fabricated MoS2 nanosheets can be a nontoxic fluorescent label for cell-targeted labeling application.
Deregulation of secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1) has been found in many types of cancer. However, the pattern of SFRP1 expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is still unclear. This study determined SFRP1 expression in patients with AML. SFRP1 expression was decreased markedly in patients with AML compared to controls (p < 0.001). White blood cell (WBC) counts increased as SFRP1 expression decreased in AML (p = 0.016). Patients with low SFRP1 expression showed a different distribution of French-American-British (FAB) subtypes M1/M2/M3 from those with high SFRP1 expression (p = 0.031). NPM1 mutation was mainly observed in patients with low SFRP1 expression (p = 0.011). There was a weak trend that patients with AML with low SFRP1 expression had shorter overall survival (OS) than those with high SFRP1 expression (p = 0.103). Our results indicate that reduced SFRP1 expression is found more frequently in the less well-differentiated subgroups of AML and is associated with NPM1 mutation in AML.
We report what is to our knowledge the first ultrasonic imaging of seismic physical models by using a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating (PS-FBG). Seismic models, which consist of multiple layer structures, were immersed in water. Piezoelectric (PZT) transducer was used to generate ultrasonic waves and a PS-FBG as a receiver. Two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonic images were reconstructed by scanning the PS-FBG with a high-precision position scanning device. In order to suppress the low-frequency drift of the Bragg wavelength during scanning, a tight wavelength tracking method was employed to lock the laser to the PS-FBG resonance in its reflection bandgap. The ultrasonic images captured by the PS-FBG have been compared with the images obtained by the geophysical imaging system, Sinopec, demonstrating the feasibility of our PS-FBG based imaging system in seismic modeling studies.
N-doped carbon spheres with hierarchical micropore-nanosheet networks (HPSCSs) were facilely fabricated by a one-step carbonization and activation process of N containing polymer spheres by KOH. With the synergy effect of the multiple structures, HPSCSs exhibit a very high specific capacitance of 407.9 F g(-1) at 1 mV s(-1) (1.2 times higher than that of porous carbon spheres) and a robust cycling stability for supercapacitors.
This is one case report of a 46-year-old Chinese male with type A acute aortic dissection. It is an emergent surgery including Bentall procedure, interposition graft replacement of aortic arch, stented descending aorta with the modified right atrial shunt technique. In the early post operation period, the patient was complicated with pulmonary embolism. Pulmanary arteriography showed that the right main pulmonary embolism without an extrinsic compression. After the anticoagulant therapy, the patient was well recovered and discharged from hospital 1 month later. The origin of pulmonary embolism in the patient was believed to be the thrombosis in the shunt fistula. The right atrial shunt-related complications haven¿t been reported for more than thirty years. Pulmonary embolism could be a severe complication after the right atrial shunt in acute type A aortic dissection.
In this work, three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical MoS2/polyaniline (PANI) nanoflowers were successfully fabricated via a simple hydrothermal method. The crystal structure and morphology of the MoS2/PANI nanoflowers were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, XPS, and FT-IR spectra, revealing that the nanoflowers were composed of ultrathin nanoplates which consisted of few-layered MoS2 nanosheets with enlarged interlayer distance of the (002) plane and PANI. The excellent electrochemical performance of the 3D hierarchical MoS2/PANI nanoflowers was demonstrated. Further 3D hierarchical MoS2/C nanoflowers can be prepared conveniently by annealing the MoS2/PANI sample in a N2 atmosphere at 500 °C for 4 h. The obtained MoS2/C sample exhibited more excellent electrochemical performance due to its excellent electronic conductivity resulting from the close integration of MoS2 nanosheets with carbon matrix. High reversible capacity of 888.1 mAh g(-1) with the Coulombic efficiency maintained at above 90% from the first cycle were achieved at a current density of 100 mA g(-1). Even at a current density of 1000 mA g(-1), the reversible capacity of the MoS2/C sample could be retained at 511 mAh g(-1). The excellent electrochemical performance of these two samples could be attributed to the combined action of enlarged interlayer distance of the ultrathin MoS2 nanosheets, 3D architectures, hierarchical structures, and conductive material. Thus, these 3D hierarchical nanoflowers are competent as promising anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.
Abstract Alkaptonuria (AKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder of tyrosine metabolism, which is caused by a defect in the enzyme homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD) with subsequent accumulation of homogentisic acid. Presently, more than 100 HGD mutations have been identified as the cause of the inborn error of metabolism across different populations worldwide. However, the HGD mutation is very rarely reported in Asia, especially China. In this study, we present mutational analyses of HGD gene in one Chinese Han child with AKU, which had been identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection of organic acids in urine samples. PCR and DNA sequencing of the entire coding region as well as exon-intron boundaries of HGD have been performed. Two novel mutations were identified in the HGD gene in this AKU case, a frameshift mutation of c.115delG in exon 3 and the splicing mutation of IVS5+3 A>C, a donor splice site of the exon 5 and exon-intron junction. The identification of these mutations in this study further expands the spectrum of known HGD gene mutations and contributes to prenatal molecular diagnosis of AKU.
BackgroundRice blast disease is one of the most serious and recurrent problems in rice-growing regions worldwide. Most resistance genes were identified by linkage mapping using genetic populations. We extensively examined 16 rice blast strains and a further genome-wide association study based on genotyping 0.8 million single nucleotide polymorphism variants across 366 diverse indica accessions.ResultsTotally, thirty associated loci were identified. The strongest signal (Chr11_6526998, P =1.17¿×¿10¿17) was located within the gene Os11g0225100, one of the rice Pia-blast resistance gene. Another association signal (Chr11_30606558) was detected around the QTL Pif. Our study identified the gene Os11g0704100, a disease resistance protein containing nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat domain, as the main candidate gene of Pif. In order to explore the potential mechanism underlying the blast resistance, we further examined a locus in chromosome 12, which was associated with CH149 (P =7.53¿×¿10¿15). The genes, Os12g0424700 and Os12g0427000, both described as kinase-like domain containing protein, were presumed to be required for the full function of this locus. Furthermore, we found some association on chromosome 3, in which it has not been reported any loci associated with rice blast resistance. In addition, we identified novel functional candidate genes, which might participate in the resistance regulation.ConclusionsThis work provides the basis of further study of the potential function of these candidate genes. A subset of true associations would be weakly associated with outcome in any given GWAS; therefore, large-scale replication is necessary to confirm our results. Future research will focus on validating the effects of these candidate genes and their functional variants using genetic transformation and transferred DNA insertion mutant screens, to verify that these genes engender resistance to blast disease in rice.
Polymer self-assembly was developed as an epitope imprinting strategy involving facile processes and high recognition site density. As a model, transferrin epitope imprinted polyethersulfone (PES) beads were successfully fabricated using this technique. The imprinted beads demonstrated excellent selectivity toward the transferrin epitope and transferrin even in the real sample.
Due to their extremely hydrophobic nature, the analysis of integral membrane proteins (IMPs) is of great challenge. Although various additives have been applied to improve the solubility of IMPs, they still suffer from low solubilization efficiency, incompatibility with trypsin digestion, or interference with MS detection. Herein, the systematic study on the effect of ionic liquid structure on membrane protein solubilization and trypsin biocompatibility was performed, based on which 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C12Im-Cl) was selected for the sample preparation of IMPs. Compared with other commonly used additives, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Rapigest, and methanol, C12Im-Cl showed the best performance. In addition, with a strong cation exchange trap column, it could be easily removed after trypsin digestion, which not only was beneficial to avoid protein precipitation during digestion but also had no adverse effect on LC-MS-based separation and detection. Such a C12Im-Cl-assisted sample preparation method was further applied to the membrane proteome analysis of rat brain. Compared with the SDS-assisted method, 1.4 and 3.5 times improvement on the identified IMP and hydrophobic peptide number were achieved (251 vs 178, and 982 vs 279). All these results demonstrated that the C12Im-Cl-assisted sample preparation method is of great promise to promote the large-scale membrane proteome profiling.
Recharging implantable electronics from the outside of the human body is very important for applications such as implantable biosensors and other implantable electronics. In this paper, a recharging method for implantable biosensors based on a wearable incoherent light source has been proposed and simulated. Firstly, we develop a model of the incoherent light source and a multi-layer model of skin tissue. Secondly, the recharging processes of the proposed method have been simulated and tested experimentally, whereby some important conclusions have been reached. Our results indicate that the proposed method will offer a convenient, safe and low-cost recharging method for implantable biosensors, which should promote the application of implantable electronics.
On-road vehicle emissions have become the main source of urban air pollution and attracted broad attentions. Vehicle emission factor is a basic parameter to reflect the status of vehicle emissions, but the measured emission factor is difficult to obtain, and the simulated emission factor is not localized in China. Based on the synchronized increments of traffic flow and concentration of air pollutants in the morning rush hour period, while meteorological condition and background air pollution concentration retain relatively stable, the relationship between the increase of traffic and the increase of air pollution concentration close to a road is established. Infinite line source Gaussian dispersion model was transformed for the inversion of average vehicle emission factors. A case study was conducted on a main road in Beijing. Traffic flow, meteorological data and carbon monoxide (CO) concentration were collected to estimate average vehicle emission factors of CO. The results were compared with simulated emission factors of COPERT4 model. Results showed that the average emission factors estimated by the proposed approach and COPERT4 in August were 2.0 g x km(-1) and 1.2 g x km(-1), respectively, and in December were 5.5 g x km(-1) and 5.2 g x km(-1), respectively. The emission factors from the proposed approach and COPERT4 showed close values and similar seasonal trends. The proposed method for average emission factor estimation eliminates the disturbance of background concentrations and potentially provides real-time access to vehicle fleet emission factors.
MiR-24/378 is thought to be onco-miRNAs for their ability of enhancing tumor growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential predictive value of miR-24/378 expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of breast cancer patients.
Hypertrophic scarring leads to a deformed appearance and contracted neogenetic tissue, resulting in physiological and psychological problems for patients. Millions of people suffer these discomforts each year. Emerging evidence has reported that miRNA contributed to hypertrophic scarring or keloid formation. In this study, nine hypertrophic scar samples and the matched normal skin tissues were used to perform a miRNA microarray. The results of miRNA array showed that miR-200b was downregulated by more than 2-fold, validated by qPCR in hypertrophic scar tissues and human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts, suggesting that there was an important correlation between miR-200b and hypertrophic scarring. We also found that miR-200b affected hypertrophic scarring through regulating the cell proliferation and apoptosis of human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts by affecting the collagen I and III synthesis, fibronectin expression and TGF-?1/?-SMA signaling. Thus, our study provides evidence to support that miR-200b may be a useful target for hypertrophic scarring management.
Functionalized porous carbon materials with hierarchical structure and developed porosity coming from natural and renewable biomass have been attracting tremendous attention recently. In this work, we present a facile and scalable method to synthesize MnO2 loaded carbonaceous aerogel (MnO2@CA) composites via the hydrothermal carbonaceous (HTC) process. We employ two reaction systems of the mixed metal ion precursors to study the optimal selective adsorption and further reaction of MnO2 precursor on CA. Our experimental results show that the system containing KMnO4 and Na2S2O3·5H2O exhibits better electrochemical properties compared with the reaction system of MnSO4·H2O and (NH4)2S2O8. For the former, the obtained MnO2@CA displays the specific capacitance of 123.5 F·g(-1). The enhanced supercapacitance of MnO2@CA nanocomposites could be ascribed to both electrochemical contributions of the loaded MnO2 nanoparticles and the porous structure of three-dimensional carbonaceous aerogels. This study not only indicates that it is vital for the reaction systems to match with porous carbonaceous materials, but also offers a new fabrication strategy to prepare lightweight and high-performance materials that can be used in energy storage devices.
The etiology of Keshan disease (KD), an endemic myocardiopathy in regions of China, is largely unknown. To show the protein changes in serum from KD patients versus controls and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) and to search specific biological markers for differential diagnosis for KD. Serum of 65 patients with KD was compared with 29 patients with IDCM, 62 controls from KD areas and 28 controls from non-KD areas by ClinProt/MALDI-ToF technique. The genetic algorithm, quick classifier algorithm and supervised neural network algorithm methods were used to screen marker proteins and establish diagnostic model. Thirty-four differential peaks were identified in KD patients compared with the healthy controls from non-KD areas. Thirty-eight differentially peaks were identified in KD patients and controls from KD areas; and sixty-seven differentially peaks were identified in patients with KD and patients with IDCM. We believe that marker protein peaks screened in KD patients, healthy controls and IDCM patients may provide clues for the differential diagnosis and treatment of KD.
A novel approach to design pH-sensitive and disintegrable polyelectrolyte nanogels composed of citraconic-based N-(carboxyacyl) chitosan (polyanion) and quaternary chitosan (polycation) was reported. Firstly, the hydrolysis of citraconic-modified chitosan was monitored using fluorescamine assay and it could selectively dissociate in acidic media (e.g., pH ?5.0) due to the isomerization during the addition of citraconic anhydride to chitosan. Secondly, the self-assembly behaviors of different polyelectrolyte pairs between citraconic-based chitosan and quaternary chitosan were investigated via colloidal titration assay. It was indicated that the difference in molecular weight (MW) of opposite charged polyelectrolytes played an important role on the formation of polyelectrolyte nanogels. Results showed that polyelectrolyte nanogels (ca. 300nm in size) only formed when polyanion and polycation had a very large difference in MW. The pH-sensitive behavior of polyelectrolyte nanogels was comprehensively investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The incorporation of charge-conversional citraconic-based chitosan into polyelectrolyte complexes has provided an effective approach to prepare polyelectrolyte nanogels which were very stable at neutral pH but disintegrated quickly in acidic media.
This study compared three methods for analyzing DCE-MRI data with a reference region (RR) model: a linear least-square fitting with numerical analysis (LLSQ-N), a nonlinear least-square fitting with numerical analysis (NLSQ-N), and an analytical analysis (NLSQ-A). The accuracy and precision of estimating the pharmacokinetic parameter ratios KR and VR, where KR is defined as a ratio between the two volume transfer constants, K(trans,TOI) and K(trans,RR), and VR is the ratio between the two extracellular extravascular volumes, ve,TOI and ve,RR, were assessed using simulations under various signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and temporal resolutions (4, 6, 30, and 60s). When no noise was added, the simulations showed that the mean percent error (MPE) for the estimated KR and VR using the LLSQ-N and NLSQ-N methods ranged from 1.2% to 31.6% with various temporal resolutions while the NLSQ-A method maintained a very high accuracy (<1.0×10(-4) %) regardless of the temporal resolution. The simulation also indicated that the LLSQ-N and NLSQ-N methods appear to underestimate the parameter ratios more than the NLSQ-A method. In addition, seven in vivo DCE-MRI datasets from spontaneously occurring canine brain tumors were analyzed with each method. Results for the in vivo study showed that KR (ranging from 0.63 to 3.11) and VR (ranging from 2.82 to 19.16) for the NLSQ-A method were both higher than results for the other two methods (KR ranging from 0.01 to 1.29 and VR ranging from 1.48 to 19.59). A temporal downsampling experiment showed that the averaged percent error for the NLSQ-A method (8.45%) was lower than the other two methods (22.97% for LLSQ-N and 65.02% for NLSQ-N) for KR, and the averaged percent error for the NLSQ-A method (6.33%) was lower than the other two methods (6.57% for LLSQ-N and 13.66% for NLSQ-N) for VR. Using simulations, we showed that the NLSQ-A method can estimate the ratios of pharmacokinetic parameters more accurately and precisely than the NLSQ-N and LLSQ-N methods over various SNRs and temporal resolutions. All simulations were validated with in vivo DCE MRI data.
As low abundance is the great obstacle for glycoprotein analysis, the development of materials with high efficiency and selectivity for glycoprotein enrichment is a prerequisite in glycoproteome research. Herein, we report a new kind of hydrophilic boronate affinity monolith by attaching 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (MPBA) with 2-mercaptoethylamine (MPA) on the gold nanoparticle-modified poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate)) monolith for glycoprotein enrichment. With poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate as the cross-linker and the further modification of gold nanoparticles, the matrix has advantages of good hydrophilicity and enhanced surface area, which are beneficial to improve the enrichment selectivity and efficiency for glycoproteins. The attachment of MPBA and MPA provide intramolecular B?N coordination, which could further enhance the specificity of glycoprotein capture. Such a boronate affinity monolith was applied to enrich horseradish peroxidase (HRP) from the mixture of HRP and bovine serum albumin (BSA), and high selectivity was obtained even at a mass ratio of 1:1000. In addition, the binding capacity of ovalbumin on such monolith reached 390??g?g(-1) . Furthermore, the average recovery of HRP on the prepared affinity monoliths was (84.8±1.9)?%, obtained in three times enrichment with the same column. Finally, the boronate affinity monolith was successfully applied for the human-plasma glycoproteome analysis. As a result, 160 glycoproteins were credibly identified from 9??g of human plasma, demonstrating the great potential of such a monolith for large-scale glycoproteome research.
In this paper, we propose a method to deduce the dynamic modulation transfer function (DMTF) of a space-variant sampling retina-like sensor and demonstrate its utilization in the forward motion imaging process. With the analysis of sampling and the motion imaging property of the sensor, DMTF has been derived. Next, the performance of DMTF between a retina-like sensor and a rectilinear sensor is compared, and the results show that the degradation of DMTF in forward motion is less than that of a rectilinear sensor. Then, the output images are obtained through simulation based on DMTF, and they are compared with that obtained from a CMOS camera with the same forward motion conditions. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the two kinds of images are all larger than 0.85. Thus, the effectiveness of DMTF is shown.
In this paper, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) was first reported to help prepare unique flexible free-standing graphene oxide/nanofiber (GC) films. A novel hierarchical superior electrode material with polypyrrole (PPy) deposited on GO/CNF-SC (GC-SC) films was prepared via an in situ polymerization process. Our experimental results indicate that SC CO2 can not only enlarge the space between GO sheets but also improve the conductivity of the films. The electrochemical measurements show that the as-obtained PPy-coated GC-SC products display remarkably higher capacitive properties than pristine GC/PPy products as electrode materials. Excellent rate performance and stable capacitance retention (89% after 5000 cycles) were observed during the continuous charge-discharge cycles, which verify that SC CO2 provides a convenient route to the scalable production of hierarchical GO/CNF/PPy films for potential application in supercapacitors.
Poly(cyclotriphosphazene-co-4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol) (PZS) nanotubes, an excellent adsorbent, were successfully synthesized by an in situ template method and used for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. The morphology and structures of as-synthesized PZS nanotubes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms. The effects of temperature, concentration, pH and contact time on MB adsorption were studied. It was favorable for adsorption under the condition of basic and high temperature. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were used to fit adsorption data in the kinetic studies. And results showed that the adsorption kinetics were more accurately described by the pseudo-second-order model. The equilibrium isotherms were conducted using Freundlich and Langmuir models. It has been demonstrated that the better agreement was Langmuir isotherm with correlation coefficient of 0.9933, equilibrium absorption capacity of 69.16mg/g and the corresponding contact time of 15min. Thermodynamic analyses showed that MB adsorption onto the PZS nanotubes was endothermic and spontaneous and it was also a physisorption process.
MiR-93 is thought to be an onco-miRNA for its capabilities of enhancing tumor growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential predictive value of miR-93 expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues of breast cancer patients. The expression of miR-93 was examined in 101 breast cancer patients and 40 controls using real-time quantitative PCR. We found that miR-93 was markedly upregulated in breast cancer patients compared with controls (p<0.01). The expression level of miR-93 was significantly correlated with miR-24/378 in breast cancer patients. MiR-93 exhibited great capability of discriminating between cancer patients and cancer-free controls by receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. MiR-93 showed 0.866 AUC (the area under the ROC curve) values. The MiR-93 level was found significantly correlated with breast cancer by univariable logistic regression. These results suggest that overexpression of miR-93 in FFPE tissues may serve as an indispensable source for biomarker discovery and validation in breast cancer patients.
Renal fibrosis is a common progressive kidney disease, and there is a lack of efficient treatment for the condition. In this study, we designed a kidney-specific nanocomplex by forming coordination-driven assembly from catechol-derived low molecular weight chitosan (HCA-Chi), metal ions and active drug molecules. The coordination activities of various metals and ligands, cytotoxicity, immunogenicity and biodistribution of HCA-Chi were investigated. Autofluorescent doxorubicin (DOX) was selected to fabricate HCA-Chi-Cu-DOX ternary nanocomplex for investigating cellular uptake behavior, transmembrane and targeting properties. The nanodevice demonstrated satisfactory stability under normal physiological conditions and pH-responsive drug release in acidic environments. Uptake of HCA-Chi-Cu-DOX by HK-2 cells was dependent on exposure time, concentration, and temperature, and was inhibited by blockers of megalin receptor. Tissue distribution showed that HCA-Chi-Cu-DOX nanocomplex was specifically accumulated in kidney with a renal relative uptake rate (r(e)) of 25.6. When active anti-fibrosis compound emodin was installed in HCA-Chi-Zn-emodin and intravenously injected to the ureter obstructed mice, obvious attenuation of fibrotic progression was exhibited. It was concluded that HCA-Chi coordination-driven nanocomplex showed special renal targeting capacity and could be utilized to develop drug delivery systems for treating renal fibrosis.
Few reports are available describing knee changes in neglected developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The purpose of this study was to assess the radiographic morphology of knee joints in adults with neglected DDH.
DEAD box polypeptide 43 (DDX43), a cancer/testis antigen (CTA), has been found to be overexpressed in various solid tumors and some hematologic malignancies. In the present work hypomethylation of the DDX43 gene was detected in 15% (32/214) of primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR (RQ-MSP). The level of DDX43 expression was correlated with DDX43 hypomethylation (R=0.277, P=0.014). Moreover, bisulfite sequencing confirmed the significant correlation between the methylation density and the level of DDX43 hypomethylation. Additionally, restoration of DDX43 expression in the K562 cell line by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment confirmed a direct contribution of methylation in regulating the DDX43 gene. DDX43 hypomethylation was observed more frequently in favorable group (21.4%) and intermediate group (15.8%) than in poor group (0%) (P=0.009). AML patients with DDX43 hypomethylation had a better overall survival (median not obtained) than those with DDX43 methylation (median 8 months, 95% confidence interval 5.6-10.4 months) (P=0.014). In summary, the DDX43 gene is activated by promoter hypomethylation and DDX43 hypomethylation may be a favorable prognostic factor in AML.
An important application of resting state fMRI data has been to identify resting state networks (RSN). The conventional RSN studies attempted to discover consistent networks through functional connectivity analysis over the whole scan time, which implicitly assumes that RSNs are static. However, the brain undergoes dynamic functional state changes and the functional connectome patterns vary along with time, even in resting state. Hence, this study aims to characterize temporal brain dynamics in resting state. It utilizes the temporally dynamic functional connectome patterns to extract a set of resting state clusters and their corresponding RSNs based on the large-scale consistent, reproducible and predictable whole-brain reference system of dense individualized and common connectivity-based cortical landmarks (DICCCOL). Especially, an effective multi-view spectral clustering method was performed by treating each dynamic functional connectome pattern as one view, and this procedure was also applied on static multi-subject functional connectomes to obtain the static clusters for comparison. It turns out that some dynamic clusters exhibit high similarity with static clusters, suggesting the stability of those RSNs including the visual network and the default mode network. Moreover, two motor-related dynamic clusters show correspondence with one static cluster, which implies substantially more temporal variability of the motor resting network. Particularly, four dynamic clusters exhibited large differences in comparison with their corresponding static networks. Thus it is suggested that these four networks might play critically important roles in functional brain dynamics and interactions during resting state, offering novel insights into the brain function and its dynamics.
A pulsed-laser range finding based on differential optical-path is proposed, and the mathematical models are developed and verified. Based on the method, some simulations are carried out and important conclusions are deduced. (1) Background power is suppressed effectively. (2) Compared with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of traditional method, SNR of the proposed method is more suitable than traditional method in long-range finding and large tilt angle of target. (3) No matter what the tilt angle of target is, it always has optimal sensitivity of zero cross as long as the differential distance is equal to the light speed multiplied by the received pulse length and there is an overlap between two echoes.
In the conversion of cassava starch dregs to biogas by anaerobic fermentation, the biogas residue (BR) containing lignocellulosic materials still remained in the environment. In order to effectively utilize BR, the complexed 1-methyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate ([Mmim]DMP) media were used for pretreating cellulosic materials. After the optimization of pretreatment, the IL [Mmim]DMP-HCl-water (78.5:1.5:20, w/w/w) pretreament media were used for pretreating BR at 130 °C for 30 min. Furthermore, BR pretreated could be effectively saccharified by cellulase of Galactomyces sp. CCZU11-1. Moreover, BR could be used as a cheap carbon source for the production of Galactomyces sp. CCZU11-1 cellulase. After the culture optimization, the optimal culture conditions were obtained as follows: BR 5 g/L, (NH4)2SO4 5 g/L, K2HPO4 2 g/L, MgSO4 0.2 g/L, NaCl 1 g/L, PEG6000 4 g/L, pH 5.5, and culture temperature 30 °C. After the fermentation for 6 days, the FPA and CMCase were 26.2 and 52.8 U/mL, respectively. In conclusion, waste BR could be chosen as a promising feedstock for biofuels.
Brevibacterium sp. CCZU12-1 with high nitrilase activity could effectively hydrolyze benzoyl cyanide into benzoylformic acid. After the culture optimization, the preferred carbon sources, nitrogen sources, and inducer were glucose (10 g/L), a composite of peptone (10 g/L) plus yeast extract (2.5 g/L), and ?-caprolactam (2.0 mM), respectively. After the reaction optimization, the optimum reaction temperature, reaction pH, organic cosolvent, and metal ion were 30 °C, 7.0, ethanol (2%, v/v), and Ca(2+) (0.1 mM), respectively. At biotransformation of 120-mM benzoyl cyanide for 24 h, the yield of benzoylformic acid reached 91.8%. Moreover, the microbial nitrilase from Brevibacterium sp. CCZU12-1 could hydrolyze various nitriles, and it significantly exhibited high nitrilase activity against benzoyl cyanide, 3-cyanopyridine, and ?-cyclohexyl-mandelonitrile.
Hollow carbon capsules with multimodal pores are highly promising for developing novel electrode materials for high-performance electrochemical devices due to their more active sites for ion and electron transfer. However, at present, most of the previous efforts are focused on the multistep process for the synthesis of hollow carbon nanostructures with individual pores. Herein, hollow carbon nanococoons (HCNCs) with non-spherical cavity and multimodal hierarchical pores have been facilely synthesized via a one-step carbonization of a Fe2O3/carbon precursor core/shell nanospindle at 850 °C. We interestingly found that during the carbonization, Fe2O3 was automatically "escaped" from the inside nanospindle, leading to the formation of new HCNCs. Most importantly, the spindle-shaped cavity of the obtained HCNCs with high conductivity can offer a multimodal ion diffusion pathway, which can facilitate the reaction kinetics in a supercapacitor. As a result, the HCNCs-based supacapacitor exhibits the capacitance of 220.0 F g(-1) at a given scan rate of 5 mV s(-1), 3.5 times higher than that of hollow carbon spheres, high stability with 98% of the initial capacity maintained even after 1000 cycles, and high rate capability. This work provides a new and facile avenue for enhancing performance of a HCNCs-based supercapacitor by using the non-spherical hollow structures with multimodal pores.
Implantable devices have important applications in biomedical sensor networks used for biomedical monitoring, diagnosis and treatment, etc. In this paper, an implant intra-body communication (IBC) method based on capacitive coupling has been proposed, and the modeling and characterization of this kind of IBC has been investigated. Firstly, the transfer function of the implant IBC based on capacitive coupling was derived. Secondly, the corresponding parameters of the transfer function are discussed. Finally, both measurements and simulations based on the proposed transfer function were carried out, while some important conclusions have been achieved, which indicate that the achieved transfer function and conclusions are able to help to achieve an implant communication method with the highly desirable characteristics of low power consumption, high data rate, high transmission quality, etc.
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), the second most common form of human cancer, is an epithelial skin tumor, which can result in metastasis with lethal consequences accounting for about 20% of all skin cancer-related deaths. The metastasis is the main reason for cSCC-related deaths with an overall 5-year survival rate < 30% in cases that spread systemically. The role of miRNAs has been involved in SCC of different origins. Recent data have revealed that the expression of miRNA-199a was changed in many human cancers. In this study, we found that miR-199a was significantly decreased in cSCC tissues, which had an inverse relationship with CD44. MiR-199a specifically regulated the expression of CD44 at mRNA and protein levels, and the interaction between CD44 and Ezrin in cSCC cells. Moreover, the suppressive role of miR-199a in cell migration in cSCC cells was also associated with the activity of MMP2 and MMP9. Taken together, our data indicated that increased expression of endogenous mature miR-199a might prevent the growth and migration of human cSCC via decreasing the expression of CD44 and regulating the interaction between CD44 and Ezrin, which may provide a potentially important therapeutic target for human cSCC.
This study is aimed to investigate the pattern of CEBPA mutations and its clinical significance in Chinese non-M3 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. The entire coding region of CEBPA gene was amplified by PCR and then sequenced in samples from 233 non-M3 AML patients. Fifty mutations were identified in 37 (15.8%) patients with eleven (4.7%) double mutated CEBPA (dmCEBPA) and twenty-six (11.1%) single mutated CEBPA (smCEBPA). dmCEBPA was exclusively observed in M1 and M2 subtypes of FAB classification (P = 0.008), whereas smCEBPA occurred in almost all subtypes (P = 0.401). Patients with dmCEBPA had significantly younger age and higher WBC counts than those with wtCEBPA (P = 0.016 and 0.043, respectively). Both dmCEBPA and smCEBPA were mainly present in cytogenetically normal patients. Patients with dmCEBPA achieved higher rate of complete (CR) than wtCEBPA patients (88% vs. 51%, P = 0.037), whereas smCEBPA and wtCEBPA groups are similar (47% vs. 51%, P = 0.810). Patients with dmCEBPA had a superior overall survival (OS) compared with patients with wtCEBPA (P = 0.033), whereas patients with smCEBPA had a similar OS as patients with wtCEBPA (P = 0.976). dmCEBPA but not smCEBPA was also associated with favorable outcome in patients with wild-type NPM1 and FLT3-ITD (NPM1(wt)FLT3-ITD(wt) ). Our data confirm that dmCEBPA but not smCEBPA is prognostically favorable in NPM1(wt)FLT3-ITD(wt) AML, and suggest that the entity AML with mutated CEBPA should be definitely designated as AML with dmCEBPA in WHO classification and smCEBPA should be excluded from the favorable risk of molecular abnormalities.
Proper spindle positioning and orientation are essential for accurate mitosis which requires dynamic interactions between microtubule and actin filament (F-actin). Although mounting evidence demonstrates the role of F-actin in cortical cytoskeleton dynamics, it remains elusive as to the structure and function of F-actin-based networks in spindle geometry. Here we showed a ring-like F-actin structure surrounding the mitotic spindle which forms since metaphase and maintains in MG132-arrested metaphase HeLa cells. This cytoplasmic F-actin structure is relatively isotropic and less dynamic. Our computational modeling of spindle position process suggests a possible mechanism by which the ring-like F-actin structure can regulate astral microtubule dynamics and thus mitotic spindle orientation. We further demonstrated that inhibiting Plk1, Mps1 or Myosin, and disruption of microtubules or F-actin polymerization perturbs the formation of the ring-like F-actin structure and alters spindle position and symmetric division. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized but important link between mitotic spindle and ring-like F-actin network in accurate mitosis and enables the development of a method to theoretically illustrate the relationship between mitotic spindle and cytoplasmic F-actin.
Dysregulation of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2) has been found in various cancers. However, it is little known about the pattern of SFRP2 expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This study was aimed to analyze the expression status of SFRP2 gene in AML patients and explore its clinical significance using real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR). The level of SFRP2 expression significantly decreased in AML compared to controls (P<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis revealed that an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.871 (P<0.001) or 0.902 (P<0.001) in discriminating all patients or cytogenetically normal (CN) patients from controls, respectively. Low level of SFRP2 expression was found more frequently in cytogenetically intermediate and poor groups (72% and 62%, respectively) than in favorable group (42%) (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the rate of complete remission (CR) and overall survival between the groups with low SFRP2 and high expression (P>0.05). SFRP2 expression significantly increased after CR compared to initial diagnosis (P<0.05). These findings suggest that decreased SFRP2 expression is associated with intermediate/poor karyotypes in AML patients and detection of SFRP2 expression may be helpful to the diagnosis and disease monitoring in CN-AML.
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common birth defects, whose specific biomarkers are needed. The purpose of this pilot study is to determine whether protein profiling in NTD-mothers differ from normal controls using SELDI-TOF-MS. ProteinChip Biomarker System was used to evaluate 82 maternal serum samples, 78 urine samples and 76 amniotic fluid samples. The validity of classification tree was then challenged with a blind test set including another 20 NTD-mothers and 18 controls in serum samples, and another 19 NTD-mothers and 17 controls in urine samples, and another 20 NTD-mothers and 17 controls in amniotic fluid samples. Eight proteins detected in serum samples were up-regulated and four proteins were down-regulated in the NTD group. Four proteins detected in urine samples were up-regulated and one protein was down-regulated in the NTD group. Six proteins detected in amniotic fluid samples were up-regulated and one protein was down-regulated in the NTD group. The classification tree for serum samples separated NTDs from healthy individuals, achieving a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 97% in the training set, and achieving a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 97% and a positive predictive value of 95% in the test set. The classification tree for urine samples separated NTDs from controls, achieving a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 94% in the training set, and achieving a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 82% and a positive predictive value of 85% in the test set. The classification tree for amniotic fluid samples separated NTDs from controls, achieving a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 89% in the training set, and achieving a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 88% and a positive predictive value of 90% in the test set. These suggest that SELDI-TOF-MS is an additional method for NTDs pregnancies detection.
The miR-98 is thought to be associated with various cancers. This study was to evaluate the potential predictive value of miR-98 expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue of breast cancer patients. The expression levels of miR-98 were examined in 98 breast cancer patients and 40 cancer-free controls using real-time quantitative PCR. The comparison of miR-98 expression levels between patient and control was performed using the Mann-Whitney test. The miR-98 showed higher expression levels in breast cancer patients compared with cancer free controls (p<0.01). The expression levels of miR-98 were highly correlated with miR24/93/378 in breast cancer patients. The miR-98 exhibited great capability of discriminating between cancer patients and controls by the Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The miR-98 was found highly correlated with breast cancer by Univariable logistic regression analysis. These results suggest that over-expression of miR-98 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues might serve as a valuable source for biomarker discovery in breast cancer patients.
The reduced expression of CTNNA1 gene, a putative tumor suppressor gene, has been found in several cancers including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). CTNNA1 expression is regulated by methylation and histone deacetylation. However, the clinical significance of CTNNA1 methylation in AML is rarely known. The present study was aimed to investigate the methylation status of CTNNA1 promoter region using methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and its clinical relevance in Chinese AML patients. Patients with CTNNA1 hypermethylation had significantly lower level of CTNNA1 transcript than those without CTNNA1 hypermethylation (P=0.031). The relationship of CTNNA1 methylation with clinical parameters was evaluated. Aberrant hypermethylation of CTNNA1 gene was found in 23.9% (37/155) AML cases. The status of CTNNA1 methylation was not correlated with the mutations of seven genes (FLT3-ITD, NPM1, C-KIT, IDH1/IDH2, DNMT3A, N/K-RAS and C/EBPA). There was no significant difference in the rates of complete remission (CR) between patients with and without CTNNA1 methylation. Although the overall survival (OS) time of the CTNNA1-methylated AML was shorter than that of CTNNA1-unmethylated group (6 months vs 9 months), the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.681). Our data suggest that CTNNA1 methylation is a recurrent event but has no influence on prognosis in AML.
Wild species of Oryza are extremely valuable sources of genetic material that can be used to broaden the genetic background of cultivated rice, and to increase its resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Until recently, there was no sequence information for the BBCC Oryza genome; therefore, no special markers had been developed for this genome type. The lack of suitable markers made it difficult to search for valuable genes in the BBCC genome. The aim of this study was to develop microsatellite markers for the BBCC genome. We obtained 13,991 SSR-containing sequences and designed 14,508 primer pairs. The most abundant was hexanuclelotide (31.39%), followed by trinucleotide (27.67%) and dinucleotide (19.04%). 600 markers were selected for validation in 23 accessions of Oryza species with the BBCC genome. A set of 495 markers produced clear amplified fragments of the expected sizes. The average number of alleles per locus (Na) was 2.5, ranging from 1 to 9. The genetic diversity per locus (He) ranged from 0 to 0.844 with a mean of 0.333. The mean polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.290, and ranged from 0 to 0.825. Of the 495 markers, 12 were only found in the BB genome, 173 were unique to the CC genome, and 198 were also present in the AA genome. These microsatellite markers could be used to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships among different Oryza genomes, and to construct a genetic linkage map for locating and identifying valuable genes in the BBCC genome, and would also for marker-assisted breeding programs that included accessions with the AA genome, especially Oryza sativa.
Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is clinically characterized by motor symptoms, cognitive impairment is one of the most disabling non-motor symptoms. Despite it attracting increasing attention worldwide, less is known about its prevalence in the Chinese population. The objective of this study was to assess cognitive impairment and related risk factors in Chinese PD patients.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and mechanism of oxaliplatin in combination with capecitabine (XELOX) regimen as neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with advanced gastric cancer.
A hierarchical high-performance electrode with nanoacanthine-style polyaniline (PANI) deposited onto a carbon nanofiber/graphene oxide (CNF/GO) template was successfully prepared via an in situ polymerization process. The morphology analysis shows that introducing one-dimensional (1D) CNF could significantly decrease/inhibit the staking of laminated GO to form an open-porous CNF/GO architecture. Followed with in situ facial deposition of PANI, the as-synthesized PANI modified CNF/GO exhibits three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical layered nanoarchitecture, which favors the diffusion of the electrolyte ions into the inner region of active materials. The hierarchical free-standing electrodes were directly fabricated into sandwich structured supercapacitors using 1 M H2SO4 as the electrolyte showing a significant specific capacitance of 450.2 F/g at the voltage scan rate of 10 mV/s. The electrochemical properties of the hierarchical structure can be further improved by a reduction procedure of GO before the deposition of PANI.
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a hallmark of systemic inflammation associated with high mortality. Although the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is highly expressed in the lung, its role in lung physiology remains unclear. We investigated the effect of VDR deletion on ALI using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis model. After LPS challenge VDR-null mice exhibited more severe ALI and higher mortality compared with wild-type (WT) counterparts, manifested by increased pulmonary vascular leakiness, pulmonary edema, apoptosis, neutrophil infiltration, and pulmonary inflammation, which was accompanied by excessive induction of angiopoietin (Ang)-2 and myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation in the lung. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D blocked LPS-induced Ang-2 expression by blocking nuclear factor-?B activation in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells. The severity of lung injury seen in VDR-null mice was ameliorated by pretreatment with L1-10, an antagonist of Ang-2, suggesting that VDR signaling protects the pulmonary vascular barrier by targeting the Ang-2-Tie-2-MLC kinase cascade. Severe ALI in VDR-null mice was also accompanied by an increase in pulmonary renin and angiotensin II levels, and pretreatment of VDR-null mice with angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker losartan partially ameliorated the severity of LPS-induced lung injury. Taken together, these observations provide evidence that the vitamin D-VDR signaling prevents lung injury by blocking the Ang-2-Tie-2-MLC kinase cascade and the renin-angiotensin system.
This study proposed a new strategy based on a coaxial tri-capillary electrospray-template removal process for producing nanosized polylactide-b-polyethylene glycol (PLA-PEG) particles with a core-shell structure. Microparticles with core-shell-corona structures were first fabricated by coaxial tri-capillary electrospray, and core-shell nanoparticles less than 200nm in size were subsequently obtained by removing the PEG template from the core-shell-corona microparticles. The nanoparticle size could be modulated by adjusting the flow rate of corona fluid, and nanoparticles with an average diameter of 106±5nm were obtained. The nanoparticles displayed excellent dispersion stability in aqueous media and very low cytotoxicity. Paclitaxel was used as a model drug to be incorporated into the core section of the nanoparticles. A drug loading content in the nanoparticles as high as 50.7±1.5wt% with an encapsulation efficiency of greater than 70% could be achieved by simply increasing the feed rate of the drug solution. Paclitaxel exhibited sustained release from the nanoparticles for more than 40 days. The location of the paclitaxel in the nanoparticles, i.e., in the core or shell layer, did not have a significant effect on its release.
This study was aimed to investigate the expression pattern of gene PDLIM4 (PDZ and LIM domain 4) and analyze its clinical correlation with the patients suffered from acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The expression pattern of PDLIM4 in AML was detected by using EvaGreen real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR). The results showed that the PDLIM4 transcript significantly decreased in 94 AML patients, compared with 21 controls (P < 0.01). The decrease of PDLIM4 transcript was found in 42 (45%) AML patients. PDLIM4 low-rexpression occurred among the subtypes of M1/M2/M3 more frequently than that in M4/M5/M6 (56% vs 20%, P < 0.01). AML patients with PDLIM4 low-expression had an overall survival (OS) higher than that in AML patients without PDLIM4 low-expression (P < 0.05). Analysis with receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) displayed that PDLIM4 expression possesses the diagnostic value to differentiate AML from controls, with ROC curve area of 0.865 (95% CI: 0.801-0.930). It is concluded that reduced PDLIM4 expression is a common and favorable event for the good prognosis in AML, and can be used as a potential diagnostic biomarker of cancer.
An ancient material for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging: For the first time, Fe5 C2 is prepared as colloidal stable nanoparticles with good aqueous stability. The nanoparticles boast strong magnetization, excellent chemical inertness, low toxicity, and one of the highest r2 relaxivities reported to date. These nanoparticles hold great potential in MR imaging as well as in other biomedical areas.
A measuring device for human abdominal fat from the conductivity image derived by electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is rarely found. This study was aimed to reconstruct precise conductivity images from multiple voltage measurements in different patterns of the combination of current and voltage electrodes. We examined two voltage measuring patterns using electrodes located at upper and lower levels around the abdomen of a subject. In the experiment, after 1024 voltage data were taken from one specified voltage measurement pattern, another 1024 data were also taken continuously using another pattern. The reconstruction of conductivity image was made using entire data. As a result, the tomography image was improved compared with the image obtained from single voltage measurement pattern. We then obtained the histogram of the conductivities and estimated the area of abdominal fat. The present method using multiple voltage measurement patterns would be effective, if the measuring time can be much reduced through future modification of the tomography device.
Vitamin D plays a key role in maintaining calcium homeostasis and skeletal health. The liver is critically involved in vitamin D metabolism, as 25-hydroxyvitamin D? (25(OH)D?) is synthesized in the liver. Therefore liver dysfunction may lead to vitamin D deficiency and bone problems. The aim of this study was to examine vitamin D status and bone turnover markers in hepatitis B patients from northeastern China.
This paper introduces a compact optical information storage sensing system. Applications of this system include longitudinal surface plasmon resonance detection of gold nanorods with a single femtosecond laser in three-dimensional space as well as data storage. A diffractive optical element (DOE) is applied in the system to separate the recording-reading beam from the servo beam. This allows us to apply a single laser and one objective lens in a single optical path for the servo beam and the recording-reading beam. The optical system has a linear region of 8 ?, which is compatible with current DVD servo modules. The wavefront error of the optical system is below 0.03 ?(rms). The minimum grating period of the DOE is 13.4 µm, and the depth of the DOE is 1.2 µm, which makes fabrication of it possible. The DOE is also designed to conveniently control the layer-selection process, as there is a linear correlation between the displacement of the DOE and the layer-selection distance. The displacement of DOE is in the range of 0-6.045 mm when the thickness of the layer-selection is 0.3 mm. Experiments were performed and the results have been verified.
A simple and efficient method to produce discrete, hierarchical porous carbon hemispheres (CHs) with high uniformity has been successfully developed by constructing nanoreactors and using low crosslinked poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) (P(St-co-DVB)) capsules as precursors. The samples are characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and N2 adsorption and desorption. Considering their application, the cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy characterization are tested. The experimental results show that the achievement of discrete and perfect carbon hemispheres is dependent on the proper amount of DVB in the P(St-co-DVB) capsules, which can contribute to the ideal thickness or mechanical strength of the shells. When the amount of DVB is 35 wt% in the precursors, a high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of 676 m(2) g(-1) can be obtained for the carbon hemispheres, and the extremely large pore volume of 2.63 cm(3) g(-1) can also be achieved at the same time. The electrochemical test shows the carbon hemispheres have a higher specific capacitance of ca. 83 F g(-1) at 10 mV s(-1), compared to other carbon materials. So this method supplies a platform to extend the fabrication field of carbon materials and supplies more chances for the application of carbon materials including carbon hemispheres that are important components and substrates for supercapacitors.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the integrative effects of visual stimuli with chemical senses (olfactory and gustatory) stimuli in humans. Noninvasive measurement tools such as magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are used to describe the mechanism of olfactory information processing in the human brain, and the neurophysiological properties of olfactory-related neurons are described. The first study analyzed the interaction between visual and olfactory stimuli. Two odors (lemon and iso-valeric acid) were selected as pleasant and unpleasant odors, respectively and pleasant and unpleasant images were also selected. These cross-modal stimulus combinations were presented to the subject at random, and responses were measured by fMRI using an event related task. These results revealed that active brain areas with pleasant/unpleasant stimuli and matched/mismatched stimuli were different for memory and cognition. The second study analyzed the interaction between visual and gustatory stimuli. Total four conditions (hunger-not hunger, and intake-not intake of monosodium glutamate (MSG)) were tested. Visual stimuli were food-related and nonfood-related photos. A visual analog scale (VAS) was also used to evaluate before and at regular time intervals after intake of MSG, and responses were measured using fMRI. Brain activity related to feeding desire after intake of MSG occurred near the insula cortex, and orbito-frontal cortex, among other areas. These results on the integrative effects of visual stimuli with olfactory and gustatory stimuli, cross-modal and complex effects on olfaction and gustation were suggested to be obtained as an emotional response such as "pleasantness/unpleasantness" and as cognitive and memory responses such as "matching/mismatching" or the responses such as "feeding desire" afterwards intake of foods.
Combining good dissolving ability of formic acid (FA) for membrane proteins and excellent complementary retention behavior of proteins on strong cation exchange (SCX) and strong anion exchange (SAX) materials, a biphasic microreactor was established to pretreat membrane proteins at microgram and even nanogram levels. With membrane proteins solubilized by FA, all of the proteomics sample processing procedures, including protein preconcentration, pH adjustment, reduction, and alkylation, as well as tryptic digestion, were integrated into an "SCX-SAX" biphasic capillary column. To evaluate the performance of the developed microreactor, a mixture of bovine serum albumin, myoglobin, and cytochrome c was pretreated. Compared with the results obtained by the traditional in-solution process, the peptide recovery (93% vs 83%) and analysis throughput (3.5 vs 14 h) were obviously improved. The microreactor was further applied for the pretreatment of 14 ?g of membrane proteins extracted from rat cerebellums, and 416 integral membrane proteins (IMPs) (43% of total protein groups) and 103 transmembrane peptides were identified by two-dimensional nanoliquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (2D nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS) in triplicate analysis. With the starting sample preparation amount decreased to as low as 50 ng, 64 IMPs and 17 transmembrane peptides were identified confidently, while those obtained by the traditional in-solution method were 10 and 1, respectively. All these results demonstrated that such an "SCX-SAX" based biphasic microreactor could offer a promising tool for the pretreatment of trace membrane proteins with high efficiency and throughput.
Two new series of phosphonato-substituted bithiophenes, BpP(X)(C4H2S)2H and BpP(X)(C4H2S)2P(X)Bp (Bp = 2,2-C12H8O2, X = O, S, Se), have been synthesized and characterized using linear absorption and emission spectra, and third-order nonlinear absorption measurements at 430 nm with 27 ps laser pulses. The compounds were synthesized in three steps: (1) reacting lithiated bithiophene with (Et2N)2PCl; (2) reacting the product from the first step with biphenol; and (3) reacting the product from the second step with the appropriate chalcogen. The X-ray crystal structures of two of the compounds, BpP(O)(C4H2S)2P(O)Bp and BpP(Se)(C4H2S)2P(Se)Bp, are reported and show a number of intermolecular ?-? interactions. The linear absorption spectra, emission spectra, and emission quantum yields show distinct trends with respect to the chalcogen and the number of phosphorus substituents attached to the 2,2-bithiophene ring. The compounds show emission maxima at wavelengths ranging from 380-400 nm and, BpP(S)(C4H2S)2H shows a 23-fold increase in fluorescence quantum yield relative to that of 2,2-bithiophene. Fluorescence lifetimes and radiative and non-radiative decay rate constants for the first singlet excited state have been extracted from the quantum yields using time-dependent DFT calculations. Nonlinear transmission measurements indicate that all of the compounds show nonlinear absorption at 430 nm with 27 ps laser pulses in spite of their low solubilities. Notably, the nonlinear absorption threshold of a 0.16 mol L(-1) CH2Cl2 solution of BpP(Se)(C4H2S)2H is 0.9 J cm(-2). The excellent emission quantum yields and good nonlinear absorptions make these compounds promising candidates for optical power limiting applications and as host materials for violet-blue organic light emitting diodes.
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a non-transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase that has been implicated in cancer pathogenesis. However, the expression level and the role of PTP1B in the development and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unclear. In this study, the expression of PTP1B in CRC tissues and matched noncancerous tissues were detected by using immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blotting. The correlations between PTP1B expression level and clinicopathologic characteristics and patient survival were analyzed. We found that PTP1B expression was significantly higher in CRC tissues compared with matched non-tumour tissues. Statistical analysis showed that the PTP1B expression was correlated with tumor differentiation, tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, and TNM stage. Patients with higher expressions of PTP1B had the lower survival (P = 0.012). Taken together, our results suggest that PTP1B expression might play a critical role in the progression of CRC and may serve as a valuable prognostic biomarker for CRC.
Herein, we report the preparation of poly (cyclotriphosphazene-co-4,4-sulfonyldiphenol) (PZS) nanotubes decorated with Ag nanoparticles (NPs). The PZS nanotubes have been synthesized firstly via an in situ template approach, and then Ag nanoparticles were prepared via in situ reduction of AgNO3 with NaBH4 as the reductant, supported on the surface of the PZS nanotubes. The as-obtained PZS nanotubes and PZS@Ag NPs composites were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and UV-vis spectroscopy. Characterization results showed that Ag NPs with good dispersibility were well anchored onto the surface of the PZS nanotubes with superior thermal stability. In addition, the catalytic activities and reusability of these composites were investigated by employing the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) into 4-aminophenol (4-AP) by NaBH4 as a model reaction.
Both resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) and task-based fMRI (T-fMRI) have been widely used to study the functional activities of the human brain during task-free and task-performance periods, respectively. However, due to the difficulty in strictly controlling the participating subjects mental status and their cognitive behaviors during R-fMRI/T-fMRI scans, it has been challenging to ascertain whether or not an R-fMRI/T-fMRI scan truly reflects the participants functional brain states during task-free/task-performance periods. This paper presents a novel computational approach to characterizing and differentiating the brains functional status into task-free or task-performance states, by which the functional brain activities can be effectively understood and differentiated. Briefly, the brains functional state is represented by a whole-brain quasi-stable connectome pattern (WQCP) of R-fMRI or T-fMRI data based on 358 consistent cortical landmarks across individuals, and then an effective sparse representation method was applied to learn the atomic connectome patterns (ACPs) of both task-free and task-performance states. Experimental results demonstrated that the learned ACPs for R-fMRI and T-fMRI datasets are substantially different, as expected. A certain portion of ACPs from R-fMRI and T-fMRI data were overlapped, suggesting some subjects with overlapping ACPs were not in the expected task-free/task-performance brain states. Besides, potential outliers in the T-fMRI dataset were further investigated via functional activation detections in different groups, and our results revealed unexpected task-performances of some subjects. This work offers novel insights into the functional architectures of the brain.
Pt-based nanostructures serving as anode catalysts for the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) have been widely studied for many years. Nevertheless, challenging issues such as poor reaction kinetics and the short-term stability of the MOR are the main drawbacks of such catalysts and limit their applications. Herein, we have developed a facile approach to encapsulate Pt nanoparticles (NPs) inside the nanochannels of porous carbon nanotubes (CNTs; Pt-in-CNTs) as a new enhanced electrocatalytic material. The as-prepared CNTs offer simultaneously ordered diffusion channels for ions and a confinement effect for the NPs, which both facilitate the promotion of catalytic kinetics and avoid the Ostwald ripening of Pt NPs, thus leading to high activity and durable cycle life as an anode catalyst for MOR. This work provides a new approach for enhancing the stability and activity by optimizing the structure of the catalyst, and the Pt-in-CNTs represent the most durable catalysts ever reported for MOR.
In this paper, a facile and efficient method is reported to prepare polyaniline/carbon nanofiber (PANI/CNF) hybrid films by in situ chemical polymerization of aniline. The various morphologies and microstructures of PANI/CNF hybrid films can be controlled by adjusting the concentration of aniline and different acids as the protonation reagent, and the formation mechanism is illustrated in this study. The surface morphologies and chemical structure of the PANI/CNF hybrid films are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), water contact angle (CA), FT-IR, Raman, and UV-vis spectrophotometers. The different morphology of uniformly coated, twist-tangled, and needle-like PANI built on CNF films are obtained by using HCl, H2SO4, and HClO4 as protonation reagent and the obtained hybrid films are labeled as PANI/CNF-f1, PANI/CNF-f2, and PANI/CNF-f3, respectively. We demonstrated that the different protonation reagent has the determined effect on the surface properties of the obtained hybrid films that can transfer from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. Besides, the various morphologies of PANI play an important role in their electrochemical properties. PANI/CNF-f3 exhibits higher specific capacitance and better stability than that of the PANI/CNF-f1 and PANI/CNF-f2. Considering its unique needle-like structure, this work is a proof of concept that micro-structure and morphology can determine the macro-properties. And this study supplies a facile method to fabricate PANI/CNF hybrid films that can be used as electrode materials in supercapacitors.
Vav3, a Rho GTPase guanine nucleotide exchange factor, is associated with tumor growth, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, the role of Vav3 in gastric cancer remains unclear. In this study, Vav3 expression was blocked by specific siRNA in gastric cancer cell line MGC803. MTT was used to assay cell proliferation activity; wound healing assay and transwell assay were applied to detect cell migration and invasion ability; and qRT-PCR and Western blot were employed to detect expression levels of Vav3 as well as proliferation, migration, and invasion-related genes. The results showed that Vav3 expression in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines was significantly upregulated and was higher than that in adjacent tissues of cancer and normal gastric mucosal cell lines. Vav3 knockdown inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion of MGC803 gastric cancer cells. The expression of P21, P27, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 was upregulated, while proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin E1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-7 were downregulated by Vav3 knockdown in MGC803 gastric cells. In conclusion, Vav3 is involved in the proliferation, migration, and invasion of gastric cancer cell as a tumor oncogene.
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