JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Untangling dopamine-adenosine receptor assembly in experimental parkinsonism.
Dis Model Mech
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a dopaminergic-related pathology in which basal ganglia functioning are altered. It has been postulated that a direct receptor-receptor - i.e. dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) and adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) - interaction may be finely regulating this brain area. Accordingly, elucidating whether the pathology prompts changes on these structures could grant valuable information for the design of new PD therapies. Here, we first resolved a long-standing question concerning D2R-A2AR assembly in native tissue. Thus, by means of different complementary experimental approaches (i.e. immunoelectron microscopy, proximity ligation assay and TR-FRET), we unambiguously identified native D2R/A2AR oligomers in rat striatum. Subsequently, we determined that under pathological conditions (i.e. in a rat PD model) D2R-A2AR interaction was impaired. Collectively, these results provide definitive evidence for a native D2R/A2AR oligomer alteration in experimental parkinsonism, thus conferring the rationale for appropriate oligomer-based PD treatments.
Related JoVE Video
Coassembly and Coupling of SK2 Channels and mGlu5 Receptors.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Group I metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors regulate hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron excitability via Ca(2+) wave-dependent activation of small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels. Here, we show that mGlu5 receptors and SK2 channels coassemble in heterologous coexpression systems and in rat brain. Further, in cotransfected cells or rat primary hippocampal neurons, mGlu5 receptor stimulation activated apamin-sensitive SK2-mediated K(+) currents. In addition, coexpression of mGlu5 receptors and SK2 channels promoted plasma membrane targeting of both proteins and correlated with increased mGlu5 receptor function that was unexpectedly blocked by apamin. These results demonstrate a reciprocal functional interaction between mGlu5 receptors and SK2 channels that reflects their molecular coassembly.
Related JoVE Video
Endocannabinoids Induce Lateral Long-Term Potentiation of Transmitter Release by Stimulation of Gliotransmission.
Cereb. Cortex
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Endocannabinoids (eCBs) play key roles in brain function, acting as modulatory signals in synaptic transmission and plasticity. They are recognized as retrograde messengers that mediate long-term synaptic depression (LTD), but their ability to induce long-term potentiation (LTP) is poorly known. We show that eCBs induce the long-term enhancement of transmitter release at single hippocampal synapses through stimulation of astrocytes when coincident with postsynaptic activity. This LTP requires the coordinated activity of the 3 elements of the tripartite synapse: 1) eCB-evoked astrocyte calcium signal that stimulates glutamate release; 2) postsynaptic nitric oxide production; and 3) activation of protein kinase C and presynaptic group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, whose location at presynaptic sites was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. Hence, while eCBs act as retrograde signals to depress homoneuronal synapses, they serve as lateral messengers to induce LTP in distant heteroneuronal synapses through stimulation of astrocytes. Therefore, eCBs can trigger LTP through stimulation of astrocyte-neuron signaling, revealing novel cellular mechanisms of eCB effects on synaptic plasticity.
Related JoVE Video
Cav1.3 channels control D2-autoreceptor responses via NCS-1 in substantia nigra dopamine neurons.
Brain
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dopamine midbrain neurons within the substantia nigra are particularly prone to degeneration in Parkinson's disease. Their selective loss causes the major motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, but the causes for the high vulnerability of SN DA neurons, compared to neighbouring, more resistant ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons, are still unclear. Consequently, there is still no cure available for Parkinson's disease. Current therapies compensate the progressive loss of dopamine by administering its precursor l-DOPA and/or dopamine D2-receptor agonists. D2-autoreceptors and Cav1.3-containing L-type Ca(2+) channels both contribute to Parkinson's disease pathology. L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers protect SN DA neurons from degeneration in Parkinson's disease and its mouse models, and they are in clinical trials for neuroprotective Parkinson's disease therapy. However, their physiological functions in SN DA neurons remain unclear. D2-autoreceptors tune firing rates and dopamine release of SN DA neurons in a negative feedback loop through activation of G-protein coupled potassium channels (GIRK2, or KCNJ6). Mature SN DA neurons display prominent, non-desensitizing somatodendritic D2-autoreceptor responses that show pronounced desensitization in PARK-gene Parkinson's disease mouse models. We analysed surviving human SN DA neurons from patients with Parkinson's disease and from controls, and detected elevated messenger RNA levels of D2-autoreceptors and GIRK2 in Parkinson's disease. By electrophysiological analysis of postnatal juvenile and adult mouse SN DA neurons in in vitro brain-slices, we observed that D2-autoreceptor desensitization is reduced with postnatal maturation. Furthermore, a transient high-dopamine state in vivo, caused by one injection of either l-DOPA or cocaine, induced adult-like, non-desensitizing D2-autoreceptor responses, selectively in juvenile SN DA neurons, but not ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. With pharmacological and genetic tools, we identified that the expression of this sensitized D2-autoreceptor phenotype required Cav1.3 L-type Ca(2+) channel activity, internal Ca(2+), and the interaction of the neuronal calcium sensor NCS-1 with D2-autoreceptors. Thus, we identified a first physiological function of Cav1.3 L-type Ca(2+) channels in SN DA neurons for homeostatic modulation of their D2-autoreceptor responses. L-type Ca(2+) channel activity however, was not important for pacemaker activity of mouse SN DA neurons. Furthermore, we detected elevated substantia nigra dopamine messenger RNA levels of NCS-1 (but not Cav1.2 or Cav1.3) after cocaine in mice, as well as in remaining human SN DA neurons in Parkinson's disease. Thus, our findings provide a novel homeostatic functional link in SN DA neurons between Cav1.3- L-type-Ca(2+) channels and D2-autoreceptor activity, controlled by NCS-1, and indicate that this adaptive signalling network (Cav1.3/NCS-1/D2/GIRK2) is also active in human SN DA neurons, and contributes to Parkinson's disease pathology. As it is accessible to pharmacological modulation, it provides a novel promising target for tuning substantia nigra dopamine neuron activity, and their vulnerability to degeneration.
Related JoVE Video
RGS7/G?5/R7BP complex regulates synaptic plasticity and memory by modulating hippocampal GABABR-GIRK signaling.
Elife
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the hippocampus, the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA shapes the activity of the output pyramidal neurons and plays important role in cognition. Most of its inhibitory effects are mediated by signaling from GABAB receptor to the G protein-gated Inwardly-rectifying K+ (GIRK) channels. Here, we show that RGS7, in cooperation with its binding partner R7BP, regulates GABABR-GIRK signaling in hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Deletion of RGS7 in mice dramatically sensitizes GIRK responses to GABAB receptor stimulation and markedly slows channel deactivation kinetics. Enhanced activity of this signaling pathway leads to decreased neuronal excitability and selective disruption of inhibitory forms of synaptic plasticity. As a result, mice lacking RGS7 exhibit deficits in learning and memory. We further report that RGS7 is selectively modulated by its membrane anchoring subunit R7BP, which sets the dynamic range of GIRK responses. Together, these results demonstrate a novel role of RGS7 in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory formation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02053.001.
Related JoVE Video
Hippocampal CA field neurogenesis after pilocarpine insult: The hippocampal fissure as a neurogenic niche.
J. Chem. Neuroanat.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pilocarpine model for temporal lobe epilepsy has shown aberrant neurogenesis, but mainly restricted to the dentate gyrus (DG). Herein, by using a modified protocol, combining pilocarpine with ipratropium bromide, we unexpectedly observed a heretofore-unrecognized distinct cellular population expressing the neuroprogenitor marker doublecortin (DCX) on post insult days (PID) 10, 14 and 18, mainly located in the temporal segment of the hippocampal fissure (hf). Some of these DCX+ cells possessed high morphological complexity and seemed to disperse toward the CA fields. Next, we injected bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) in early (PID 2-4) and delayed (PID 5-7) fashions and killed the rats 7-35 days later for immunohistochemical and anatomical analysis. Massive increase of BrdU labeling was found in the delayed group and the neural stem cell-specific marker nestin was highly expressed in the same narrow band on PID7, so was glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Using double labeling with BrdU and a mature neuron marker NeuN, we found discrete but clear BrdU+/NeuN+ double labeled cells in the Cornu Ammonis (CA) pyramidal cell layer on PID35. Based on immunohistochemical and anatomical observations, as well as time-course analysis of BrdU, nestin, GFAP, DCX and NeuN expressions in this population of cells located in/near hf, we wish to suggest that this structure harbors neurogenic niches, in addition of the possible dispersion of neuroprogenitors from subgranular niches to CA fields also revealed by this study. Our results support the few previous reports demonstrating hippocampal CA field neurogenesis in adult rats. Mechanistic basis of the phenomenon is discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Glutamate receptors of the delta family are widely expressed in the adult brain.
Brain Struct Funct
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent reports point to critical roles of glutamate receptor subunit delta2 (GluD2) at excitatory synapses and link GluD1 gene alteration to schizophrenia but the expression patterns of these subunits in the brain remain almost uncharacterized. We examined the distribution of GluD1-2 mRNAs and proteins in the adult rodent brain, focusing mainly on GluD1. In situ hybridization revealed widespread neuronal expression of the GluD1 mRNA, with higher levels occurring in several forebrain regions and lower levels in cerebellum. Quantitative RT-PCR assessed differential GluD1 expression in cortex and cerebellum, and revealed GluD2 expression in cortex, albeit at markedly lower level than in cerebellum. Likewise, a high GluD1/GluD2 mRNA ratio was observed in cortex and a low ratio in cerebellum. GluD1 and GluD2 mRNAs were co-expressed in single cortical and hippocampal neurons, with a large predominance of GluD1. Western blots using GluD1- and GluD2-specific antibodies showed expression of both subunits in various brain structures, but not in non-nervous tissues examined. Both delta subunits were upregulated during postnatal development. Widespread neuronal expression of the GluD1 protein was confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Examination at the electron microscopic level in the hippocampus revealed that GluD1 was mainly localized at postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses on pyramidal cells. Control experiments performed using mice carrying deletion of the GluD1- or the GluD2-encoding gene confirmed the specificity of the present mRNA and protein analyses. Our results support a role for the delta family of glutamate receptors at excitatory synapses in neuronal networks throughout the adult brain.
Related JoVE Video
Loss of neuronal 3D chromatin organization causes transcriptional and behavioural deficits related to serotonergic dysfunction.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The interior of the neuronal cell nucleus is a highly organized three-dimensional (3D) structure where regions of the genome that are linearly millions of bases apart establish sub-structures with specialized functions. To investigate neuronal chromatin organization and dynamics in vivo, we generated bitransgenic mice expressing GFP-tagged histone H2B in principal neurons of the forebrain. Surprisingly, the expression of this chimeric histone in mature neurons caused chromocenter declustering and disrupted the association of heterochromatin with the nuclear lamina. The loss of these structures did not affect neuronal viability but was associated with specific transcriptional and behavioural deficits related to serotonergic dysfunction. Overall, our results demonstrate that the 3D organization of chromatin within neuronal cells provides an additional level of epigenetic regulation of gene expression that critically impacts neuronal function. This in turn suggests that some loci associated with neuropsychiatric disorders may be particularly sensitive to changes in chromatin architecture.
Related JoVE Video
Differential subcellular localization of SK3-containing channels in the hippocampus.
Eur. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Small-conductance, Ca(2+) -activated K(+) (SK) channels are expressed in the hippocampus where they regulate synaptic responses, plasticity, and learning and memory. To investigate the expression of SK3 (KCNN3) subunits, we determined the developmental profile and subcellular distribution of SK3 in the developing mouse hippocampus using western blots, immunohistochemistry and high-resolution immunoelectron microscopy. The results showed that SK3 expression increased during postnatal development, and that the localization of SK3 changed from being mainly associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and intracellular sites during the first postnatal week to being progressively concentrated in dendritic spines during later stages. In the adult, SK3 was localized mainly in postsynaptic compartments, both at extrasynaptic sites and along the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. Double labelling showed that SK3 co-localized with SK2 (KCNN2) and with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Finally, quantitative analysis of SK3 density revealed two subcellular distribution patterns in different hippocampal layers, with SK3 being unevenly distributed in CA1 region of the hippocampus pyramidal cells and homogeneously distributed in dentate gyrus granule cells. Our results revealed a complex cell surface distribution of SK3-containing channels and a distinct developmental program that may influence different hippocampal functions.
Related JoVE Video
?-Adrenergic receptors activate exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), translocate Munc13-1, and enhance the Rab3A-RIM1? interaction to potentiate glutamate release at cerebrocortical nerve terminals.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin facilitates synaptic transmission presynaptically via cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In addition, cAMP also increases glutamate release via PKA-independent mechanisms, although the downstream presynaptic targets remain largely unknown. Here, we describe the isolation of a PKA-independent component of glutamate release in cerebrocortical nerve terminals after blocking Na(+) channels with tetrodotoxin. We found that 8-pCPT-2-O-Me-cAMP, a specific activator of the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), mimicked and occluded forskolin-induced potentiation of glutamate release. This Epac-mediated increase in glutamate release was dependent on phospholipase C, and it increased the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Moreover, the potentiation of glutamate release by Epac was independent of protein kinase C, although it was attenuated by the diacylglycerol-binding site antagonist calphostin C. Epac activation translocated the active zone protein Munc13-1 from soluble to particulate fractions; it increased the association between Rab3A and RIM1? and redistributed synaptic vesicles closer to the presynaptic membrane. Furthermore, these responses were mimicked by the ?-adrenergic receptor (?AR) agonist isoproterenol, consistent with the immunoelectron microscopy and immunocytochemical data demonstrating presynaptic expression of ?ARs in a subset of glutamatergic synapses in the cerebral cortex. Based on these findings, we conclude that ?ARs couple to a cAMP/Epac/PLC/Munc13/Rab3/RIM-dependent pathway to enhance glutamate release at cerebrocortical nerve terminals.
Related JoVE Video
New insights into the therapeutic potential of Girk channels.
Trends Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
G protein-dependent signaling pathways control the activity of excitable cells of the nervous system and heart, and are the targets of neurotransmitters, clinically relevant drugs, and drugs of abuse. G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (K(+)) (Girk/Kir3) channels are a key effector in inhibitory signaling pathways. Girk-dependent signaling contributes to nociception and analgesia, reward-related behavior, mood, cognition, and heart-rate regulation, and has been linked to epilepsy, Down syndrome, addiction, and arrhythmias. We discuss recent advances in our understanding of Girk channel structure, organization in signaling complexes, and plasticity, as well as progress on the development of subunit-selective Girk modulators. These findings offer new hope for the selective manipulation of Girk channels to treat a variety of debilitating afflictions.
Related JoVE Video
Disruption of Dopamine Neuron Activity Pattern Regulation through Selective Expression of a Human KCNN3 Mutation.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The calcium-activated small conductance potassium channel SK3 plays an essential role in the regulation of dopamine neuron activity patterns. Here we demonstrate that expression of a human disease-related SK3 mutation (hSK3?) in dopamine neurons of mice disrupts the balance between tonic and phasic dopamine neuron activity. Expression of hSK3? suppressed endogenous SK currents, reducing coupling between SK channels and NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and increasing permissiveness for burst firing. Consistent with enhanced excitability of dopamine neurons, hSK3? increased evoked calcium signals in dopamine neurons in vivo and potentiated evoked dopamine release. Specific expression of hSK3? led to deficits in attention and sensory gating and heightened sensitivity to a psychomimetic drug. Sensory-motor alterations and psychomimetic sensitivity were recapitulated in a mouse model of transient, reversible dopamine neuron activation. These results demonstrate the cell-autonomous effects of a human ion channel mutation on dopamine neuron physiology and the impact of activity pattern disruption on behavior.
Related JoVE Video
Neuronal major histocompatibility complex class I molecules are implicated in the generation of asymmetries in hippocampal circuitry.
J. Physiol. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Left-right asymmetry is a fundamental feature of higher-order brain function; however, the molecular basis of brain asymmetry has remained unclear. We have recently demonstrated asymmetries in hippocampal circuitry resulting from the asymmetrical allocation of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) subunit GluR2 (NR2B) in pyramidal cell synapses. This asymmetrical allocation of 2 subunits affects the properties of NMDARs and generates two populations of synapses, 2-dominant and 2-non-dominant synapses, according to the hemispheric origin of presynaptic inputs and cell polarity of the postsynaptic neurone. To identify key regulators for generating asymmetries, we analysed the hippocampus of ?2-microglobulin (?2m)-deficient mice lacking cell surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI). Although MHCI proteins are well known in the immune system, accumulating evidence indicates that MHCI proteins are expressed in the brain and are required for activity-dependent refinement of neuronal connections and normal synaptic plasticity. We found that ?2m proteins were localised in hippocampal synapses in wild-type mice. NMDA EPSCs in ?2m-deficient hippocampal synapses receiving inputs from both hemispheres showed similar sensitivity to Ro 25-6981, an 2 subunit-selective antagonist, with those in 2-dominant synapses for both the apical and basal synapses of pyramidal neurones. The structural features of the ?2m-deficient synapse in addition to the relationship between the stimulation frequency and synaptic plasticity were also comparable to those of 2-dominant synapses. These observations indicate that the ?2m-deficient hippocampus lacks 2-non-dominant synapses and circuit asymmetries. Our findings provide evidence supporting a critical role of MHCI molecules for generating asymmetries in hippocampal circuitry.
Related JoVE Video
Repeated cocaine weakens GABA(B)-Girk signaling in layer 5/6 pyramidal neurons in the prelimbic cortex.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Repeated cocaine exposure triggers adaptations in layer 5/6 glutamatergic neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) that promote behavioral sensitization and drug-seeking behavior. While suppression of metabotropic inhibitory signaling has been implicated in these behaviors, underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we show that Girk/K(IR)3 channels mediate most of the GABA(B) receptor (GABA(B)R)-dependent inhibition of layer 5/6 pyramidal neurons in the mPFC and that repeated cocaine suppresses this pathway. This adaptation was selective for GABA(B)R-dependent Girk signaling in layer 5/6 pyramidal neurons of the prelimbic cortex (PrLC) and involved a D?/? dopamine receptor- and phosphorylation-dependent internalization of GABA(B)R and Girk channels. Persistent suppression of Girk signaling in layer 5/6 of the dorsal mPFC enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor activity and occluded behavioral sensitization. Thus, the cocaine-induced suppression of GABA(B)R-Girk signaling in layer 5/6 pyramidal neurons of the prelimbic cortex appears to represent an early adaptation critical for promoting addiction-related behavior.
Related JoVE Video
Polarised localisation of the voltage-gated sodium channel Na(v)1.2 in cerebellar granule cells.
Cerebellum
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for action potential initiation and propagation in electrically excitable cells. In this study, we used biochemical, immunohistochemical and quantitative immunoelectron microscopy techniques to reveal the temporal and spatial expression of the Na(v)1.2 channel subunit in granule cells of cerebellum. Using histoblot, we detected Na(v)1.2 widely distributed in the adult brain, but prominently expressed in the cerebellum. During postnatal development, Na(v)1.2 mRNA and protein were detected low during the first and second postnatal week, increased to P15 and then continue to decrease until adult levels. At the light microscopic level, Na(v)1.2 immunoreactivity concentrated in the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex. Using immunofluorescence, Na(v)1.2 colocalised with VGluT1, but not with VGluT2, demonstrating that the subunit was preferentially present in parallel fibre axons and axon terminals. At the electron microscopic level, Na(v)1.2 immunoparticles were exclusively detected at presynaptic sites in granule cell axons and axon terminals of granule cells, with occasional clustering in their axon initial segment. This was demonstrated using quantitative immunogold analysis. In the axon terminals, the distribution of Na(v)1.2 was relatively uniform along the extrasynaptic plasma membrane and never detected in the active zone. We could not find detectable levels of Na(v)1.2 at postsynaptic elements of granule cells or other cerebellar cell types. The present findings show a polarised distribution of Na(v)1.2 along the neuronal surface of granule cells and suggest its primary involvement in the transmission of information from granule cells to Purkinje cells.
Related JoVE Video
Association of Rgs7/G?5 complexes with girk channels and GABAB receptors in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.
Hippocampus
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the hippocampus, signaling through G protein-coupled receptors is modulated by Regulators of G protein signaling (Rgs) proteins, which act to stimulate the rate of GTP hydrolysis, and consequently, G protein inactivation. The R7-Rgs subfamily selectively deactivates the Gi/o -class of G? subunits that mediate the action of several GPCRs. Here, we used co-immunoprecipitation, electrophysiology and immunoelectron microscopy techniques to investigate the formation of macromolecular complexes and spatial relationship of Rgs7/G?5 complexes and its prototypical signaling partners, the GABAB receptor and Girk channel. Co-expression of recombinant GABAB receptors and Girk channels in combination with co-immunoprecipitation experiments established that the Rgs7/G?5 forms complexes with GABAB receptors or Girk channels. Using electrophysiological experiments, we found that GABAB -Girk current deactivation kinetics was markedly faster in cells coexpressing Rgs7/G?5. At the electron microscopic level, immunolabeling for Rgs7 and G?5 proteins was found primarily in the dendritic layers of the hippocampus and showed similar distribution patterns. Immunoreactivity was mostly localized along the extrasynaptic plasma membrane of dendritic shafts and spines of pyramidal cells and, to a lesser extent, to that of presynaptic terminals. Quantitative analysis of immunogold particles for Rgs7 and G?5 revealed an enrichment of the two proteins around excitatory synapses on dendritic spines, virtually identical to that of Girk2 and GABAB1 . These data support the existence of macromolecular complexes composed of GABAB receptor-G protein-Rgs7-Girk channels in which Rgs7 and G?5 proteins may preferentialy modulate GABAB receptor signaling through the deactivation of Girk channels on dendritic spines. In contrast, Rgs7 and Girk2 were associated but mainly segregated from GABAB1 in dendritic shafts, where Rgs7/G?5 signaling complexes might modulate Girk-dependent signaling via a different metabotropic receptor(s). © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Related JoVE Video
Suppressing aberrant GluN3A expression rescues synaptic and behavioral impairments in Huntingtons disease models.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Huntingtons disease is caused by an expanded polyglutamine repeat in the huntingtin protein (HTT), but the pathophysiological sequence of events that trigger synaptic failure and neuronal loss are not fully understood. Alterations in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) have been implicated. Yet, it remains unclear how the HTT mutation affects NMDAR function, and direct evidence for a causative role is missing. Here we show that mutant HTT redirects an intracellular store of juvenile NMDARs containing GluN3A subunits to the surface of striatal neurons by sequestering and disrupting the subcellular localization of the endocytic adaptor PACSIN1, which is specific for GluN3A. Overexpressing GluN3A in wild-type mouse striatum mimicked the synapse loss observed in Huntingtons disease mouse models, whereas genetic deletion of GluN3A prevented synapse degeneration, ameliorated motor and cognitive decline and reduced striatal atrophy and neuronal loss in the YAC128 Huntingtons disease mouse model. Furthermore, GluN3A deletion corrected the abnormally enhanced NMDAR currents, which have been linked to cell death in Huntingtons disease and other neurodegenerative conditions. Our findings reveal an early pathogenic role of GluN3A dysregulation in Huntingtons disease and suggest that therapies targeting GluN3A or pathogenic HTT-PACSIN1 interactions might prevent or delay disease progression.
Related JoVE Video
Dendrimer-mediated siRNA delivery knocks down Beclin 1 and potentiates NMDA-mediated toxicity in rat cortical neurons.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Autophagy is an important process which plays a key role in cellular homeostasis by degrading cytoplasmic components in the lysosomes, which facilitates recycling. Alterations to normal autophagy have been linked to excitotoxicity, but the mechanisms governing its signal transduction remain unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the role of autophagy in neuronal excitotoxic death by delivering small interfering RNA (siRNA) to rat cortical neurons, using a dendrimer to silence the autophagy-related gene 6 (beclin 1) and to determine the role of autophagy in excitotoxicity. We have found that the dendrimer is very efficient to deliver siRNA to rat cortical neurons, leading to almost complete removal of the target protein Beclin 1. In addition, NMDA increases autophagy markers, such as the protein levels of Beclin 1, the microtubule-associated light chain 3 (LC3) B-II/LC3B-I ratio, and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) labeling in rat cortical neurons. Moreover, NMDA also increases the formation of autophagosomes observed under a transmission electron microscope. Silencing beclin 1 expression blocked NMDA-induced autophagy. Moreover, Beclin 1 removal potentiated NMDA-induced neuronal death indicating that autophagy plays a protective role during excitotoxicity and suggesting that targeting autophagy might be a helpful therapeutic strategy in neurodegenerative diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Developmental regulation of G protein-gated inwardly-rectifying K+ (GIRK/Kir3) channel subunits in the brain.
Eur. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
G protein-gated inwardly-rectifying K(+) (GIRK/family 3 of inwardly-rectifying K(+) ) channels are coupled to neurotransmitter action and can play important roles in modulating neuronal excitability. We investigated the temporal and spatial expression of GIRK1, GIRK2 and GIRK3 subunits in the developing and adult brain of mice and rats using biochemical, immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic techniques. At all ages analysed, the overall distribution patterns of GIRK1-3 were very similar, with high expression levels in the neocortex, cerebellum, hippocampus and thalamus. Focusing on the hippocampus, histoblotting and immunohistochemistry showed that GIRK1-3 protein levels increased with age, and this was accompanied by a shift in the subcellular localization of the subunits. Early in development (postnatal day 5), GIRK subunits were predominantly localized to the endoplasmic reticulum in the pyramidal cells, but by postnatal day 60 they were mostly found along the plasma membrane. During development, GIRK1 and GIRK2 were found primarily at postsynaptic sites, whereas GIRK3 was predominantly detected at presynaptic sites. In addition, GIRK1 and GIRK2 expression on the spine plasma membrane showed identical proximal-to-distal gradients that differed from GIRK3 distribution. Furthermore, although GIRK1 was never found within the postsynaptic density (PSD), the level of GIRK2 in the PSD progressively increased and GIRK3 did not change in the PSD during development. Together, these findings shed new light on the developmental regulation and subcellular diversity of neuronal GIRK channels, and support the contention that distinct subpopulations of GIRK channels exert separable influences on neuronal excitability. The ability to selectively target specific subpopulations of GIRK channels may prove effective in the treatment of disorders of excitability.
Related JoVE Video
Chromogranins A and B are key proteins in amine accumulation, but the catecholamine secretory pathway is conserved without them.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chromogranins are the main soluble proteins in the large dense core secretory vesicles (LDCVs) found in aminergic neurons and chromaffin cells. We recently demonstrated that chromogranins A and B each regulate the concentration of adrenaline in chromaffin granules and its exocytosis. Here we have further studied the role played by these proteins by generating mice lacking both chromogranins. Surprisingly, these animals are both viable and fertile. Although chromogranins are thought to be essential for their biogenesis, LDCVs were evident in these mice. These vesicles do have a somewhat atypical appearance and larger size. Despite their increased size, single-cell amperometry recordings from chromaffin cells showed that the amine content in these vesicles is reduced by half. These data demonstrate that although chromogranins regulate the amine concentration in LDCVs, they are not completely essential, and other proteins unrelated to neurosecretion, such as fibrinogen, might compensate for their loss to ensure that vesicles are generated and the secretory pathway conserved.
Related JoVE Video
Developmental profile of SK2 channel expression and function in CA1 neurons.
Hippocampus
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated the temporal and spatial expression of SK2 in the developing mouse hippocampus using molecular and biochemical techniques, quantitative immunogold electron microscopy, and electrophysiology. The mRNA encoding SK2 was expressed in the developing and adult hippocampus. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry showed that SK2 protein increased with age. This was accompanied by a shift in subcellular localization. Early in development (P5), SK2 was predominantly localized to the endoplasmic reticulum in the pyramidal cell layer. But by P30 SK2 was almost exclusively expressed in the dendrites and spines. The level of SK2 at the postsynaptic density (PSD) also increased during development. In the adult, SK2 expression on the spine plasma membrane showed a proximal-to-distal gradient. Consistent with this redistribution and gradient of SK2, the selective SK channel blocker apamin increased evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) only in CA1 pyramidal neurons from mice older than P15. However, the effect of apamin on EPSPs was not different between synapses in proximal or distal stratum radiatum or stratum lacunosum-moleculare in adult. These results show a developmental increase and gradient in SK2-containing channel surface expression that underlie their influence on neurotransmission, and that may contribute to increased memory acquisition during early development.
Related JoVE Video
Acute cocaine exposure weakens GABA(B) receptor-dependent G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying K+ signaling in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Enhanced glutamatergic neurotransmission in dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), triggered by a single cocaine injection, represents an early adaptation linked to the more enduring effects of abused drugs that characterize addiction. Here, we examined the impact of in vivo cocaine exposure on metabotropic inhibitory signaling involving G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying K(+) (Girk) channels in VTA DA neurons. Somatodendritic Girk currents evoked by the GABA(B) receptor (GABA(B)R) agonist baclofen were diminished in a dose-dependent manner in mice given a single cocaine injection. This adaptation persisted for 3-4 d, was specific for DA neurons of the VTA, and occurred in parallel with an increase in spontaneous glutamatergic neurotransmission. No additional suppression of GABA(B)R-Girk signaling was observed following repeated cocaine administration. While total Girk2 and GABA(B)R1 mRNA and protein levels were unaltered by cocaine exposure in VTA DA neurons, the cocaine-induced decrease in GABA(B)R-Girk signaling correlated with a reduction in Girk2-containing channels at the plasma membrane in VTA DA neurons. Systemic pretreatment with sulpiride, but not SCH23390 (7-chloro-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-3-benzazepin-8-ol), prevented the cocaine-induced suppression of GABA(B)R-Girk signaling, implicating D(2/3) DA receptor activation in this adaptation. The acute cocaine-induced weakening of somatodendritic Girk signaling complements the previously demonstrated cocaine-induced strengthening of glutamatergic neurotransmission, likely contributing to enhanced output of VTA DA neurons during the early stages of addiction.
Related JoVE Video
SK2 channels are neuroprotective for ischemia-induced neuronal cell death.
J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In mouse hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, the activity of synaptic small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels type 2 (SK2 channels) provides a negative feedback on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), reestablishing Mg(2+) block that reduces Ca(2+) influx. The well-established role of NMDARs in ischemia-induced excitotoxicity led us to test the neuroprotective effect of modulating SK2 channel activity following cerebral ischemia induced by cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CA/CPR). Administration of the SK channel positive modulator, 1-ethyl-benzimidazolinone (1-EBIO), significantly reduced CA1 neuron cell death and improved CA/CPR-induced cognitive outcome. Electrophysiological recordings showed that CA/CPR-induced ischemia caused delayed and sustained reduction of synaptic SK channel activity, and immunoelectron microscopy showed that this is associated with internalization of synaptic SK2 channels, which was prevented by 1-EBIO treatment. These results suggest that increasing SK2 channel activity, or preventing ischemia-induced loss of synaptic SK2 channels, are promising and novel approaches to neuroprotection following cerebral ischemia.
Related JoVE Video
G?5-RGS complexes are gatekeepers of hyperactivity involved in control of multiple neurotransmitter systems.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Our knowledge about genes involved in the control of basal motor activity that may contribute to the pathology of the hyperactivity disorders, e.g., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is limited. Disruption of monoamine neurotransmitter signaling through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) is considered to be a major contributing factor to the etiology of the ADHD. Genetic association evidence and functional data suggest that regulators of G protein signaling proteins of the R7 family (R7 RGS) that form obligatory complexes with type 5 G protein beta subunit (G?5) and negatively regulate signaling downstream from monoamine GPCRs may play a role in controlling hyperactivity.
Related JoVE Video
The SK2-long isoform directs synaptic localization and function of SK2-containing channels.
Nat. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
SK2-containing channels are expressed in the postsynaptic density (PSD) of dendritic spines on mouse hippocampal area CA1 pyramidal neurons and influence synaptic responses, plasticity and learning. The Sk2 gene (also known as Kcnn2) encodes two isoforms that differ only in the length of their N-terminal domains. SK2-long (SK2-L) and SK2-short (SK2-S) are coexpressed in CA1 pyramidal neurons and likely form heteromeric channels. In mice lacking SK2-L (SK2-S only mice), SK2-S-containing channels were expressed in the extrasynaptic membrane, but were excluded from the PSD. The SK channel contribution to excitatory postsynaptic potentials was absent in SK2-S only mice and was restored by SK2-L re-expression. Blocking SK channels increased the amount of long-term potentiation induced in area CA1 in slices from wild-type mice but had no effect in slices from SK2-S only mice. Furthermore, SK2-S only mice outperformed wild-type mice in the novel object recognition task. These results indicate that SK2-L directs synaptic SK2-containing channel expression and is important for normal synaptic signaling, plasticity and learning.
Related JoVE Video
Presynaptic HCN1 channels regulate Cav3.2 activity and neurotransmission at select cortical synapses.
Nat. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are subthreshold, voltage-gated ion channels that are highly expressed in hippocampal and cortical pyramidal cell dendrites, where they are important for regulating synaptic potential integration and plasticity. We found that HCN1 subunits are also localized to the active zone of mature asymmetric synaptic terminals targeting mouse entorhinal cortical layer III pyramidal neurons. HCN channels inhibited glutamate synaptic release by suppressing the activity of low-threshold voltage-gated T-type (Ca(V)3.2) Ca²(+) channels. Consistent with this, electron microscopy revealed colocalization of presynaptic HCN1 and Ca(V)3.2 subunit. This represents a previously unknown mechanism by which HCN channels regulate synaptic strength and thereby neural information processing and network excitability.
Related JoVE Video
Morphine- and CaMKII-dependent enhancement of GIRK channel signaling in hippocampal neurons.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels, which help control neuronal excitability, are important for the response to drugs of abuse. Here, we describe a novel pathway for morphine-dependent enhancement of GIRK channel signaling in hippocampal neurons. Morphine treatment for ?20 h increased the colocalization of GIRK2 with PSD95, a dendritic spine marker. Western blot analysis and quantitative immunoelectron microscopy revealed an increase in GIRK2 protein and targeting to dendritic spines. In vivo administration of morphine also produced an upregulation of GIRK2 protein in the hippocampus. The mechanism engaged by morphine required elevated intracellular Ca(2+) and was insensitive to pertussis toxin, implicating opioid receptors that may couple to Gq G-proteins. Met-enkephalin, but not the ?-selective (DAMGO) and ?-selective (DPDPE) opioid receptor agonists, mimicked the effect of morphine, suggesting involvement of a heterodimeric opioid receptor complex. Peptide (KN-93) inhibition of CaMKII prevented the morphine-dependent change in GIRK localization, whereas expression of a constitutively activated form of CaMKII mimicked the effects of morphine. Coincident with an increase in GIRK2 surface expression, functional analyses revealed that morphine treatment increased the size of serotonin-activated GIRK currents and Ba(2+)-sensitive basal K(+) currents in neurons. These results demonstrate plasticity in neuronal GIRK signaling that may contribute to the abusive effects of morphine.
Related JoVE Video
Evidence for oligomerization between GABAB receptors and GIRK channels containing the GIRK1 and GIRK3 subunits.
Eur. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The stimulation of inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors, such as ?-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA(B) ) receptors, activates G protein-gated inwardly-rectifying K(+) (GIRK) channels, which influence membrane excitability. There is now evidence suggesting that G protein-coupled receptors and G protein-gated inwardly-rectifying K(+) [GIRK/family 3 of inwardly-rectifying K(+) (Kir3)] channels do not diffuse freely within the plasma membrane, but instead there are direct protein-protein interactions between them. Here, we used bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, co-immunoprecipitation, confocal and electron microscopy techniques to investigate the oligomerization of GABA(B) receptors with GIRK channels containing the GIRK3 subunit, whose contribution to functional channels is still unresolved. Co-expression of GABA(B) receptors and GIRK channels in human embryonic kidney-293 cells in combination with co-immunoprecipitation experiments established that the metabotropic receptor forms stable complexes with GIRK channels. Using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, we have shown that, in living cells under physiological conditions, GABA(B) receptors interact directly with GIRK1/GIRK3 heterotetramers. In addition, we have provided evidence that the receptor-effector complexes are also found in vivo and identified that the cerebellar granule cells are one neuron population where the interaction probably takes place. Altogether, our data show that signalling complexes containing GABA(B) receptors and GIRK channels are formed shortly after biosynthesis, probably in the endoplasmic reticulum and/or endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi apparatus complex, suggesting that this might be a general feature of receptor-effector ion channel signal transduction and supporting a channel-forming role for the GIRK3 subunit.
Related JoVE Video
Coupled activity-dependent trafficking of synaptic SK2 channels and AMPA receptors.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) type 2 (SK2) channels are expressed in the postsynaptic density of CA1 neurons where they are activated by synaptically evoked Ca(2+) influx to limit the size of EPSPs and spine Ca(2+) transients. At Schaffer collateral synapses, the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) increases the alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptor (AMPAR)-mediated contribution to synaptic transmission and decreases the synaptic SK2 channel contribution through protein kinase A-dependent channel endocytosis. Using a combination of electrophysiology and immunoelectron microscopy in mice, the relationship between the dynamics of spine SK2 channels and AMPARs was investigated. Unlike AMPARs, synaptic SK2 channels under basal conditions do not rapidly recycle. Furthermore, SK2 channels occupy a distinct population of endosomes separate from AMPARs. However, blocking vesicular exocytosis or the delivery of synaptic GluA1-containing AMPARs during the induction of LTP blocks SK2 channel endocytosis. By approximately 2 h after the induction of LTP, synaptic SK2 channel expression and function are restored. Thus, LTP-dependent endocytosis of SK2 is coupled to LTP-dependent AMPA exocytosis, and the approximately 2 h window after the induction of LTP during which synaptic SK2 activity is absent may be important for consolidating the later phases of LTP.
Related JoVE Video
Altered neurotransmission in the mesolimbic reward system of Girk mice.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mice lacking the Girk2 subunit of G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K+ (Girk) channels exhibit dopamine-dependent hyperactivity and elevated responses to drugs that stimulate dopamine neurotransmission. The dopamine-dependent phenotypes seen in Girk2(-/-) mice could reflect increased intrinsic excitability of or diminished inhibitory feedback to midbrain dopamine neurons, or secondary adaptations triggered by Girk2 ablation. We addressed these possibilities by evaluating Girk(-/-) mice in behavioral, electrophysiological, and cell biological assays centered on the mesolimbic dopamine system. Despite differences in the contribution of Girk1 and Girk2 subunits to Girk signaling in midbrain dopamine neurons, Girk1(-/-) and Girk2(-/-) mice exhibited comparable baseline hyperactivities and enhanced responses to cocaine. Girk ablation also correlated with altered afferent input to dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area. Dopamine neurons from Girk1(-/-) and Girk2(-/-) mice exhibited elevated glutamatergic neurotransmission, paralleled by increased synaptic levels of alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate glutamate receptors. In addition, synapse density, alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptor levels, and glutamatergic neurotransmission were elevated in medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens from Girk1(-/-) and Girk2(-/-) mice. We conclude that dopamine-dependent phenotypes in Girk2(-/-) mice are not solely attributable to a loss of Girk signaling in dopamine neurons, and likely involve secondary adaptations facilitating glutamatergic signaling in the mesolimbic reward system.
Related JoVE Video
Cysteine string protein-alpha prevents activity-dependent degeneration in GABAergic synapses.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The continuous release of neurotransmitter could be seen to place a persistent burden on presynaptic proteins, one that could compromise nerve terminal function. This supposition and the molecular mechanisms that might protect highly active synapses merit investigation. In hippocampal cultures from knock-out mice lacking the presynaptic cochaperone cysteine string protein-alpha (CSP-alpha), we observe progressive degeneration of highly active synaptotagmin 2 (Syt2)-expressing GABAergic synapses, but surprisingly not of glutamatergic terminals. In CSP-alpha knock-out mice, synaptic degeneration of basket cell terminals occurs in vivo in the presence of normal glutamatergic synapses onto dentate gyrus granule cells. Consistent with this, in hippocampal cultures from these mice, the frequency of miniature IPSCs, caused by spontaneous GABA release, progressively declines, whereas the frequency of miniature excitatory AMPA receptor-mediated currents (mEPSCs), caused by spontaneous release of glutamate, is normal. However, the mEPSC amplitude progressively decreases. Remarkably, long-term block of glutamatergic transmission in cultures lacking CSP-alpha substantially rescues Syt2-expressing GABAergic synapses from neurodegeneration. These findings demonstrate that elevated neural activity increases synapse vulnerability and that CSP-alpha is essential to maintain presynaptic function under a physiologically high-activity regimen.
Related JoVE Video
The anti-allodynic alpha(2)delta ligand pregabalin inhibits the trafficking of the calcium channel alpha(2)delta-1 subunit to presynaptic terminals in vivo.
Biochem. Soc. Trans.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neuropathic pain is caused by lesion or dysfunction of the peripheral sensory nervous system. Up-regulation of the voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel subunit alpha(2)delta-1 in DRG (dorsal root ganglion) neurons and the spinal cord correlates with the onset of neuropathic pain symptoms such as allodynia in several animal models of neuropathic pain. The clinically important anti-allodynic drugs gabapentin and pregabalin are alpha(2)delta-1 ligands, but how these drugs alleviate neuropathic pain is poorly understood. In the present paper, we review recent advances in our understanding of their molecular mechanisms.
Related JoVE Video
Organisation of potassium channels on the neuronal surface.
J. Chem. Neuroanat.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Potassium channels are a family of ion channels that govern the intrinsic electrical properties of neurons in the brain. Molecular cloning has revealed over 100 genes encoding the pore-forming alpha subunits of potassium channels in mammals, making them the most diverse subset of ion channels. Multiplicity in this ion channel family is further generated through alternative splicing. The precise location of potassium channels along the dendro-somato-axonic surface of the neurons is an important factor in determining its functional impact. Today, it is widely accepted that potassium channels can be located at any subcellular compartment on the neuronal surface, at synaptic and extrasynaptic sites, from somata to dendritic shafts, dendritic spines, axons or axon terminals. However, they are not evenly distributed on the neuronal surface and depending on the potassium channel subtype, are instead concentrated at different compartments. This selective localization of ion channels to specific neuronal compartments has many different functional implications. One factor necessary to understand the role of potassium channels in neuronal function is to unravel their specialized distribution and subcellular localization within a cell, and this can only be achieved by electron microscopy. In this review, I summarize anatomical findings, describing their distribution in the central nervous system. The distinct regional, cellular and subcellular distribution of potassium channels in the brain will be discussed in view of their possible functional implications.
Related JoVE Video
Bestrophin-2 mediates bicarbonate transport by goblet cells in mouse colon.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Anion transport by the colonic mucosa maintains the hydration and pH of the colonic lumen, and its disruption causes a variety of diarrheal diseases. Cholinergic agonists raise cytosolic Ca2+ levels and stimulate anion secretion, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. Cholinergic stimulation of anion secretion may occur via activation of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) or an increase in the Cl- driving force through CFTR after activation of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels. Here we investigated the role of a candidate CaCC protein, bestrophin-2 (Best2), using Best2-/- mice. Cholinergic stimulation of anion current was greatly reduced in Best2-/- mice, consistent with our proposed role for Best2 as a CaCC. However, immunostaining revealed Best2 localized to the basolateral membrane of mucin-secreting colonic goblet cells, not the apical membrane of Cl--secreting enterocytes. In addition, in the absence of HCO3-, cholinergic-activated current was identical in control and Best2-/- tissue preparations, which suggests that most of the Best2 current was carried by HCO3-. These data delineate an alternative model of cholinergic regulation of colonic anion secretion in which goblet cells play a critical role in HCO3- homeostasis. We therefore propose that Best2 is a HCO3- channel that works in concert with a Cl:HCO3- exchanger in the apical membrane to affect transcellular HCO3- transport. Furthermore, previous models implicating CFTR in cholinergic Cl- secretion may be explained by substantial downregulation of Best2 in Cftr-/- mice.
Related JoVE Video
Control of cortical GABA circuitry development by Nrg1 and ErbB4 signalling.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Schizophrenia is a complex disorder that interferes with the function of several brain systems required for cognition and normal social behaviour. Although the most notable clinical aspects of the disease only become apparent during late adolescence or early adulthood, many lines of evidence suggest that schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic component. Several independent studies have identified neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and its receptor ERBB4 as important risk genes for schizophrenia, although their precise role in the disease process remains unknown. Here we show that Nrg1 and ErbB4 signalling controls the development of inhibitory circuitries in the mammalian cerebral cortex by cell-autonomously regulating the connectivity of specific GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)-containing interneurons. In contrast to the prevalent view, which supports a role for these genes in the formation and function of excitatory synapses between pyramidal cells, we found that ErbB4 expression in the mouse neocortex and hippocampus is largely confined to certain classes of interneurons. In particular, ErbB4 is expressed by many parvalbumin-expressing chandelier and basket cells, where it localizes to axon terminals and postsynaptic densities receiving glutamatergic input. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments, both in vitro and in vivo, demonstrate that ErbB4 cell-autonomously promotes the formation of axo-axonic inhibitory synapses over pyramidal cells, and that this function is probably mediated by Nrg1. In addition, ErbB4 expression in GABA-containing interneurons regulates the formation of excitatory synapses onto the dendrites of these cells. By contrast, ErbB4 is dispensable for excitatory transmission between pyramidal neurons. Altogether, our results indicate that Nrg1 and ErbB4 signalling is required for the wiring of GABA-mediated circuits in the postnatal cortex, providing a new perspective to the involvement of these genes in the aetiology of schizophrenia.
Related JoVE Video
Key modulatory role of presynaptic adenosine A2A receptors in cortical neurotransmission to the striatal direct pathway.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Basal ganglia processing results from a balanced activation of direct and indirect striatal efferent pathways, which are controlled by dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, respectively. Adenosine A2A receptors are considered novel antiparkinsonian targets, based on their selective postsynaptic localization in the indirect pathway, where they modulate D2 receptor function. The present study provides evidence for the existence of an additional, functionally significant, segregation of A2A receptors at the presynaptic level. Using integrated anatomical, electrophysiological, and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that presynaptic A2A receptors are preferentially localized in cortical glutamatergic terminals that contact striatal neurons of the direct pathway, where they exert a selective modulation of corticostriatal neurotransmission. Presynaptic striatal A2A receptors could provide a new target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.
Related JoVE Video
Sustained axon-glial signaling induces Schwann cell hyperproliferation, Remak bundle myelination, and tumorigenesis.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Type III neuregulins exposed on axon surfaces control myelination of the peripheral nervous system. It has been shown, for example, that threshold levels of type III beta1a neuregulin dictate not only the myelination fate of axons but also myelin thickness. Here we show that another neuregulin isoform, type III-beta3, plays a distinct role in myelination. Neuronal overexpression of this isoform in mice stimulates Schwann cell proliferation and dramatically enlarges peripheral nerves and ganglia-which come to resemble plexiform neurofibromas-but have no effect on myelin thickness. The nerves display other neurofibroma-like properties, such as abundant collagen fibrils and abundant dissociated Schwann cells that in some cases produce big tumors. Moreover, the organization of Remak bundles is dramatically altered; the small-caliber axons of each bundle are no longer segregated from one another within the cytoplasm of a nonmyelinating Schwann cell but instead are close packed and the whole bundle wrapped as a single unit, frequently by a compact myelin sheath. Because Schwann cell hyperproliferation and Remak bundle degeneration are early hallmarks of type I neurofibromatosis, we suggest that sustained activation of the neuregulin pathway in Remak bundles can contribute to neurofibroma development.
Related JoVE Video
The association of metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 with the neuronal Ca2+-binding protein 2 modulates receptor function.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors mediate in part the CNS effects of glutamate. These receptors interact with a large array of intracellular proteins in which the final role is to regulate receptor function. Here, using co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down experiments we showed a close and specific interaction between mGlu(5) receptor and NECAB2 in both transfected human embryonic kidney cells and rat hippocampus. Interestingly, in pull-down experiments increasing concentrations of calcium drastically reduced the ability of these two proteins to interact, suggesting that NECAB2 binds to mGlu(5) receptor in a calcium-regulated manner. Immunoelectron microscopy detection of NECAB2 and mGlu(5) receptor in the rat hippocampal formation indicated that both proteins are codistributed in the same subcellular compartment of pyramidal cells. In addition, the NECAB2/mGlu(5) receptor interaction regulated mGlu(5b)-mediated activation of both inositol phosphate accumulation and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Overall, these findings indicate that NECAB2 by its physical interaction with mGlu(5b) receptor modulates receptor function.
Related JoVE Video
GABA release from cerebellar stellate cells is developmentally regulated by presynaptic GABA(B) receptors in a target-cell-specific manner.
Eur. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Transmitter release from boutons along a common axon is often regulated depending on the postsynaptic target. Here, GABA release from cerebellar stellate cells onto Purkinje cells and other stellate cells was examined in acute cerebellar slices of 2- and 4-week-old mice. Consistent with previous findings on action potential-dependent GABA release, we found a developmental decrease in inhibitory inputs onto Purkinje cells but not onto stellate cells when recording miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs). Although amplitudes of mIPSCs were developmentally reduced in both cell types, mIPSC frequencies were decreased in Purkinje cells but were increased in stellate cells. Similarly, modulation of GABA release by presynaptic GABA(B) receptors changed during development in Purkinje cells but not in stellate cells, as demonstrated by the baclofen-mediated depression of mIPSC frequency and evoked IPSC (eIPSC) amplitudes. The selectively diminished baclofen effect in 4-week-old Purkinje cells correlated with a selective downregulation of presynaptic GABA(B) receptors at stellate cell-to-Purkinje cell synapses observed by immunoelectron microscopy analysis. Thus, expression of GABA(B) receptors in stellate cell axons and presynaptic modulation of GABA release appear to change during development in a target-cell-specific manner.
Related JoVE Video
NR2A at CA1 synapses is obligatory for the susceptibility of hippocampal plasticity to sleep loss.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A loss in the necessary amount of sleep alters expression of genes and proteins implicated in brain plasticity, but key proteins that render neuronal circuits sensitive to sleep disturbance are unknown. We show that mild (4-6 h) sleep deprivation (SD) selectively augmented the number of NR2A subunits of NMDA receptors on postsynaptic densities of adult mouse CA1 synapses. The greater synaptic NR2A content facilitated induction of CA3-CA1 long-term depression in the theta frequency stimulation range and augmented the synaptic modification threshold. NR2A-knock-out mice maintained behavioral response to SD, including compensatory increase in post-deprivation resting time, but hippocampal synaptic plasticity was insensitive to sleep loss. After SD, the balance between synaptically activated and slowly recruited NMDA receptor pools during temporal summation was disrupted. Together, these results indicate that NR2A is obligatory for the consequences of sleep loss on hippocampal synaptic plasticity. These findings could advance pharmacological strategies aiming to sustain hippocampal function during sleep restriction.
Related JoVE Video
Subcellular compartment-specific molecular diversity of pre- and post-synaptic GABA-activated GIRK channels in Purkinje cells.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Activation of G protein-gated inwardly-rectifying K(+) (GIRK or Kir3) channels by metabotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid (B) (GABA(B)) receptors is an essential signalling pathway controlling neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission in the brain. To investigate the relationship between GIRK channel subunits and GABA(B) receptors in cerebellar Purkinje cells at post- and pre-synaptic sites, we used biochemical, functional and immunohistochemical techniques. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that GIRK subunits are co-assembled with GABA(B) receptors in the cerebellum. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that the subunit composition of GIRK channels in Purkinje cell spines is compartment-dependent. Thus, at extrasynaptic sites GIRK channels are formed by GIRK1/GIRK2/GIRK3, post-synaptic densities contain GIRK2/GIRK3 and dendritic shafts contain GIRK1/GIRK3. The post-synaptic association of GIRK subunits with GABA(B) receptors in Purkinje cells is supported by the subcellular regulation of the ion channel and the receptor in mutant mice. At pre-synaptic sites, GIRK channels localized to parallel fibre terminals are formed by GIRK1/GIRK2/GIRK3 and co-localize with GABA(B) receptors. Consistent with this morphological evidence we demonstrate their functional interaction at axon terminals in the cerebellum by showing that GIRK channels play a role in the inhibition of glutamate release by GABA(B) receptors. The association of GIRK channels and GABA(B) receptors with excitatory synapses at both post- and pre-synaptic sites indicates their intimate involvement in the modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the cerebellum.
Related JoVE Video
Downregulation of NR3A-containing NMDARs is required for synapse maturation and memory consolidation.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
NR3A is the only NMDA receptor (NMDAR) subunit that downregulates sharply prior to the onset of sensitive periods for plasticity, yet the functional importance of this transient expression remains unknown. To investigate whether removal/replacement of juvenile NR3A-containing NMDARs is involved in experience-driven synapse maturation, we used a reversible transgenic system that prolonged NR3A expression in the forebrain. We found that removal of NR3A is required to develop strong NMDAR currents, full expression of long-term synaptic plasticity, a mature synaptic organization characterized by more synapses and larger postsynaptic densities, and the ability to form long-term memories. Deficits associated with prolonged NR3A were reversible, as late-onset suppression of transgene expression rescued both synaptic and memory impairments. Our results suggest that NR3A behaves as a molecular brake to prevent the premature strengthening and stabilization of excitatory synapses and that NR3A removal might thereby initiate critical stages of synapse maturation during early postnatal neural development.
Related JoVE Video
Cellular and subcellular localization of Marlin-1 in the brain.
BMC Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Marlin-1 is a microtubule binding protein that associates specifically with the GABAB1 subunit in neurons and with members of the Janus kinase family in lymphoid cells. In addition, it binds the molecular motor kinesin-I and nucleic acids, preferentially single stranded RNA. Marlin-1 is expressed mainly in the central nervous system but little is known regarding its cellular and subcellular distribution in the brain.
Related JoVE Video
The increased trafficking of the calcium channel subunit alpha2delta-1 to presynaptic terminals in neuropathic pain is inhibited by the alpha2delta ligand pregabalin.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neuropathic pain results from damage to the peripheral sensory nervous system, which may have a number of causes. The calcium channel subunit alpha(2)delta-1 is upregulated in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in several animal models of neuropathic pain, and this is causally related to the onset of allodynia, in which a non-noxious stimulus becomes painful. The therapeutic drugs gabapentin and pregabalin (PGB), which are both alpha(2)delta ligands, have antiallodynic effects, but their mechanism of action has remained elusive. To investigate this, we used an in vivo rat model of neuropathy, unilateral lumbar spinal nerve ligation (SNL), to characterize the distribution of alpha(2)delta-1 in DRG neurons, both at the light- and electron-microscopic level. We found that, on the side of the ligation, alpha(2)delta-1 was increased in the endoplasmic reticulum of DRG somata, in intracellular vesicular structures within their axons, and in the plasma membrane of their presynaptic terminals in superficial layers of the dorsal horn. Chronic PGB treatment of SNL animals, at a dose that alleviated allodynia, markedly reduced the elevation of alpha(2)delta-1 in the spinal cord and ascending axon tracts. In contrast, it had no effect on the upregulation of alpha(2)delta-1 mRNA and protein in DRGs. In vitro, PGB reduced plasma membrane expression of alpha(2)delta-1 without affecting endocytosis. We conclude that the antiallodynic effect of PGB in vivo is associated with impaired anterograde trafficking of alpha(2)delta-1, resulting in its decrease in presynaptic terminals, which would reduce neurotransmitter release and spinal sensitization, an important factor in the maintenance of neuropathic pain.
Related JoVE Video
Metabotropic glutamate type 5, dopamine D2 and adenosine A2a receptors form higher-order oligomers in living cells.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
G protein-coupled receptors are known to form homo- and heteromers at the plasma membrane, but the stoichiometry of these receptor oligomers are relatively unknown. Here, by using bimolecular fluorescence complementation, we visualized for the first time the occurrence of heterodimers of metabotropic glutamate mGlu(5) receptors (mGlu(5)R) and dopamine D(2) receptors (D(2)R) in living cells. Furthermore, the combination of bimolecular fluorescence complementation and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer techniques, as well as the sequential resonance energy transfer technique, allowed us to detect the occurrence receptor oligomers containing more than two protomers, mGlu(5)R, D(2)R and adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R). Interestingly, by using high-resolution immunoelectron microscopy we could confirm that the three receptors co-distribute within the extrasynaptic plasma membrane of the same dendritic spines of asymmetrical, putative glutamatergic, striatal synapses. Also, co-immunoprecipitation experiments in native tissue demonstrated the existence of an association of mGlu(5)R, D(2)R and A(2A)R in rat striatum homogenates. Overall, these results provide new insights into the molecular composition of G protein-coupled receptor oligomers in general and the mGlu(5)R/D(2)R/A(2A)R oligomer in particular, a receptor oligomer that might constitute an important target for the treatment of some neuropsychiatric disorders.
Related JoVE Video
Changes in striatal signaling induce remodeling of RGS complexes containing Gbeta5 and R7BP subunits.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neurotransmitter signaling via G protein coupled receptors is crucially controlled by regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins that shape the duration and extent of the cellular response. In the striatum, members of the R7 family of RGS proteins modulate signaling via D2 dopamine and mu-opioid receptors controlling reward processing and locomotor coordination. Recent findings have established that R7 RGS proteins function as macromolecular complexes with two subunits: type 5 G protein beta (Gbeta5) and R7 binding protein (R7BP). In this study, we report that the subunit compositions of these complexes in striatum undergo remodeling upon changes in neuronal activity. We found that under normal conditions two equally abundant striatal R7 RGS proteins, RGS9-2 and RGS7, are unequally coupled to the R7BP subunit, which is present in complex predominantly with RGS9-2 rather than with RGS7. Changes in the neuronal excitability or oxygenation status resulting in extracellular calcium entry, uncouples RGS9-2 from R7BP, triggering its selective degradation. Concurrently, released R7BP binds to mainly intracellular RGS7 and recruits it to the plasma membrane and the postsynaptic density. These observations introduce activity-dependent remodeling of R7 RGS complexes as a new molecular plasticity mechanism in striatal neurons and suggest a general model for achieving rapid posttranslational subunit rearrangement in multisubunit complexes.
Related JoVE Video
Temporal metabolomic analysis of o-glucoside phenolic compounds and their aglycone forms in olive tree and derived materials.
Phytochem Anal
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Maturity is one of the most important factors associated with evaluation of the quality of fruit and vegetables. In olive oil, maturation plays a key role in the kinetics of biosynthetic pathways of the secondary metabolism. One of the most relevant pathways is that catalysed by beta-glucosidases, which are involved in olive oil debittering. Therefore, the knowledge of this influence can be of particular interest for olive oil industry.
Related JoVE Video
Differential maturation of GIRK2-expressing neurons in the mouse cerebellum.
J. Chem. Neuroanat.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The cerebellar cortex is among the brain regions showing the highest expression levels of G-protein-gated inwardly-rectifying potassium (GIRK/Kir3) channels. Despite their critical contribution in modulating neuronal excitability during development and adult, the spatiotemporal expression of specific GIRK subunits in identified cerebellar neuron populations is unresolved. To characterize this onset of expression, we examined the GIRK2 protein expression in mouse cerebellum by western blot, light microscopy immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence during perinatal development. Using western blots, GIRK2 expression was low at birth but reach its maximum at P5 before decreasing gradually to adult levels. Immunohistochemical localization indicated that GIRK2 is expressed in granule cells from early stages of development. At the embryonic stage, immunofluorescence techniques for the transcription factor Pax6 allowed to demonstrate that GIRK2 is expressed in granule cell precursors. This GIRK2 expression in granule cells continued throughout postnatal development and adulthood. In addition, the expression of Pax2-GFP allowed selective visualization of Golgi cells during pre- and postnatal development. We could not detect co-expression of Pax2-GFP and GIRK2 during prenatal and early postnatal development, but only at post-migratory stages of Golgi cells, once they are morphologically differentiated and located at the granule cell layer. In the adult cerebellum, we performed a detailed characterization on the expression of GIRK2 in different subpopulations of Golgi cells, using metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGlu(2)) and neurogranin as markers, in GlyT2-GFP and GAD67-GFP mice, and showed that GIRK2 is present in at least four morphological and neurochemical non-overlapping populations of Golgi cells. Altogether, these findings shed new light on the developmental regulation of GIRK channels in the cerebellum, and the main expression in granule cells during perinatal development support the idea that GIRK2 may provide a significant route for modulating different aspects of cerebellar development.
Related JoVE Video
TRIP8b-independent trafficking and plasticity of adult cortical presynaptic HCN1 channels.
J. Neurosci.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are subthreshold activated voltage-gated ion channels. In the cortex, these channels are predominantly expressed in dendrites where they significantly modify dendritic intrinsic excitability as well synaptic potential shapes and integration. HCN channel trafficking to dendrites is regulated by the protein, TRIP8b. Additionally, altered TRIP8b expression may be one mechanism underlying seizure-induced dendritic HCN channel plasticity. HCN channels, though, are also located in certain mature cortical synaptic terminals, where they play a vital role in modulating synaptic transmission. In this study, using electrophysiological recordings as well as electron microscopy we show that presynaptic, but not dendritic, cortical HCN channel expression and function is comparable in adult TRIP8b-null mice and wild-type littermates. We further investigated whether presynaptic HCN channels undergo seizure-dependent plasticity. We found that, like dendritic channels, wild-type presynaptic HCN channel function was persistently decreased following induction of kainic acid-induced seizures. Since TRIP8b does not affect presynaptic HCN subunit trafficking, seizure-dependent plasticity of these cortical HCN channels is not conditional upon TRIP8b. Our results, thus, suggest that the molecular mechanisms underlying HCN subunit targeting, expression and plasticity in adult neurons is compartment selective, providing a means by which pre- and postsynaptic processes that are critically dependent upon HCN channel function may be distinctly influenced.
Related JoVE Video
Regional expression and subcellular localization of the voltage-gated calcium channel ? subunits in the developing mouse brain.
J. Neurochem.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ca(2+) channel ? subunits determine the maturation, biophysical properties and cell surface expression of high voltage-activated channels. Thus, we have analysed the expression, regional distribution and subcellular localization of the Ca(v) ? subunit family in mice from birth to adulthood. In the hippocampus and cerebellum, Ca(v) ?(1), Ca(v) ?(3) and Ca(v) ?(4) protein levels increased with age, although there were marked region- and developmental stage-specific differences in their expression. Ca(v) ?(1) was predominantly expressed in the strata oriens and radiatum of the hippocampus, and only weakly in the cerebellum. The Ca(v) ?(3) subunit was mainly expressed in the strata radiatum and lucidum of the hippocampus and in the molecular layer of the cerebellum. During development, Ca(v) ?(3) protein expression in the cerebellum peaked at postnatal days (P) 15 and 21, and had diminished drastically by P60, and in the hippocampus increased with age throughout all subfields. Ca(v) ?(4) protein was detected throughout the cerebellum, particularly in the molecular layer, and in contrast to the other subunits, Ca(v) ?(4) was mainly detected in the molecular layer and the hilus of the hippocampus. At the subcellular level, Ca(v) ?(1) and Ca(v) ?(3) were predominantly located post-synaptically in hippocampal pyramidal cells and cerebellar Purkinje cells. Ca(v) ?(4) subunits were detected in the pre-synaptic and post-synaptic compartments of both regions, albeit more strongly at post-synaptic sites. These results shed new light on the developmental regulation and subcellular localization of Ca(v) ? subunits, and their possible role in pre- and post-synaptic transmission.
Related JoVE Video
Motorneurons require cysteine string protein-? to maintain the readily releasable vesicular pool and synaptic vesicle recycling.
Neuron
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cysteine string protein-? (CSP-?) is a synaptic vesicle protein that prevents activity-dependent neurodegeneration by poorly understood mechanisms. We have studied the synaptic vesicle cycle at the motor nerve terminals of CSP-? knock-out mice expressing the synaptopHluorin transgene. Mutant nerve terminals fail to sustain prolonged release and the number of vesicles available to be released decreases. Strikingly, the SNARE protein SNAP-25 is dramatically reduced. In addition, endocytosis during the stimulus fails to maintain the size of the recycling synaptic vesicle pool during prolonged stimulation. Upon depolarization, the styryl dye FM 2-10 becomes trapped and poorly releasable. Consistently with the functional results, electron microscopy analysis revealed characteristic features of impaired synaptic vesicle recycling. The unexpected defect in vesicle recycling in CSP-? knock-out mice provides insights into understanding molecular mechanisms of degeneration in motor nerve terminals.
Related JoVE Video
Methamphetamine-evoked depression of GABA(B) receptor signaling in GABA neurons of the VTA.
Neuron
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Psychostimulants induce neuroadaptations in excitatory and fast inhibitory transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Mechanisms underlying drug-evoked synaptic plasticity of slow inhibitory transmission mediated by GABA(B) receptors and G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK/Kir(3)) channels, however, are poorly understood. Here, we show that 1 day after methamphetamine (METH) or cocaine exposure both synaptically evoked and baclofen-activated GABA(B)R-GIRK currents were significantly depressed in VTA GABA neurons and remained depressed for 7 days. Presynaptic inhibition mediated by GABA(B)Rs on GABA terminals was also weakened. Quantitative immunoelectron microscopy revealed internalization of GABA(B1) and GIRK2, which occurred coincident with dephosphorylation of serine 783 (S783) in GABA(B2), a site implicated in regulating GABA(B)R surface expression. Inhibition of protein phosphatases recovered GABA(B)R-GIRK currents in VTA GABA neurons of METH-injected mice. This psychostimulant-evoked impairment in GABA(B)R signaling removes an intrinsic brake on GABA neuron spiking, which may augment GABA transmission in the mesocorticolimbic system.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.