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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Tropical fevers: Management guidelines.
Indian J Crit Care Med
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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Tropical fevers were defined as infections that are prevalent in, or are unique to tropical and subtropical regions. Some of these occur throughout the year and some especially in rainy and post-rainy season. Concerned about high prevalence and morbidity and mortality caused by these infections, and overlapping clinical presentations, difficulties in arriving at specific diagnoses and need for early empiric treatment, Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine (ISCCM) constituted an expert committee to develop a consensus statement and guidelines for management of these diseases in the emergency and critical care. The committee decided to focus on most common infections on the basis of available epidemiologic data from India and overall experience of the group. These included dengue hemorrhagic fever, rickettsial infections/scrub typhus, malaria (usually falciparum), typhoid, and leptospira bacterial sepsis and common viral infections like influenza. The committee recommends a 'syndromic approach' to diagnosis and treatment of critical tropical infections and has identified five major clinical syndromes: undifferentiated fever, fever with rash / thrombocytopenia, fever with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), fever with encephalopathy and fever with multi organ dysfunction syndrome. Evidence based algorithms are presented to guide critical care specialists to choose reliable rapid diagnostic modalities and early empiric therapy based on clinical syndromes.
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The effects of nicotine replacement on cognitive brain activity during smoking withdrawal studied with simultaneous fMRI/EEG.
Neuropsychopharmacology
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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Impaired attention (difficulty concentrating) is a cognitive symptom of nicotine withdrawal that may be an important contributor to smoking relapse. However, the neurobiological basis of this effect and the potentially beneficial effects of nicotine replacement therapy both remain unclear. We used functional MRI with simultaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) recording to define brain activity correlates of cognitive impairment with short-term smoking cessation in habitual smokers and the effects of nicotine replacement. We found that irrespective of treatment (ie nicotine or placebo) EEG ? power was negatively correlated with increased activation during performance of a rapid visual information processing (RVIP) task in dorsolateral prefrontal, dorsal anterior cingulate, parietal, and insular cortices, as well as, caudate, and thalamus. Relative to placebo, nicotine replacement further increased the ?-correlated activation across these regions. We also found that EEG ? power was negatively correlated with RVIP-induced deactivation in regions comprising the default mode network (ie angular gyrus, cuneus, precuneus, posterior cingulate, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex). These ?-correlated deactivations were further reduced by nicotine. These findings confirm that effects of nicotine on cognition during short-term smoking cessation occur with modulation of neuronal sources common to the generation of both the blood oxygen-level-dependent and ? EEG signals. Our observations thus demonstrate that nicotine replacement in smokers has direct pharmacological effects on brain neuronal activity modulating cognitive networks.
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Small-molecule inhibitor leads of ribosome-inactivating proteins developed using the doorstop approach.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2011
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Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are toxic because they bind to 28S rRNA and depurinate a specific adenine residue from the ?-sarcin/ricin loop (SRL), thereby inhibiting protein synthesis. Shiga-like toxins (Stx1 and Stx2), produced by Escherichia coli, are RIPs that cause outbreaks of foodborne diseases with significant morbidity and mortality. Ricin, produced by the castor bean plant, is another RIP lethal to mammals. Currently, no US Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines nor therapeutics exist to protect against ricin, Shiga-like toxins, or other RIPs. Development of effective small-molecule RIP inhibitors as therapeutics is challenging because strong electrostatic interactions at the RIP•SRL interface make drug-like molecules ineffective in competing with the rRNA for binding to RIPs. Herein, we report small molecules that show up to 20% cell protection against ricin or Stx2 at a drug concentration of 300 nM. These molecules were discovered using the doorstop approach, a new approach to protein•polynucleotide inhibitors that identifies small molecules as doorstops to prevent an active-site residue of an RIP (e.g., Tyr80 of ricin or Tyr77 of Stx2) from adopting an active conformation thereby blocking the function of the protein rather than contenders in the competition for binding to the RIP. This work offers promising leads for developing RIP therapeutics. The results suggest that the doorstop approach might also be applicable in the development of other protein•polynucleotide inhibitors as antiviral agents such as inhibitors of the Z-DNA binding proteins in poxviruses. This work also calls for careful chemical and biological characterization of drug leads obtained from chemical screens to avoid the identification of irrelevant chemical structures and to avoid the interference caused by direct interactions between the chemicals being screened and the luciferase reporter used in screening assays.
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Spectroscopic characterization of diverse amyloid fibrils in vitro by the fluorescent dye Nile red.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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The fluorescence of Nile red (9-diethylamino-5H-benzophenoxazine-5-one) is quenched in aqueous solutions but shows augmented fluorescence in hydrophobic environments. Nile red fluorescence was blue shifted and strongly augmented in the presence of various amyloid fibrils assayed under acidic as well as neutral pH conditions. Fibrils grown from lysozyme and insulin (at pH 1.6 and 65 °C), transthyretin (TTR) fibrils grown from the acid unfolded monomer (pH 2.0, 21 °C) or from the dissociated tetramer starting from native protein under less acidic conditions (pH 4.4, 37 °C) were detected. Nile red was also successfully employed in detecting A?1-42 and human prion protein (PrP90-231) amyloid fibrils grown at neutral pH. Nile red was amyloid fibril specific and did not fluoresce appreciably in the presence of the monomeric precursor proteins. Stokes shifts of the wavelength maximum of Nile red bound to various fibrils were different (ranging from 615 nm to 638 nm) indicating sensitivity to the tertiary structure in its respective binding sites of different amyloid proteins. A polarity assay using ethanol-water mixtures and pure octanol ranging from dielectric constants between 10 and 70 showed a linear correlation of Nile red Stokes shift and allowed assignment of amyloid fibril binding site polarity. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer between Thioflavin T (ThT) and Nile red was proven to be efficient and co-staining was employed to discriminate between conformational isoforms of A?1-42 amyloid fibrils grown under agitated and quiescent conditions. This paper demonstrates the complementary use of this fluorometric method for conformational typing of amyloid structures.
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An auto-catalytic surface for conformational replication of amyloid fibrils--genesis of an amyloid world?
Orig Life Evol Biosph
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2010
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Amyloid fibrils are composed of self assembled stacked peptide or protein molecules folded and trapped in a stable cross-beta-sheet conformation. The amyloid fibrillation mechanism represents an intriguing self-catalyzed process rendering replication of a molecular conformational memory of interest for prebiotic chemistry. Herein we describe how a solid surface can be rendered auto-catalytic for fibrillation of a protein solution. We have discovered that a hydrophobic silicon or glass surface can be made to continuously fibrillate solutions of insulin monomers under stressed conditions (pH 1.6, 65°C). It was found that the surface acts as a platform for the formation of nascent seeds that induce fibril replication on and at the surface. This autocatalytic effect stems from a layer a few insulin molecules thick representing an oligomeric layer of misfolded, conformationally trapped, insulin molecules that rapidly through epitaxial growth catalyze the rate determining step (nucleation) during fibril replication. This autocatalytic layer is generated by the protein-solid surface interaction and conformational changes of the adsorbed protein during exposure at the air-water interface. The resulting autocatalytic surface thus both initiates local conformational molecular self-replication and acts as a reservoir for fibril seeds budding off into solution spreading fibril replication entities to the surrounding medium. The possibility of catalysis of the conformational replication process by minute amounts of nucleation sites located on a recruiting surface can evade the issue of dramatic concentration dependence of amyloidogenesis.
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Chaperone activity of Cyp18 through hydrophobic condensation that enables rescue of transient misfolded molten globule intermediates.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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The single-domain cyclophilin 18 (Cyp18) has long been known to function as a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPI) and was proposed by us to also function as a chaperone [Freskgard, P.-O., Bergenhem, N., Jonsson, B.-H., Svensson, M., and Carlsson, U. (1992) Science 258, 466-468]. Later several multidomain PPIs were demonstrated to work as both a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase and a chaperone. However, the chaperone ability of Cyp18 has been debated. In this work, we add additional results that show that Cyp18 can both accelerate the rate of refolding and increase the yield of native protein during the folding reaction, i.e., function as both a folding catalyst and a chaperone. Refolding experiments were performed using severely destabilized mutants of human carbonic anhydrase II under conditions where the unfolding reaction is significant and a larger fraction of a more destabilized variant populates molten globule-like intermediates during refolding. A correlation of native state protein stability of the substrate protein versus Cyp18 chaperone activity was demonstrated. The induced correction of misfolded conformations by Cyp18 likely functions through rescue from misfolding of transient molten globule intermediates. ANS binding data suggest that the interaction by Cyp18 leads to an early stage condensation of accessible hydrophobic portions of the misfolding-prone protein substrate during folding. The opposite effect was observed for GroEL known as an unfoldase at early stages of refolding. The chaperone effect of Cyp18 was also demonstrated for citrate synthase, suggesting a general chaperone effect of this PPI.
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Insect-specific irreversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase in pests including the bed bug, the eastern yellowjacket, German and American cockroaches, and the confused flour beetle.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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Insecticides directed against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are facing increased resistance among target species as well as increasing concerns for human toxicity. The result has been a resurgence of disease vectors, insects destructive to agriculture, and residential pests. We previously reported a free cysteine (Cys) residue at the entrance to the AChE active site in some insects but not higher vertebrates. We also reported Cys-targeting methanethiosulfonate molecules (AMTSn), which, under conditions that spared human AChE, caused total irreversible inhibition of aphid AChE, 95% inhibition of AChE from the malaria vector mosquito (Anopheles gambia), and >80% inhibition of activity from the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and northern house mosquito (Culex pipiens). We now find the same compounds inhibit AChE from cockroaches (Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana), the flour beetle (Tribolium confusum), the multi-colored Asian ladybird beetle (Harmonia axyridis), the bed bug (Cimex lectularius), and a wasp (Vespula maculifrons), with IC(50) values of approximately 1-11muM. Our results support further study of Cys-targeting inhibitors as conceptually novel insecticides that may be free of resistance in a range of insect pests and disease vectors and, compared with current compounds, should demonstrate much lower toxicity to mammals, birds, and fish.
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Potent new small-molecule inhibitor of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A endopeptidase developed by synthesis-based computer-aided molecular design.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2009
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Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNTA) causes a life-threatening neuroparalytic disease known as botulism. Current treatment for post exposure of BoNTA uses antibodies that are effective in neutralizing the extracellular toxin to prevent further intoxication but generally cannot rescue already intoxicated neurons. Effective small-molecule inhibitors of BoNTA endopeptidase (BoNTAe) are desirable because such inhibitors potentially can neutralize the intracellular BoNTA and offer complementary treatment for botulism. Previously we reported a serotype-selective, small-molecule BoNTAe inhibitor with a K(i) (app) value of 3.8+/-0.8 microM. This inhibitor was developed by lead identification using virtual screening followed by computer-aided optimization of a lead with an IC(50) value of 100 microM. However, it was difficult to further improve the lead from micromolar to even high nanomolar potency due to the unusually large enzyme-substrate interface of BoNTAe. The enzyme-substrate interface area of 4,840 A(2) for BoNTAe is about four times larger than the typical protein-protein interface area of 750-1,500 A(2). Inhibitors must carry several functional groups to block the unusually large interface of BoNTAe, and syntheses of such inhibitors are therefore time-consuming and expensive. Herein we report the development of a serotype-selective, small-molecule, and competitive inhibitor of BoNTAe with a K(i) value of 760+/-170 nM using synthesis-based computer-aided molecular design (SBCAMD). This new approach accounts the practicality and efficiency of inhibitor synthesis in addition to binding affinity and selectivity. We also report a three-dimensional model of BoNTAe in complex with the new inhibitor and the dynamics of the complex predicted by multiple molecular dynamics simulations, and discuss further structural optimization to achieve better in vivo efficacy in neutralizing BoNTA than those of our early micromolar leads. This work provides new insight into structural modification of known small-molecule BoNTAe inhibitors. It also demonstrates that SBCAMD is capable of improving potency of an inhibitor lead by nearly one order of magnitude, even for BoNTAe as one of the most challenging protein targets. The results are insightful for developing effective small-molecule inhibitors of protein targets with large active sites.
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Selective and irreversible inhibitors of mosquito acetylcholinesterases for controlling malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2009
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New insecticides are urgently needed because resistance to current insecticides allows resurgence of disease-transmitting mosquitoes while concerns for human toxicity from current compounds are growing. We previously reported the finding of a free cysteine (Cys) residue at the entrance of the active site of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in some insects but not in mammals, birds, and fish. These insects have two AChE genes (AP and AO), and only AP-AChE carries the Cys residue. Most of these insects are disease vectors such as the African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto) or crop pests such as aphids. Recently we reported a Cys-targeting small molecule that irreversibly inhibited all AChE activity extracted from aphids while an identical exposure caused no effect on the human AChE. Full inhibition of AChE in aphids indicates that AP-AChE contributes most of the enzymatic activity and suggests that the Cys residue might serve as a target for developing better aphicides. It is therefore worth investigating whether the Cys-targeting strategy is applicable to mosquitocides. Herein, we report that, under conditions that spare the human AChE, a methanethiosulfonate-containing molecule at 6 microM irreversibly inhibited 95% of the AChE activity extracted from An. gambiae s. str. and >80% of the activity from the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti L.) or the northern house mosquito (Culex pipiens L.) that is a vector of St. Louis encephalitis. This type of inhibition is fast ( approximately 30 min) and due to conjugation of the inhibitor to the active-site Cys of mosquito AP-AChE, according to our observed reactivation of the methanethiosulfonate-inhibited AChE by 2-mercaptoethanol. We also note that our sulfhydryl agents partially and irreversibly inhibited the human AChE after prolonged exposure (>4 hr). This slow inhibition is due to partial enzyme denaturation by the inhibitor and/or micelles of the inhibitor, according to our studies using atomic force microscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. These results support our view that the mosquito-specific Cys is a viable target for developing new mosquitocides to control disease vectors and to alleviate resistance problems with reduced toxicity toward non-target species.
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Selective and irreversible inhibitors of aphid acetylcholinesterases: steps toward human-safe insecticides.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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Aphids, among the most destructive insects to world agriculture, are mainly controlled by organophosphate insecticides that disable the catalytic serine residue of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Because these agents also affect vertebrate AChEs, they are toxic to non-target species including humans and birds. We previously reported that a cysteine residue (Cys), found at the AChE active site in aphids and other insects but not mammals, might serve as a target for insect-selective pesticides. However, aphids have two different AChEs (termed AP and AO), and only AP-AChE carries the unique Cys. The absence of the active-site Cys in AO-AChE might raise concerns about the utility of targeting that residue. Herein we report the development of a methanethiosulfonate-containing small molecule that, at 6.0 microM, irreversibly inhibits 99% of all AChE activity extracted from the greenbug aphid (Schizaphis graminum) without any measurable inhibition of the human AChE. Reactivation studies using beta-mercaptoethanol confirm that the irreversible inhibition resulted from the conjugation of the inhibitor to the unique Cys. These results suggest that AO-AChE does not contribute significantly to the overall AChE activity in aphids, thus offering new insight into the relative functional importance of the two insect AChEs. More importantly, by demonstrating that the Cys-targeting inhibitor can abolish AChE activity in aphids, we can conclude that the unique Cys may be a viable target for species-selective agents to control aphids without causing human toxicity and resistance problems.
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Inhibiting islet amyloid polypeptide fibril formation by the red wine compound resveratrol.
Chembiochem
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2009
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GRAPES FOR AMYLOIDS: The red wine compound resveratrol can effectively inhibit the formation of IAPP amyloid that is found in type II diabetes. Our in vitro inhibition results do not depend on the antioxidant activity of resveratrol. Further, the markedly enhanced cell survival in the presence of resveratrol also indicates that the small oligomeric structures that are observed during beta-sheet formation are not toxic and could be off-pathway assembly products.
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ortho Substituent effects on the anticonvulsant properties of 4-hydroxy-trifluoroethyl phenols.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
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2,6-Dialkylphenols with isopropyl and sec-butyl substituent are well known anesthetic compounds. The 4-substitution with 1-hydroxy-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl (4-HTFE) group in these compounds led to the discovery of compounds with anticonvulsant activity in the 6 Hz (32 mA) model of partial epilepsy. In the present study a series of 2-alkyl-4-HTFE phenols with the 6-position being replaced with either hydrogen and bromine were designed, synthesized and tested to evaluate the effect of ortho-substitution on the anticonvulsant property. The studies show that 2-substituted branched alkyl chain (iso-propyl and sec-butyl) is necessary for the anti-seizure effect. Phenols with 2-substituted linear alkyl groups (methyl, ethyl and n-propyl) having no substitution at 6-position were found to be devoid of antiseizure effects. The 6-substitution with bromine moderately reduces the anticonvulsant effect in the compounds with branched alkyl chains, but led to enhanced anticonvulsant effect in the compound with a linear alkyl chain. This study shows that 4-HTFE phenols having isopropyl or sec-butyl ortho groups produce good antiseizure protection in the 6 Hz therapy-resistant mouse model.
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Multiple substitutions of methionine 129 in human prion protein reveal its importance in the amyloid fibrillation pathway.
J. Biol. Chem.
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The role of the polymorphism Met or Val in position 129 in the human prion protein is well documented regarding disease susceptibility and clinical manifestations. However, little is known about the molecular background to this phenomenon. We investigated herein the conformational stability, amyloid fibrillation kinetics, and seeding propensity of different 129 mutants, located in ?-strand 1 of PrP (Met(129) (WT), M129A, M129V, M129L, M129W, M129P, M129E, M129K, and M129C) in HuPrP(90-231). The mutations M129V, M129L, M129K, and M129C did not affect stability (midpoints of thermal denaturation, T(m) = 65-66 °C), whereas the mutants M129A and M129E and the largest side chain M129W were destabilized by 3-4 °C. The most destabilizing substitution was M129P, which lowered the T(m) by 7.2 °C. All mutants, except for M129C, formed amyloid-like fibrils within hours during fibril formation under near physiological conditions. Fibril-forming mutants showed a sigmoidal kinetic profile and showed shorter lag times during seeding with preformed amyloid fibrils implicating a nucleated polymerization reaction. In the spontaneous reactions, the lag time of fibril formation was rather uniform for the mutants M129A, M129V, and M129L resembling the wild type. When the substituted amino acid had a distinct feature discriminating it from the wild type, such as size (M129W), charge (M129E, M129K), or rotational constraint (M129P), the fibrillation was impeded. M129C did not form ThT/Congo red-positive fibrils, and non-reducing SDS-PAGE of M129C during fibrillation conditions at different time points revealed covalent dimer formation already 15 min after fibrillation reaction initiation. Position 129 appears to be a key site for dictating PrP receptiveness toward recruitment into the amyloid state.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.