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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Respiratory viral infections among children with community-acquired pneumonia and pleural effusion.
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Pleural effusion (PE), a complication of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), is usually attributed to a bacterial infection. Nonetheless, viral infections have not been investigated routinely. We searched for bacterial and viral infections among 277 children hospitalized with CAP. Among these children 206 (74%) had radiographic confirmation, of whom 25 (12%) had PE. The aetiology was established in 18 (72%) PE cases: bacterial (n = 5; 28%), viral (n = 9; 50%), and viral-bacterial (n = 4; 22%) infections were found. Infection by rhinovirus (n = 3), enterovirus, Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 2 each), Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, influenza A virus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (n = 1 each) were detected as probable sole infections. Parainfluenza virus 1/3 + influenza A virus and RSV + influenza A virus (n = 1 each) were identified as mixed viral-viral infections. Probable viral non-bacterial infection was identified in a third of the cases with CAP and PE. It is advisable to investigate viral as well as bacterial infections among children with CAP and PE.
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Incidence of influenza-related hospitalizations in different age groups of children in Finland: a 16-year study.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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children are frequently hospitalized with in?uenza-associated illnesses. Few virologically con?rmed population-based studies of pediatric hospitalizations performed during several consecutive seasons are vailable.
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Temporal association between rhinovirus circulation in the community and invasive pneumococcal disease in children.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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Mucosal coinfections with respiratory viruses and Streptococcus pneumoniae are common, but the role of rhinovirus infections in the development of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children has not been studied.
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Effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccine in children aged 9 months to 3 years: an observational cohort study.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2010
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Few prospectively collected data are available to support the effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccines in children younger than 2 years. We aimed to establish the effectiveness of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine against laboratory-confirmed influenza A and B infections in a cohort of children younger than 3 years.
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Early oseltamivir treatment of influenza in children 1-3 years of age: a randomized controlled trial.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2010
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Oseltamivir provides modest clinical benefits to children with influenza when started within 48 hours of symptom onset. The effectiveness of oseltamivir could be substantially greater if the treatment were started earlier during the course of the illness.
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Simultaneous detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 and Hepatitis B virus infections using a dual-label time-resolved fluorometric assay.
J Nanobiotechnology
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2010
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A highly specific and novel dual-label time-resolved immunofluorometric assay was developed exploiting the unique emission wavelengths of the intrinsically fluorescent terbium (Tb3+) and europium (Eu3+) tracers for the simultaneous detection of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections, respectively. HIV-1 infection was detected using a double antigen sandwich format wherein anti-HIV-1 antibodies were captured using an in vivo biotinylated version of a chimeric HIV-1 antigen and revealed using the same antigen labeled with Tb3+ chelate. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), which served as the marker of HBV infection, was detected in a double antibody sandwich using two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), one chemically biotinylated to capture, and the other labeled with Eu3+ nanoparticles, to reveal. The performance of the assay was evaluated using a collection (n = 60) of in-house and commercially available human sera panels. This evaluation showed the dual-label assay to possess high degrees of specificity and sensitivity, comparable to those of commercially available, single analyte-specific kits for the detection of HBsAg antigen and anti-HIV antibodies. This work demonstrates the feasibility of developing a potentially time- and resource-saving multiplex assay for screening serum samples for multiple infections in a blood bank setting.
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Seasonal patterns of viral and bacterial infections among children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia in a tropical region.
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2010
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Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause of morbidity among children. Evidence on seasonality, especially on the frequency of viral and bacterial causative agents is scarce; such information may be useful in an era of changing climate conditions worldwide. To analyze the frequency of distinct infections, meteorological indicators and seasons in children hospitalized for CAP in Salvador, Brazil, nasopharyngeal aspirate and blood were collected from 184 patients aged < 5 y over a 21-month period. Fourteen microbes were investigated and 144 (78%) cases had the aetiology established. Significant differences were found in air temperature between spring and summer (p = 0.02) or winter (p < 0.001), summer and fall (p = 0.007) or winter (p < 0.001), fall and winter (p = 0.002), and on precipitation between spring and fall (p = 0.01). Correlations were found between: overall viral infections and relative humidity (p = 0.006; r = 0.6) or precipitation (p = 0.03; r = 0.5), parainfluenza and precipitation (p = 0.02; r = -0.5), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and air temperature (p = 0.048; r = -0.4) or precipitation (p = 0.045; r = 0.4), adenovirus and precipitation (p = 0.02; r = 0.5), pneumococcus and air temperature (p = 0.04; r = -0.4), and Chlamydia trachomatis and relative humidity (p = 0.02; r = -0.5). The frequency of parainfluenza infection was highest during spring (32.1%; p = 0.005) and that of RSV infection was highest in the fall (36.4%; p < 0.001). Correlations at regular strength were found between several microbes and meteorological indicators. Parainfluenza and RSV presented marked seasonal patterns.
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Procalcitonin is useful in identifying bacteraemia among children with pneumonia.
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2010
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Empirical antibiotic use is prescribed in managing children with pneumonia worldwide. We assessed the usefulness of procalcitonin (PCT) and interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) in differentiating viral from bacterial pneumonia. Among 159 hospitalized children, pneumonia was diagnosed based on clinical complaints plus pulmonary infiltrate. Aetiology was investigated for 9 viruses and 4 atypical and 3 typical bacteria. PCT and IFN-alpha were measured in the serum sample collected on admission. Eight patients had bacteraemic infections, 38 had non-bacteraemic typical infections, and 19 patients had atypical bacterial infections. Viral and unknown aetiology was established in 57 (36%) and 34 (21%) cases, respectively. Three patients with bacterial infection without collected blood culture were excluded. IFN-alpha (IU/ml) was detectable in 20 (13%) cases. The difference among median PCT values of the bacteraemic (4.22; 1.56-7.56), non-bacteraemic typical bacterial (1.47; 0.24-4.07), atypical bacterial (0.18; 0.06-1.03) and only viral (0.65; 0.11-2.22) subgroups was significant (p = 0.02). PCT was > or =2 ng/ml in 52 (33%) cases. The presence of IFN-alpha was associated with PCT <2 ng/ml (90% vs. 64%, p = 0.02). The negative predictive value (95% confidence interval) of PCT > or =2 ng/ml was 95% (89-100%), 89% (78-100%), 93% (85-100%) for differentiation of bacteraemic from viral, atypical bacterial and non-bacteraemic typical bacterial infection, respectively, and 58% (49-68%) for differentiation between bacterial and viral infection. PCT may be useful in identifying bacteraemia among children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. IFN-alpha was uncommonly detected.
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A novel antibody avidity methodology for rapid point-of-care serological diagnosis.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2010
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A novel methodology is introduced for rapid serological diagnosis. This methodology combines the antibody bridging assay principle with the measurement of antibody avidity. The combination allows the determination of the infection phase with a single dilution of a single sample of serum. This is a significant improvement on current serological techniques which often require either paired-sample testing (IgG/IgM serology) or testing of the sample in several dilutions (IgG avidity testing). Assay methods were developed on two immunoassay platforms; the heterogeneous time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay and the separation-free two-photon excitation fluorometry. The new methods were compared to conventional class-specific IgG/IgM and IgG avidity techniques. The major findings were that the avidity results of the new methodology were independent of the sample dilution (specific antibody concentration in serum) and consistent between immunoassay platforms. This new methodology is simple, rapid, and quick to perform. It provides the possibility of running serodiagnostic tests at point-of-care with bench-top random-access analyzers.
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Rhinovirus infections in children: a retrospective and prospective hospital-based study.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2009
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To analyze clinical characteristics and prevalence of rhinovirus infections in children in the hospital, we reviewed a retrospective dataset from a 20-year period, and conducted a short-term prospective study. Records of children and adolescents treated at our hospital during 1987-2006 with a documented rhinovirus infection were reviewed and compared with patients with other respiratory virus infections. Prospective study included all children >or=1 month of age admitted to pediatric infectious disease ward during an autumn period. Rhinoviruses were detected by reverse transcription-PCR and/or culture, and sequence analysis was used for virus typing. In the retrospective study, the median age of 580 children with rhinovirus infection was 1.9 years (interquartile range, 1.0-4.3 years), and 27% had an underlying medical condition. Eighty-four children (16% of in-patients) were treated at pediatric intensive care unit. Twenty-one children (4%) had a hospital-acquired rhinovirus infection. In the prospective study, rhinoviruses were detected in 28% of 163 hospital episodes. Acute wheezing illness was diagnosed in 61% of children with rhinovirus and in 31% of children with respiratory syncytial virus, enterovirus, or no study virus (P < 0.001). One-half of sequence-analyzed rhinovirus strains belonged to the newly identified C group. In conclusion, rhinovirus infections are a frequent cause of pediatric hospitalizations, and they are common also at the intensive care unit. Acute wheezing is the most frequent manifestation in hospital setting, but the range of clinical presentations is wide. Group C rhinoviruses may account for a large part of rhinovirus hospitalizations.
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Clostridium difficile ribotype 027-associated disease in children with norovirus infection.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
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Two previously healthy children developed Clostridium difficile ribotype 027-associated disease concomitantly with norovirus infection. Viral gastroenteritis may contribute to epithelial homeostasis of the intestine and exacerbate the effects of toxins produced by C. difficile ribotype 027.
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Clinical presentation of influenza in unselected children treated as outpatients.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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Influenza causes a great disease burden on children especially in the outpatient setting. The signs and symptoms of influenza in unselected children treated as outpatients have not been previously published.
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Bacterial and viral interactions within the nasopharynx contribute to the risk of acute otitis media.
J. Infect.
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To understand relationships between microbes in pathogenesis of acute otitis media during respiratory tract infections, we compared nasopharyngeal bacteria and respiratory viruses in symptomatic children with and without AOM.
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Evaluation of multiplex polymerase chain reaction and microarray-based assay for rapid herpesvirus diagnostics.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
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Rapid diagnosis is critical to minimize morbidity and mortality associated with infections of the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we evaluated the performance of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microarray-based method, Prove-it™ Herpes, in a routine clinical laboratory setting for the diagnostics of 7 herpesviruses in viral CNS infections. Cerebrospinal fluid samples (n = 495), which had arrived for diagnostics in the 5 participating laboratories, were analyzed for herpesvirus DNA both by the current PCR-based method of the laboratory and by the microarray assay. The sensitivity and specificity for the microarray assay were 93% and 99%, respectively. The microarray assay was considered as a rapid and robust diagnostic platform that was easily implemented into the laboratory workflow. The broad herpesvirus coverage and the small sample volume required by the assay could benefit the diagnostics and thus the treatment of life-threatening infections of the CNS, especially among immunocompromised patients.
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Incidence of respiratory virus-associated pneumonia in urban poor young children of Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2009-2011.
PLoS ONE
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Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood death in Bangladesh. We conducted a longitudinal study to estimate the incidence of virus-associated pneumonia in children aged <2 years in a low-income urban community in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.