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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Symptomatic treatment of the cough in whooping cough.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Around 16 million cases of whooping cough (pertussis) occur worldwide each year, mostly in low-income countries. Much of the morbidity of whooping cough in children and adults is due to the effects of the paroxysmal cough. Cough treatments proposed include corticosteroids, beta2-adrenergic agonists, pertussis-specific immunoglobulin, antihistamines and possibly leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs).
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Oral corticosteroid use for clinical and cost-effective symptom relief of sore throat: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Management of acute sore throat poses a significant burden on UK general practices, with almost 10% of registered patients attending their GP with sore throat every year. Nearly half of all patients presenting with acute sore throat are treated with antibiotics, despite their limited effect. In a recent systematic review we demonstrated that a single dose of steroids reduced the severity and time to resolution of sore throat. However, all of the trials included looked at the use of steroids alongside antibiotics and only one was in a primary care setting. This trial aims to assess the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a single oral dose of corticosteroids on symptoms of sore throat in patients receiving either a delayed antibiotic prescription or no antibiotics at all in UK primary care.
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PROSPECTIV-a pilot trial of a nurse-led psychoeducational intervention delivered in primary care to prostate cancer survivors: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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Prostate cancer survivors can experience physical, sexual, psychological and emotional problems, and there is evidence that current follow-up practices fail to meet these men's needs. Studies show that secondary and primary care physicians see a greater role for primary care in delivering follow-up, and that primary care-led follow-up is acceptable to men with prostate cancer.
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Systemic corticosteroids for acute sinusitis.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Acute sinusitis is the inflammation and swelling of the nasal and paranasal mucous membranes and is a common reason for patients to seek primary care consultations. The related impairment of daily functioning and quality of life is attributable to symptoms such as facial pain and nasal congestion.
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Better reporting of interventions: template for intervention description and replication (TIDieR) checklist and guide.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Without a complete published description of interventions, clinicians and patients cannot reliably implement interventions that are shown to be useful, and other researchers cannot replicate or build on research findings. The quality of description of interventions in publications, however, is remarkably poor. To improve the completeness of reporting, and ultimately the replicability, of interventions, an international group of experts and stakeholders developed the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist and guide. The process involved a literature review for relevant checklists and research, a Delphi survey of an international panel of experts to guide item selection, and a face to face panel meeting. The resultant 12 item TIDieR checklist (brief name, why, what (materials), what (procedure), who provided, how, where, when and how much, tailoring, modifications, how well (planned), how well (actual)) is an extension of the CONSORT 2010 statement (item 5) and the SPIRIT 2013 statement (item 11). While the emphasis of the checklist is on trials, the guidance is intended to apply across all evaluative study designs. This paper presents the TIDieR checklist and guide, with an explanation and elaboration for each item, and examples of good reporting. The TIDieR checklist and guide should improve the reporting of interventions and make it easier for authors to structure accounts of their interventions, reviewers and editors to assess the descriptions, and readers to use the information.
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Benefits of Aldosterone Receptor Antagonism in Chronic Kidney Disease (BARACK D) trial-a multi-centre, prospective, randomised, open, blinded end-point, 36-month study of 2,616 patients within primary care with stage 3b chronic kidney disease to compare the efficacy of
Trials
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common and increasing in prevalence. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and death in CKD, though of a different phenotype to the general CVD population. Few therapies have proved effective in modifying the increased CVD risk or rate of renal decline in CKD. There are accumulating data that aldosterone receptor antagonists (ARA) may offer cardio-protection and delay renal impairment in patients with the CV phenotype in CKD. The use of ARA in CKD has therefore been increasingly advocated. However, no large study of ARA with renal or CVD outcomes is underway.
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Optimal strategies for identifying kidney disease in diabetes: properties of screening tests, progression of renal dysfunction and impact of treatment - systematic review and modelling of progression and cost-effectiveness.
Health Technol Assess
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Annual screening for adults with type 2 diabetes to detect the early onset of kidney disease is widely recommended, but the recommendations are based on a limited methodological approach. In addition, there are continuing uncertainties about underlying rates of progression of the condition and the benefits of treatments with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers.
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Montelukast for postinfectious cough in adults: a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial.
Lancet Respir Med
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Postinfectious cough is common in primary care, but has no proven effective treatments. Cysteinyl leukotrienes are involved in the pathogenesis of postinfectious cough and whooping cough (pertussis). We investigated the effectiveness of montelukast, a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist, in the treatment of postinfectious cough.
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Effect of 3 to 5 years of scheduled CEA and CT follow-up to detect recurrence of colorectal cancer: the FACS randomized clinical trial.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Intensive follow-up after surgery for colorectal cancer is common practice but is based on limited evidence.
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The need for randomization in animal trials: an overview of systematic reviews.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Randomization, allocation concealment, and blind outcome assessment have been shown to reduce bias in human studies. Authors from the Collaborative Approach to Meta Analysis and Review of Animal Data from Experimental Studies (CAMARADES) collaboration recently found that these features protect against bias in animal stroke studies. We extended the scope the work from CAMARADES to include investigations of treatments for any condition.
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The Oxford Renal (OxRen) cross-sectional study of chronic kidney disease in the UK.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) diagnosed with objective measures of kidney damage and function has been recognised as a major public health burden. Independent of age, sex, ethnicity and comorbidity, strong associations exist between cardiovascular disease, mortality, morbidity and CKD, defined by reduced glomerular filtration rate and increased urinary albumin excretion. Detection of CKD within the population is therefore a priority for health systems.
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Multimorbiditys research challenges and priorities from a clinical perspective: The case of Mr Curran
Eur J Gen Pract
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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Older patients, suffering from numerous diseases and taking multiple medications are the rule rather than the exception in primary care. A manifold of medical conditions are often associated with poor outcomes, and their multiple medications raise additional risks of polypharmacy. Such patients account for most healthcare expenditures. Effective approaches are needed to manage such complex patients in primary care. This paper describes the results of a scoping exercise, including a two-day workshop with 17 professionals from six countries, experienced in general practice and primary care research as well as epidemiology, clinical pharmacology, gerontology and methodology. This was followed by a consensus process investigating the challenges and core questions for multimorbidity research in primary care from a clinical perspective and presents examples of the best research practice. Current approaches in measuring and clustering multimorbidity inform policy-makers and researchers, but research is needed to provide support in clinical decision making. Multimorbidity presents a complexity of conditions leading to individual patients needs and demanding complex processes in clinical decision making. The identification of patterns presupposes the development of strategies on how to manage multimorbidity and polypharmacy. Interventions have to be complex and multifaceted, and their evaluation poses numerous methodological challenges in study design, outcome measurement and analysis. Overall, it can be seen that complexity is a main underlying theme. Moreover, flexible study designs, outcome parameters and evaluation strategies are needed to account for this complexity.
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Telephone counselling for smoking cessation.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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Telephone services can provide information and support for smokers. Counselling may be provided proactively or offered reactively to callers to smoking cessation helplines.
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Pharmacological interventions for smoking cessation: an overview and network meta-analysis.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Smoking is the leading preventable cause of illness and premature death worldwide. Some medications have been proven to help people to quit, with three licensed for this purpose in Europe and the USA: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion, and varenicline. Cytisine (a treatment pharmacologically similar to varenicline) is also licensed for use in Russia and some of the former socialist economy countries. Other therapies, including nortriptyline, have also been tested for effectiveness.
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Autoinflation for hearing loss associated with otitis media with effusion.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 4, 2006.Otitis media with effusion (OME) or glue ear is an accumulation of fluid in the middle ear, in the absence of acute inflammation or infection. It is the commonest cause of acquired hearing loss in childhood and the usual reason for insertion of grommets. Potential treatments include decongestants, mucolytics, steroids, antihistamines and antibiotics. Autoinflation devices have been proposed as a simple mechanical means of improving glue ear.
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Macroscopically detected female genital injury after consensual and non-consensual vaginal penetration: a prospective comparison study.
J Forensic Leg Med
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2013
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The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence, type and pattern of macroscopically detected female genital injury after consensual and non-consensual vaginal penetration to further an understanding of the forensic significance of genital injury in women reporting sexual assault. A secondary aim was to identify any effect of a range of possible variables upon the likelihood of genital injury resulting from vaginal penetrative sexual intercourse.
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School-based programmes for preventing smoking.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Helping young people to avoid starting smoking is a widely endorsed public health goal, and schools provide a route to communicate with nearly all young people. School-based interventions have been delivered for close to 40 years.
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Are treatments more effective than placebos? A systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Placebos are widely used in clinical practice in spite of ethical restrictions. Whether such use is justified depends in part on the relative benefit of placebos compared to active treatments. A direct test for differences between placebo and active treatment effects has not been conducted.
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Systemic corticosteroids for acute sinusitis.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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Acute sinusitis is a common reason for patients to seek primary care consultations. The related impairment of daily functioning and quality of life is attributable to symptoms such as facial pain and nasal congestion.
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Acute infective conjunctivitis in primary care: who needs antibiotics? An individual patient data meta-analysis.
Br J Gen Pract
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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Acute infective conjunctivitis is a common problem in primary care, traditionally managed with topical antibiotics. A number of clinical trials have questioned the benefit of topical antibiotics for patients with acute infective conjunctivitis.
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Self-monitoring of oral anticoagulation: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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Uptake of self-testing and self-management of oral anticoagulation [corrected] has remained inconsistent, despite good evidence of their effectiveness. To clarify the value of self-monitoring of oral anticoagulation, we did a meta-analysis of individual patient data addressing several important gaps in the evidence, including an estimate of the effect on time to death, first major haemorrhage, and thromboembolism.
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Reminder packaging for improving adherence to self-administered long-term medications.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2011
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Current methods of improving medication adherence for health problems are mostly complex, labour-intensive, and not reliably effective. Medication reminder packaging, which incorporates a date or time for a medication to be taken in the packaging, can act as a reminder to improve adherence. This review of reminder packaging is an update of our 2006 Cochrane review.
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The evidence base for interventions delivered to children in primary care: an overview of cochrane systematic reviews.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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As a first step in developing a framework to evaluate and improve the quality of care of children in primary care there is a need to identify the evidence base underpinning interventions relevant to child health. Our objective was to identify all Cochrane systematic reviews relevant to the management of childhood conditions in primary care and to assess the extent to which Cochrane reviews reflect the burden of childhood illness presenting in primary care.
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Are journal clubs effective in supporting evidence-based decision making? A systematic review. BEME Guide No. 16.
Med Teach
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
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Journal clubs (JCs) are a common form of interactive education in health care aiming to promote the uptake of research evidence into practice, but their effectiveness has not been established.
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Competitions and incentives for smoking cessation.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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Background Material or financial incentives may be used in an attempt to reinforce behaviour change, including smoking cessation. They have been widely used in workplace smoking cessation programmes, and to a lesser extent within community programmes. Public health initiatives in the UK are currently planning to deploy incentive schemes to change unhealthy behaviours. Quit and Win contests are the subject of a companion review.
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Framework for the impact analysis and implementation of Clinical Prediction Rules (CPRs).
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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Clinical Prediction Rules (CPRs) are tools that quantify the contribution of symptoms, clinical signs and available diagnostic tests, and in doing so stratify patients according to the probability of having a target outcome or need for a specified treatment. Most focus on the derivation stage with only a minority progressing to validation and very few undergoing impact analysis. Impact analysis studies remain the most efficient way of assessing whether incorporating CPRs into a decision making process improves patient care. However there is a lack of clear methodology for the design of high quality impact analysis studies.We have developed a sequential four-phased framework based on the literature and the collective experience of our international working group to help researchers identify and overcome the specific challenges in designing and conducting an impact analysis of a CPR.There is a need to shift emphasis from deriving new CPRs to validating and implementing existing CPRs. The proposed framework provides a structured approach to this topical and complex area of research.
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Adequacy of reporting monitoring regimens of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in clinical guidelines: systematic review.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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To assess the reporting of monitoring recommendations in guidelines on the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease.
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Development and validation of decision rules to guide frequency of monitoring CD4 cell count in HIV-1 infection before starting antiretroviral therapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2011
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Although CD4 cell count monitoring is used to decide when to start antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV-1 infection, there are no evidence-based recommendations regarding its optimal frequency. It is common practice to monitor every 3 to 6 months, often coupled with viral load monitoring. We developed rules to guide frequency of CD4 cell count monitoring in HIV infection before starting antiretroviral therapy, which we validated retrospectively in patients from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study.
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Which early red flag symptoms identify children with meningococcal disease in primary care?
Br J Gen Pract
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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Symptoms are part of the initial evaluation of children with acute illness, and are often used to help identify those who may have serious infections. Meningococcal disease is a rapidly progressive infection that needs to be recognised early among children presenting to primary care.
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Point-of-care testing for Hb A1c in the management of diabetes: a systematic review and metaanalysis.
Clin. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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The measurement of hemoglobin A(1c) (Hb A(1c)) is employed in monitoring of patients with diabetes. Use of point-of-care testing (POCT) for Hb A(1c) results at the time of the patient consultation potentially provides an opportunity for greater interaction between patient and caregiver, and more effective care.
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Derivation of new reference tables for human heart weights in light of increasing body mass index.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2010
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As body weights and body mass indices have increased over time, we questioned the validity of correlating heart weight with body weight and whether tables from previous decades remain relevant. We investigated this by collecting details of heart weight, body weight, height, gender and age from 384 autopsy cases with no obvious heart or lung disease. Heart weights, body weights and heights showed a normal distribution for both genders. Heart weight correlated slightly better with body surface area than body weight and we present new reference charts derived from these data. The correlation between heart weight and body weight has changed little, despite increases in body weight and body mass index. As life expectancy is increasing, we investigated the effect of age on heart weight and demonstrated a small increase in heart weight relative to body surface area for both genders, in contrast to a previous study.
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Cognitive behavioural therapy for tinnitus.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2010
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This is an update of a Cochrane Review originally published in Issue 1, 2007 of The Cochrane Library.Tinnitus is an auditory perception that can be described as the experience of sound, in the ear or in the head, in the absence of external acoustic stimulation. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) uses relaxation, cognitive restructuring of the thoughts and exposure to exacerbating situations in order to promote habituation and may benefit tinnitus patients, as may the treatment of associated psychological conditions.
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Statistical models for the control phase of clinical monitoring.
Stat Methods Med Res
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2010
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The rise in the prevalence of chronic conditions means that these are now the leading causes of death and disability worldwide, accounting for almost 60% of all deaths and 43% of the global burden of disease. Management of chronic conditions requires both effective treatment and ongoing monitoring. Although costs related to monitoring are substantial, there is relatively little evidence on its effectiveness. Monitoring is inherently different to diagnosis in its use of regularly repeated tests, and increasing frequency can result in poorer rather than better statistical properties because of multiple testing in the presence of high variability. We present here a general framework for modelling the control phase of a monitoring programme, and for the estimation of quantities of potential clinical interest such as the ratio of false to true positive tests. We show how four recent clinical studies of monitoring cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and HIV infection can be thought as special cases of this framework; as well as using this framework to clarify the choice of estimation and calculation methods available. Noticeably, in each of the presented examples over-frequent monitoring appears to be a greater problem than under-frequent monitoring. We also present recalculations of results under alternative conditions, illustrating conceptual decisions about modelling the true or observed value of a clinical measure.
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Optimal loading dose for the initiation of warfarin: a systematic review.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2010
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Selection of the right warfarin dose at the outset of treatment is not straightforward, and current evidence is lacking to determine the optimal strategy for initiation of therapy.
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Self-monitoring and self-management of oral anticoagulation.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2010
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The introduction of portable monitors (point-of-care devices) for the management of patients on oral anticoagulation allows self-testing by the patient at home. Patients who self-test can either adjust their medication according to a pre-determined dose-INR schedule (self-management) or they can call a clinic to be told the appropriate dose adjustment (self-monitoring). Several trials of self-monitoring of oral anticoagulant therapy suggest this may be equal to or better than standard monitoring.
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What are the basic self-monitoring components for cardiovascular risk management?
BMC Med Res Methodol
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2010
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Self-monitoring is increasingly recommended as a method of managing cardiovascular disease. However, the design, implementation and reproducibility of the self-monitoring interventions appear to vary considerably. We examined the interventions included in systematic reviews of self-monitoring for four clinical problems that increase cardiovascular disease risk.
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[Patient follow up and monitoring: some notes of interest].
Enferm Clin
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
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The monitoring or follow-up of a person subjected to a health care intervention is a daily routine nursing activity. In the chronic patient the monitoring or follow-up is a core activity and forms a part of the ritual in the periodic visits. In spite of the high percentage workload and use of resources that patient follow up represents within the health system, it is a poorly investigated area. In the present article we examine the differences between a test versus a monitoring strategy, the conditions that justify the monitoring, the methodology to evaluate a follow-up strategy,, as well as creating initiatives to improve monitoring (MaDOx) worldwide.
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Symptomatic treatment of the cough in whooping cough.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2010
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The worldwide incidence of whooping cough (pertussis) has been estimated at 48.5 million cases and nearly 295,000 deaths per year. In low-income countries, the case-fatality rate among infants may be as high as 4%. Much of the morbidity of whooping cough in children and adults is due to the effects of the paroxysmal cough. Cough treatments proposed include corticosteroids, beta 2-adrenergic agonists, pertussis-specific immunoglobulin, antihistamines and possibly leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs).
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Adaptation and validation of the Charlson Index for Read/OXMIS coded databases.
BMC Fam Pract
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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The Charlson comorbidity index is widely used in ICD-9 administrative data, however, there is no translation for Read/OXMIS coded data despite increasing use of the General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Our main objective was to translate the Charlson index for use with Read/OXMIS coded data such as the GPRD and test its association with mortality. We also aimed to provide a version of the comorbidity index for other researchers using similar datasets.
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Chagas disease as a cause of symptomatic chronic myocardopathy in Mexican children.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2009
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We report the first case series of children in Mexico living with symptomatic Chagas disease causing chronic myocardopathy. The findings suggest that children with Chagas disease may develop symptomatic chronic myocardopathy earlier than previously recognized. Our findings emphasize the importance of longitudinal cardiologic follow-up of all children identified with acute Chagas disease.In a cohort of 826 children from the state of Queretaro in Mexico, 11 were identified with positive serology (ELISA and IFI) for Chagas and were tested for electrocardiogram alterations and symptoms and signs. Four children had ECG alterations with 3 of these reporting signs and symptoms associated with the chronic phase of Chagas disease (27%; 95% CI: 6%-61%). The most common chronic symptom was chest pain, with one child also reporting dyspnea and tachycardia.
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Neuraminidase inhibitors for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza in children: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2009
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To assess the effects of the neuraminidase inhibitors oseltamivir and zanamivir in treatment of children with seasonal influenza and prevention of transmission to children in households.
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Corticosteroids for pain relief in sore throat: systematic review and meta-analysis.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2009
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To evaluate whether systemic corticosteroids improve symptoms of sore throat in adults and children.
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Lipid re-screening: what is the best measure and interval?
Heart
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2009
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To estimate the long-term true change variation (signal) and short-term within-person variation (noise) of the different lipid measures and evaluate the best measure and the optimal interval for lipid re-screening.
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Natural history of the common iliac artery in the presence of an abdominal aortic aneurysm.
J. Vasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2009
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Patients with an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) often develop common iliac artery (CIA) aneurysms. We wished to assess the natural history of the CIA in the presence of an AAA and develop a model to predict CIA growth.
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A systematic review and meta-analysis: probiotics in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2009
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Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder and the evidence for efficacy of most drug therapies in the treatment of IBS is weak. A popular alternative is probiotics, which have been used in several conditions. including IBS. Probiotics are live microbial food supplements.The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials study was to evaluate the efficacy of probiotics in alleviating symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. We searched Ovid versions of MEDLINE (1950-2007), EMBASE (1980-2007), CINAHL (1982-2007), AMED (1985-2007), the Cochrane library and hand searched retrieved papers.
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Stopping randomized trials early for benefit: a protocol of the Study Of Trial Policy Of Interim Truncation-2 (STOPIT-2).
Trials
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2009
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Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) stopped early for benefit often receive great attention and affect clinical practice, but pose interpretational challenges for clinicians, researchers, and policy makers. Because the decision to stop the trial may arise from catching the treatment effect at a random high, truncated RCTs (tRCTs) may overestimate the true treatment effect. The Study Of Trial Policy Of Interim Truncation (STOPIT-1), which systematically reviewed the epidemiology and reporting quality of tRCTs, found that such trials are becoming more common, but that reporting of stopping rules and decisions were often deficient. Most importantly, treatment effects were often implausibly large and inversely related to the number of the events accrued. The aim of STOPIT-2 is to determine the magnitude and determinants of possible bias introduced by stopping RCTs early for benefit.
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Kawasaki disease in England: ethnicity, deprivation, and respiratory pathogens.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2009
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Kawasaki disease is now the commonest cause of acquired heart disease in children in the United Kingdom. Its incidence has increased in recent years. Epidemiologic analyses have provided insights into the possible etiology, but European data are scarce.
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Optimal loading dose of warfarin for the initiation of oral anticoagulation.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
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Warfarin is used as an oral anticoagulant. However, there is wide variation in patient response to warfarin dose. This variation, as well as the necessity of keeping within a narrow therapeutic range, means that selection of the correct warfarin dose at the outset of treatment is not straightforward.
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Primary care professionals providing non-urgent care in hospital emergency departments.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
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In many countries emergency departments (EDs) are facing an increase in demand for services, long-waits and severe crowding. One response to mitigate overcrowding has been to provide primary care services alongside or within hospital EDs for patients with non-urgent problems. It is not known, however, how this impacts the quality of patient care, the utilisation of hospital resources, or if it is cost-effective. 
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Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
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The aim of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is to temporarily replace much of the nicotine from cigarettes to reduce motivation to smoke and nicotine withdrawal symptoms, thus easing the transition from cigarette smoking to complete abstinence.
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New treatments compared to established treatments in randomized trials.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
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The proportion of proposed new treatments that are successful is of ethical, scientific, and public importance. We investigated how often new, experimental treatments evaluated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are superior to established treatments.
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Clinical symptoms and signs for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children and adolescents with community-acquired pneumonia.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
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Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is a significant cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children and adolescents. Treatment with macrolide antibiotics is recommended. However, M. pneumoniae is difficult to diagnose based on clinical symptoms and signs. Diagnostic uncertainty can lead to inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, which may worsen clinical prognosis and increase antibiotic resistance.
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Corticosteroids as standalone or add-on treatment for sore throat.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
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Sore throat is a common condition associated with a high rate of antibiotic prescriptions, despite limited evidence for the effectiveness of antibiotics. Corticosteroids may improve symptoms of sore throat by reducing inflammation of the upper respiratory tract.
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Cardiovascular disease risk in healthy children and its association with body mass index: systematic review and meta-analysis.
BMJ
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To describe the association and its magnitude between body mass index category, sex, and cardiovascular disease risk parameters in school aged children in highly developed countries.
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Early connections: effectiveness of a pre-call intervention to improve immunisation coverage and timeliness.
J Prim Health Care
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Children who have missed or delayed immunisations are at greater risk of vaccine-preventable diseases and getting their first scheduled dose on time strongly predicts subsequent complete immunisation. Developing a relationship with an infants parents and general practice staff soon after birth followed by a systematic approach can reduce the number of delayed first immunisations.
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Corticosteroids for the common cold.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
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The common cold is a frequent illness, which, although benign and self-limiting, results in many consultations to primary care and considerable loss of school or work days. Current symptomatic treatments have limited benefit. Corticosteroids are an effective treatment in other upper respiratory tract infections and their anti-inflammatory effects may also be beneficial in the common cold.
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Symptomatic treatment of the cough in whooping cough.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
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The worldwide incidence of whooping cough (pertussis) has been estimated at 48.5 million cases and nearly 295,000 deaths per year. In low-income countries, the case-fatality rate among infants may be as high as 4%. Much of the morbidity of whooping cough in children and adults is due to the effects of the paroxysmal cough. Cough treatments proposed include corticosteroids, beta 2-adrenergic agonists, pertussis-specific immunoglobulin, antihistamines and possibly leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs).
Related JoVE Video
Intranasal corticosteroids in management of acute sinusitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Ann Fam Med
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Acute sinusitis is a common condition in ambulatory care, where it is frequently treated with antibiotics, despite little evidence of their benefit. Intranasal corticosteroids might relieve symptoms; however, evidence for this benefit is currently unclear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of intranasal corticosteroids on the symptoms of acute sinusitis.
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Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in children (published trials only).
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
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During epidemics, influenza attack rates in children may exceed 40%. Options for prevention and treatment currently include the neuraminidase inhibitors zanamivir and oseltamivir. Laninamivir octanoate, the prodrug of laninamivir, is currently being developed.
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Meta-analysis of individual patient data in randomised trials of self monitoring of blood glucose in people with non-insulin treated type 2 diabetes.
BMJ
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To assess the effectiveness of self monitoring blood glucose levels in people with non-insulin treated type 2 diabetes compared with clinical management without self monitoring, and to explore the effects in specific patient groups.
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Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in children.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
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During epidemics, influenza attack rates in children may exceed 40%. Options for prevention and treatment currently include the neuraminidase inhibitors zanamivir and oseltamivir. Laninamivir octanoate, the prodrug of laninamivir, is currently being developed.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.