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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Cost of illness due to typhoid Fever in pemba, zanzibar, East Africa.
J Health Popul Nutr
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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The aim of this study was to estimate the economic burden of typhoid fever in Pemba, Zanzibar, East Africa. This study was an incidence-based cost-of-illness analysis from a societal perspective. It covered new episodes of blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever in patients presenting at the outpatient or inpatient departments of three district hospitals between May 2010 and December 2010. Cost of illness was the sum of direct costs and costs for productivity loss. Direct costs covered treatment, travel, and meals. Productivity costs were loss of income by patients and caregivers. The analysis included 17 episodes. The mean age of the patients, was 23 years (range=5-65, median=22). Thirty-five percent were inpatients, with a mean of 4.75 days of hospital stay (range=3-7, median=4.50). The mean cost for treatment alone during hospital care was US$ 21.97 at 2010 prices (US$ 1=1,430.50 Tanzanian Shilling?TSH). The average societal cost was US$ 154.47 per typhoid episode. The major expenditure was productivity cost due to lost wages of US$ 128.02 (83%). Our results contribute to the further economic evaluation of typhoid fever vaccination in Zanzibar and other sub-Saharan African countries.
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Burden of typhoid fever in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic, literature-based update with risk-factor adjustment.
Lancet Glob Health
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2014
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No access to safe water is an important risk factor for typhoid fever, yet risk-level heterogeneity is unaccounted for in previous global burden estimates. Since WHO has recommended risk-based use of typhoid polysaccharide vaccine, we revisited the burden of typhoid fever in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) after adjusting for water-related risk.
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Immune responses to Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine in children 2 to 16 years old in Karachi, Pakistan, and Kolkata, India.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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The geometric mean concentration (GMC) and the proportion maintaining a protective level (150 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) units [ELU]/ml) 2 years following a single dose of 25 ?g of injectable Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine was measured against that of the control hepatitis A vaccine in children 2 to 16 years old in cluster randomized trials in Karachi and Kolkata. The GMC for the Vi group (1,428 ELU/ml) was statistically significantly different from the GMC of the control hepatitis A vaccine group (86 ELU/ml) after 6 weeks. A total of 117 children (95.1%) in the Vi group and 9 (7.5%) in the hepatitis A group showed a 4-fold rise in Vi IgG antibody concentrations at 6 weeks (P < 0.01). Protective antibody levels remained significantly different between the two groups at 2 years (38% in the Vi vaccine groups and 6% in the hepatitis A group [P < 0.01]). A very small proportion of younger children (2 to 5 years old) maintained protective Vi IgG antibody levels at 2 years, a result that was not statistically significantly different compared to that for the hepatitis A group (38.1% versus 10.5%). The GMCs of the Vi IgG antibody after 2 years were 133 ELU/ml for children 2 to <5 years old and 349 ELU/ml for children 5 to 16 years old. In conclusion, Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine is immunogenic in children in settings of South Asia where typhoid is highly endemic. The antibody levels in children who received this vaccine remained higher than those in children who received the control vaccine but were significantly reduced at 2 years of follow-up.
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Case fatality rate and length of hospital stay among patients with typhoid intestinal perforation in developing countries: a systematic literature review.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Typhoid fever remains a major health problem in the developing world. Intestinal perforation is a lethal complication and continues to occur in impoverished areas despite advances in preventive and therapeutic strategies.
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25 years after Vi typhoid vaccine efficacy study, typhoid affects significant number of population in Nepal.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Salmonella Typhi, first isolated in 1884, results in infection of the intestines and can end in death and disability. Due to serious adverse events post vaccination, whole cell killed vaccines have been replaced with new generation vaccines. The efficacy of Vi polysaccharide (ViPS) vaccine, a new generation, single-dose intramuscular typhoid vaccine was assessed in Nepal in 1987. However, despite the availability of ViPS vaccine for more than 25 years, Nepal has one of the highest incidence of typhoid fever. Therefore we collected information from hospitals in the Kathmandu Valley from over the past five years. There were 9901 enteric fever cases between January 2008 and July 2012. 1,881 of these were confirmed typhoid cases from five hospitals in the Kathmandu district. Approximately 70% of the cases involved children under 15 years old. 1281 cases were confirmed as S. Paratyphi. Vaccines should be prioritized for control of typhoid in conjunction with improved water and sanitation conditions in Nepal and in endemic countries of Asia and Africa.
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Enteric fever burden in North Jakarta, Indonesia: a prospective, community-based study.
J Infect Dev Ctries
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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We undertook a prospective community-based study in North Jakarta, Indonesia, to determine the incidence, clinical characteristics, seasonality, etiologic agent, and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of enteric fever.
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Increasing rates of Salmonella Paratyphi A and the current status of its vaccine development.
Expert Rev Vaccines
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi is still a major disease burden mainly in developing countries. Previously, S. Typhi was believed to be the major cause of enteric fever. The real situation is now becoming clear with reports emerging from many Asian countries of S. Paratyphi, mostly S. Paratyphi A, causing a substantial number of cases of enteric fever. Although there have been advances in the use of the currently available typhoid vaccines and in the development of newer typhoid vaccines, paratyphoid vaccine development is lagging behind. Since the disease caused by S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi are clinically indistinguishable and are commonly termed enteric fever, it will be necessary to have a vaccine available against both S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A as a bivalent enteric fever vaccine.
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Vivax malaria and bacteraemia: a prospective study in Kolkata, India.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Falciparum malaria increases the risk for bacteraemia, whereas the relationship between vivax malaria and bacteraemia is not clear. Data from a prospective fever surveillance study in Kolkata, India were reanalysed for the potential association between Plasmodium vivax malaria and bacteraemia.
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Desirability for a typhoid fever vaccine among rural residents, Pemba Island, Tanzania.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Surveillance data indicate that Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa. With limited anticipated short-term improvements in sanitation and water infrastructure, targeted vaccination campaigns may be an important prevention tool for typhoid fever.
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Formative research and development of an evidence-based communication strategy: the introduction of Vi typhoid fever vaccine among school-aged children in Karachi, Pakistan.
J Health Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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The authors conducted formative research (a) to identify stakeholders concerns related to typhoid fever and the need for disease information and (b) to develop a communication strategy to inform stakeholders and address their concerns and motivate for support of a school-based vaccination program in Pakistan. Data were collected during interactive and semi-structured focus group discussions and interviews, followed by a qualitative analysis and multidisciplinary consultative process to identify an effective social mobilization strategy comprised of relevant media channels and messages. The authors conducted 14 focus group discussions with the parents of school-aged children and their teachers, and 13 individual interviews with school, religious, and political leaders. Parents thought that typhoid fever was a dangerous disease, but were unsure of their childrens risk. They were interested in vaccination and were comfortable with a school-based vaccination if conducted under the supervision of trained and qualified staff. Teachers and leaders needed information on typhoid fever, the vaccine, procedures, and sponsors of the vaccination program. Meetings were considered the best form of information dissemination, followed by printed materials and mass media. This study shows how qualitative research findings can be translated into an effective social mobilization and communication approach. The findings of the research indicated the importance of increasing awareness of typhoid fever and the benefits of vaccination against the disease. Identification and dissemination of relevant, community-based disease and vaccination information will increase demand and use of vaccination.
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Decreasing incidence of severe malaria and community-acquired bacteraemia among hospitalized children in Muheza, north-eastern Tanzania, 2006-2010.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2011
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The annual incidence and temporal trend of severe malaria and community-acquired bacteraemia during a four-year period in Muheza, Tanzania was assessed.
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Impact of Vi vaccination on spatial patterns of typhoid fever in the slums of Kolkata, India.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2011
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A mass typhoid Vi vaccination campaign was carried out among approximately 60,000 slum residents of Kolkata, India. This study evaluated the impact of the campaign on spatial patterns of typhoid fever. Eighty contiguous residential groups of households in the study area were randomized to receive either a single dose of the Vi polysaccharide vaccine or a single dose of the inactivated hepatitis A vaccine as the control agent. Persons aged two years and older were eligible to receive the vaccine. Vaccine protection against typhoid fever was monitored for two years after vaccination at both outpatient and inpatient facilities serving the study population. Geographic analytic and mapping tools were used in the analysis. Spatial randomness of the disease was observed during the pre-vaccination period, which turned into a significant pattern after vaccination. The high-risk areas for typhoid were observed in the area dominated by the control clusters, and the low-risk areas were in the area dominated by the Vi clusters. Furthermore, the control clusters surrounded by the Vi clusters were low risk for typhoid fever. The results demonstrated the ability of mass vaccination to change the spatial patterns of disease through the creation of spatial barriers to transmission of the disease. Understanding and mapping the disease risk could be useful for designing a community-based vaccination strategy to control disease.
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Assessment and comparative analysis of a rapid diagnostic test (Tubex®) for the diagnosis of typhoid fever among hospitalized children in rural Tanzania.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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Typhoid fever remains a significant health problem in many developing countries. A rapid test with a performance comparable to that of blood culture would be highly useful. A rapid diagnostic test for typhoid fever, Tubex®, is commercially available that uses particle separation to detect immunoglobulin M directed towards Salmonella Typhi O9 lipopolysaccharide in sera.
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Community participation in two vaccination trials in slums of Kolkata, India: a multi-level analysis.
J Health Popul Nutr
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2010
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This study aims at understanding the individual and community-level characteristics that influenced participation in two consecutive vaccine trials (typhoid and cholera) in urban slums of Kolkata, India. The study area was divided into 80 geographic clusters (communities), with 59,533 subjects aged > or = 2 years for analysis. A multi-level model was employed in which the individuals were seen nested within the cluster. Rates of participation in both the trials were nearly the same; those who participated in the initial trial were likely to participate in the subsequent cholera vaccine trial. Communities with predominantly Hindu population, lower percentage of households with an educated household head, or lower percentage of households owning a motorbike had higher participation than their counterparts. At individual scale, higher participation was observed among younger subjects, females, and individuals from households with a household head who had no or minimal education. Geographic patterns were also observed in participation in the trials. The results illustrated that participation in the trial was mostly influenced by various individual and community-level factors, which need to be addressed for a successful vaccination campaign.
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Suitable disk antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints defining Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2010
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Infections with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates that have reduced susceptibility to ofloxacin (MIC ? 0.25 ?g/ml) or ciprofloxacin (MIC ? 0.125 ?g/ml) have been associated with a delayed response or clinical failure following treatment with these antimicrobials. These isolates are not detected as resistant using current disk susceptibility breakpoints. We examined 816 isolates of S. Typhi from seven Asian countries. Screening for nalidixic acid resistance (MIC ? 16 ?g/ml) identified isolates with an ofloxacin MIC of ?0.25 ?g/ml with a sensitivity of 97.3% (253/260) and specificity of 99.3% (552/556). For isolates with a ciprofloxacin MIC of ?0.125 ?g/ml, the sensitivity was 92.9% (248/267) and specificity was 98.4% (540/549). A zone of inhibition of ?28 mm around a 5-?g ofloxacin disc detected strains with an ofloxacin MIC of ?0.25 ?g/ml with a sensitivity of 94.6% (246/260) and specificity of 94.2% (524/556). A zone of inhibition of ?30 mm detected isolates with a ciprofloxacin MIC of ?0.125 ?g/ml with a sensitivity of 94.0% (251/267) and specificity of 94.2% (517/549). An ofloxacin MIC of ?0.25 ?g/ml and a ciprofloxacin MIC of ?0.125 ?g/ml detected 74.5% (341/460) of isolates with an identified quinolone resistance-inducing mutation and 81.5% (331/406) of the most common mutant (carrying a serine-to-phenylalanine mutation at codon 83 in the gyrA gene). Screening for nalidixic acid resistance or ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin disk inhibition zone are suitable for detecting S. Typhi isolates with reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility.
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Population impact of Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine.
Expert Rev Vaccines
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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Development of a safe and efficacious vaccine against typhoid fever has been the mainstay of enteric vaccinology since production of the first parenteral whole-cell typhoid vaccine in 1896. The new-generation Vi polysaccharide single-dose injectable typhoid vaccine developed in the 1980s is widely used in countries where it is locally produced, such as China, and in travelers from industrialized countries to typhoid-endemic settings. However, Vi vaccine use is limited to private practice at a small scale by residents of high-burden countries such as India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Recognition of the public health importance of typhoid fever prevention has significantly increased due to the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in recent years. Recent evidence of herd protection conferred by the Vi vaccine has highlighted the significance of the vaccines effects beyond the vaccinated population. The large-scale use of this vaccine can yield protective benefits to a larger population and can reduce the epidemiologic and economic burden of typhoid fever in endemic countries.
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Evaluation of the Widal tube agglutination test for the diagnosis of typhoid fever among children admitted to a rural hdospital in Tanzania and a comparison with previous studies.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2010
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The diagnosis of typhoid fever is confirmed by culture of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. typhi). However, a more rapid, simpler, and cheaper diagnostic method would be very useful especially in developing countries. The Widal test is widely used in Africa but little information exists about its reliability.
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Trends and disease burden of enteric fever in Guangxi province, China, 1994-2004.
Bull. World Health Organ.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2010
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To determine the burden of enteric fever through trends in morbidity and mortality, bacterial species and antimicrobial resistance in Guangxi, a southern, subtropical, coastal province of China with a disproportionally large burden of enteric fever.
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Invasive salmonellosis among children admitted to a rural Tanzanian hospital and a comparison with previous studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
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The importance of invasive salmonellosis in African children is well recognized but there is inadequate information on these infections. We conducted a fever surveillance study in a Tanzanian rural hospital to estimate the case fraction of invasive salmonellosis among pediatric admissions, examine associations with common co-morbidities and describe its clinical features. We compared our main findings with those from previous studies among children in sub-Saharan Africa.
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Use of verbal autopsy to determine mortality patterns in an urban slum in Kolkata, India.
Bull. World Health Organ.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
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To define mortality patterns in an urban slum in Kolkata, India, in the context of a cholera and typhoid fever project.
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Vaccine desirability during an effectiveness trial of the typhoid fever polysaccharide Vi vaccine in Kolkata India.
Hum Vaccin
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2009
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High rates of typhoid fever and the emergence of multi-drug resistant strains create a need for prevention efforts including vaccines. Socio-behavioral research can provide important data for participation in future trials and public health vaccination campaigns.
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A cluster-randomized effectiveness trial of Vi typhoid vaccine in India.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2009
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Typhoid fever remains an important cause of illness and death in the developing world. Uncertainties about the protective effect of Vi polysaccharide vaccine in children under the age of 5 years and about the vaccines effect under programmatic conditions have inhibited its use in developing countries.
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Clinical and epidemiological features of typhoid fever in Pemba, Zanzibar: assessment of the performance of the WHO case definitions.
PLoS ONE
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The gold standard for diagnosis of typhoid fever is blood culture (BC). Because blood culture is often not available in impoverished settings it would be helpful to have alternative diagnostic approaches. We therefore investigated the usefulness of clinical signs, WHO case definition and Widal test for the diagnosis of typhoid fever.
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Utilization and accessibility of healthcare on Pemba Island, Tanzania: implications for health outcomes and disease surveillance for typhoid fever.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
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Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) was estimated to cause over 200,000 deaths and more than 21 million illnesses worldwide, including over 400,000 illnesses in Africa. The current study was conducted in four villages on Pemba Island, Zanzibar, in 2010. We present data on policy makers, health administrators, and village residents and leaders perceptions of typhoid fever, and hypothetical and actual health care use among village residents for typhoid fever. Qualitative data provided descriptions of home-based treatment practices and use of western pharmaceuticals, and actual healthcare use for culture-confirmed typhoid fever. Survey data indicate health facility use was associated with gender, education, residency, and perceptions of severity for symptoms associated with typhoid fever. Data have implications for education of policy makers and health administrators, design and implementation of surveillance studies, and community-based interventions to prevent disease outbreaks, decrease risks of complications, and provide information about disease recognition, diagnosis, and treatment.
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Epidemiology, clinical presentation, and patterns of drug resistance of Salmonella Typhi in Karachi, Pakistan.
J Infect Dev Ctries
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Enteric fever remains a major public health problem in Asia. Planning appropriate preventive measures such as immunization requires a clear understanding of disease burden. We conducted a community-based surveillance for Salmonella Typhi infection in children in Karachi, Pakistan.
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Effectiveness of Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine among children: a cluster randomized trial in Karachi, Pakistan.
Vaccine
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Typhoid fever is endemic in Karachi, with an incidence among children ranging from 170 to 450 per 100,000 child-years. Vaccination strategies are important for prevention, and the Vi capsular polysaccharide (ViCPS) vaccine has been shown to be effective in reducing the burden of typhoid fever.
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The burden of invasive bacterial infections in Pemba, Zanzibar.
PLoS ONE
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We conducted a surveillance study to determine the leading causes of bloodstream infection in febrile patients seeking treatment at three district hospitals in Pemba Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania, an area with low malaria transmission.
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Replacing paper data collection forms with electronic data entry in the field: findings from a study of community-acquired bloodstream infections in Pemba, Zanzibar.
BMC Res Notes
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Entering data on case report forms and subsequently digitizing them in electronic media is the traditional way to maintain a record keeping system in field studies. Direct data entry using an electronic device avoids this two-step process. It is gaining in popularity and has replaced the paper-based data entry system in many studies. We report our experiences with paper- and PDA-based data collection during a fever surveillance study in Pemba Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania.
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High-resolution genotyping of the endemic Salmonella Typhi population during a Vi (typhoid) vaccination trial in Kolkata.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
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Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), is a major health problem especially in developing countries. Vaccines against typhoid are commonly used by travelers but less so by residents of endemic areas.
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Schools as potential vaccination venue for vaccines outside regular EPI schedule: results from a school census in Pakistan.
BMC Res Notes
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Vaccines are the most effective public health intervention. Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) provides routine vaccination in developing countries. However, vaccines that cannot be given in EPI schedule such as typhoid fever vaccine need alternative venues. In areas where school enrolment is high, schools provide a cost effective opportunity for vaccination. Prior to start of a school-based typhoid vaccination program, interviews were conducted with staff of educational institutions in two townships of Karachi, Pakistan to collect baseline information about the school system and to plan a typhoid vaccination program. Data collection teams administered a structured questionnaire to all schools in the two townships. The administrative staff was requested information on school fee, class enrolment, past history of involvement and willingness of parents to participate in a vaccination campaign.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.