The anatomical and functional architecture of the human brain is mainly determined by prenatal transcriptional processes. We describe an anatomically comprehensive atlas of the mid-gestational human brain, including de novo reference atlases, in situ hybridization, ultra-high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and microarray analysis on highly discrete laser-microdissected brain regions. In developing cerebral cortex, transcriptional differences are found between different proliferative and post-mitotic layers, wherein laminar signatures reflect cellular composition and developmental processes. Cytoarchitectural differences between human and mouse have molecular correlates, including species differences in gene expression in subplate, although surprisingly we find minimal differences between the inner and outer subventricular zones even though the outer zone is expanded in humans. Both germinal and post-mitotic cortical layers exhibit fronto-temporal gradients, with particular enrichment in the frontal lobe. Finally, many neurodevelopmental disorder and human-evolution-related genes show patterned expression, potentially underlying unique features of human cortical formation. These data provide a rich, freely-accessible resource for understanding human brain development.
The neurogenic potential of the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus is likely to be regulated by molecular cues arising from its complex heterogeneous cellular environment. Through transcriptome analysis using laser microdissection coupled with DNA microarrays, in combination with analysis of genome-wide in situ hybridization data, we identified 363 genes selectively enriched in adult mouse SGZ. These genes reflect expression in the different constituent cell types, including progenitor and dividing cells, immature granule cells, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and GABAergic interneurons. Similar transcriptional profiling in the rhesus monkey dentate gyrus across postnatal development identified a highly overlapping set of SGZ-enriched genes, which can be divided based on temporal profiles to reflect maturation of glia versus granule neurons. Furthermore, we identified a neurogenesis-related gene network with decreasing postnatal expression that is highly correlated with the declining number of proliferating cells in dentate gyrus over postnatal development. Many of the genes in this network showed similar postnatal downregulation in mouse, suggesting a conservation of molecular mechanisms underlying developmental and adult neurogenesis in rodents and primates. Conditional deletion of Sox4 and Sox11, encoding two neurogenesis-related transcription factors central in this network, produces a mouse with no hippocampus, confirming the crucial role for these genes in regulating hippocampal neurogenesis.
Radial glia (RG) are primarily embryonic neuroglial progenitors that express Brain Lipid Binding Protein (Blbp a.k.a. Fabp7) and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (Gfap). We used these transcripts to demarcate the distribution of spinal cord radial glia (SCRG) and screen for SCRG gene expression in the Allen Spinal Cord Atlas (ASCA). We reveal that neonatal and adult SCRG are anchored in a non-ventricular niche at the spinal cord (SC) pial boundary, and express a "signature" subset of 122 genes, many of which are shared with "classic" neural stem cells (NSCs) of the subventricular zone (SVZ) and SC central canal (CC). A core expressed gene set shared between SCRG and progenitors of the SVZ and CC is particularly enriched in genes associated with human disease. Visualizing SCRG in a Fabp7-EGFP reporter mouse reveals an extensive population of SCRG that extend processes around the SC boundary and inwardly (through) the SC white matter (WM), whose abundance increases in a gradient from cervical to lumbar SC. Confocal analysis of multiple NSC-enriched proteins reveals that postnatal SCRG are a discrete and heterogeneous potential progenitor population that become activated by multiple SC lesions, and that CC progenitors are also more heterogeneous than previously appreciated. Gene ontology analysis highlights potentially unique regulatory pathways that may be further manipulated in SCRG to enhance repair in the context of injury and SC disease.
The mitochondrial respiratory chain is comprised of four different protein complexes (I-IV), which are responsible for electron transport and generation of proton gradient in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. This proton gradient is then used by F?F?-ATP synthase (complex V) to produce ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. In this study, the respiratory complexes I, II, and III were affinity purified from Trypanosoma brucei procyclic form cells and their composition was determined by mass spectrometry. The results along with those that we previously reported for complexes IV and V showed that the respiratome of Trypanosoma is divergent because many of its proteins are unique to this group of organisms. The studies also identified two mitochondrial subunit proteins of respiratory complex IV that are encoded by edited RNAs. Proteomics data from analyses of complexes purified using numerous tagged component proteins in each of the five complexes were used to generate the first predicted protein-protein interaction network of the Trypanosoma brucei respiratory chain. These results provide the first comprehensive insight into the unique composition of the respiratory complexes in Trypanosoma brucei, an early diverged eukaryotic pathogen.
The composition of the large, single, mitochondrion (mt) of Trypanosoma brucei was characterized by MS (2-D LC-MS/MS and gel-LC-MS/MS) analyses. A total of 2897 proteins representing a substantial proportion of procyclic form cellular proteome were identified, which confirmed the validity of the vast majority of gene predictions. The data also showed that the genes annotated as hypothetical (species specific) were overpredicted and that virtually all genes annotated as hypothetical, unlikely are not expressed. By comparing the MS data with genome sequence, 40 genes were identified that were not previously predicted. The data are placed in a publicly available web-based database (www.TrypsProteome.org). The total mitochondrial proteome is estimated at 1008 proteins, with 401, 196, and 283 assigned to the mt with high, moderate, and lower confidence, respectively. The remaining mitochondrial proteins were estimated by statistical methods although individual assignments could not be made. The identified proteins have predicted roles in macromolecular, metabolic, energy generating, and transport processes providing a comprehensive profile of the protein content and function of the T. brucei mt.
The mitochondrial F(0)F(1) ATP synthase is an essential multi-subunit protein complex in the vast majority of eukaryotes but little is known about its composition and role in Trypanosoma brucei, an early diverged eukaryotic pathogen. We purified the F(0)F(1) ATP synthase by a combination of affinity purification, immunoprecipitation and blue-native gel electrophoresis and characterized its composition and function. We identified 22 proteins of which five are related to F(1) subunits, three to F(0) subunits, and 14 which have no obvious homology to proteins outside the kinetoplastids. RNAi silencing of expression of the F(1) alpha subunit or either of the two novel proteins showed that they are each essential for the viability of procyclic (insect stage) cells and are important for the structural integrity of the F(0)F(1)-ATP synthase complex. We also observed a dramatic decrease in ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation after silencing expression of each of these proteins while substrate phosphorylation was not severely affected. Our procyclic T. brucei cells were sensitive to the ATP synthase inhibitor oligomycin even in the presence of glucose contrary to earlier reports. Hence, the two novel proteins appear essential for the structural organization of the functional complex and regulation of mitochondrial energy generation in these organisms is more complicated than previously thought.
Neuroanatomically precise, genome-wide maps of transcript distributions are critical resources to complement genomic sequence data and to correlate functional and genetic brain architecture. Here we describe the generation and analysis of a transcriptional atlas of the adult human brain, comprising extensive histological analysis and comprehensive microarray profiling of ?900 neuroanatomically precise subdivisions in two individuals. Transcriptional regulation varies enormously by anatomical location, with different regions and their constituent cell types displaying robust molecular signatures that are highly conserved between individuals. Analysis of differential gene expression and gene co-expression relationships demonstrates that brain-wide variation strongly reflects the distributions of major cell classes such as neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia. Local neighbourhood relationships between fine anatomical subdivisions are associated with discrete neuronal subtypes and genes involved with synaptic transmission. The neocortex displays a relatively homogeneous transcriptional pattern, but with distinct features associated selectively with primary sensorimotor cortices and with enriched frontal lobe expression. Notably, the spatial topography of the neocortex is strongly reflected in its molecular topography-the closer two cortical regions, the more similar their transcriptomes. This freely accessible online data resource forms a high-resolution transcriptional baseline for neurogenetic studies of normal and abnormal human brain function.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.