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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Comparison of treatment outcomes of new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients by HIV and antiretroviral status in a TB/HIV clinic, Malawi.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Smear-positive pulmonary TB is the most infectious form of TB. Previous studies on the effect of HIV and antiretroviral therapy on TB treatment outcomes among these highly infectious patients demonstrated conflicting results, reducing understanding of important issues.
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Exploration of CYP450 and drug transporter genotypes and correlations with nevirapine exposure in Malawians.
Pharmacogenomics
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2011
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Genetic polymorphisms have the potential to influence drug metabolism and vary among ethnic groups. This study evaluated the correlation of genetic polymorphisms with nevirapine pharmacokinetics exposure in Malawians.
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Practices to improve identification of adult antiretroviral therapy failure at the Lighthouse Trust clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2011
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Evaluating treatment failure is critical when deciding to modify antiretroviral therapy (ART). Virologic Assessment Forms (VAFs) were implemented in July 2008 as a prerequisite for ordering viral load. The form requires assessment of clinical and immunologic status.
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Re-treatment tuberculosis cases categorised as "other": are they properly managed?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
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Although the World Health Organization (WHO) provides information on the number of TB patients categorised as "other", there is limited information on treatment regimens or treatment outcomes for "other". Such information is important, as inappropriate treatment can lead to patients remaining infectious and becoming a potential source of drug resistance. Therefore, using a cohort of TB patients from a large registration centre in Lilongwe, Malawi, our study determined the proportion of all TB re-treatment patients who were registered as "other", and described their characteristics and treatment outcomes.
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Outcomes and associated risk factors of patients traced after being lost to follow-up from antiretroviral treatment in Lilongwe, Malawi.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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Loss to follow-up is a major challenge of antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs in sub-Saharan Africa. Our objective was to a) determine true outcomes of patients lost to follow-up (LTFU) and b) identify risk factors associated with successful tracing and deaths of patients LTFU from ART in a large public sector clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi.
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Correcting mortality for loss to follow-up: a nomogram applied to antiretroviral treatment programmes in sub-Saharan Africa.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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The World Health Organization estimates that in sub-Saharan Africa about 4 million HIV-infected patients had started antiretroviral therapy (ART) by the end of 2008. Loss of patients to follow-up and care is an important problem for treatment programmes in this region. As mortality is high in these patients compared to patients remaining in care, ART programmes with high rates of loss to follow-up may substantially underestimate mortality of all patients starting ART.
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Stereotactic versus endoscopic surgery in periventricular lesions.
Acta Neurochir (Wien)
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Endoscopic and stereotactic surgery have gained widespread acceptance as minimally invasive tools for the diagnosis of intracerebral pathologies. We investigated the specific advantages and disadvantages of each technique in the assessment of periventricular lesions.
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Early active follow-up of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) who are lost to follow-up: the Back-to-Care project in Lilongwe, Malawi.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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To determine the proportion of patients returning to antiretroviral treatment (ART) and factors associated with their return in a resource-limited setting.
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Early mortality and loss to follow-up in HIV-infected children starting antiretroviral therapy in Southern Africa.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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Many HIV-infected children in Southern Africa have been started on antiretroviral therapy (ART), but loss to follow up (LTFU) can be substantial. We analyzed mortality in children retained in care and in all children starting ART, taking LTFU into account.
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Growth response to antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected children: a cohort study from Lilongwe, Malawi.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2010
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Malnutrition is common in HIV-infected children in Africa and an indication for antiretroviral treatment (ART). We examined anthropometric status and response to ART in children treated at a large public-sector clinic in Malawi.
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Adjusting mortality for loss to follow-up: analysis of five ART programmes in sub-Saharan Africa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2010
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Evaluation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes in sub-Saharan Africa is difficult because many patients are lost to follow-up. Outcomes in these patients are generally unknown but studies tracing patients have shown mortality to be high. We adjusted programme-level mortality in the first year of antiretroviral treatment (ART) for excess mortality in patients lost to follow-up.
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Pharmacokinetics of generic and trade formulations of lamivudine, stavudine and nevirapine in HIV-infected Malawian children.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2010
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of lamivudine (3TC), stavudine (d4T) and nevirapine (NVP) in HIV-infected Malawian children receiving quartered tablet multiples of Triomune 40 (generic tablet [GT]) compared with individual generic liquid (GL) and trade liquid (TL).
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Neurotrophins in the cerebrospinal fluid of patient cohorts with neuropathic pain, nociceptive pain, or normal pressure hydrocephalus.
Clin J Pain
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2009
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The pathophysiology of neuropathic pain is still poorly understood. Studies in experimental animals showed that neurotrophic factors such as glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), and nerve growth factor (NGF) might be involved in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain. On the basis of these findings it is conceivable that neurotrophic factors also play a role in pain processing in man. Thus far, it remains unknown whether neurotrophic factors are altered in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with different pain syndromes. Here, we analyzed the concentrations of neurotrophic factors in the CSF of patients with chronic neuropathic pain in comparison to controls with nociceptive pain or hydrocephalus.
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Effect of provider-initiated testing and counselling and integration of ART services on access to HIV diagnosis and treatment for children in Lilongwe, Malawi: a pre- post comparison.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2009
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The HIV prevalence in Malawi is 12% and Kamuzu Central Hospital (KCH), in the capital Lilongwe, is the main provider of adult and paediatric HIV services in the central region. The Lighthouse at KCH offers opt-in HIV testing and counselling (HTC) for adults and children. In June 2004, Lighthouse was the first clinic to provide free antiretroviral treatment (ART) in the public sector, but few children accessed the services. In response, provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) and an ART clinic were introduced at the paediatric department at KCH in Quarter 4 (Q4) 2004.
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Diagnosis of antiretroviral therapy failure in Malawi: poor performance of clinical and immunological WHO criteria.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2009
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In antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up programmes in sub-Saharan Africa viral load monitoring is not recommended. We wanted to study the impact of only using clinical and immunological monitoring on the diagnosis of virological ART failure under routine circumstances.
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The public health approach to identify antiretroviral therapy failure: high-level nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance among Malawians failing first-line antiretroviral therapy.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2009
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Over 150,000 Malawians have started antiretroviral therapy (ART), in which first-line therapy is stavudine/lamivudine/nevirapine. We evaluated drug resistance patterns among patients failing first-line ART on the basis of clinical or immunological criteria in Lilongwe and Blantyre, Malawi.
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Rapid response of parkinsonian tremor to STN-DBS changes: direct modulation of oscillatory basal ganglia activity?
Mov. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2009
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Although deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has proved to be effective for tremor and other cardinal symptoms in Parkinsons disease (PD), the precise mechanisms of action of DBS are still unclear. We analyzed the time course of resting tremor amplitude and frequency during discontinuation and subsequent reinitiation of STN-DBS in nine PD patients, using a computerized three-dimensional motion analysis combined with surface electromyography. Following discontinuation of STN-DBS, resting tremor amplitude rapidly increased, reaching maximum amplitude after 2 min (mean +/- 95%CI: 34.3 +/- 13.8 mm; P < 0.01), subsequently stabilizing at a medium level. Reinitiation of stimulation after 30 min resulted in rapid, nearly complete suppression of tremor activity within 1 min (1.4 +/- 1.3 mm; P < 0.01) and, furthermore, increased tremor frequency within a few seconds in seven of nine patients. These findings support the hypothesis that STN-DBS acts by direct interference with the neurotransmission of basal ganglia networks involved in tremor.
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Chronic deep brain stimulation for segmental dystonia.
Stereotact Funct Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2009
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Fourteen consecutive patients with segmental dystonia underwent chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery in the frame of a prospective study protocol. Twelve patients received chronic pallidal stimulation, while 2 patients with prominent dystonic tremor received chronic thalamic ventrointermediate nucleus stimulation. Twelve patients had primary dystonia, and 2 patients secondary dystonia. The Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia rating scale (BFM motor) showed a mean relative improvement of 57.3% at the first follow-up (FU1, mean 7 months) and 57.8% at the second follow-up (FU2, mean 16 months). The mean BFM scores were 34.9 +/- 17.7 preoperatively, 14.9 +/- 11.7 at FU1, and 14.8 +/- 10.3 at FU2. Scores of the disability subscale improved by 43% at FU1 and 36% at FU2. Improvement was comparatively less in those patients with secondary dystonia. Dysarthria was a limitation of DBS in 4 patients when using high voltage. Overall, chronic DBS is a very effective treatment option for medically refractory segmental dystonia.
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Mortality of HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: comparison with HIV-unrelated mortality.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2009
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Mortality in HIV-infected patients who have access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) has declined in sub-Saharan Africa, but it is unclear how mortality compares to the non-HIV-infected population. We compared mortality rates observed in HIV-1-infected patients starting ART with non-HIV-related background mortality in four countries in sub-Saharan Africa.
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Supporting children to adhere to anti-retroviral therapy in urban Malawi: multi method insights.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
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Ensuring good adherence is critical to the success of anti-retroviral treatment (ART). However, in resource-poor contexts, where paediatric HIV burden is high there has been limited progress in developing or adapting tools to support adherence for HIV-infected children on ART and their caregivers. We conducted formative research to assess childrens adherence and to explore the knowledge, perceptions and attitudes of caregivers towards childrens treatment.
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Variability of growth in children starting antiretroviral treatment in southern Africa.
Pediatrics
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Poor growth is an indication for antiretroviral therapy (ART) and a criterion for treatment failure. We examined variability in growth response to ART in 12 programs in Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and South Africa.
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Managing HIV-infected children in a low-resource, public clinic: a comparison of nurse vs. clinical officer practices in ART refill, calculation of adherence and subsequent appointments.
J Int AIDS Soc
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In Malawi, as in other sub-Saharan African countries, nurses manage patients of all ages on antiretroviral treatment(ART). Nurse management of children is rarely studied.We compare ART prescribing between nurses and clinical officers during routine clinic visits at an urban, public clinic to inform policy in paediatric ART management.
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A retrospective survey of HIV drug resistance among patients 1 year after initiation of antiretroviral therapy at 4 clinics in Malawi.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
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In 2004, Malawi began scaling up its national antiretroviral therapy (ART) program. Because of limited treatment options, population-level surveillance of acquired human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance (HIVDR) is critical to ensuring long-term treatment success. The World Health Organization target for clinic-level HIVDR prevention at 12 months after ART initiation is ? 70%. In 2007, viral load and HIVDR genotyping was performed in a retrospective cohort of 596 patients at 4 ART clinics. Overall, HIVDR prevention (using viral load ? 400 copies/mL) was 72% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67%-77%; range by site, 60%-83%) and detected HIVDR was 3.4% (95% CI, 1.8%-5.8%; range by site, 2.5%-4.7%). Results demonstrate virological suppression and HIVDR consistent with previous reports from sub-Saharan Africa. High rates of attrition because of loss to follow-up were noted and merit attention.
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Ensuring HIV-infected pregnant women start antiretroviral treatment: an operational cohort study from Lilongwe, Malawi.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
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HIV-infected women identified through antenatal care (ANC) often fail to access antiretroviral treatment (ART), leaving them and their infants at risk for declining health or HIV transmission. We describe results of measures to improve uptake of ART among eligible pregnant women.
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Modular deposition chamber for in situ X-ray experiments during RF and DC magnetron sputtering.
J Synchrotron Radiat
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A new sputtering system for in situ X-ray experiments during DC and RF magnetron sputtering is described. The outstanding features of the system are the modular design of the vacuum chamber, the adjustable deposition angle, the option for plasma diagnostics, and the UHV sample transfer in order to access complementary surface analysis methods. First in situ diffraction and reflectivity measurements during RF and DC deposition of vanadium carbide demonstrate the performance of the set-up.
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The VEGF concentration in chronic subdural hematoma fluid is related to CT appearance and exudation rate.
J. Neurotrauma
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Chronic subdural hematoma (CSH) is characterized by a net increase of volume over time. Major underlying mechanisms appear to be hemorrhagic episodes and a continuous exudation which may be studied using labelled proteins to yield an exudation rate in a given patient. We tested the hypothesis that the concentration of vascular endothelial derived growth factor (VEGF) in the hematoma fluid correlates with the rate of exudation. The concentration of VEGF was determined in 51 consecutive patients with CSH by sandwich immune-ELISA technique. Mean values were correlated with exudation rates taken from the literature according to the appearance of CSH on computerized tomography (CT) images. The CT appearance of each CSH was classified as hypodense, isodense, hyperdense or mixed density. Mean VEGF concentration was highest in mixed density hematomas (22,403 ± 4,173 pg/ml; mean±SEM; n=27), followed by isodense (9,715 ± 1,287pg/ml; n=9) and hypodense (5,955 ± 610 pg/ml; n=18) hematomas. Only one patient with hyperdense hematoma fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and the concentration of VEGF found in this patient was 24,200 pg/ml. There was a statistically significant correlation between the VEGF concentrations and the exudation rates in the four classes of CT appearance (r=0.98). With this finding the current report adds another piece of evidence in favour of the pathophysiological role of VEGF in the development of CSH including mechanisms contributing to the hematoma growth and CT appearance.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.