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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Reenvisioning Success for Programs Supporting Pregnant Women With Problematic Substance Use.
Qual Health Res
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Community-based, integrated, primary care maternity programs for pregnant women affected by problematic substance use are emerging as effective models for engaging women affected by multiple health and social issues. Although addictions services have historically been evaluated by individual achievement of abstinence, new definitions of program success are required as addiction comes to be viewed as a chronic illness. We conducted a mixed-methods study to follow the formative development stages of a community-based program, identifying key evaluation indicators and processes related to this program, program team members, and women and families served. As this program model develops, it is critical that providers, community partners, and health system leaders collaborate to frame definitions of success in ways helpful for guiding program development.
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UPBEAT study patients' perceptions of the effect of coronary heart disease on their lives: a cross-sectional sub-study.
Int J Nurs Stud
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Patients can report positive effects of myocardial infarction. It is unknown whether these effects are sustained or what factors influence adaptation.
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Geographic atrophy: a histopathological assessment.
JAMA Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Geographic atrophy (GA) is the major cause of blind registration in Western communities, although, with few exceptions, it is less common than choroidal neovascular disease. The variation of phenotype implies that age-related macular degeneration (AMD) does not follow the same course from one case to another and that phenotyping may be important before initiating a therapeutic trial.
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Polysilsesquioxane nanoparticles for triggered release of cisplatin and effective cancer chemoradiotherapy.
Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Chemoradiotherapy is a well-established treatment paradigm in oncology. There has been strong interest in identifying strategies to further improve its therapeutic index. An innovative strategy is to utilize nanoparticle (NP) chemotherapeutics in chemoradiation. Since the most commonly utilized chemotherapeutic with radiotherapy is cisplatin, the development of an NP cisplatin for chemoradiotherapy has the highest potential impact on this treatment. Here, we report the development of an NP comprised of polysilsesquioxane (PSQ) polymer crosslinked by a cisplatin prodrug (Cisplatin-PSQ) and its utilization in chemoradiotherapy using non-small cell lung cancer as a disease model. Cisplatin-PSQ NP has an exceptionally high loading of cisplatin. Cisplatin-PSQ NPs were evaluated in chemoradiotherapy in vitro and in vivo. They demonstrated significantly higher therapeutic efficacy when compared to cisplatin. These results suggest that the Cisplatin-PSQ NP holds potential for clinical translation in chemoradiotherapy.
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Providers' constructions of pregnant and early parenting women who use substances.
Sociol Health Illn
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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The research literature indicates that problematic substance use as a form of health behaviour is poorly understood, being sometimes viewed as deviance, at other times as a disease, and most often as a combination of these states. The use of substances by women who are pregnant or new parents is often conceptualised within an individualised framework. Yet drinking alcohol and using other drugs during pregnancy and early parenthood cuts across social divisions and is shaped by socio-structural contexts including health care. There is a growing body of literature that critically examines public health interventions that are aimed at implementing harm reduction and health promotion techniques in service delivery to help pregnant and early parenting women who are identified as problem substance users. We examine qualitative data from representatives of a recent harm reduction intervention, focusing, in particular, on providers' individual conceptualisations of the problematic behaviour. Our results show that most study participants regard any substance use during pregnancy, birth and the postpartum period as fundamentally unacceptable. This framing of problematic substance use is accomplished via gendered responsibilisation of women as foetal incubators and primary caregivers of infants. We discuss our results in light of the current literature and suggest policy implications.
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Vancomycin versus daptomycin for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia due to isolates with high vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations: study protocol for a phase IIB randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Vancomycin is the standard first-line treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. However, recent consensus guidelines recommend that clinicians consider using alternative agents such as daptomycin when the vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration is greater than 1 ug/ml. To date however, there have been no head-to-head randomized trials comparing the safety and efficacy of daptomycin and vancomycin in the treatment of such infections. The primary aim of our study is to compare the efficacy of daptomycin versus vancomycin in the treatment of bloodstream infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates with high vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (greater than or equal to 1.5 ug/ml) in terms of reducing all-cause 60-day mortality.
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Depression in primary care patients with coronary heart disease: baseline findings from the UPBEAT UK study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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An association between depression and coronary heart disease is now accepted but there has been little primary care research on this topic. The UPBEAT-UK studies are centred on a cohort of primary patients with coronary heart disease assessed every six months for up to four years. The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence and associations of depression in this cohort at baseline.
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The UPBEAT nurse-delivered personalized care intervention for people with coronary heart disease who report current chest pain and depression: a randomised controlled pilot study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Depression is common in people with coronary heart disease (CHD) and associated with worse outcome. This study explored the acceptability and feasibility of procedures for a trial and for an intervention, including its potential costs, to inform a definitive randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a nurse-led personalised care intervention for primary care CHD patients with current chest pain and probable depression.
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Lipid-coated nanoscale coordination polymers for targeted cisplatin delivery.
RSC Adv
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Nanoscale coordination polymers (NCPs) containing a Pt(IV) cisplatin prodrug, disuccinatocisplatin, were formed by a surfactant-templated synthesis and were shown to have a prodrug loading of 8.2 wt% and a diameter of ~133 nm by dynamic light scattering. These NCPs were stabilized by coating with a DOPC/cholesterol/DSPE-Peg2K lipid layer; a release profile in phosphate buffered saline showed an initial drug release of ~25% within the first hour and no more release observed up to 192 h. The NCP was rendered target-specific for sigma receptors by addition of an AA-DSPE-Peg2K conjugate (AA = anisamide) in the lipid formulation. The AA-containing NCP showed a statistically significant decrease in IC50 (inhibitory concentration, 50%) compared to the non-targeted NCP. Enhanced uptake of the AA-containing NCP was further supported by confocal microscopy and competitive binding assays.
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Oral versus intravenous antibiotics for patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess is the most common etiology of liver abscess in Singapore and much of Asia, and its incidence is increasing. Current management includes prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy, but there is limited evidence to guide oral conversion. The implicated K1/K2 capsule strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae is almost universally susceptible to ciprofloxacin, an antibiotic with high oral bioavailability. Our primary aim is to compare the efficacy of early (< one week) step-down to oral antibiotics, to continuing four weeks of intravenous antibiotics, in patients with Klebsiella liver abscess.Methods/design: The study is designed as a multi-center randomized open-label active comparator-controlled non-inferiority trial, with a non-inferiority margin of 12%. Eligible participants will be inpatients over the age of 21 with a CT or ultrasound scan suggestive of a liver abscess, and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from abscess fluid or blood. Randomization into intervention or active control arms will be performed with a 1:1 allocation ratio. Participants randomized to the active control arm will receive IV ceftriaxone 2 grams daily to complete a total of four weeks of IV antibiotics. Participants randomized to the intervention arm will be immediately converted to oral ciprofloxacin 750 mg twice daily. At Week four, all participants will undergo abdominal imaging and be assessed for clinical response (CRP < 20 mg/l, absence of fever, plus scan showing that the maximal diameter of the abscess has reduced). If criteria are met, antibiotics are stopped; if not, oral antibiotics are continued, with reassessment for clinical response fortnightly. If criteria for clinical response are met by Week 12, the primary endpoint of clinical cure is met. A cost analysis will be performed to assess the cost saving of early conversion to oral antibiotics, and a quality of life analysis will be performed to assess whether treatment with oral antibiotics is less burdensome than prolonged IV antibiotics.
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Longitudinal changes in anterior chamber depth and axial length in Asian subjects after trabeculectomy surgery.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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To investigate longitudinal changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD) and axial length (AXL) over 5 years after trabeculectomy surgery in Asian patients with primary glaucoma, and to identify factors associated with these changes.
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Biodegradable polysilsesquioxane nanoparticles as efficient contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.
Small
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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Polysilsesquioxane (PSQ) nanoparticles are crosslinked homopolymers formed by condensation of functionalized trialkoxysilanes, and provide an interesting platform for developing biologically and biomedically relevant nanomaterials. In this work, the design and synthesis of biodegradable PSQ particles with extremely high payloads of paramagnetic Gd(III) centers is explored, for use as efficient contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two new bis(trialkoxysilyl) derivatives of Gd(III) diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (Gd-DTPA) containing disulfide linkages are synthesized and used to form biodegradable Gd-PSQ particles by base-catalyzed condensation reactions in reverse microemulsions. The Gd-PSQ particles, PSQ-1 and PSQ-2, carry 53.8 wt% and 49.3 wt% of Gd-DTPA derivatives, respectively. In addition, the surface carboxy groups on the PSQ-2 particles can be modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and the anisamide (AA) ligand to enhance biocompatibility and cell uptake, respectively. The Gd-PSQ particles are readily degradable to release the constituent Gd(III) chelates in the presence of endogenous reducing agents such as cysteine and glutathione. The MR relaxivities of the Gd-PSQ particles are determined using a 3T MR scanner, with r1 values ranging from 5.9 to 17.8 mMs(-1) on a per-Gd basis. Finally, the high sensitivity of the Gd-PSQ particles as T1 -weighted MR contrast agents is demonstrated with in vitro MR imaging of human lung and pancreatic cancer cells. The enhanced efficiency of the anisamide-functionalized PSQ-2 particles as a contrast agent is corroborated by both confocal laser scanning microscopy imaging and ICP-MS analysis of Gd content in vitro.
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A brain-computer interface based cognitive training system for healthy elderly: a randomized control pilot study for usability and preliminary efficacy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Cognitive decline in aging is a pressing issue associated with significant healthcare costs and deterioration in quality of life. Previously, we reported the successful use of a novel brain-computer interface (BCI) training system in improving symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Here, we examine the feasibility of the BCI system with a new game that incorporates memory training in improving memory and attention in a pilot sample of healthy elderly. This study investigates the safety, usability and acceptability of our BCI system to elderly, and obtains an efficacy estimate to warrant a phase III trial. Thirty-one healthy elderly were randomized into intervention (n?=?15) and waitlist control arms (n?=?16). Intervention consisted of an 8-week training comprising 24 half-hour sessions. A usability and acceptability questionnaire was administered at the end of training. Safety was investigated by querying users about adverse events after every session. Efficacy of the system was measured by the change of total score from the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) before and after training. Feedback on the usability and acceptability questionnaire was positive. No adverse events were reported for all participants across all sessions. Though the median difference in the RBANS change scores between arms was not statistically significant, an effect size of 0.6SD was obtained, which reflects potential clinical utility according to Simons randomized phase II trial design. Pooled data from both arms also showed that the median change in total scores pre and post-training was statistically significant (Mdn?=?4.0; p<0.001). Specifically, there were significant improvements in immediate memory (p?=?0.038), visuospatial/constructional (p?=?0.014), attention (p?=?0.039), and delayed memory (p<0.001) scores. Our BCI-based system shows promise in improving memory and attention in healthy elderly, and appears to be safe, user-friendly and acceptable to senior users. Given the efficacy signal, a phase III trial is warranted.
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Detecting depression in patients with coronary heart disease: a diagnostic evaluation of the PHQ-9 and HADS-D in primary care, findings from the UPBEAT-UK study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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People with coronary heart disease (CHD) are at heightened risk of depression, and this co-occurrence of conditions is associated with poorer outcomes including raised mortality. This study compares the diagnostic accuracy of two depression case finding instruments in CHD patients relative to a diagnostic standard, the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R).
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Characteristics of people with low health literacy on coronary heart disease GP registers in South London: a cross-sectional study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To explore characteristics associated with, and prevalence of, low health literacy in patients recruited to investigate the role of depression in patients on General Practice (GP) Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) registers (the Up-Beat UK study).
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Courtesy stigma: a hidden health concern among front-line service providers to sex workers.
Sociol Health Illn
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2011
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Courtesy stigma, also referred to as stigma by association, involves public disapproval evoked as a consequence of associating with a stigmatised individual or group. While a small number of sociological studies have shown how courtesy stigma limits the social support and social opportunities available to family members of stigmatised individuals, there is a paucity of research examining courtesy stigma among the large network of people who provide health and social services to stigmatised groups. This article presents results from a mixed methods study of the workplace experiences of a purposive sample of workers in a non-profit organisation providing services to sex workers in Canada. The findings demonstrate that courtesy stigma plays a role in workplace health as it shapes both the workplace environment, including the range of resources made available to staff to carry out their work activities, as well as staff perceptions of others support. At the same time, it was evident that some workers were more vulnerable to courtesy stigma than others depending on their social location. We discuss these results in light of the existing literature on courtesy stigma and conclude that it is an under-studied determinant of workplace health among care providers serving socially denigrated groups.
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Extracorporeal high intensity focused ultrasound for renal tumours: a 3-year follow-up.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2010
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To determine whether primary extracorporeal high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is safe, feasible and effective for managing small renal tumours.
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Kingella kingae endocardial abscess and cerebral infarction in a previously well immunocompetent child.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2009
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Kingella kingae is an emerging paediatric pathogen that most commonly is associated with relatively benign osteoarticular disease in children. This report concerns a 1-year-old child with Kingella kingae endocarditis and perivalvular abscess complicated by septic cerebral emboli and osteomyelitis leading to long-term neurological sequelae, highlighting the capacity of this organism to cause severe invasive disease in children.
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In for the long haul: knowledge translation between academic and nonprofit organizations.
Qual Health Res
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2009
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Although scientists are continually refining existing knowledge and producing new evidence to improve health care and health care delivery, far too little scientific output finds its way into the tool kits of practitioners. Likewise, the questions that clinicians would like to be answered all too rarely get taken up by researchers. In this article we focus on knowledge translation challenges accompanying a longitudinal research program with nonprofit organizations providing direct and indirect health and social services to disadvantaged groups in one region of Canada. Three essential factors influencing authentic and reciprocal knowledge transfer and utilization between nonprofit service providers and researchers are discussed: strong institutional partnerships, the use of skilled knowledge brokers, and the meaningful involvement of frontline personnel.
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Asymptomatic children with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 mutations may harbor nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2009
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Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid, pituitary, and pancreatic tumors. MEN1, an autosomal dominant disorder, has a high degree of penetrance, such that more than 95% of patients develop clinical manifestations by the fifth decade, although this is lower at approximately 50% by age 20 yr. However, the lower penetrance in the younger group, which is based on detecting hormone-secreting tumors, may be an underestimate because patients may have nonfunctioning tumors and be asymptomatic.
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A method to quantify mouse coat-color proportions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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Coat-color proportions and patterns in mice are used as assays for many processes such as transgene expression, chimerism, and epigenetics. In many studies, coat-color readouts are estimated from subjective scoring of individual mice. Here we show a method by which mouse coat color is quantified as the proportion of coat shown in one or more digital images. We use the yellow-agouti mouse model of epigenetic variegation to demonstrate this method. We apply this method to live mice using a conventional digital camera for data collection. We use a raster graphics editing program to convert agouti regions of the coat to a standard, uniform, brown color and the yellow regions of the coat to a standard, uniform, yellow color. We use a second program to quantify the proportions of these standard colors. This method provides quantification that relates directly to the visual appearance of the live animal. It also provides an objective analysis with a traceable record, and it should allow for precise comparisons of mouse coats and mouse cohorts within and between studies.
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Privatisation & marketisation of post-birth care: the hidden costs for new mothers.
Int J Equity Health
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Retrenchment of government services has occurred across a wide range of sectors and regions. Care services, in particular, have been clawed away in the wake of fiscal policies of cost containment and neoliberal policies centred on individual responsibility and market autonomy. Such policies have included the deinstitutionalisation of care from hospitals and clinics, and early discharge from hospital, both of which are predicated on the notion that care can be provided informally within families and communities. In this paper we examine the post-birth "care crisis" that new mothers face in one region of Canada.
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Respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein-induced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling is inhibited by the TLR4 antagonists Rhodobacter sphaeroides lipopolysaccharide and eritoran (E5564) and requires direct interaction with MD-2.
MBio
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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of infant mortality worldwide. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a signaling receptor for structurally diverse microbe-associated molecular patterns, is activated by the RSV fusion (F) protein and by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a CD14-dependent manner. TLR4 signaling by LPS also requires the presence of an additional protein, MD-2. Thus, it is possible that F protein-mediated TLR4 activation relies on MD-2 as well, although this hypothesis has not been formally tested. LPS-free RSV F protein was found to activate NF-?B in HEK293T transfectants that express wild-type (WT) TLR4 and CD14, but only when MD-2 was coexpressed. These findings were confirmed by measuring F-protein-induced interleukin 1? (IL-1?) mRNA in WT versus MD-2(-/-) macrophages, where MD-2(-/-) macrophages failed to show IL-1? expression upon F-protein treatment, in contrast to the WT. Both Rhodobacter sphaeroides LPS and synthetic E5564 (eritoran), LPS antagonists that inhibit TLR4 signaling by binding a hydrophobic pocket in MD-2, significantly reduced RSV F-protein-mediated TLR4 activity in HEK293T-TLR4-CD14-MD-2 transfectants in a dose-dependent manner, while TLR4-independent NF-?B activation by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) was unaffected. In vitro coimmunoprecipitation studies confirmed a physical interaction between native RSV F protein and MD-2. Further, we demonstrated that the N-terminal domain of the F1 segment of RSV F protein interacts with MD-2. These data provide new insights into the importance of MD-2 in RSV F-protein-mediated TLR4 activation. Thus, targeting the interaction between MD-2 and RSV F protein may potentially lead to novel therapeutic approaches to help control RSV-induced inflammation and pathology.
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Crisis interventions for people with borderline personality disorder.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
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People with borderline personality disorder (BPD) frequently present to health services in crisis, often involving suicidal thoughts or actions. Despite this, little is known about what constitutes effective management of acute crises in this population.
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A pilot randomised controlled trial of personalised care for depressed patients with symptomatic coronary heart disease in South London general practices: the UPBEAT-UK RCT protocol and recruitment.
BMC Psychiatry
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Community studies reveal people with coronary heart disease (CHD) are twice as likely to be depressed as the general population and that this co-morbidity negatively affects the course and outcome of both conditions. There is evidence for the efficacy of collaborative care and case management for depression treatment, and whilst NICE guidelines recommend these approaches only where depression has not responded to psychological, pharmacological, or combined treatments, these care approaches may be particularly relevant to the needs of people with CHD and depression in the earlier stages of stepped care in primary care settings.
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NMR studies of hexaacylated endotoxin bound to wild-type and F126A mutant MD-2 and MD-2·TLR4 ectodomain complexes.
J. Biol. Chem.
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Host response to invasion by many gram-negative bacteria depends upon activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) by endotoxin presented as a monomer bound to myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD-2). Metabolic labeling of hexaacylated endotoxin (LOS) from Neisseria meningitidis with [(13)C]acetate allowed the use of NMR to examine structural properties of the fatty acyl chains of LOS present in TLR4-agonistic and -antagonistic binary and ternary complexes with, respectively, wild-type or mutant (F126A) MD-2 ± TLR4 ectodomain. Chemical shift perturbation indicates that Phe(126) affects the environment and/or position of each of the bound fatty acyl chains both in the binary LOS·MD-2 complex and in the ternary LOS·MD-2·TLR4 ectodomain complex. In both wild-type and mutant LOS·MD-2 complexes, one of the six fatty acyl chains of LOS is more susceptible to paramagnetic attenuation, suggesting protrusion of that fatty acyl chain from the hydrophobic pocket of MD-2, independent of association with TLR4. These findings indicate that re-orientation of the aromatic side chain of Phe(126) is induced by binding of hexaacylated E, preceding interaction with TLR4. This re-arrangement of Phe(126) may act as a "hydrophobic switch," driving agonist-dependent contacts needed for TLR4 dimerization and activation.
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Coercing bisphosphonates to kill cancer cells with nanoscale coordination polymers.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
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Nanoscale coordination polymers containing exceptionally high loadings of bisphosphonates were coated with single lipid bilayers to control the drug release kinetics and functionalized with a targeting ligand to endow cell-targeting capability, leading to much enhanced cytotoxicity against human lung and pancreatic cancer cells.
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Silica-based nanoprobes for biomedical imaging and theranostic applications.
Chem Soc Rev
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Nanoparticle-based contrast agents are attracting a great deal of attention for various biomedical imaging and theranostic applications. Compared to conventional contrast agents, nanoparticles possess several potential advantages to improve in vivo detection and to enhance targeting efficiency. Silica-based nanoprobes can be engineered to achieve longer blood circulation times, specific clearance pathways, and multivalent binding. In this tutorial review, we summarize the latest progress on designing silica-based nanoprobes for imaging and theranostic applications. The synthesis of both solid silica and mesoporous silica nanoparticles is described, along with different approaches used for surface functionalization. Special emphasis is placed on the application of silica-based nanoprobes in optical, magnetic resonance, and multimodal imaging. The latest breakthroughs in the applications of silica nanoparticles as theranostic agents are also highlighted.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.