JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Assessment of nutritional status in renal transplant patients during 5 years of follow-up].
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Weight gain and malnutrition after kidney transplantation is common and the resulting overweight and obesity is associated with serious health complications. By contrast, the prevalence of malnutrition in patients with renal transplantation and its impact on the outcome of kidney transplantation is underestimated.
Related JoVE Video
Mixed amido-/imido-/guanidinato niobium complexes: synthesis and the effect of ligands on insertion reactions.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The new monoguanidinato complexes [Nb(NMe2)2{N(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)}{(NR)(NR')C(NMe2)}] (R = R' = (i)Pr, ; R = (t)Bu, R' = Et, ) were obtained by the insertion reaction of either diisopropylcarbodiimide or 1-tert-butyl-3-ethylcarbodiimide with the triamido precursor [Nb(NMe2)3(N-2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)] () bearing a bulky imido moiety. The ?-oxo derivative [{N(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)}{(N(i)Pr)2C(NMe2)}(NMe2)Nb]2(?-O) () was formed by an unexpected hydrolysis reaction of the amido niobium compound . Alternatively, monoguanidinato complexes [Nb(NMe2)2{N(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)}{(N(i)Pr)2C(NHR)}] (R = (i)Pr, , (n)Bu, ) can be obtained by protonolysis of with N,N',N''-alkylguanidines [(NH(i)Pr)2C(NR)] (R = (i)Pr, (n)Bu). Compound also reacts with either tert-butylisocyanide or 2,6-xylylisocyanide to give, by a migratory insertion reaction, the corresponding iminocarbamoyl compounds [Nb(NMe2)2{(NMe2)C[double bond, length as m-dash]NR}{N(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)}] (R = (t)Bu, , Xy, ). Addition of the neutral alkylguanidines to complex results in a facile C-N bond cleavage at room temperature in a process directed by the formation of the stable chelate complex or . Complex reacts with heterocumulenic CS2 to produce new imido dithiocarbamato complexes [Nb(NMe2){S2C(NMe2)}2{N(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)}] () and [Nb{S2C(NMe2)}3{N(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)}] (). These complexes do not react with alkylguanines, although new mixed guanidinato dithiocarbamato complexes [Nb(NMe2){S2C(NMe2)}{(N(i)Pr)2C(NHiPr)}{N(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)}] () and [Nb{(S2C(NMe2)}2{(N(i)Pr)2C(NH(i)Pr)}{N(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)}] () can be obtained by reaction of complex with one or two equivalents of CS2, respectively. All of the complexes were characterized spectroscopically and the dynamic behaviour of some of them was studied by variable-temperature NMR. The molecular structures of , , and were also established by X-ray diffraction studies.
Related JoVE Video
[Study and prevalence of post-transplant diabetes mellitus; analysis on a group of kidney transplant recipients].
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The onset of post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) among kidney recipients is associated with an increased risk of graft failure and high rates of morbidity and mortality. Minimize the risk of PTDM is a priority for improving long-term survival rates. Aims. This study aims to assess the prevalence of PTDM in a renal transplant patient population, to identify risk factors and assess the graft and patient survival.
Related JoVE Video
Mathematical models of electrical activity of the pancreatic ?-cell: A physiological review.
Islets
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mathematical modeling of the electrical activity of the pancreatic ?-cell has been extremely important for understanding the cellular mechanisms involved in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Several models have been proposed over the last 30 y, growing in complexity as experimental evidence of the cellular mechanisms involved has become available. Almost all the models have been developed based on experimental data from rodents. However, given the many important differences between species, models of human ?-cells have recently been developed. This review summarizes how modeling of ?-cells has evolved, highlighting the proposed physiological mechanisms underlying ?-cell electrical activity.
Related JoVE Video
Transient Silencing of CHALCONE SYNTHASE during Fruit Ripening Modifies Tomato Epidermal Cells and Cuticle Properties.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening is accompanied by an increase in CHALCONE SYNTHASE (CHS) activity and flavonoid biosynthesis. Flavonoids accumulate in the cuticle, giving its characteristic orange color that contributes to the eventual red color of the ripe fruit. Using virus-induced gene silencing in fruits, we have down-regulated the expression of SlCHS during ripening and compared the cuticles derived from silenced and nonsilenced regions. Silenced regions showed a pink color due to the lack of flavonoids incorporated to the cuticle. This change in color was accompanied by several other changes in the cuticle and epidermis. The epidermal cells displayed a decreased tangential cell width; a decrease in the amount of cuticle and its main components, cutin and polysaccharides, was also observed. Flavonoids dramatically altered the cuticle biomechanical properties by stiffening the elastic and viscoelastic phase and by reducing the ability of the cuticle to deform. There seemed to be a negative relation between SlCHS expression and wax accumulation during ripening that could be related to the decreased cuticle permeability to water observed in the regions silencing SlCHS. A reduction in the overall number of ester linkages present in the cutin matrix was also dependent on the presence of flavonoids.
Related JoVE Video
[Longitudinal study of weight and body mass index after renal transplantation during 5 years of evolution].
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gain weight after transplantation is relatively common, also tends to be multifactorial and can be influenced by glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive medications, delayed graft function and cause serious health complications.
Related JoVE Video
Increased antioxidant capacity in tomato by ectopic expression of the strawberry D-galacturonate reductase gene.
Biotechnol J
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Increasing L-ascorbic acid (AsA, vitamin C) content in fruits is a common goal in current breeding programs due to its beneficial effect on human health. Attempts to increase AsA content by genetic engineering have resulted in variable success likely due to AsA's complex regulation. Here, we report the effect of ectopically expressing in tomato the D-galacturonate reductase (FaGalUR) gene from strawberry, involved in AsA biosynthesis, either under the control of the constitutive 35S or the tomato fruit-specific polygalucturonase (PG) promoters. Although transgenic lines showed a moderate increase on AsA content, complex changes in metabolites were found in transgenic fruits. Metabolomic analyses of ripe fruits identified a decrease in citrate, glutamate, asparagine, glucose, and fructose, accompanied by an increase of sucrose, galactinol, and chlorogenic acid. Significant metabolic changes also occurred in leaves of 35S-FaGalUR lines, which showed higher non-photochemical fluorescence quenching (NPQ), indicative of a higher constitutive photo-protective capacity. Overall, overexpression of FaGalUR increased total antioxidant capacity in fruits and the results suggest a tight control of AsA content, probably linked to a complex regulation of cellular redox state and metabolic adjustment.
Related JoVE Video
Fractal-like correlations of the fluctuating inter-spike membrane potential of a Helix aspersa pacemaker neuron.
Comput. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We analyzed the voltage fluctuations of the membrane potential manifested along the inter-spike segment of a pacemaker neuron. Time series of intracellular inter-spike voltage fluctuations were obtained in the current-clamp configuration from the F1 neuron of 12 Helix aspersa specimens. To assess the dynamic or stochastic nature of the voltage fluctuations these series were analyzed by Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), providing the scaling exponent ?. The median ? result obtained for the inter-spike segments was 0.971 ([0.963, 0.995] lower and upper quartiles). Our results indicate a critical-like dynamic behavior in the inter-spike membrane potential that, far from being random, shows long-term correlations probably linked to the dynamics of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the membrane potential, thereby endorsing the occurrence of critical-like phenomena at a single-neuron level.
Related JoVE Video
On the origin of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary renal stones.
Urolithiasis
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) papillary calculi can be initiated by subepithelial calcification of the renal papillae. Hydroxyapatite disruption of the papillary epithelial layer can become the nidus of a COM papillary calculus. This study evaluated the causes of papillary tissue calcifications in 60 patients with calcium oxalate lithiasis, 30 with COM papillary and 30 with calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) calculi. Urinary redox potential was higher in the COM than the COD group, suggesting that the former is more deficient in antioxidants due to increased oxidative stress. Urinary calcium was significantly higher in the COD group, whereas urinary oxalate was significantly higher in the COM group, suggesting a greater degree of oxidative injury of renal cells. Evaluations of their diets showed that both groups consumed low amounts of phytate-rich products. Of chronic diseases possibly associated with urolithiasis, only the prevalence of gastroduodenal ulcer differed significantly, being higher in the COM group and suggesting that epithelial lesions are common to gastroduodenal ulcers and COM papillary renal stones. Occupational exposure to cytotoxic products occurred in 47 % of the COM and 27 % of the COD group, but this difference was not statistically significant. These findings indicate that oxidative stress is associated with injury to papillary tissue and that this is the origin of intrapapillary calcifications. The continuation of this process is due to modulators and/or deficiencies in inhibitors of crystallization. Identifying and eliminating the causes of injury may prevent recurrent episodes in patients with papillary COM calculi.
Related JoVE Video
Trend and seasonality in hospitalizations for pulmonary embolism.A time series analysis.
J. Thromb. Haemost.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The existence of seasonal variability in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) has been debated for years, with contradictory results. The aim of this study was to identify the trend and possible existence of a seasonal pattern in hospitalizations for PE in Spain.
Related JoVE Video
Systemic Cytokine and Interferon Responsiveness Patterns in HIV and HCV Mono and Co-Infections.
J. Interferon Cytokine Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The role of host response-related factors in the fast progression of liver disease in individuals co-infected with HIV and HCV viruses remains poorly understood. This study compared patterns of cytokines, caspase-1 activation, endotoxin exposure in plasma as well as interferon signaling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV/HCV co-infected (HIV(+)/HCV(+)), HCV mono-infected (HIV(-)/HCV(+)), HIV mono-infected (HIV(+)/HCV(-)) female patients and HIV- and HCV-uninfected women (HIV(-)/HCV(-)) who had enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). HIV(+)/HCV(+) women had higher plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as caspase-1 compared with other groups. Both HIV(+)/HCV(+) and HIV(+)/HCV(-) women had significantly higher sCD14 levels compared with other groups. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HCV mono-infected patients had reduced levels of phosphorylation of STAT1 compared with other groups as well as lower basal levels of expression of the IFN-stimulated genes, OAS1, ISG15, and USP18 (UBP43). Basal expression of USP18, a functional antagonist of ISG15, as well as USP18/ISG15 ratios were increased in the HIV(+)/HCV(+) group compared with HIV(-)/HCV(+) and HIV(+)/HCV(-) groups. A more pronounced systemic inflammatory profile as well as increased expression ratios of USP18 to ISG15 may contribute to the more rapid progression of liver disease in HIV(+)/HCV(+) individuals.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of prone positioning during mechanical ventilation on mortality among patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
CMAJ
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mechanical ventilation in the prone position is used to improve oxygenation and to mitigate the harmful effects of mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We sought to determine the effect of prone positioning on mortality among patients with ARDS receiving protective lung ventilation.
Related JoVE Video
Trends in infectious disease mortality rates, Spain, 1980-2011.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Using mortality data from National Institute of Statistics in Spain, we analyzed trends of infectious disease mortality rates in Spain during 1980-2011 to provide information on surveillance and control of infectious diseases. During the study period, 628,673 infectious disease-related deaths occurred, the annual change in the mortality rate was -1.6%, and the average infectious disease mortality rate was 48.5 deaths/100,000 population. Although the beginning of HIV/AIDS epidemic led to an increased mortality rate, a decreased rate was observed by the end of the twentieth century. By codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, the most frequent underlying cause of death was pneumonia. Emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases continue to be public health problems despite reduced mortality rates produced by various interventions. Therefore, surveillance and control systems should be reinforced with a goal of providing reliable data for useful decision making.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluating TBK1 as a therapeutic target in cancers with activated IRF3.
Mol. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
TBK1 (TANK-binding kinase 1) is a noncanonical I?B protein kinase that phosphorylates and activates downstream targets such as IRF3 and c-Rel and, mediates NF-?B activation in cancer. Previous reports demonstrated synthetic lethality of TBK1 with mutant KRAS in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); thus, TBK1 could be a novel target for treatment of KRAS-mutant NSCLC. Here, the effect of TBK1 on proliferation in a panel of cancer cells by both genetic and pharmacologic approaches was evaluated. In KRAS-mutant cancer cells, reduction of TBK1 activity by knockdown or treatment with TBK1 inhibitors did not correlate with reduced proliferation in a two-dimensional viability assay. Verification of target engagement via reduced phosphorylation of S386 of IRF3 (pIRF3(S386)) was difficult to assess in NSCLC cells due to low protein expression. However, several cell lines were identified with high pIRF3(S386) levels after screening a large panel of cell lines, many of which also harbor KRAS mutations. Specifically, a large subset of KRAS-mutant pancreatic cancer cell lines was uncovered with high constitutive pIRF3(S386) levels, which correlated with high levels of phosphorylated S172 of TBK1 (pTBK1(S172)). Finally, TBK1 inhibitors dose-dependently inhibited pIRF3(S386) in these cell lines, but this did not correlate with inhibition of cell growth. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the regulation of pathways important for cell proliferation in some NSCLC, pancreatic, and colorectal cell lines is not solely dependent on TBK1 activity.
Related JoVE Video
Unprotected carotid artery stenting in symptomatic elderly patients: a single-center experience.
J Neurointerv Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Surgery is known to have fewer adverse events in patients aged >75 years with carotid stenosis, but some are not candidates due to comorbidity. Stenting using protection devices is the most accepted endovascular technique. Our aim is to show the safety and efficacy of carotid stenting without any protection device in these patients.
Related JoVE Video
Increasing tomato fruit quality by enhancing fruit chloroplast function. A double-edged sword?
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fruits are generally regarded as photosynthate sinks as they rely on energy provided by sugars transported from leaves to carry out the highly demanding processes of development and ripening; eventually these imported photosynthates also contribute to the fruit organoleptic properties. Three recent reports have revealed, however, that transcriptional factors enhancing chloroplast development in fruit may result in higher contents not only of tomato fruit-specialized metabolites but also of sugars. In addition to suggesting new ways to improve fruit quality by fortifying fruit chloroplasts and plastids, these results prompted us to re-evaluate the importance of the contribution of chloroplasts/photosynthesis to fruit development and ripening.
Related JoVE Video
Hepatotoxicity of isotretinoin in patients with acne and Gilbert's syndrome: a comparative study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of our follow-up study is to evaluate liver function tests (LFTs) and lipid profiles in patients with Gilbert's syndrome treated with isotretinoin because of severe acne.
Related JoVE Video
Contrasting inflammatory responses in severe and non-severe community-acquired pneumonia.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of this study was to compare systemic and local cytokine profiles and neutrophil responses in patients with severe versus non-severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Hospitalized patients with CAP were grouped according to the pneumonia severity index (PSI), as non-severe (PSI?
Related JoVE Video
[Economic crisis and communicable diseases. SESPAS report 2014].
Gac Sanit
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Past economic crises have increased the impact of communicable diseases especially on groups particularly vulnerable to the social and health consequences of the recession. However, it has been shown that the impact of these crises largely depends on the response of governments and the inhabitants of affected countries. We describe the consequences of the current crisis in the causal chain of infectious disease, including the response of the health system, and explore whether there is evidence of its impact in Spain. It is assumed that the possible effect of the crisis on living and working conditions is due to individual and social debt coupled with high unemployment as defining features of the crisis. We highlight the potential negative consequences of healthcare cuts on vulnerable populations, which have been partly excluded with the recent reform of health coverage. We compare mortality and morbidity data between two periods: before and after 2008, integrating, where possible, observed trends and institutional reports. Overall, no effect on infectious disease has been detected so far, although some signs of worsening, which could be compatible with the effects of the crisis, have been observed and need to be monitored and confirmed. We review the limitations of data sources that may not be sufficiently sensitive or up-to-date to detect changes that may require a latency period to become manifest. Instead of cutting resources, surveillance of these diseases should be improved, and an equitable social health response, which targets the population most affected by the crisis, should be guaranteed.
Related JoVE Video
Interleukin-6 and soluble interleukin-6 receptor levels in posttraumatic stress disorder: associations with lifetime diagnostic status and psychological context.
Biol Psychol
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study correlated lifetime PTSD diagnostic status with interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) levels, and tested whether these correlations are sensitive to psychological context. Midlife women attended two research visits where blood was drawn (beginning of visits) and saliva and oral mucosal transudate were collected (beginning and end of visits) to measure IL-6 and sIL-6R. Women were classified as PTSD-/- (past and current symptoms below subsyndromal levels), PTSD+/- (past symptoms at or above subsyndromal levels), or PTSD+/+ (past and current symptoms at or above subsyndromal levels). PTSD+/+ women, compared to the other women, showed more negative emotion at the beginning of the visits, higher salivary IL-6 levels at the beginning versus end of visits, and positive correlations between negative emotion, salivary IL-6, and plasma sIL-6R. Their plasma sIL-6R levels exceeded those of the PTSD+/- women. Overall, IL-6 sensitivity to anticipation and to negative emotions, and higher sIL-6R levels, differentiated persistent versus remitted PTSD.
Related JoVE Video
Persistent Hepatic Structural Alterations Following Nanoceria Vascular Infusion in the Rat.
Toxicol Pathol
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Understanding the long-term effects and possible toxicity of nanoceria, a widely utilized commercial metal oxide, is of particular importance as it is poised for development as a therapeutic agent based on its autocatalytic redox behavior. We show here evidence of acute and subacute adverse hepatic responses, after a single infusion of an aqueous dispersion of 85 mg/kg, 30 nm nanoceria into Sprague Dawley rats. Light and electron microscopic evidence of avid uptake of nanoceria by Kupffer cells was detected as early as 1 hr after infusion. Biopersistent nanoceria stimulated cluster of differentiation 3(+) lymphocyte proliferation that intermingled with nanoceria-containing Kupffer cells to form granulomata that were observed between days 30 and 90. Ultrastructural tracking of ceria nanoparticles revealed aggregated nanoceria in phagolysosomes. An increased formation of small nanoceria over time observed in the latter suggests possible dissolution and precipitation of nanoceria. However, the pathway for nanoceria metabolism/secretion remains unclear. Although frank hepatic necrosis was not observed, the retention of nanoceria increased hepatic apoptosis acutely, this persisted to day 90. These findings, together with our earlier reports of 5-nm ceria-induced liver toxicity, provide additional guidance for nanoceria development as a therapeutic agent and for its risk assessment.
Related JoVE Video
Unexpected mild C-N bond cleavage mediated by guanidine coordination to a niobium iminocarbamoyl complex.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The complex [Nb(NMe2)2{(NMe2)C=N(t)Bu}{N(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)}] reacts with trialkylguanidines and undergoes a room temperature C-N bond cleavage of the iminocarbamoyl moiety. This reaction affords the guanidinate complexes [Nb(NMe2)2{N(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)}{(N(i)Pr)2C(NH(i)Pr)}] or [Nb(NMe2)2{N(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)}{(N(i)Pr)2C(NH(n)Bu)}] and free isocyanide. The first crystal structure of a niobium iminocarbamoyl complex is reported.
Related JoVE Video
High-grade spondyloretrolisthesis in a 12-year-old girl with neurofibromatosis type 1: a case report and literature review.
J Pediatr Orthop B
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neurofibromatosis (NF) type 1 is characterized by several skin, endocrine, central nervous system and musculoskeletal manifestations, spine deformities being the most common, affecting up to 64% of patients. Thoracic kyphoscoliosis is the most common deformity observed; however, high-grade spondylolisthesis and dural defects such as dural ectasia can also be found. The aim of this study is to describe a case of high-grade spondyloretrolisthesis in an NF-1 patient, associated with dural ectasia and extensive lumbar laminectomies, and to discuss our management and review the current literature on this controversial topic. A 12-year-old girl with NF-1 who had undergone extensive lumbar laminectomies in an outside facility presented to our emergency department complaining of back pain and lower limbs upper motor neuron symptoms. Image studies showed a high-grade lumbar spondyloretrolisthesis associated with dural ectasia. The first step of treatment was spine immobilization using a Boston brace. An anterior approach was used, and an L2 corporectomy was performed, using a Moss type cage between L1 and L3 with an instrumented arthrodesis and autologous bone graft for stabilization purposes. The second step planned was a posterior approach for arthrodesis and instrumentation, but after an extensive discussion with the parents and the patient, the parents did not agree to the procedure planned for the patient. A brace was used for 1 year while rehabilitation was performed. At the 1-year follow-up, there was a 70° kyphosis at the thoracolumbar junction but it was clinically stable, with an acceptable sagittal balance. Dural ectasia is not a common finding in children with NF-1; however, it should be identified as its presence may predispose to spine instability and as a consequence the development of a high-grade spondyloretrolisthesis. Even though a few cases have been reported, we believe that it is important to consider the option of a double approach to achieve a better correction in both planes and a good outcome. If an extensive laminectomy is involved, it is mandatory to perform a posterior fusion and instrumentation.
Related JoVE Video
Multiple internalization pathways of polyelectrolyte multilayer capsules into mammalian cells.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) capsules are carrier vehicles with great potential for biomedical applications. With the future aim of designing biocompatible, effective therapeutic delivery systems (e.g., for cancer), the pathway of internalization (uptake and fate) of PEM capsules was investigated. In particular the following experiments were performed: (i) the study of capsule co-localization with established endocytic markers, (ii) switching-off endocytotic pathways with pharmaceutical/chemical inhibitors, and (iii) characterization and quantification of capsule uptake with confocal and electron microscopy. As result, capsules co-localized with lipid rafts and with phagolysosomes, but not with other endocytic vesicles. Chemical interference of endocytosis with chemical blockers indicated that PEM capsules enter the investigated cell lines through a mechanism slightly sensitive to electrostatic interactions, independent of clathrin and caveolae, and strongly dependent on cholesterol-rich domains and organelle acidification. Microscopic characterization of cells during capsule uptake showed the formation of phagocytic cups (vesicles) to engulf the capsules, an increased number of mitochondria, and a final localization in the perinuclear cytoplasma. Combining all these indicators we conclude that PEM capsule internalization in general occurs as a combination of different sequential mechanisms. Initially, an adsorptive mechanism due to strong electrostatic interactions governs the stabilization of the capsules at the cell surface. Membrane ruffling and filopodia extensions are responsible for capsule engulfing through the formation of a phagocytic cup. Co-localization with lipid raft domains activates the cell to initiate a lipid-raft-mediated macropinocytosis. Internalization vesicles are very acidic and co-localize only with phagolysosome markers, excluding caveolin-mediated pathways and indicating that upon phagocytosis the capsules are sorted to heterophagolysosomes.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Asymmetric niobium guanidinates as intermediates in the catalytic guanylation of amines.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The molecular structure of the guanidinate complex {NbBz2(N(t)Bu)[(4-BrC6H4)N=C(N(i)Pr)(NH(i)Pr)]}, previously obtained by reaction of [NbBz3(N(t)Bu)] and the corresponding guanidine proligand, has been established by X-ray diffraction. The series of complexes {NbBz2(N(t)Bu)[(Ar)N=C(N(i)Pr)(NH(i)Pr)]} (Ar = 4-BrC6H4, 4-(t)BuC6H4, 4-MeOC6H4) and {[NbBz2(N(t)Bu)]2[(C6H4)(N=C(N(i)Pr)(NH(i)Pr))2]} show a preferred asymmetric coordination of the guanidinate ligand by means of one alkylamino nitrogen and the arylimino nitrogen atom. Computational studies confirm this preference and the results suggest that electronic factors prevail over steric factors. In addition, reaction of complex [NbBz3(N(t)Bu)] with {2-((n)butyl)-1,3-diisopropylguanidine} did not give rise to the regioselective asymmetrical guanidinate. Instead, the complex {NbBz2(N(t)Bu)[((n)Bu)N=C(N(i)Pr)(NH(i)Pr)]} was obtained as a mixture of three isomers with symmetrical and asymmetrical coordination modes. Finally, the complex [NbBz3(N(t)Bu)] was shown to be a suitable precatalyst for the guanylation reaction of a wide range of amines under mild conditions. Guanidinates are proposed as intermediates in the mechanism of this reaction. The molecular structure of the biguanidine {2,2-(1,4-phenylene)bis(2,3-diisopropylguanidine)} was also established by X-ray diffraction studies.
Related JoVE Video
Green roof systems: a study of public attitudes and preferences in southern Spain.
J. Environ. Manage.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study investigates peoples preconceptions of green roofs and their visual preference for different green roof design alternatives in relation to behavioral, social and demographical variables. The investigation was performed as a visual preference study using digital images created to represent eight different alternatives: gravel roof, extensive green roof with Sedums not in flower, extensive green roof with sedums in bloom, semi-intensive green roof with sedums and ornamental grasses, semi-intensive green roof with shrubs, intensive green roof planted with a lawn, intensive green roof with succulent and trees and intensive green roof with shrubs and trees. Using a Likert-type scale, 450 respondents were asked to indicate their preference for each digital image. Results indicated that respondents sociodemographic characteristics and childhood environmental background influenced their preferences toward different green roof types. Results also showed that green roofs with a more careful design, greater variety of vegetation structure, and more variety of colors were preferred over alternatives.
Related JoVE Video
Surgical endodontic management of an invasive cervical resorption class 4 with mineral trioxide aggregate: a 6-year follow-up.
Tex Dent J
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Invasive cervical resorption is a type of external resorption rarely seen as an adverse effect after a guided tissue regeneration procedure for a periodontal condition. This case report summarizes the surgical endodontic management of an invasive cervical resorption class 4 (Heithersay) with mineral trioxide aggregate, in a mandibular incisor of a 67-year-old man. A 6-year clinical follow-up with radiovisiography and cone-beam computerized tomography revealed complete healing. A surgical endodontic management could promote healing and survival of a tooth with advanced root resorption due to a periodontal condition.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of temperature on bone tissue: histological changes.
J. Forensic Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The analysis of burned human remains has been of great interest among forensic anthropologists largely due to the difficulty that their recovery, classification, reconstruction, and identification present. The main purpose of this analysis is to present histological methodology for the interpretation of bones altered by thermal processes. We include analyses of the microscopic changes among bones exposed to different temperatures, with the goal of establishing categories of histological morphology in relation to fire temperature. Samples of bone (ilium) were exposed systematically to controlled temperatures. Analysis of the resulting histological changes has allowed the formation of a clear four-stage classification of the alterations observed. This classification should prove useful in assessing bone changes in relation to temperature of exposure, particularly in cases where this temperature was previously not known.
Related JoVE Video
[Intrasellar arachnoid cysts. Two case reports and literature review].
Neurocirugia (Astur)
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Intrasellar arachnoid cysts are an uncommon pathology, with only a few cases reported in scientific literature. Their physiopathology is still unknown, with different hypothesis about their development. Differential diagnosis with other cystic sellar lesions is difficult. We report two cases of two intrasellar arachnoid cysts that were treated surgically using transsphenoidal approach and present a review of the literature.
Related JoVE Video
A new mathematical pharmacodynamic model of clonogenic cancer cell death by doxorubicin.
J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous models for predicting tumor cell growth are mostly based on measurements of total cell numbers. The purpose of this paper is to provide a new simple mathematical model for calculating tumor cell growth focusing on the fraction of cells that is clonogenic. The non-clonogenic cells are considered to be relatively harmless. We performed a number of different types of experiments: a long-term drug "treatment", several concentrations/fixed time experiments and time-series experiments, in which human MCF-7 breast cancer cells were exposed to doxorubicin and the total number of cells were counted. In the latter two types, at every measurement point a plating efficiency experiment was started. The final number of colonies formed is equal to the number of clonogenic cells at the onset of the experiment. Based on the intracellular drug concentration, our model predicts cell culture effects taking clonogenic ability and growth inhibition by neighboring cells into account. The model fitted well to the experimental data. The estimated damage parameter which represents the chance of an MCF-7 cell to become non-clonogenic per unit time and per unit intracellular doxorubicin concentration was found to be 0.0025 ± 0.0008 (mean ± SD) nM(-1) h(-1). The model could be used to calculate the effect of every doxorubicin concentration versus time (C-t) profile. Although in vivo parameters may well be different from those found in vitro, the model can be used to predict trends, e.g. by comparing effects of different in vivo C-t profiles.
Related JoVE Video
The effects of increasing effective airway diameter on weaning from mechanical ventilation in tracheostomized patients: a randomized controlled trial.
Intensive Care Med
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the effects of deflating the tracheal cuff during disconnections from mechanical ventilation (MV) in tracheostomized patients.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of three radiographic methods in the outcome of nonsurgical endodontic treatment: a five-year follow-up.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The periapical film radiograph (PFR) and digital periapical radiograph (DPR) techniques have some limitations in the visualization of small periapical lesions (PLs) when compared with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). However, the evidence supporting their effectiveness is very limited. This retrospective longitudinal cohort study evaluated the outcome of endodontic treatments measured/monitored by PFR, DPR, and CBCT during a 5-year follow-up and also determined the prognostic factors that influenced treatment success.
Related JoVE Video
Assessment of the inflammatory effect of low-dose oxygen in mechanically ventilated patients.
Intensive Care Med
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although low doses of oxygen (FiO2 <0.50) are considered nontoxic, recent studies have shown that even lower doses increase pulmonary inflammatory mediators. We aimed to evaluate the acute effects of reducing FiO2 on pulmonary inflammation in mechanically ventilated patients without respiratory failure.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of temperature on bone tissue. Histological study of the changes in the bone matrix.
Forensic Sci. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The analysis of burned human remains has given rise to many publications in the literature and has caused great interest among forensic specialists and physical anthropologists due to the difficulty in its analysis and interpretation. The main goal of this study has been to measure the changes that occur in bone matrix as a consequence of the increased temperature and establishing categories of histological morphology in relation to fire temperature. To this end, a total of 150 bone cylinders from the ilium obtained by bone biopsy. These samples have been obtained from forensic cadavers and burned at controlled temperatures between 100 and 1100°C in an oven. The samples were fixed in methyl methacrylate and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Goldners trichrome and toluidine blue stains. The samples were studied using an optical microscope at 100×. Our study classifies the morphological changes that occur in bone matrix in four stages as a result of the temperature.
Related JoVE Video
Preconditioning of Microglia by ?-Synuclein Strongly Affects the Response Induced by Toll-like Receptor (TLR) Stimulation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In recent years, it has become accepted that ?-synuclein (?Syn) has a key role in the microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, which accompanies the development of Parkinsons disease and other related disorders, such as Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Alzheimers disease. Nevertheless, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying its pathological actions, especially in the sporadic forms of the diseases, are not completely understood. Intriguingly, several epidemiological and animal model studies have revealed a link between certain microbial infections and the onset or progression of sporadic forms of these neurodegenerative disorders. In this work, we have characterized the effect of toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation on primary murine microglial cultures and analysed the impact of priming cells with extracellular wild-type (Wt) ?Syn on the subsequent TLR stimulation of cells with a set of TLR ligands. By assaying key interleukins and chemokines we report that specific stimuli, in particular Pam3Csk4 (Pam3) and single-stranded RNA40 (ssRNA), can differentially affect the TLR2/1- and TLR7-mediated responses of microglia when pre-conditioned with ?Syn by augmenting IL-6, MCP-1/CCL2 or IP-10/CXCL10 secretion levels. Furthermore, we report a skewing of ?Syn-primed microglia stimulated with ssRNA (TLR7) or Pam3 (TLR2/1) towards intermediate but at the same time differential, M1/M2 phenotypes. Finally, we show that the levels and intracellular location of activated caspase-3 protein change significantly in ?Syn-primed microglia after stimulation with these particular TLR agonists. Overall, we report a remarkable impact of non-aggregated ?Syn pre-sensitization of microglia on TLR-mediated immunity, a phenomenon that could contribute to triggering the onset of sporadic ?-synuclein-related neuropathologies.
Related JoVE Video
[Transfusion-transmitted protozoal infections: what is the risk in non-endemic countries?].
Acta Med Port
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Protozoal infections that are efficiently transmitted by blood transfusion include Malaria, Chagas Disease, African Trypanosomiasis, Leshmaniasis, Toxoplasmosis and Babesiosis. With exception of Toxoplasmosis and Leishmaniasis, these diseases are endemic in mainly tropical low income countries and, in non-endemic countries like Portugal, the reported cases are imported from these endemic areas by travelers or immigrants. Globalization, with increasing travel and immigration poses the risk of exposition to these infectious agents and raises the issue of possible transmission by blood transfusion. According to recommendations of the Council of Europe, strategies to prevent the transmission of these infections by blood transfusion have been implemented. Given that the risk is introduced by a specific group of donors, travelers or immigrants from endemic areas, the main strategy to prevent this transmission depends on the identification of these groups of donors using questionnaires during the pre-donation procedures. Additional measures, like serological testing and pathogen inactivation procedures, when available, contribute not only to reduce the risk of transmission but also to avoid unnecessary rejections.
Related JoVE Video
Discovery of a novel enzymatic cleavage site for botulinum neurotoxin F5.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause botulism by cleaving proteins necessary for nerve transmission. There are seven serotypes of BoNT, A-G, characterized by their response to antisera. Many serotypes are further distinguished into differing subtypes based on amino acid sequence, some of which result in functional differences. Our laboratory previously reported that all tested subtypes within each serotype have the same site of enzymatic activity. Recently, three new subtypes of BoNT/F; /F3, /F4, and /F5, were reported. Here, we report that BoNT/F5 cleaves substrate synaptobrevin-2 in a different location than the other BoNT/F subtypes, between (54)L and (55)E. This is the first report of cleavage of synaptobrevin-2 in this location.
Related JoVE Video
[Evolution of nutritional status in hemodialysis patients during 4 years of follow].
Arch Latinoam Nutr
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Protein-calorie malnutrition as well as systemic inflammation and metabolic disorders are common among patients with chronic renal failure undergoing renal replacement therapy (hemodialysis), which contributes to their morbidity and mortality. This work has followed 90 patients of both sexes with chronic kidney disease who were treated with hemodialysis periodically in our unit for four years. All patients were performed quarterly measurements of plasma albúmina (A1b), total cholesterol (TC), total protein (TP) and monthly transferrin (Tr), Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were taken on all patients by using a balance/stadiometer (Perperson 113481); weight was measured in kilograms and height in centimetres. BMI was calculated with this formula: weight/height2 and classified according to the WHO criteria: BMI < 18.50: Underweight; from 18.50 to 24.99: Normal range; from 25.00 to 29.99: Overweight; and BMI > or =30.00: Obese. The aim of this work was evaluate the nutritional status of these patients through the assessment of biochemical parameters and anthropometric parameters and determine if these patients suffer alterations suggesting nutritional deterioration directly related to the time on dialysis. During the 4 years all patients showed a significant decline of biochemical parameters, on the other hand the BMI did not significant changes in relation to malnutrition. Malnutrition in patients on dialysis is therefore evident, the BMI does not correspond with the biochemical parameters observed, so nutritional deterioration of these patients is mainly manifested by biochemical parameters studied.
Related JoVE Video
Equine botulinum antitoxin for the treatment of infant botulism.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Infant botulism is the most common form of human botulism in Argentina and the United States. BabyBIG (botulism immune globulin intravenous [human]) is the antitoxin of choice for specific treatment of infant botulism in the United States. However, its high cost limits its use in many countries. We report here the effectiveness and safety of equine botulinum antitoxin (EqBA) as an alternative treatment. We conducted an analytical, observational, retrospective, and longitudinal study on cases of infant botulism registered in Mendoza, Argentina, from 1993 to 2007. We analyzed 92 medical records of laboratory-confirmed cases and evaluated the safety and efficacy of treatment with EqBA. Forty-nine laboratory-confirmed cases of infant botulism demanding admission in intensive care units and mechanical ventilation included 31 treated with EqBA within the 5 days after the onset of signs and 18 untreated with EqBA. EqBA-treated patients had a reduction in the mean length of hospital stay of 23.9 days (P = 0.0007). For infants treated with EqBA, the intensive care unit stay was shortened by 11.2 days (P = 0.0036), mechanical ventilation was reduced by 11.1 days (P = 0.0155), and tube feeding was reduced by 24.4 days (P = 0.0001). The incidence of sepsis in EqBA-treated patients was 47.3% lower (P = 0.0017) than in the untreated ones. Neither sequelae nor adverse effects attributable to EqBA were noticed, except for one infant who developed a transient erythematous rash. These results suggest that prompt treatment of infant botulism with EqBA is safe and effective and that EqBA could be considered an alternative specific treatment for infant botulism when BabyBIG is not available.
Related JoVE Video
Structural basis of specificity in tetrameric Kluyveromyces lactis ?-galactosidase.
J. Struct. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
?-Galactosidase or lactase is a very important enzyme in the food industry, being that from the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis the most widely used. Here we report its three-dimensional structure both in the free state and complexed with the product galactose. The monomer folds into five domains in a pattern conserved with the prokaryote enzymes of the GH2 family, although two long insertions in domains 2 and 3 are unique and related to oligomerization and specificity. The tetrameric enzyme is a dimer of dimers, with higher dissociation energy for the dimers than for its assembly. Two active centers are located at the interface within each dimer in a narrow channel. The insertion at domain 3 protrudes into this channel and makes putative links with the aglycone moiety of docked lactose. In spite of common structural features related to function, the determinants of the reaction mechanism proposed for Escherichia coli ?-galactosidase are not found in the active site of the K. lactis enzyme. This is the first X-ray crystal structure for a ?-galactosidase used in food processing.
Related JoVE Video
[Brief Suicide Questionnaire. Inter-rater reliability].
Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inter-rater agreement is a crucial aspect in the planning and performance of a clinical trial in which the main assessment tool is the clinical interview. The main objectives of this study are to study the inter-rater agreement of a tool for the assessment of suicidal behavior (Brief Suicide Questionnaire) and to examine whether the inter-examiner agreement when multiple ratings are made on a single subject is an efficient method to assess the reliability of an instrument.
Related JoVE Video
[Proposal for a new multidisciplinary therapeutic strategy in the breast cancer patient with sentinel lymph node metastasis].
Cir Esp
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of practice for assessing axillary spread in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients. On the other hand, axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is the ideal procedure for patients with SLN metastasis. Different studies over the last few years have suggested that some patients with positive SLN can be treated without ALND. This article presents a literature review carried out by our multidisciplinary group and its strategy for avoiding routine ALND in women with SLN metastases. In this new strategy ALND should not be performed on women with T1 tumours, with 1-2 positive SLN and undergoing breast conservative surgery. On the other hand, ALND would be indicated in those patients with three or more positive SLN, presence of extracapsular invasion, mastectomised women and triple negative subtype or HER2+ tumours that have not received biological treatment with antibodies.
Related JoVE Video
Protein levels of ?-catenin and activation state of glycogen synthase kinase-3? in major depression. A study with postmortem prefrontal cortex.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Wnt/GSK3? signaling pathway was implicated in mood disorders. Beta-catenin is a protein targeted by this signaling axis. We aimed to examine whether there is an abnormality in this signaling axis in major depression.
Related JoVE Video
Low cyanobacterial diversity in biotopes of the Transantarctic Mountains and Shackleton Range (80-82°S), Antarctica.
FEMS Microbiol. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The evolutionary history and geographical isolation of the Antarctic continent have produced a unique environment rich in endemic organisms. In many regions of Antarctica, cyanobacteria are the dominant phototrophs in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. We have used microscopic and molecular approaches to examine the cyanobacterial diversity of biotopes at two inland continental Antarctic sites (80-82°S). These are among the most southerly locations where freshwater-related ecosystems are present. The results showed a low cyanobacterial diversity, with only 3-7 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per sample obtained by a combination of strain isolations, clone libraries and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis based on 16S rRNA genes. One OTU was potentially endemic to Antarctica and is present in several regions of the continent. Four OTUs were shared by the samples from Forlidas Pond and the surrounding terrestrial mats. Only one OTU, but no internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, was common to Forlidas Pond and Lundström Lake. The ITS sequences were shown to further discriminate different genotypes within the OTUs. ITS sequences from Antarctic locations appear to be more closely related to each other than to non-Antarctic sequences. Future research in inland continental Antarctica will shed more light on the geographical distribution and evolutionary isolation of cyanobacteria in these extreme habitats.
Related JoVE Video
Intermediate dose of imatinib in combination with chemotherapy followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation improves early outcome in paediatric Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL): results of the Spanish Cooperative G
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Philadelphia-chromosome acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (Ph+ ALL) is a subgroup of ALL with very high risk of treatment failure. We report here the results of the Sociedad Española de Hematología y Oncología Pediátricas (SEHOP/SHOP) in paediatric Ph+ ALL treated with intermediate-dose imatinib concurrent with intensive chemotherapy. The toxicities and outcome of these patients were compared with historical controls not receiving imatinib. Patients with Ph+ ALL aged 1-18years were enrolled in three consecutive ALL/SHOP trials (SHOP-94/SHOP-99/SHOP-2005). In the SHOP-2005 trial, imatinib (260mg/m(2) per day) was given on day-15 of induction. Allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) from a matched related or unrelated donor was scheduled in first complete remission (CR1). Forty-three patients were evaluable (22 boys, median age 6·8years, range, 1·2-15). Sixteen received imatinib whereas 27 received similar chemotherapy without imatinib. Seventeen of 27 and 15 of 16 patients in the non-imatinib and imatinib cohort, respectively, underwent HSCT in CR1. With a median follow-up of 109 and 39months for the non-imatinib and imatinib cohorts, the 3-year event-free survival (EFS) was 29·6% and 78·7%, respectively (P=0·01). These results show that, compared to historical controls, intermediate dose of imatinib given concomitantly with chemotherapy and followed by allogeneic HSCT markedly improved early EFS in paediatric Ph+ ALL.
Related JoVE Video
Bovine parthenogenotes produced by inhibition of first or second polar bodies emission.
Biocell
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Parthenogenetic embryos are an ethically acceptable alternative for the derivation of human embryonic stem cells. In this work, we propose a new strategy to produce bovine parthenogenetic embryos inhibiting the emission of the first polar body during in vitro maturation, and allowing the extrusion of the second polar body during oocyte activation. Cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of actin microfilaments, was employed during in vitro maturation to inhibit first polar body emission or during parthenogenetic activation to block second polar body emission. Only one polar body was inhibited in each strategy in order to keep the diploid chromosome set. In experiment 1, the effect of cytochalasin B on in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes was evaluated. Most oocytes (77%) were arrested at a meiotic stage characterized by the presence of a large internal metaphase plate and absence of polar body. In experiment 2, development of embryos exposed to cytochalasin B during in vitro maturation (CytoB-IVM) or during activation (CytoB-ACT) was compared. Developmental rates did not differ between diploidization strategies, even when three agents were employed to induce activation. Both groups, CytoB-IVM and CytoB-ACT, tended to maintain diploidy. CytoB-IVM parthenogenesis could help to obtain embryos with a higher degree of homology to the oocyte donor.
Related JoVE Video
Assessment of silent microembolism by magnetic resonance imaging after cardioversion in atrial fibrillation.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed)
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study electrical cardioversion in patients with atrial fibrillation as a potential cause of acute ischemic brain lesions.
Related JoVE Video
[Education about healthy sexual behaviors among high school students].
Rev Med Chil
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The need to educate adolescents about healthy sexual behavior motivated the development of an education program on sexuality.
Related JoVE Video
Alterations in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity and PTEN phosphatase in the prefrontal cortex of depressed suicide victims.
Neuropsychobiology
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent studies have reported alterations in protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt and in its downstream target, glycogen synthase kinase 3?, in depression and suicide. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible impairment of the upstream regulators, namely phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and PTEN.
Related JoVE Video
Concomitant turkey herpesvirus-infectious bursal disease vector vaccine and oil-adjuvanted inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine administration: consequences for vaccine intake and protection.
Avian Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hatchery vaccination protocols in day-old chicks are designed to provide early priming and protection against several poultry diseases including, but not limited to, Mareks disease (MD), infectious bursal disease (IBD), and Newcastle disease (ND). The constraint of concomitant administration of live MD and IBD vaccines plus ND inactivated oil-adjuvanted vaccines (IOAVs) requires improvements in vaccine technology. Single-needle concomitant subcutaneous (SC) application of IBD/MDV and killed NDV vaccine and the use of viral vectors for expression of immunogenic proteins are a current trend in the industry. The objective of this work was to assess the compatibility of a turkey herpesvirus (HVT)-infectious bursal disease (vHVT-IBD) vector vaccine applied simultaneously with IOAV and to evaluate the consequences for vaccine intake, the need for additional immunizations with the respective vaccines, and protection. Five separate trials were performed using double- and/or single-needle injectors. The levels and persistence of vaccine intake, serologic response, vHVT-IBD virus combination with the MD Rispens strain, and/or live NDV vaccination were also assessed. Histopathology and PCR at injection sites showed adequate vaccine intake detected up to 44 days postvaccination. Serologic evidence of vaccine priming was observed, and all vaccinated groups differed (P < 0.05) from the control at different time points. MD, NDV, and IBD protection results after concomitant double-shot single-needle vaccination were near 85%, 95%, and 100%, respectively. Taken together the results indicate no deleterious effects on the efficacy of the vHVT-IBD vaccine monitored by vaccine intake, serologic and challenge results, and combinations after concomitant live/killed vaccination, suggesting the suitability of its use in hatchery vaccination. All types of injectors used as well as injection techniques, vaccines injected separately or together, gave the same results.
Related JoVE Video
Resistance to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus accumulation in the tomato wild relative Solanum habrochaites associated with the C4 viral protein.
Mol. Plant Microbe Interact.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) is a severe threat to tomato crops worldwide and is caused by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and several other begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae). Host plant resistance is the best TYLCD control method but limited sources of resistance are available. In this study, two Solanum habrochaites TYLCD-resistance sources, EELM-388 and EELM-889, were found after a wide germplasm screening and were further characterized. A consistent resistance to the widely distributed strain TYLCV-IL was observed when plants were inoculated by Bemisia tabaci or by agroinoculation using an infectious clone, with no symptoms or virus accumulation observed in inoculated plants. Moreover, the resistance was effective under field conditions with high TYLCD pressure. Two independent loci, one dominant and one recessive, were associated with EELM-889 resistance. The study shows these loci to be distinct from that of the resistance gene (Ty-1 gene) commonly deployed in commercial tomato cultivars. Therefore, both kinds of resistance could be combined to provide improved resistance to TYLCD. Four additional TYLCD-associated viruses were challenged, showing that the resistance always prevented symptom expression, although systemic infection could occur in some cases. By using chimeric and mutant expression constructs, the C4 protein was shown to be associated with the ability to result in effective systemic infection.
Related JoVE Video
Surgical endodontic management of an invasive cervical resorption class 4 with mineral trioxide aggregate: a 6-year follow-up.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Invasive cervical resorption is a type of external resorption rarely seen as an adverse effect after a guided tissue regeneration procedure for a periodontal condition. This case report summarizes the surgical endodontic management of an invasive cervical resorption class 4 (Heithersay) with mineral trioxide aggregate, in a mandibular incisor of a 67-year-old man. A 6-year clinical follow-up with radiovisiography and cone-beam computerized tomography revealed complete healing. A surgical endodontic management could promote healing and survival of a tooth with advanced root resorption due to a periodontal condition.
Related JoVE Video
Hemodynamic changes during pregnancy and postpartum: a prospective study using thoracic electrical bioimpedance.
J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To describe hemodynamic changes in normal pregnancy and postpartum by means of thoracic electrical bioimpedance (TEB).
Related JoVE Video
Novel methods to induce exogenous gene expression in SCNT, parthenogenic and IVF preimplantation bovine embryos.
Transgenic Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The import of exogenous DNA (eDNA) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus represents a key intracellular obstacle for efficient gene delivery in mammalian cells. In this study, cumulus cells or oolemma vesicles previously incubated with eDNA, and naked eDNA were injected into the cytoplasm of MII oocytes to evaluate their efficiency for eDNA expressing bovine embryo production. Our study evaluated the potential of short time co-incubation (5 min) of eDNA with; (1) cumulus cells, to be used as donor cells for SCNT and (2) oolemma vesicles (vesicles) to produce parthenogenic transgene expressing embryos. In addition, we included a group consisting of the injection of eDNA alone (plasmid) followed by parthenogenic activation. Two different pCX-EGFP plasmid concentrations (50 and 500 ng/?l) were employed. The results showed that embryos produced by SCNT and by vesicle injection assisted by chemical activation were able to express the eDNA in higher rates than embryos injected with plasmid alone. The lower plasmid concentration allowed the highest development rates in all groups. Using confocal microscopy, we analyzed the interaction of FITC- labeled eDNA with cumulus cells and vesicles as well as oocytes injected with labeled plasmid alone. Our images demonstrated that eDNA interacted with cumulus cells and vesicles, resulting an increase in its expression efficiency. In contrast, oocytes injected with DNA alone did not show signs of transgene accumulation, and their eDNA expression rates were lower. In a further experiment, we evaluated if transgene-expressing embryos could be produced by means of vesicle injection followed by IVF. The lower plasmid concentration (50 ng/?l) injected after IVF, produced the best results. Preliminary FISH analysis indicated detectable integration events in 1/5 of SCNT blastocysts treated. Our studies demonstrate for the first time that short term transgene co-incubation with somatic cells can produce transgene-expressing mammalian SCNT embryos and also that parthenogenic, eDNA- expressing embryos can be obtained by injection of vesicles or eDNA alone. Moreover, eDNA-expressing embryos can be also obtained by cytoplasmic injection vesicles in IVF zygotes, simplifying the traditional IVF pronuclear injection technique.
Related JoVE Video
Age estimation through histological study of trabecular volume and cortical bone width of the iliac crest.
Sci. Justice
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There have been many methods proposed to estimate the age of human bones in forensic medicine or in forensic anthropology, including those that assess histological structures. In this study, age was evaluated through the histomorphometric study of trabecular volume and cortical width of the right iliac crest. A total of 25 samples A total of 66 samples (42 male and 24 female) were obtained from necropsies of judicial cases, with ages ranging from 13 to 58years, who had died a sudden or violent death. The samples were obtained using Bordiers trocar for bone biopsy, in a period not exceeding 24h after death. The samples were examined without decalcification, with 96° alcohol dehydration, embedding in methyl methacrylate, and sectioned with a microtome Reichert (3?m). The sections were fixed on microscope slides and stained using toluidine blue, Goldner trichrome and hematoxylin-eosin methods. The samples were studied under a Leica DM LB microscope and the images were digitally captured. The digital images were processed using an image analysis program and data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical package. The results demonstrated that the combination of the trabecular volume and cortical width acted as predictors of the age in subjects which did not suffer from any deterioration of bone and/or mineral metabolism.
Related JoVE Video
Lower levels of interleukin-12 precede the development of tuberculosis among HIV-infected women.
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) is the worldwide leading cause of death among HIV-infected individuals, accounting for more than half of AIDS-related deaths. A high risk of tuberculosis (TB) has been shown in early stages of the HIV disease, even in the presence of normal CD4(+) cell counts. Moreover, the factors that determine protective immunity vs. susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis cannot be fully explained by simple changes in IFN? levels or a shift from Th1 to Th2 cytokines. This work investigated the relationship between cytokine expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and susceptibility to M. tuberculosis in 10 HIV+ women who went onto develop TB. RNA transcripts for IL-4, IL-4?2, IL-10, IL-12(p35), IL-13, IL-17A, IFN? and TNF? were measured by real-time quantitative PCR in unstimulated or TB peptide antigen-stimulated PBMCs from 10 HIV+ women with positive tuberculin skin tests (TST) and compared with HIV-seropositive and seronegative women without previous TB and negative TST. Stimulated PBMC cultures showed significantly lower expression of IL-12p35 (p=0.004) and IL-10 (p=0.026) in the HIV+TB+ group 6-12months before onset of TB compared to HIV+TB- women. Unstimulated PBMC from HIV+TB+ women also had lower expression of Th2 cytokines [IL-4 (p=0.056) and IL-13 (p=0.050)] compared to HIV+TB- women. These results suggest that lower IL-12 production by PBMC in response to TB antigens and lower levels of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines by PBMC correlate with future development of TB in HIV-infected women and may be responsible for their increased susceptibility.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) and its inhibitor, Noggin, on in vitro maturation and culture of bovine preimplantation embryos.
Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BMP4 is a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily and Noggin is a potent BMP inhibitor that exerts its function by binding to BMPs preventing interactions with its receptors. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of BMP4 and Noggin, on oocytes in vitro maturation (m experiments) and embryos in vitro development (c experiments) of bovine.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of cinacalcet on parathyroid hormone level in hypercalcemic hyperparathyroidism of patients with renal transplantation].
Med Clin (Barc)
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cinacalcet reduces parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in uremic hyperparathyroidism (HPT), and in renal transplantation it is useful in the management of HPT with hypercalcemia. Our main aim is to evaluate if cinacalcet administered once daily, reduces and maintains reduced PTH levels for 24 hours in renal transplant recipients with HPT and hypercalcemia.
Related JoVE Video
Increased neurotransmitter release at the neuromuscular junction in a mouse model of polyglutamine disease.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In Huntingtons disease (HD), the expansion of polyglutamine (polyQ) repeats at the N terminus of the ubiquitous protein huntingtin (htt) leads to neurodegeneration in specific brain areas. Neurons degenerating in HD develop synaptic dysfunctions. However, it is unknown whether mutant htt impacts synaptic function in general. To investigate that, we have focused on the nerve terminals of motor neurons that typically do not degenerate in HD. Here, we have studied synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction of transgenic mice expressing a mutant form of htt (R6/1 mice). We have found that the size and frequency of miniature endplate potentials are similar in R6/1 and control mice. In contrast, the amplitude of evoked endplate potentials in R6/1 mice is increased compared to controls. Consistent with a presynaptic increase of release probability, synaptic depression under high-frequency stimulation is higher in R6/1 mice. In addition, no changes were detected in the size and dynamics of the recycling synaptic vesicle pool. Moreover, we have found increased amounts of the synaptic vesicle proteins synaptobrevin 1,2/VAMP 1,2 and cysteine string protein-?, and the SNARE protein SNAP-25, concomitant with normal levels of other synaptic vesicle markers. Our results reveal that the transgenic expression of a mutant form of htt leads to an unexpected gain of synaptic function. That phenotype is likely not secondary to neurodegeneration and might be due to a primary deregulation in synaptic protein levels. Our findings could be relevant to understand synaptic toxic effects of proteins with abnormal polyQ repeats.
Related JoVE Video
Cytokine expression and microglial activation in progressive supranuclear palsy.
Parkinsonism Relat. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although little is known about the etiology of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), genetic and epigenetic factors, oxidative injury and inflammation are thought to contribute to its development and/or progression. Evidence for activated glia involvement in PSP has raised the possibility that neuroinflammation may contribute to its pathogenesis. To investigate the correlation between neuroinflammation and PSP, a comparative study was conducted on the patterns of cytokine expression in different regions of the brains of PSP, Alzheimers disease (AD) patients and normal controls. Our results show different patterns of cytokine expression in each disease, with the expression of IL-1? transcripts being significantly higher in the substantia nigra of PSP than in AD and controls, while AD brains had significantly higher IL-1? expression in the parietal cortex compared to PSP and controls. In addition, expression of TGF? was significantly higher in the cortical areas (particularly frontal and parietal lobes) of AD compared to PSP and controls. These results show a disease-specific topographical relationship among the expression of certain cytokines (IL-1? and TGF?), microglial activation and neurodegenerative changes, suggesting that these cytokines may contribute to the pathologic process. If so, the use of cytokine-inhibitors and/or other anti-inflammatory agents may be able to slow disease progression in PSP.
Related JoVE Video
[Sphenopalatinum foramen: an anatomical study].
Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The position of the sphenopalatine artery is essential for the endoscopic treatment of severe posterior epistaxis. This artery passes through its own foramen, which has a wide range of locations and anatomic relations.
Related JoVE Video
Assessment of age and sex by means of DXA bone densitometry: application in forensic anthropology.
Forensic Sci. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Today we are witnessing a genuine revolution in diagnostic imaging techniques. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) quantifies bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). This technique has rarely been used in Forensic Anthropology, although its practical application has been demonstrated by various authors. In this article, we look into the conduct of bone mineral density in the femoral neck, the trochanter, the intertrochanter, the proximal femur and Wards triangle, in relation to anthropometric age and sex parameters. The research was carried out on 70 persons - 38 men and 32 women - and the results obtained show significant correlations between bone mineral density measurements and anthropometric values. The research demonstrates bone mineral density to be a useful technique for sex and age data in forensic anthropology, particularly in the measurements observed in the Wards triangle area.
Related JoVE Video
Efficiency of sperm-mediated gene transfer in the ovine by laparoscopic insemination, in vitro fertilization and ICSI.
J. Reprod. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Transgenesis constitutes an important tool for pharmacological protein production and livestock improvement. We evaluated the potential of laparoscopic insemination (LI), in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to produce egfp-expressing ovine embryos, using spermatozoa previously exposed to pCX-EGFP plasmid in two different sperm/DNA incubation treatments: "Long Incubation" (2 h at 17 C) and "Short Incubation" (5 min at 5 C). For LI, Merino sheep were superovulated and inseminated with treated fresh semen from Merino rams. The embryos were recovered by flushing the uterine horns. For IVF and ICSI, slaughterhouse oocytes were fertilized with DNA-treated frozen/thawed sperm. All recovered embryos were exposed to blue light (488 nm) to determine green fluorescent morulae and blastocysts rates. High cleavage and morulae/blastocysts rates accompanied the LI and IVF procedures, but no egfp-expressing embryos resulted. In contrast, regardless of the sperm/plasmid incubation treatment, egfp-expressing morulae and blastocysts were always obtained by ICSI, and the highest transgenesis rate (91.6%) was achieved with Short Incubation. In addition, following the incubation of labeled plasmid DNA, after Long or Short exposure treatments, with fresh or frozen/thawed spermatozoa, only non-motile fresh spermatozoa could maintain an attached plasmid after washing procedures. No amplification product could be detected following PCR treatment of LI embryos whose zonae pellucidae (ZP) had been removed. In order to establish conditions for transgenic ICSI in the ovine, we compared three different activation treatments, and over 60% of the obtained blastocysts expressed the transgene. For ICSI embryos, FISH analysis found possible signals compatible with integration events. In conclusion, our results show that in the ovine, under the conditions studied, ICSI is the only method capable of producing exogenous gene-expressing embryos using spermatozoa as vectors.
Related JoVE Video
Activation with ionomycin followed by dehydroleucodine and cytochalasin B for the production of parthenogenetic and cloned bovine embryos.
Cell Reprogram
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this work, Dehydroleucodine (DhL) was evaluated as a chemical activator of bovine oocytes and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) reconstituted embryos. Oocytes were activated with 5 microM Ionomycin (Io) and exposed for 3 h to 1 or 5 microM DhL alone (Io-Dhl1 or Io-DhL5) or combined with Cytochalasin B (Io-DhL1/CB; Io-DhL5/CB). Control groups were Io (Io), Io followed by 1.9 mM 6-Dimethylaminopurine (Io-6DMAP), and embryos produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF). Pronuclear formation and development to blastocysts of activated oocytes were evaluated. Embryos obtained by the DhL concentration that induced the highest blastocyst rates (1 microM) were karyotyped. An additional treatment based in Io-DhL1 plus lengthened (6-h) exposure to CB (Io-DhL1/long CB) was included to improve the proportion of diploid blastomeres. Finally, DhL combined with CB was employed to assist cloning by intracytoplasmic injection of whole cumulus cells. Results showed that DhL induces a pronuclear formation dynamic that was more similar to IVF-produced embryos than DMAP. Development to blastocyst stage was higher after activation with 1 microM DhL than with 5 microM DhL, either for groups combined or not with CB (19.15; 21.74 vs. 6.82; 0%, respectively) (p < 0.05). Io-DhL1 and Io-DhL1/CB treatments induced blastocyst-cleaved embryo ratios not statistically different from those of Io-DMAP (35.85%) and IVF (33.33%) groups (p > 0.05). Io-DhL1/long CB induced higher diploid blastomere rates than Io-Dhl1, Io-DhL1/CB and Io-DMAP (63.8 vs. 36.8; 40 and 31.6%, respectively) (p < 0.05). Moreover, all DhL treatments resulted in polyploidy rates that were lower than Io-DMAP (5.2, 12.0, 10.6, and 31.6%, respectively) (p < 0.05). Io-DhL1/CB and Io-DhL1/long CB induced cloned embryo blastocyst rates that were not significantly different from Io-DMAP (6.1, 9.4, and 18.3%, respectively) (p < 0.05). Our results indicate that Io-DhL1/long CB protocol could be useful for SCNT programs.
Related JoVE Video
Correlations among inflammatory markers in plasma, saliva and oral mucosal transudate in post-menopausal women with past intimate partner violence.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The relationship between psychosocial factors and an increased risk for disease has been related to a heightened pro-inflammatory status reflected in increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and/or C-reactive protein (CRP). Routinely, epidemiological studies rely on measurements of inflammatory markers in serum or plasma, but the use of biological fluids such as saliva or oral mucosal transudate (OMT) may offer potential advantages. This study investigated correlations among plasma CRP and levels of IL-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) in plasma, saliva and OMT in a population of middle aged women with histories of past intimate partner violence (IPV). A total of 67 women without existing chronic diseases participated in the study, which included two visits each in which psychological tests were administered, and blood, saliva and OMT samples were collected. Although significantly higher plasma CRP levels were found in past IPV sufferers compared to controls, there were no significant differences in IL-6 or sIL-6R levels in plasma, saliva or OMT between the two groups. There were only relatively modest correlations between IL-6 levels in plasma and those in saliva or OMT and between plasma IL-6 and CRP levels. A significant correlation between IL-6 and sIL-6R levels in both saliva and OMT, but not in plasma, was also detected. No significant correlations were found between levels of IL-6 in saliva or OMT and periodontal health measures. Results indicate that IL-6 and sIL-6R levels in saliva or OMT do not closely reflect those in plasma, and therefore are not a good surrogate for systemic levels.
Related JoVE Video
Structural analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-galactosidase and its complexes with natural substrates reveals new insights into substrate specificity of GH27 glycosidases.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Alpha-galactosidases catalyze the hydrolysis of terminal alpha-1,6-galactosyl units from galacto-oligosaccharides and polymeric galactomannans. The crystal structures of tetrameric Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-galactosidase and its complexes with the substrates melibiose and raffinose have been determined to 1.95, 2.40, and 2.70 A resolution. The monomer folds into a catalytic (alpha/beta)(8) barrel and a C-terminal beta-sandwich domain with unassigned function. This pattern is conserved with other family 27 glycosidases, but this enzyme presents a unique 45-residue insertion in the beta-sandwich domain that folds over the barrel protecting it from the solvent and likely explaining its high stability. The structure of the complexes and the mutational analysis show that oligomerization is a key factor in substrate binding, as the substrates are located in a deep cavity making direct interactions with the adjacent subunit. Furthermore, docking analysis suggests that the supplementary domain could be involved in binding sugar units distal from the scissile bond, therefore ascribing a role in fine-tuning substrate specificity to this domain. It may also have a role in promoting association with the polymeric substrate because of the ordered arrangement that the four domains present in one face of the tetramer. Our analysis extends to other family 27 glycosidases, where some traits regarding specificity and oligomerization can be formulated on the basis of their sequence and the structures available. These results improve our knowledge on the activity of this important family of enzymes and give a deeper insight into the structural features that rule modularity and protein-carbohydrate interactions.
Related JoVE Video
Sequence diversity of genes encoding botulinum neurotoxin type F.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Botulism due to type F botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT/F) is rare (<1% of cases), and only a limited number of clostridial strains producing this toxin type have been isolated. As a result, analysis of the diversity of genes encoding BoNT/F has been challenging. In this study, the entire bont/F nucleotide sequences were determined from 33 type F botulinum toxin-producing clostridial strains isolated from environmental sources and botulism outbreak investigations. We examined proteolytic and nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum type F strains, bivalent strains, including Bf and Af, and Clostridium baratii type F strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the bont/F genes examined formed 7 subtypes (F1 to F7) and that the nucleotide sequence identities of these subtypes differed by up to 25%. The genes from proteolytic (group I) C. botulinum strains formed subtypes F1 through F5, while the genes from nonproteolytic (group II) C. botulinum strains formed subtype F6. Subtype F7 was composed exclusively of bont/F genes from C. baratii strains. The region of the bont/F5 gene encoding the neurotoxin light chain was found to be highly divergent compared to the other subtypes. Although the bont/F5 nucleotide sequences were found to be identical in strains harboring this gene, the gene located directly upstream (ntnh/F) demonstrated sequence variation among representative strains of this subtype. These results demonstrate that extensive nucleotide diversity exists among genes encoding type F neurotoxins from strains with different phylogenetic backgrounds and from various geographical sources.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.